WorldWideScience

Sample records for station usos potable

  1. Potable Water Supply Feasibility Study for Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Final comprehensive environmental evaluation report. British Antarctic Survey. 2007. Proposed construction...Troll in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica to a permanent station. PolarPower.org. 2010. Examples: Princess Elisabeth Antarctica Station

  2. Availability of uranium present in the sludge generated at two stations of potable water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Serrano, A.; Baeza, A.; Salas, A.; Guillen, J.

    2013-01-01

    During the treatment is carried out in a Station Potable Water Treatment Plant sludge enriched are produced in components that have been removed from the water. The concentration and availability of radionuclides accumulated in a sludge during coagulation-flocculation will condition possible later use, so it is essential to carry out the characterization of sludge and its chemical speciation. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Anderson, Molly; Adams, Niklas; Vega, Leticia; Botkin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle Program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up-mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that a wide variability exists with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants; therefore, baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on the ISS.

  4. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2012-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on ]orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials were changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle was redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  5. Evaluation of available analytical techniques for monitoring the quality of space station potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    To assure the quality of potable water (PW) on the Space Station (SS) a number of chemical and physical tests must be conducted routinely. After reviewing the requirements for potable water, both direct and indirect analytical methods are evaluated that could make the required tests and improvements compatible with the Space Station operation. A variety of suggestions are made to improve the analytical techniques for SS operation. The most important recommendations are: (1) the silver/silver chloride electrode (SB) method of removing I sub 2/I (-) biocide from the water, since it may interfere with analytical procedures for PW and also its end uses; (2) the orbital reactor (OR) method of carrying out chemistry and electrochemistry in microgravity by using a disk shaped reactor on an orbital table to impart artificial G force to the contents, allowing solution mixing and separation of gases and liquids; and (3) a simple ultra low volume highly sensitive electrochemical/conductivity detector for use with a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus. It is also recommended, since several different conductivity and resistance measurements are made during the analysis of PW, that the bipolar pulse measuring circuit be used in all these applications for maximum compatibility and redundancy of equipment.

  6. Availability of uranium present in the sludge generated at two stations of potable water treatment; Disponibilidad del uranio presente en el fango generado en dos estaciones de tratamiento de agua potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Serrano, A.; Baeza, A.; Salas, A.; Guillen, J.

    2013-07-01

    During the treatment is carried out in a Station Potable Water Treatment Plant sludge enriched are produced in components that have been removed from the water. The concentration and availability of radionuclides accumulated in a sludge during coagulation-flocculation will condition possible later use, so it is essential to carry out the characterization of sludge and its chemical speciation. (Author)

  7. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  8. The study of potable water treatment process in Algeria (boudouaou station) -by the application of life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Zine, Messaoud-Boureghda; Hamouche, Aksas; Krim, Louhab

    2013-12-19

    Environmental impact assessment will soon become a compulsory phase in future potable water production projects, in algeria, especially, when alternative treatment processes such sedimentation ,coagulation sand filtration and Desinfection are considered. An impact assessment tool is therefore developed for the environmental evaluation of potable water production. in our study The evaluation method used is the life cycle assessment (LCA) for the determination and evaluation of potential impact of a drink water station ,near algiers (SEAL-Boudouaoua).LCA requires both the identification and quantification of materials and energy used in all stages of the product's life, when the inventory information is acquired, it will then be interpreted into the form of potential impact " eco-indicators 99" towards study areas covered by LCA, using the simapro6 soft ware for water treatment process is necessary to discover the weaknesses in the water treatment process in order for it to be further improved ensuring quality life. The main source shown that for the studied water treatment process, the highest environmental burdens are coagulant preparation (30% for all impacts), mineral resource and ozone layer depletion the repartition of the impacts among the different processes varies in comparison with the other impacts. Mineral resources are mainly consumed during alumine sulfate solution preparation; Ozone layer depletion originates mostly from tetrachloromethane emissions during alumine sulfate production. It should also be noted that, despite the small doses needed, ozone and active Carbone treatment generate significant impacts with a contribution of 10% for most of the impacts.Moreover impacts of energy are used in producing pumps (20-25 GHC) for plant operation and the unitary processes (coagulation, sand filtration decantation) and the most important impacts are localized in the same equipment (40-75 GHC) and we can conclude that:- Pre-treatment, pumping and EDR (EDR: 0

  9. An Evaluation of Technology to Remove Problematic Organic Compounds from the International Space Station Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John; Michalek, William; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Gazda, Daniel; Carter, Layne

    2014-01-01

    Since activation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) in November of 2008, there have been three events in which the TOC (Total Organic Carbon) in the product water has increased to approximately 3 mg/L and has subsequently recovered. Analysis of the product water in 2010 identified the primary component of the TOC as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). An investigation into the fate of DMSD in the WPA ultimately determined that replacement of both Multifiltration (MF) Beds is the solution to recovering product water quality. The MF Beds were designed to ensure that ionic breakthrough occurs before organic breakthrough. However, DMSD saturated both MF Beds in the series, requiring removal and replacement of both MF Beds with significant life remaining. Analysis of the MF Beds determined that the adsorbent was not effectively removing DMSD, trimethylsilanol, various polydimethylsiloxanes, or dimethylsulfone. Coupled with the fact that the current adsorbent is now obsolete, the authors evaluated various media to identify a replacement adsorbent as well as media with greater capacity for these problematic organic contaminants. This paper provides the results and recommendations of this collaborative study.

  10. Uso y valor del recurso hídrico urbano. Sistema de agua potable en Culiacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Domingo Iñíguez Sepúlveda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio es construir un sistema para valorar cualitativamente el uso del recurso hídrico como elemento inevitable para el suministro de los servicios de agua potable, alcantarillado y saneamiento (SAPAS en la ciudad de Culiacán, Sinaloa. Este modelo de evaluación del recurso hídrico está fundamentado en la visión del desarrollo sustentable (DS y en la construcción del sistema de indicadores que integró factores de Presión-Estado-Impacto-Respuesta (PEIR, modelo desarrollado por la organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE. Este modelo, se construyó con veinticuatro indicadores organizados en tres categorías para la visión de sustentabilidad y, en cuatro clases que atendieron el modelo PEIR. Finalmente, se estableció un conjunto de conclusiones sobre el discurso teórico y metodológico para construir modelos de valoración del agua urbana.

  11. agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Rios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de distribución pueden afectar la calidad del agua potable debido a las condiciones de la tubería y a la operación del sistema. Algunos parámetros son sensibles a la variación durante la distribución como: el cloro residual, pH, color y turbiedad, debido a que el material de la tubería puede presentar deterioro en estos sistemas a causa de la corrosividad del agua. Los diversos estudios realizados sobre el tema han empleado tanto sistemas reales como dispositivos de laboratorio para la realización de los ensayos. Entre los dispositivos más empleados actualmente, se reporta el uso del sistema piloto de distribución por las ventajas que ofrece y su flexibilidad en el diseño. Para definir las características de diseño de un sistema piloto de distribución se hizo una revisión de la literatura. El sistema se empleará en el estudio de la interacción entre el líquido y la pared de tubería. Se utilizarán materiales metálicos usados en sistemas de distribución secundarios, con el fin de determinar el ataque a la superficie interna de las tuberías y las causas de formación de depósitos sobre ellas, así como identificar los efectos de esta interacción en la calidad del agua.

  12. USO DE REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES PARA OPTIMIZAR LA DOSIFICACIÓN DE COAGULANTES EN LA PLANTA DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUA POTABLE - HUANCAYO”

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Rojas, Anieval Cirilo

    2016-01-01

    En la investigación se utilizaron las redes neuronales artificiales como herramienta para optimizar la cantidad de coagulante (Al2SO4) que se utiliza en el tratamiento del agua potable de la empresa SEDAM de la ciudad de Huancayo – Perú, donde la calidad del agua al ingreso a la planta de tratamiento tuvo variabilidad permanente de turbidez debido a las precipitaciones fluviales que se presentaron generalmente en los meses de octubre a marzo. Este fenómeno meteorológico alteró en corto tiempo...

  13. Efectividad del uso de alcohol glicerinado para la descontaminación de manos en una población sin aceso al agua potable posterremoto en Pisco, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cabezas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la efectividad del uso de alcohol glicerinado en la desinfección de manos, de personas que preparaban los alimentos en ollas comunes para damnificados de albergues y comités vecinales sin acceso al agua potable, en los primeros días posteriores al terremoto de Pisco. Se realizó un preexperimento con 20 mujeres adultas que no se habían lavado las manos, se cuantificó la carga bacteriana de aerobios mesófilos, enterobacterias y Staphylococcus aureus en sus manos antes y después de la aplicación de alcohol glicerinado, usando la prueba de Wilcoxon se encontró una reducción significativa (p<0,001 de la carga bacteriana. En conclusión, la aplicación de alcohol glicerinado es efectiva para la desinfección de manos en manipuladores de alimentos en una población sin acceso al agua y posterremoto.

  14. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) providing a private crewmember space. The CQ uses Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air from the ISS Temperature Humidity Control System or the ISS fluid cooling loop connections. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crewmember s head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ interior needs to be below Noise Curve 40 (NC-40). The CQ ventilation ducts are open to the significantly louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significantly acoustic mitigation controls. The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  15. EL USO DE Moringa oleifera COMO MATERIAL NATURAL PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DEL AGUA POTABLE EN PAÍSES EN VÍA DE DESARROLLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Paredes Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En los países en vías de desarrollo como el Ecuador, los productos químicos para potabilizar el agua del río suelen ser importados, lo que implica un gran desembolso de divisas. Para tratar de mejorar la situación antes descrita, se han efectuado investigaciones en búsqueda de alternativas para el tratamiento de aguas para consumo humano, se orientan hacia el uso de elementos naturales. Uno de estos elementos es la Moringa oleífera se la conoce también como el árbol milagroso, ya que todos sus componentes dan diferentes tipos de utilidad. Tanto la semilla como el extracto contienen una proteína natural catiónica que absorbida por los gránulos de la arena del medio filtrante, hace que se active la cama de arena mejorando las remociones de turbiedad y los coliformes fecales, y que puede ser aplicable a las comunidades rurales de países subdesarrollados como el Ecuador.

  16. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  17. Trihalomethanes in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Bajahalan, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    These experiments were conducted to evaluate the quality of potable water in Yanbu AI-Sinaiyah, one of the leading industrial city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The major source of water is Redsea. Desalinated water is distributed in the whole city for domestic uses. At the treatment plant chlorine is being used as disinfectant in pre and post desalination. The present study was conducted to determine the presence of disinfection by-products in potable water. Trihalomethanes are the major disinfection by-products found in the chlorinated water. Trihalomethanes identified in these experiments are chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane. Thichloromethanes are considered to be carcinogenic, hence it is very important to investigate the presence of these compounds in potable water. Samples were collected from consumers tap and preserved at the site for analysis. In the laboratory samples were extracted by Tekmar Velocity XPT purge and trap unit. High purity nitrogen was purged through a sparger in the samples and purged volatiles were trapped in a carbo trap at room temperature. Then trapped components were desorbed with high purity helium and transferred to gas chromatograph injector and analysed by Varian Saturn 2200 GC-MS using 30 m long factor four capillary column. The effect of temperature and seasonal variation (winter and summer) was also monitored. Mean trihalomethane level was higher in summer (8.617 micro g/L) than in winter (5.173 micro g/L). Mean concentration of all the four THMs was 6.9 micro g/L, much less than prescribed EPA limits (80 micro g/L). About 13 brands of bottled water were also analysed for THMs. Only tribromomethane and dibromochloromethane were detected in few brands. Experiments were also conducted to remove THMs from chlorinated water and found that passing through activated charcoal and boiling the water for couple of minutes were sufficient to remove all the THMs from chlorinated water. (author)

  18. Uso productivo de lodos de plantas de tratamiento de agua potable en la fabricación de ladrillos cerámicos Productive use of sludge from a drinking water treatment plant for manufacturing ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los problemas más importantes en el tratamiento de agua con coagulación química es la generación de lodos, cuya disposición final es predominantemente en cuerpos de agua, afectando su calidad y usos potenciales; el uso productivo de lodos puede ayudar en la recuperación de los recursos naturales y disminuir la contaminación ambiental. En este estudio se evaluó el uso de lodo aluminoso en la fabricación de ladrillos cerámicos; los resultados muestran que es viable incorporar estos lodos en reemplazo parcial de uno de los materiales constitutivos del ladrillo, en este caso la arena en un porcentaje del 10%; sin embargo, para evitar comprometer la resistencia a la compresión debe optimizarse la deshidratación previa del lodo para aumentar el potencial de aprovechamiento. El ladrillo obtenido cumple características adecuadas para uso no estructural.One of the most important problems for water treatment systems based on chemical coagulation process is the sludge generation, whose final disposition is made predominantly onto water, affecting their quality and potential uses. The productive use of this sludges represents a way to relieve some of the problems of solid waste management that helps in the recovery of natural resources and reduces the environmental pollution. This study allowed the evaluation of the use of aluminous sludge for the manufacture of ceramic bricks. The results show that it is feasible to use these sludges in partial replacement of one of the constituent materials of brick, in this case the sand in percentages above 10%; however, to avoid compromising the compression resistance it should be optimized the previous sludge dewatering to increase the potential waste-to-energy scheme. The brick obtained has appropriate characteristics for non-structural use.

  19. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  20. TS LOOP NON-POTABLE PUMP EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Goodin

    1999-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the existing subsurface non-potable water system from the portal pump to the end of the water line in the South Ramp and determines if the pump size and spacing meets the system pressure and flow requirements for construction operations and incipient fire fighting capability as established in the Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M andO 1998b). This analysis does not address the non potable water system in the Cross Drift which is covered under a previous design analysis (CRWMS-M andO 1998a). The Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis references sections of OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart L for requirements applicable to the incipient fire fighting hose stations used underground. This analysis does not address mechanical system valves, fittings, risers and other components of the system piping. This system is not designed or intended to meet all National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) codes for a fire fighting system but is only considered a backup system to fire extinguishers that are installed throughout the Topopah Springs (TS) Loop and may be used to fight small incipient stage fires

  1. ISS Expeditions 16 through 20: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2-year span from Expedition 16 through Expedition 20, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of archival water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principal sources of potable water for Expeditions 16 through 18. During Expedition 18 the U.S. water processor assembly was delivered, installed, and tested during a 90-day checkout period. Beginning with Expedition 19, U.S. potable water recovered from a combined waste stream of humidity condensate and pretreated urine was also available for ISS crew use. A total of 74 potable water samples were collected using U.S. sampling hardware during Expeditions 16 through 20 and returned on both Shuttle and Soyuz vehicles. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these ISS potable water samples are presented in this paper. Eight potable water samples collected in flight with Russian hardware were also received for analysis, as well as 5 preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 34. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed.

  2. 30 CFR 57.20002 - Potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potable water. 57.20002 Section 57.20002....20002 Potable water. (a) An adequate supply of potable drinking water shall be provided at all active working areas. (b) The common drinking cup and containers from which drinking water must be dipped or...

  3. 30 CFR 56.20002 - Potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potable water. 56.20002 Section 56.20002... Potable water. (a) An adequate supply of potable drinking water shall be provided at all active working areas. (b) The common drinking cup and containers from which drinking water must be dipped or poured are...

  4. Ultraviolet disinfection of potable water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, R. L. [Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1990-06-15

    Because of upcoming surface and groundwater regulations regarding the control of microbiological and chemical contaminants, there is a need to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for primary disinfection of potable water supplies. Data is presented on microbicidal wavelengths of UV and distribution of energy output for low and medium-pressure arc lamps. Both systems were found to perform equally well for inactivating microorganisms, but each had distinct advantages in different applications. Approximate dosages for 90% inactivation of selected microorganisms by UV is presented in a table. Cost analysis for disinfection is presented in two tables as well as the advantages and disadvantages of UV disinfection.

  5. Ultraviolet disinfection of potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Because of upcoming surface and groundwater regulations regarding the control of microbiological and chemical contaminants, there is a need to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for primary disinfection of potable water supplies. Data is presented on microbicidal wavelengths of UV and distribution of energy output for low and medium-pressure arc lamps. Both systems were found to perform equally well for inactivating microorganisms, but each had distinct advantages in different applications. Approximate dosages for 90% inactivation of selected microorganisms by UV is presented in a table. Cost analysis for disinfection is presented in two tables as well as the advantages and disadvantages of UV disinfection

  6. Potencial da economia de água potável pelo uso de água pluvial: análise de 40 cidades da Amazônia Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater: an analysis over 40 cities in Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Alberto de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de água é um problema cada vez mais severo em todo o mundo devido a fatores como o consumo excessivo de água bruta, as mudanas climáticas, a poluição da água e o consumo insustentável dos recursos hídricos. Sob essas condições, formas tradicionais ou alternativas de recursos hídricos, tais como a água pluvial, estão sendo consideradas como opções atrativas para reduzir o consumo de água potável. Neste contexto, este artigo descreve o cenário de disponibilidade de água na região Amazõnica, Noroeste do Brasil, e avalia o potencial da economia de água potável para o setor residencial em 40 cidades da região. Os resultados indicam que o potencial da economia de água potável varia entre 21 e 100%, dependendo da demanda de água potável verificada nas 40 cidades, com potencial médio de 76%. A prisncipal conclusão desta pesquisa é que, se houvesse um programa do governo para promover a economia de água potável por meio da utilização da água pluvial, haveria significativa economia de água potável e, consequentemente, a preservação dos recursos hídricos na Amazõnia.Water scarcity is an increasingly severe problem worldwide due to some factors, such as the excessive consumption of raw water, climate changes, water pollution, and unsustainable water resource consumption. Under these conditions, traditional or alternative forms of water resource, such as rainwater, are being considered as attractive options to reduce potable water consumption. In this context, this paper describes the water availability scenario in the Amazon region, Brazilian Northeast, and it evaluates the potential for potable water savings estimated for the residential sector of 40 cities in the region. Results indicate that the potential for potable water savings range from 21 to 100% depending on the potable water demand verified in the 40 cities, with an average potential for potable water savings of 76%. The main conclusion is

  7. Potable water cogeneration using nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez, J.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle, E. del [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Mexico is a country with a diversity of conditions; the Peninsula of Baja California is a semi-arid region with a demand of potable water and electricity where small nuclear power can be used. This part of the country has a low density population, a high pressure over the water resources in the region, and their needs of electricity are small. The SMART reactor will be assessed as co-generator for this region; where five different scenarios of cogeneration of electricity and potable water production are considered, the levelized cost of electricity and potable water are obtained to assess their competitiveness. (author)

  8. Hydrogeochemical evolution and potability evaluation of saline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the coastal aquifer system of Rajnagar block, Kendrapara district, Odisha, India. The research ... as well as policy making decisions. As a part of ... alluvial aquifers of Rajnagar block from a water potability .... Materials and methodology.

  9. Detection of Cyanotoxins During Potable Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007, the U.S. EPA listed three cyanobacterial toxins on the CCL3 containment priority list for potable drinking waters. This paper describes all methodologies used for detection of these toxins, and assesses each on a cost/benefit basis. Methodologies for microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, and a...

  10. Agua potable y saneamiento en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Auge, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo fue presentado originalmente en el Foro Regional del Agua, con el título “Problemática del Acceso al Agua Potable y al Saneamiento en Argentina”. Dicho foro, organizado por la Defensoría del Pueblo de la Nación Argentina, se desarrolló en Córdoba, en mayo del 2007.

  11. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses on-site supplementary household water sources with a focus on groundwater abstraction, rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse as available non-potable water sources to residential consumers. An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources ...

  12. Centralised urban stormwater harvesting for potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, P; Gleeson, J; Hammond, T; Heslop, E; Holden, R; Kuczera, G

    2011-01-01

    Urban impervious areas provide a guaranteed source of runoff, especially in cities with high rainfall - this represents a source of water with low sensitivity to unfavourable climate change. Whilst the potential to reuse stormwater has long been recognised, its quality has largely limited usage to non-potable applications requiring the use of a third-pipe network, a prohibitively expensive option in established urban areas. Given recent advances in membrane filtration, this study investigates the potential of harvesting and treating stormwater to a potable standard to enable use of the potable distribution network. A case study based on the Throsby Creek catchment in Newcastle explores the issue. The high seasonally uniform rainfall provides insight into the maximum potential of such an option. Multicriterion optimisation was used to identify Pareto optimal solutions for harvesting, storing and treating stormwater. It is shown that harvesting and treating stormwater from a 13 km² catchment can produce yields ranging from 8.5 to 14.2 ML/day at costs ranging from AU$2.60/kL to AU$2.89/kL, which may become viable as the cost of traditional supply continues to grow. However, there are significant social impacts to deal with including alienation of public land for storage and community acceptance of treated stormwater.

  13. Potable Water Reuse: What Are the Microbiological Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Sharon P; Soller, Jeffrey A; Eftim, Sorina E

    2018-06-01

    With the increasing interest in recycling water for potable reuse purposes, it is important to understand the microbial risks associated with potable reuse. This review focuses on potable reuse systems that use high-level treatment and de facto reuse scenarios that include a quantifiable wastewater effluent component. In this article, we summarize the published human health studies related to potable reuse, including both epidemiology studies and quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA). Overall, there have been relatively few health-based studies evaluating the microbial risks associated with potable reuse. Several microbial risk assessments focused on risks associated with unplanned (or de facto) reuse, while others evaluated planned potable reuse, such as indirect potable reuse (IPR) or direct potable reuse (DPR). The reported QMRA-based risks for planned potable reuse varied substantially, indicating there is a need for risk assessors to use consistent input parameters and transparent assumptions, so that risk results are easily translated across studies. However, the current results overall indicate that predicted risks associated with planned potable reuse scenarios may be lower than those for de facto reuse scenarios. Overall, there is a clear need to carefully consider water treatment train choices when wastewater is a component of the drinking water supply (whether de facto, IPR, or DPR). More data from full-scale water treatment facilities would be helpful to quantify levels of viruses in raw sewage and reductions across unit treatment processes for both culturable and molecular detection methods.

  14. Uso de bebidas alcoólicas em postos de gasolina de Porto Alegre: estudo piloto Alcohol use on premises of gas stations of Porto Alegre, Brazil: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel De Boni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de álcool é um forte preditor de acidentes de trânsito. Este artigo descreve a factibilidade e dados preliminares de um estudo que avalia a alcoolemia entre jovens que utilizam bebidas alcoólicas em estacionamentos de postos de gasolina de Porto Alegre (RS. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, com amostra em alvo, estratificada por idade e gênero. Os dados foram coletados através de um questionário autopreenchido, e a alcoolemia foi estimada com uso de bafômetro. RESULTADOS: A taxa de recusa foi de 13,7%, e medida da alcoolemia acima de 0,06% foi encontrada em 35,5% (IC95% 24,3-47,9 da amostra. Aproximadamente 10% destes indivíduos (18% dos homens relatavam intenção de dirigir nas 2 horas subseqüentes à coleta. CONCLUSÃO: É discutida a potencial utilização deste tipo de dado, bem como a necessidade de novos estudos sobre uso de substâncias em motoristas brasileiros.INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use is a strong predictor of traffic accidents. This paper reports feasibility issues and preliminary data on blood alcohol concentration in youths who drink alcohol in gas stations of Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHOD: It used a cross-sectional design with a purposive sample stratified by age and gender. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire and blood alcohol concentration was estimated with breath alcohol analyzers. RESULTS: Refusal rate was 13.7% and blood alcohol concentration over 0.06% was found in 35.5% (95%CI 24.3-47.9 of the sample. Almost 10% of the subjects (18% of the males reported they would drive within 2 hours of the interview. CONCLUSION: The potential utilization of such measures is discussed, as well as the need for studies on substance use in young Brazilian drivers.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying facility potable water system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) potable water (PW) system. The PW system provides potable water to the CVDF for supply to sinks, water closets, urinals, showers, custodial service sinks, drinking fountains, the decontamination shower, supply water to the non-PW systems, and makeup water for the de-ionized water system

  16. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  17. 21 CFR 1250.82 - Potable water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potable water systems. 1250.82 Section 1250.82... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.82 Potable water systems. The following conditions must be met by vessel water systems used for the storage and distribution of water which has met...

  18. Bacteriological Quality and Antibiogram of Isolates from Potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Bacteriological Quality and Antibiogram of Isolates from Potable Water Sources in ... microbial analysis revealed a faecal contamination of the groundwater, making it unfit for drinking ... Recent studies shows the proliferation of emerging.

  19. Nanotechnology for potable water and general consumption in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hillie, T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available that affect people in developing and developed countries. The challenges outlined are; poor governance, water scarcity, sanitation and climate change. Nanotechnology is sufficiently advanced to help provide potable water and water for general assumption...

  20. Efficacy of various chemical disinfectants on biofilms formed in spacecraft potable water system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing C; Dudinsky, Lynn A; Garcia, Veronica M; Ott, Charlie M; Castro, Victoria A

    2010-07-01

    As the provision of potable water is critical for successful habitation of the International Space Station (ISS), life support systems were installed in December 2008 to recycle both humidity from the atmosphere and urine to conserve available water in the Station. In-flight pre-consumption testing from the dispensing needle at the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) indicated that bacterial concentrations exceeded the current ISS specifications of 50 colony-forming units (CFU) ml(-1). Subsequent investigations revealed that a corrugated stainless steel flex hose upstream of the dispensing needle in the PWD was filled with nonsterile water and left at room temperature for more than 1 month before launch. To simulate biofilm formation that was suspected in the flight system, sterile flex hoses were seeded with a consortium of bacterial isolates previously recovered from other ISS water systems, including Ralstonia pickettii, Burkholderia multivorans, Caulobacter vibrioides, and Cupriavidus pauculus. After incubation for 5 days, the hoses were challenged with various chemical disinfectants including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), colloidal silver, and buffered pH solutions to determine the ability of the disinfectants to decrease and maintain bacterial concentrations below ISS specifications. The disinfection efficacy over time was measured by collecting daily heterotrophic plate counts after exposure to the disinfectants. A single flush with either 6% H2O2 solution or a mixture of 3% H2O2 and 400 ppb colloidal silver effectively reduced the bacterial concentrations to <1 CFU ml(-1) for a period of up to 3 months.

  1. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in UV-A LEDs and semi

  2. Direct potable reuse – a feasible water management option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lahnsteiner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct potable reuse (DPR can be more economic than indirect potable reuse as no environmental buffer is needed and conveyance and blending of the purified water with other potable sources is basically less expensive. Long-term experience in Windhoek (48 years shows that treated domestic sewage can be safely and cost-efficiently utilized for potable reclamation (0.72 €/m3. A multiple barrier strategy is employed in order to attain the highest possible safety levels. There are three types of barriers: non-treatment, treatment and operational barriers. In recent years, new DPR schemes have been implemented in South Africa and in the USA, and the major difference between all the new reclamation processes and the Windhoek New Goreangab water reclamation plant lies in the employment of desalination process units. This topic and other issues, such as the use of ozone and biological activated carbon filtration, are addressed. Reclamation process optimization (increase in sustainability and the attainment of greater public acceptance are the major challenges facing the promotion of DPR, which should become a common and widely used water management option within the next 5–10 years.

  3. Correlates of potable water demand among farming households in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated the correlates of potable water demand among farming households through the use of cross-sectional data collected from 100 households in Abak, Nigeria. Based on the fact that heterogeneity and homogeneity exist within and among the clans and also to ensure equal representation of people from all ...

  4. Acceso equitativo a servicios de agua potable y alcantarillado: una oportunidad para el activismo judicial y social a nivel local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Recalde Castañeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia cerca del 97% y el 87% de la población accede a servicios de agua potable y saneamiento (SAPS, respectivamente. No obstante, el país tiene el reto de atacar la inequidad en la provisión de estos servicios públicos, la cual afecta particularmente a la población con un nivel de ingreso muy bajo y localizada en zonas rurales y periurbanas caracterizadas por su escaso desarrollo. Entre los factores que permiten la persistencia de esta brecha, se encuentran la falta de estrategias de gestión y ejecución de los municipios para garantizar procesos urbanísticos organizados e incluyentes. En este artículo pretendo mostrar que el uso adecuado de las órdenes complejas por parte de jueces locales en casos estructurales que involucran la provisión de SAPS, puede ser una herramienta de desbloqueo institucional que permita atacar las inequidades que afectan a las poblaciones socioeconómicamente vulnerables y por ende, garantizar el goce efectivo de los derechos al agua potable y el saneamiento básico.

  5. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  6. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  7. Strategic Siting of Contingency Bases: Assessing Options for Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    of water. Thus the use of water can be viewed as taking place within a socio-ecological system, which is interlinked in its social, political, eco ...evaluation of how that infrastructure meets societal needs culturally, socially, politically, economically, and technologically . Their an- alytical... technological relationships be- tween Army and host-nation users of potable water when siting a CB. The questions focus on consideration of the reciprocal

  8. Risk-based enteric pathogen reduction targets for non-potable and direct potable use of roof runoff, stormwater, and greywater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents risk-based enteric pathogen log reduction targets for non-potable and potable uses of a variety of alternative source waters (i.e., locally-collected greywater, roof runoff, and stormwater). A probabilistic Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) was use...

  9. Pathogen reduction requirements for direct potable reuse in Antarctica: evaluating human health risks in small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S Fiona; Packer, Michael; Scales, Peter J; Gray, Stephen; Snape, Ian; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    Small, remote communities often have limited access to energy and water. Direct potable reuse of treated wastewater has recently gained attention as a potential solution for water-stressed regions, but requires further evaluation specific to small communities. The required pathogen reduction needed for safe implementation of direct potable reuse of treated sewage is an important consideration but these are typically quantified for larger communities and cities. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted, using norovirus, giardia and Campylobacter as reference pathogens, to determine the level of treatment required to meet the tolerable annual disease burden of 10(-6) DALYs per person per year, using Davis Station in Antarctica as an example of a small remote community. Two scenarios were compared: published municipal sewage pathogen loads and estimated pathogen loads during a gastroenteritis outbreak. For the municipal sewage scenario, estimated required log10 reductions were 6.9, 8.0 and 7.4 for norovirus, giardia and Campylobacter respectively, while for the outbreak scenario the values were 12.1, 10.4 and 12.3 (95th percentiles). Pathogen concentrations are higher under outbreak conditions as a function of the relatively greater degree of contact between community members in a small population, compared with interactions in a large city, resulting in a higher proportion of the population being at risk of infection and illness. While the estimates of outbreak conditions may overestimate sewage concentration to some degree, the results suggest that additional treatment barriers would be required to achieve regulatory compliance for safe drinking water in small communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Various Chemical Disinfectants on Biofilms Formed in Spacecraft Potable Water System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Willy; Garcia, Veronica; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Duane

    2009-01-01

    As the provision of potable water is critical for successful habitation of the International Space Station (ISS), life support systems were installed in December 2008 to recycle both humidity from the atmosphere and urine to conserve available water in the vehicle. Pre-consumption testing from the dispensing needle at the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) indicated that bacterial concentrations exceeded the current ISS specifications of 50 colony forming units (CFU) per ml. Subsequent investigations revealed that a corrugated stainless steel flex hose upstream of the dispensing needle in the PWD was filled with non-sterile water and left at room temperature for over one month before launch. To simulate biofilm formation that was suspected in the flight system, sterile flex hoses were seeded with a consortium of bacterial isolates previously recovered from other ISS water systems, which included Ralstonia pickettii, Burkholderia multivorans, Caulobacter vibrioides., and Cupriavidus pauculus. After 5 days of incubation, these hoses were challenged with various chemical disinfectants including hydrogen peroxide, colloidal silver, and buffered pH solutions to determine the ability of the disinfectants to decrease and maintain bacterial concentrations below ISS specifications. Disinfection efficacy over time was measured by collecting daily heterotrophic plate counts following exposure to the disinfectants. A single flush with either 6% hydrogen peroxide solution or a mixture of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 400 ppb colloidal silver effectively reduced the bacterial concentrations to less than 1 CFU/ml for a period of up to 2 months. Testing results indicated that hydrogen peroxide and mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and colloidal silver have tremendous potential as alternative disinfectants for ISS water systems.

  11. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  12. Small Scale Direct Potable Reuse (DPR Project for a Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP for potable water recycling in Davis Station Antarctica was trialed using secondary effluent at Selfs Point in Hobart, Tasmania, for nine months. The trials demonstrated the reliability of performance of a seven barrier treatment process consisting of ozonation, ceramic microfiltration (MF, biologically activated carbon, reverse osmosis, ultra-violet disinfection, calcite contactor and chlorination. The seven treatment barriers were required to meet the high log removal values (LRV required for pathogens in small systems during disease outbreak, and on-line verification of process performance was required for operation with infrequent operator attention. On-line verification of pathogen LRVs, a low turbidity filtrate of approximately 0.1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit, no long-term fouling and no requirement for clean-in-place (CIP was achieved with the ceramic MF. A pressure decay test was also reliably implemented on the reverse osmosis system to achieve a 2 LRV for protozoa, and this barrier required only 2–3 CIP treatments each year. The ozonation process achieved 2 LRV for bacteria and virus with no requirement for an ozone residual, provided the ozone dose was >11.7 mg/L. Extensive screening using multi-residue gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS database methods that can screen for more than 1200 chemicals found that few chemicals pass through the barriers to the final product and rejected (discharge water streams. The AWTP plant required 1.93 kWh/m3 when operated in the mode required for Davis Station and was predicted to require 1.27 kWh/m3 if scaled up to 10 ML/day. The AWTP will be shipped to Davis Station for further trials before possible implementation for water recycling. The process may have application in other small remote communities.

  13. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  14. Autogenous Metallic Pipe Leak Repair in Potable Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-07-21

    Copper and iron pipes have a remarkable capability for autogenous repair (self-repair) of leaks in potable water systems. Field studies revealed exemplars that metallic pipe leaks caused by nails, rocks, and erosion corrosion autogenously repaired, as confirmed in the laboratory experiments. This work demonstrated that 100% (N = 26) of 150 μm leaks contacting representative bulk potable water in copper pipes sealed autogenously via formation of corrosion precipitates at 20-40 psi, pH 3.0-11.0, and with upward and downward leak orientations. Similar leaks in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 5.5 and 8.5, but two leaks did not self-repair permanently at pH 11.0 suggesting that water chemistry may control the durability of materials that seal the leaks and therefore the permanence of repair. Larger 400 μm holes in copper pipes had much lower (0-33%) success of self-repair at pH 3.0-11.0, whereas all 400 μm holes in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 4.0-11.0. Pressure tests indicated that some of the repairs created at 20-40 psi ambient pressure could withstand more than 100 psi without failure. Autogenous repair has implications for understanding patterns of pipe failures, extending the lifetime of decaying infrastructure, and developing new plumbing materials.

  15. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  16. 41 CFR 109-27.5008 - Control of drug substances and potable alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Guidelines § 109-27.5008 Control of drug substances and potable alcohol. Effective procedures and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of drug substances and potable alcohol. 109-27.5008 Section 109-27.5008 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  17. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport..., or waste water or other polluting materials. Arriving aircraft shall discharge such matter only at...

  18. Risk-Based Treatment Targets for Onsite Non-Potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation presents risk-based enteric pathogen log reduction targets for non-potable and potable uses of a variety of alternative source waters (i.e., municipal wastewater, locally-collected greywater, rainwater, and stormwater). A probabilistic, forward Quantitative Micr...

  19. Review of pathogen treatment reductions for onsite non-potable reuse of alternative source waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities face a challenge when implementing onsite reuse of collected waters for non-potable purposes given the lack of national microbial standards. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) can be used to predict the pathogen risks associated with the non-potable reuse o...

  20. Beyond User Acceptance: A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Lovett, Sasha R; Binz, Christian; Sedlak, David L; Kiparsky, Michael; Truffer, Bernhard

    2015-07-07

    Water resource managers often tout the potential of potable water reuse to provide a reliable, local source of drinking water in water-scarce regions. Despite data documenting the ability of advanced treatment technologies to treat municipal wastewater effluent to meet existing drinking water quality standards, many utilities face skepticism from the public about potable water reuse. Prior research on this topic has mainly focused on marketing strategies for garnering public acceptance of the process. This study takes a broader perspective on the adoption of potable water reuse based on concepts of societal legitimacy, which is the generalized perception or assumption that a technology is desirable or appropriate within its social context. To assess why some potable reuse projects were successfully implemented while others faced fierce public opposition, we performed a series of 20 expert interviews and reviewed in-depth case studies from potable reuse projects in California. Results show that proponents of a legitimated potable water reuse project in Orange County, California engaged in a portfolio of strategies that addressed three main dimensions of legitimacy. In contrast, other proposed projects that faced extensive public opposition relied on a smaller set of legitimation strategies that focused near-exclusively on the development of robust water treatment technology. Widespread legitimation of potable water reuse projects, including direct potable water reuse, may require the establishment of a portfolio of standards, procedures, and possibly new institutions.

  1. Chemical Characterization and Identification of Organosilicon Contaminants in ISS Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    2015 marked the 15th anniversary of continuous human presence on board the International Space Station. During the past year crew members from Expeditions 42-46, including two participating in a one-year mission, continued to rely on reclaimed water as their primary source of potable water. This paper presents and discusses results from chemical analyses performed on ISS water samples returned in 2015. Since the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA) became operational in 2008, there have been 5 instances of organic contaminants breaking through the treatment process. On each occasion, the breakthrough was signaled by an increase in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the product water measured by the onboard TOC analyzer (TOCA). Although the most recent TOC rise in 2015 was not unexpected, it was the first time where dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) was not the primary compound responsible for the increase. Results from ground analysis of a product water sample collected in June of 2015 and returned on Soyuz 41 showed that DMSD only accounted for 10% of the measured TOC. After considerable laboratory investigation, the compound responsible for the majority of the TOC was identified as monomethysilanetriol (MMST). MMST is a low-toxicity compound that is structurally similar to DMSD.

  2. Heavy Metal Levels and Physico-Chemical Quality of Potable Water Supply in Warri, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nduka, K.C.; Orisakwe, E.O.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between man's activities and the environment is gaining world wide attention. Warri an oil producing community in Delta State of Nigeria is faced with environmental oil pollution. Since open and underground water bodies are regarded as final recipients of most environmental pollutants, this study sought to provide data on the levels of the physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in Warri metropolitan water supply. This study investigated the cadmium, lead and chromium using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, physico - chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total suspended solid TSS, total dissolved solid TDS, electrical conductivity EC, biological oxygen demand BOD, dissolved oxygen DO, chemical oxygen demand COD, and total coliform count of potable water sources in Warri. Ekpan River was found to have 1.2 mg/L of cadmium, 1.0mg/L of chromium, 1.20 mg/L of lead and 2.0 mg/L of manganese. The heavy metals levels and the pollution parameters were lowest in the borehole water samples, except pH which is more acidic in borehole water samples and conductivity which is more in well water samples in all the sampling stations. Some of the parameters were above WHO standards

  3. Complementary cold water production for a dairy industry: the use of biogas generated in the effluent treatment station; Producao de agua gelada complementar para um laticinio: o uso do biogas produzido na estacao de tratamento de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, I.A.C. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: iraides@debas.faenquil.br; Napoleao, D.A.S.; Silveira, J.L. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: diovana@feg.unesp.br; joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper is analysed the possibility energetic utilization of biogas in the effluent treatment station of a medium dairy industry located in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. In this station is produced about 80 N m3/h of biogas, with a molar composition of 62,5% of CH{sub 4}, 13,4% of N{sub 2}, 5% of CO, 2,4% of CO{sub 2}, 2,4% of steam H{sub 2}O e 14,1% of H{sub 2}S. The generated biogas is today burning in a flair, according the national rule, with evident losses of energetic utilization potential.. The purpose of this paper is the direct utilization of this biogas to run an absorption refrigeration system utilizing H{sub 2}O + NH{sub 3} mixture. The level of H{sub 2}S in the biogas permits the energy recovery of the available heating minimum temperature level up to 230 deg C, according to the pinch point proceeding.This potential of energy recovery permits a complementation of the cold water production (7,3 kg/s) at 1 deg C. So, is made the energetic analysis of the proposed installation showing the technical feasibility of the actual use of the generated biogas, to produce useful energy. (author)

  4. Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system

  5. RARE OCCURRENCE OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA WITH PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL IN POTABLE WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the discovery of Legionella pneumophila, an opportunistic pathogen that is indigenous to water, microbiologists have speculated that there may be other opportunistic pathogens among the numerous heterotrophic bacteria found in potable water. The USEPA developed a series of...

  6. An assessment of the potability of some sachet water brands sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the microbial and physico-chemical qualities of 14 sachet water ... their potability based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. ... that about 85 % of the brands tested were microbially unsuitable for consumption.

  7. Plan director red de abastecimiento de agua potable en la localidad de Gestalgar (Valencia)

    OpenAIRE

    HERRERA AGUILAR, MANUEL JOSÉ

    2011-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto es definir las características técnicas necesarias para aumentar la eficiencia de las redes de alta de suministro de agua potable en la localidad de Gestalgar (Valencia) Herrera Aguilar, MJ. (2011). Plan director red de abastecimiento de agua potable en la localidad de Gestalgar (Valencia). http://hdl.handle.net/10251/12468. Archivo delegado

  8. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    1997-01-01

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe

  9. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  10. The use of ozone to during water treatment; El uso de ozono en estaciones de tratamiento de agua potable (ETAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Sanchez, E.; Herraez Sanchez de las Matas, I.

    2004-07-01

    Water is rendered drinkable by using disinfecting methods like chlorination, ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, thus ensuring that pathogens are kept at the correct safety level. Of the three methods for disinfecting, chlorination is by far the method most frequently used. Despite the former, there has been a change in technology in favour of ozone and to the detriment of chlorine. This trend was motivated, in the first place, by European Union legislation adopted by the Spanish legal system in February 2003, which limits the presence of certain compounds such as tri halomethanes (THM) to levels that can only be attained if we apply ozone. As far as an alternative to chlorine in the disinfecting process is concerned, it cannot be claimed that a clear solution has been found because it is the only one having a residual effect acting as a guarantee for the entree distribution network. According to these experimental data from the drinking water plant of Santillana, by applying an ozonization system prior to chlorination the quantity of chlorine used can be reduced by about 25-30%, but it can never be totally eliminated from the treatment. (Author)

  11. Spatial optimization for decentralized non-potable water reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvada, Olga; Nelson, Kara L.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-06-01

    Decentralization has the potential to reduce the scale of the piped distribution network needed to enable non-potable water reuse (NPR) in urban areas by producing recycled water closer to its point of use. However, tradeoffs exist between the economies of scale of treatment facilities and the size of the conveyance infrastructure, including energy for upgradient distribution of recycled water. To adequately capture the impacts from distribution pipes and pumping requirements, site-specific conditions must be accounted for. In this study, a generalized framework (a heuristic modeling approach using geospatial algorithms) is developed that estimates the financial cost, the energy use, and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with NPR (for toilet flushing) as a function of scale of treatment and conveyance networks with the goal of determining the optimal degree of decentralization. A decision-support platform is developed to assess and visualize NPR system designs considering topography, economies of scale, and building size. The platform can be used for scenario development to explore the optimal system size based on the layout of current or new buildings. The model also promotes technology innovation by facilitating the systems-level comparison of options to lower costs, improve energy efficiency, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Inhibition of Copper Pitting Corrosion in Aggressive Potable Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sarver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper pitting corrosion can lead to premature plumbing failures, and can be caused by aggressive potable waters characterized by high pH, free chlorine residual and low alkalinity. In such waters and under continuous flow, certain inhibitors including phosphate, silica or natural organic matter may greatly reduce pitting occurrence. In the current work, 1 mg/L phosphate (as P completely prevented initiation of pits, and 5 mg/L silica (as Si significantly decelerated pitting. However, much lower doses of these inhibitors had little benefit and actually accelerated the rate of attack in some cases. Effects of organic matter were dependent on both the type (e.g., natural versus ozonated humic substances and dosage. Dose-response effects of free chlorine and alkalinity were also investigated. Based on electrochemical data, pits initiated more rapidly with increased free chlorine, but even moderate levels of chlorine (~0.4 mg/L eventually caused severe pitting. High alkalinity decreased pit propagation rates but did not prevent pit formation.

  13. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more effective at removing nickel and cadmium, while at pH 8.5, iron electrodes were more effective for these metals. Regardless of electrode, cadmium and nickel removal efficiencies were higher at pH 8.5 than at pH 6.5. Post-EC treatment using membrane filtration (0.45 μm) enhanced contaminant removal for all metals but nickel. With the exception of lead, all metals exhibited poorer removal efficiencies as the ionic strength of the background electrolyte increased, particularly in the very high-solids synthetic groundwaters. Residual aluminum concentrations were lowest at pH 6.5, while iron residuals were lowest in low ionic strength waters. Both aluminum and iron residuals required post-treatment filtration to meet drinking water standards. EC with post-treatment filtration appears to effectively remove trace metal contaminants to potable water standards, but both reactor and source water parameters critically impact removal efficiency.

  14. Quality of Mount Etna groundwaters utilized for the potable supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammanco, G.; Giammanco, S.; Valenza, M.

    1995-01-01

    The groundwaters of many aquifers of Mt. Etna are naturally enriched in a number of elements that are present in the rocks making up the volcanic edifice. The concentrations of magnesium, iron and manganese in the waters from many wells and springs utilized for the potable supply of Catania and various other villages exceed the maximum admissible concentrations (CMA) fixed by the law n. 236 enacted in 1988. The literal observance of the law in force has led to the prohibition from drinking such waters, although the above-mentioned substances are not prejudicial to the health at the found concentrations. Further problems have arised from the presence of vanadium, even though no CMA has been fixed for this element. All this has provoked serious hardships to the population and risks to the health due to the reduced water delivery. In order to avoid such inconveniences, the revision of the law in force is necessary in all those geographical areas where are naturally rich in non toxic elements. For these elements is opportune that indicative and non prescriptive levels of acceptability were established instead of the CMA

  15. EFECTOS REDISTRIBUTIVOS DE LAS TARIFAS DE AGUA POTABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÉLEZ GOMEZ LUIS DIEGO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aunque para Colombia la situación no es tan dramática, se avizora un problema de cobertura y escasez de agua potable para los niveles más desprotegidos de la población, en razón de su incapacidad de pago. La consecuencia inmediata es una acentuación de los índices de pobreza y de su manifestación más clara: el hambre. Este trabajo pretende mostrar que los niveles de pobreza son muy sensibles al precio de los servicios públicos domiciliarios, entre ellos, del agua, y atribuye a las fallas de inclusión y exclusión de los subsidios parte del grueso número de personas que hoy están por debajo de la línea de pobreza, aunque ésta no sea la única causa. Dada, entonces, la prominencia de las empresas de servicios públicos en la economía, los gobiernos tienen la obligación de resolver parte del difícil problema de equidad a través de las tarifas, sin dejar de garantizar la sostenibilidad económica de los proveedores del recurso.

  16. Incidental potable water reuse in a Catalonian basin: living downstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mujeriego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of incidental potable water reuse (IPR in the Llobregat River basin has been conducted by estimating the dilution factor of treated effluent discharges upstream of six river flow measurement sections. IPR in the Llobregat River basin is an everyday occurrence, because of the systematic discharge of treated effluents upstream of river sections used as drinking water sources. Average river flows at the Sant Joan Despí measurement section increased from 400,000 m3/d (2007 to 864,000 m3/d (2008 and to 931,000 m3/d (2013, while treated effluent discharges upstream of that section ranged from 109,000 m3/d to 114,000 m3/d in those years. The highest degree of IPR occurs downstream of the Abrera and Sant Joan Despí flow measurement sections, from where about half of the drinking water supplied to the Barcelona Metropolitan Area is abstracted. Based on average annual flows, the likelihood that drinking water produced from that river stretch contained treated effluent varied from 25% (2007 to 13% (2008 and to 12% (2013. Water agencies and drinking water production utilities have strived for decades to ensure that drinking water production satisfies applicable quality requirements and provides the required public health protection.

  17. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  19. Factores que afectan la demanda de agua para uso doméstico en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salazar Adams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se calcula la demanda de agua para uso doméstico en la república mexicana, con bases de datos agregados a escala local. Resultaron significativos factores como la elasticidad precio estimada, de -0.33, y la elasticidad ingreso, de 0.2, entre otros asociados a la demanda, por lo que deben ser considerados en la planeación y administración de los servicios de agua potable en México.

  20. Hospital Impact After a Chemical Spill That Compromised the Potable Water Supply: West Virginia, January 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joy; Del Rosario, Maria C; Thomasson, Erica; Bixler, Danae; Haddy, Loretta; Duncan, Mary Anne

    2017-10-01

    In January 2014, a chemical spill of 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ethers contaminated the potable water supply of approximately 300,000 West Virginia residents. To understand the spill's impact on hospital operations, we surveyed representatives from 10 hospitals in the affected area during January 2014. We found that the spill-related loss of potable water affected many aspects of hospital patient care (eg, surgery, endoscopy, hemodialysis, and infection control of Clostridium difficile). Hospital emergency preparedness planning could be enhanced by specifying alternative sources of potable water sufficient for hemodialysis, C. difficile infection control, and hospital processing and cleaning needs (in addition to drinking water). (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:621-624).

  1. Legionella pneumophila: From potable water to treated greywater; quantification and removal during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanky, Marina; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Halpern, Malka; Friedler, Eran

    2015-11-15

    Greywater is an alternative water source that can help alleviate stress on depleted water resources. The main options for greywater reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both producing aerosols. For that reason transmission of inhalable pathogens like Legionella present a potential risk. To improve the understanding about Legionella in greywater, we traced the pathogen seasonally from the potable water system to the final steps of the greywater treatment in four houses in northern Israel. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in order to assess background greywater quality and to establish possible associations with Legionella. The mean concentrations of Legionella pneumophila isolated from the potable water system were 6.4×10(2) and 5.9×10(3) cfu/l in cold and hot water respectively. By amending the ISO protocol for Legionella isolation from drinking water, we succeeded in quantifying Legionella in greywater. The mean Legionella concentrations that were found in raw, treated and treated chlorinated greywater were 1.2×10(5), 2.4×10(4) and 5.7×10(3) cfu/l respectively. While Legionella counts in potable water presented a seasonal pattern with high concentrations in summer, its counts in greywater presented an almost inversed pattern. Greywater treatment resulted in 95% decrease in Legionella counts. No significant difference was found between Legionella concentrations in potable water and the treated chlorinated greywater. These findings indicate that regarding Legionella, reusing treated chlorinated greywater would exhibit a risk that is very similar to the risk associated with using potable water for the same non-potable uses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Absorption heat pump for a potable water supply in a solar house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshamarka, S [Military Technical Coll., Cairo (EG)

    1991-01-01

    Solar houses usually have good potential in arid areas. These areas often suffer from not only a shortage of conventional energy sources, but also of potable water supplies. In this study, a solar air-conditioning system including an absorption heat pump, already in production since the early 1980s, is described for potable water production while performing its air-conditioning duty in a solar house. Compiled weather-conditions of the Hurgada area, on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, were employed for the prediction of the system's productivity, if it were installed in such a locality. An evaluation of the system's feasibility has been conducted. (author).

  3. Basic aspects of the use of reverse osmosis in indirect potable reuse; Aspectos basicos de la aplicacion de la osmosis inversa a la reutilizacion potable indirecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ramirez, J. A.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.; Asano, T.

    2003-07-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse is an increasing activity in those countries who are facing water restrictions both in quality and quantity, and it has become an integral part of water resources management. Among several applications of reclaimed wastewater, one of the most interesting and innovative is indirect potable reuse. This consists in the purposeful augmentation of surface or groundwater resources with highly treated reclaimed water which will ultimately serve as a source of drinking water. There are world-wide experiences confirming that this kind of application is safe. The use of reverse osmosis for wastewater reclamation is very interesting and the use of this in indirect potable reuse started more that thirty years ago, mainly in USA. However the extension of this kind of applications is in someway low, not for economic issues or technology faults,but the ignorance, distrust or public opinion rejection. In this paper, the most important challenges, from a technical and scientific point of view, of indirect potable reuse are discussed to allow it to be used as a safe, reliable and additional water source: with all its implications and, of course, with all its benefits. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. Tertiary treatment and dual disinfection to improve microbial quality of reclaimed water for potable and non-potable reuse: A case study of facilities in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Emily S; Casanova, Lisa M; Simmons, Otto D; Sobsey, Mark D

    2018-07-15

    Treated wastewater is increasingly of interest for either nonpotable purposes, such as agriculture and industrial use, or as source water for drinking water supplies; however, this type of advanced treatment for water supply is not always possible for many low resource settings. As an alternative, multiple barriers of physical, chemical and biological treatment with lower cost and simpler operation and maintenance have been proposed as more globally applicable. One such water reclamation system for both non-potable and potable reuse, is that approved by the State of North Carolina "for Type 2" reclaimed water (NCT2RW). NC Type 2 potable reuse systems consist of a sequence of tertiary treatment to produce well oxidized reclaimed water that is then then further treated by two steps of disinfection, typically UV radiation and chlorination. In this case study, the log10 microbial reduction performance of NCT2RW producing water reclamation facilities is evaluated. Based on the results presented here, NCT2RW consistently achieved high (6 for bacteria, 4 for virus and 4 for protozoan parasite surrogates) log10 reductions using the NC proposed treatment methods. Additionally, lower but significant log10 reduction performance was also documented for protozoan parasites and human enteric viruses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Uso de desinfectantes en acuicultura

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Lombana, S.

    1995-01-01

    Uso de Desinfectantes en Acuicultura El desarrollo de cultivos integrados en la acuicultura, trajo consigo la presencia de enfermedades infecciosas provocadas por diferenetes agentes patógenos, y los métodos empleados para enfrentar estos problemas han sido desarrollados en forma empírica, de tal manera que se ha recurrido al uso indiscriminado de antibióticos y químicos, sin preveer las posibles consecuencias.

  6. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  7. Biomass in pre potable groundwater; Biomasa en aguas prepotables de origen subterraneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Monteverde, M. P.; Ayala Diaz, J. H.; Afonso Perea, A. M.; Gonzalez Diaz, V.

    2004-07-01

    This study assessed the quality of available pre potable water in the south of Tenerife (Spain) taken from various canal and storage ponds. This was done by continuous determination, between May 2000 and July 2002, of microorganisms indicating pollution by sewage or animal waste and of chlorophyll a, parameter indicating microalgae biomass. (Author)

  8. Potability of drinking water in an oil impacted community in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some physicochemical parameters like iron and mercury in some boreholes did not meet World Health Organization (WHO) standard for potable water. High counts of indicator bacteria also constitute a threat to public health. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. 9(1) 2005: 135-141.

  9. Mycobacterium avium complex--the role of potable water in disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Giglio, S; Bentham, R

    2012-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of opportunistic pathogens of major public health concern. It is responsible for a wide spectrum of disease dependent on subspecies, route of infection and patients pre-existing conditions. Presently, there is limited research on the incidence of MAC infection that considers both pulmonary and other clinical manifestations. MAC has been isolated from various terrestrial and aquatic environments including natural waters, engineered water systems and soils. Identifying the specific environmental sources responsible for human infection is essential in minimizing disease prevalence. This paper reviews current literature and case studies regarding the wide spectrum of disease caused by MAC and the role of potable water in disease transmission. Potable water was recognized as a putative pathway for MAC infection. Contaminated potable water sources associated with human infection included warm water distribution systems, showers, faucets, household drinking water, swimming pools and hot tub spas. MAC can maintain long-term contamination of potable water sources through its high resistance to disinfectants, association with biofilms and intracellular parasitism of free-living protozoa. Further research is required to investigate the efficiency of water treatment processes against MAC and into construction and maintenance of warm water distribution systems and the role they play in MAC proliferation. No claim to Australian Government works Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Beyond User Acceptance : A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris-Lovett, S.R.; Binz, C.; Sedlak, D.L.; Kiparsky, M.; Truffer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource managers often tout the potential of potable water reuse to provide a reliable, local source of drinking water in water-scarce regions. Despite data documenting the ability of advanced treatment technologies to treat municipal wastewater effluent to meet existing drinking water

  11. Pathogen Treatment Guidance and Monitoring Approaches fro On-Site Non-Potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-site non-potable water reuse is increasingly used to augment water supplies, but traditional fecal indicator approaches for defining and monitoring exposure risks are limited when applied to these decentralized options. This session emphasizes risk-based modeling to define pat...

  12. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    Science.gov (United States)

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  13. HOJA INFORMATIVA Presencia de PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable Avisos de salud

    Science.gov (United States)

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales y locales para que puedan adoptar las me

  14. Accessibility levels to potable Water Supply in Rural Areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    1987-09-23

    Sep 23, 1987 ... number of water boreholes in the communities were collected and analyzed. The population of the communities provided a basis for evolving an index that measured the levels of access to potable water supply in the study area. The use of GIS was subsequently employed to map out the study area on the ...

  15. Cross-connection control of the potable water lines at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M.

    1996-04-01

    A 1991 independent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) audit of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified the need for establishing a cross-connection control program for the potable and nonpotable water systems at the facility. An informal cross-connection policy had been in place for some time, but the formal implementation of a cross-connection program brought together individuals from the Quality Engineering and Inspection Section of the Office of Quality Programs and Inspection, Industrial Hygiene, Health Physics, Plant and Equipment Division, and the Atomic Trade and Labor Council. In January 1994 a Cross-Connection Control Committee was established at ORNL to identify potential and actual cross connections between potable and nonpotable water systems. Potable water is safe to drink, and nonpotable or process water (e.g., sewage, laboratory wastewater, cooling water, and tower water) is not intended for human consumption, washing of the body, or food preparation. The program is intended to conform with the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1986 and with state and local regulations. Although the Occupational Safety and Health Administration addresses cross-connection functions, it does not define specific program requirements. The program at ORNL is designed to ensure that necessary recommendations are implemented to safeguard all internal and external potable water distribution lines. Program responsibilities include a thorough engineering assessment to (1) identify the potable water lines, (2) identify any existing or potential cross connections, and (3) inspect the integrity of the water lines. If any cross-connection deficiencies are found, corrective actions are initiated according to industry standards.

  16. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  17. Propuesta de un sistema de aprovechamiento de agua lluvia como alternativa para el ahorro de agua potable, en la institución educativa María Auxiliadora de Caldas, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio Castañeda Natalia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento del agua lluvia es una práctica interesante, tanto ambiental como económicamente, si se tiene en cuenta la gran demanda del recurso sobre las cuencas hidrográficas, el alto grado de contaminación de las fuentes superficiales y los elevados costos por el consumo de agua potable en una institución educativa. Este proyecto presenta la ingeniería conceptual de una propuesta de diseño de un si stema de aprovechamiento de agua lluvia como alternativa para el ahorro de agua potable en usos tales como la descarga de sanitarios, el lavado de zonas comunes, entre otros. Se presenta, adicionalmente, un análisis aproximado de la viabilidad técnica y económica de dicho aprovechamiento en una institución educativa del municipio de Caldas, Antioquia. Se desarrollan en este documento tres aspectos principales: el cálculo de los volúmenes disponibles de agua lluvia en la zona, la evaluación del volumen de agua potable ahorrado con el aprovechamiento del agua lluvia, la estimación del presupuesto para la construcción del sistema y la proyección del ahorro generado al utilizarlo. Los resultados sugieren que el aprovechamiento de agua lluvia es una opción técnicamente viable, pero financieramente no, pues la inversión inicial es alta, por lo que es importante buscar financiación externa para desarrollar este tipo de proyectos que representan una solución interesante para contribuir al desarrollo sostenible de la institución educativa.

  18. Nuevos usos del cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páez Balaca, A.

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the evolution of the different systems of transporting and storing submarine oil and its by-products (petroleum gas and natural gas, is dealt with stressing the importance of the use of concrete boats. Due to the high cost of oil pipelines, we have passed from tanks built on land to prestressed concrete tanks which can be berthed at great depths or anchored to the bottom to keep them afloat, it being possible to unmoor them for transferring them. Transporting and storing liquated gas leads US to see the advantages of prestressed concrete over steel, as the latter becomes brittle at low temperatures, whereas the former's strength increases. The different forms and possible sections are analyzed, stressing the great importance of the solution of the double concrete hull with pearlite insulation. Finally, a study is made of «light concretes », not the classical types used as thermal and acoustic insulation, but the semi-heavy ones made with expanded clay, high quality sand and P-450 cement, which technique is not yet as developed in Spain at might be wished.En este artículo se trata la evolución de los distintos sistemas de transporte y almacenamiento del petróleo submarino y sus derivados (gas de petróleo y gas natural, resaltando la importancia del uso de barcos de hormigón. Debido al gran coste de los oleoductos, se ha pasado de los tanques construidos en tierra firme a los depósitos de hormigón pretensado que pueden estar fondeados a gran profundidad o anclados al fondo para mantenerlos flotantes, existiendo la posibilidad de poder desamarrarlos para su traslado. El transporte y almacenamiento del gas licuado nos hace ver las ventajas del hormigón pretensado sobre el acero, pues éste se vuelve quebradizo a bajas temperaturas, mientras aquél aumenta su resistencia. Se analizan las diferentes formas y secciones posibles, destacando la gran importancia de la solución del doble casco de hormigón con

  19. Potential for Potable Water Savings in Buildings by Using Stormwater Harvested from Porous Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Niehuns Antunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the scarcity of water resources due to population growth and increased demand for potable water. Thus, the rational use of water has become necessary for the conservation of such resources. The objective of this study is to estimate the potential for potable water savings in buildings of different sectors—residential, public and commercial—in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, by using stormwater harvested from porous pavements. Models were constructed to assess infiltration and rainwater quality; samples of stormwater from a local road were collected to evaluate its quality; and computer simulation was performed to assess the potential for potable water savings and rainwater tank sizing. Draining asphalt concrete slabs with two types of modifiers were used, i.e., tire rubber and SBS polymer—styrene-butadiene-styrene. The Netuno computer programme was used to simulate the potential for potable water savings considering the use of rainwater for non-potable uses such as flushing toilets and urinals, cleaning external areas, and garden watering. Average stormwater infiltration was 85.4%. It was observed that stormwater is not completely pure. From the models, the pH was 5.4 and the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen were 0.41, 0.14, 0.002, and 9.0 mg/L, respectively. The results for the stormwater runoff of a paved road were 0.23, 0.11, 0.12, 0.08, 1.41, 2.11, 0.02, and 9.0 mg/L for the parameters aluminium, ammonia, copper, chromium, iron, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen, respectively; and the pH was 6.7. In the city of Florianópolis, which has a surface area of paved roads of approximately 11,044,216 m², the potential for potable water savings ranged from 1.2% to 19.4% in the residential sector, 2.1% to 75.7% in the public sector and 6.5% to 70.0% in the commercial sector.

  20. EL USO DE AGUAS PLUVIALES EN LA CIUD AD DE ALICANTE. DE VIEJAS IDEAS A NUEVOS ENFOQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Francisco Morote Seguido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años sesenta, e l litoral mediterráneo español se ha caracterizado por un espectacular incremento urbano relacionado con el turismo residencial y de sol y playa. Ello ha repercutido en el aumento del consumo de determinados recursos como es el agua. A e sto, hay que sumar los problemas de suministro y de disponibilidad asociados a su escasez por factores climáticos y al incremento de la demanda. El objetivo de esta investigación es poner de manifiesto y analizar la importancia y potencialidad que tienen las aguas pluviales dentro del ciclo hidro - social en la ciudad de Alicante ( España para incrementar la oferta de agua para determinados usos (riego de jardines , baldeo de calles, etc. . Para ello, se han analizado datos sobre el uso y recogida de estos recursos y se han realizado diferentes entrevistas a técnicos de la empresa encargada de la gestión de los depósitos donde se almacena este recurso (Aguas Municipalizadas de Alicante , Empresa Mi xta, S.A. . Como principal conclusión se puede reseñar que el uso de este nuevo recurso hídrico ha permitido , por un lado, reducir el gasto de agua potable para determinados usos municipales y, por otro, aminorar la contaminación y el riesgo de inundación coincidiendo con episodios de lluvias intensas.

  1. Power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, H.; Philpott, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The object is to provide a method of operating a dual purpose power station so that the steam supply system is operated at a high load factor. The available steam not required for electricity generation is used to provide process heat and the new feature is that the process plant capacity is determined to make the most economic use of the steam supply system, and not to match the passout capacity of the turbine of the turbogenerator. The product of the process plant should, therefore, be capable of being stored. A dual-purpose power station with a nuclear-powered steam source, turbogenerating means connected to the steam source and steam-powered process plant susceptible to wide variation in its rate of operation is described. (U.K.)

  2. USO-Built Graduate School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Doevendans, C.H.; Verbeke, J.

    2003-01-01

    USO-Built is a distributed Graduate Research School under the CLUSTER (www.cluster.org) umbrella with its own aim, high-quality research and educational programs. It focuses on teaching research at the PhD and MPhil-level, concerns the technological domains of science aiming at balanced and implicit

  3. Environmental benefit analysis of strategies for potable water savings in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoski, Ana Kelly; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini; Ghisi, Enedir

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental benefit of using rainwater, greywater, water-efficient appliances and their combinations in low-income houses. The study was conducted surveying twenty households located in southern Brazil, which resulted in water end-uses estimation. Then, embodied energy, potential for potable water savings and sewage reduction when using the different strategies were estimated. The environmental benefit analysis of these strategies was performed using an indicator that includes embodied energy, potable water savings, reduction of sewage and energy consumption in the water utility, and sewage production during the life cycle of the system. The results indicated that the strategy with the greatest environmental benefit is the use of water-efficient appliances, which resulted in substantial water savings and reduction of sewage, causing low environmental impact due to lower embodied energy over the life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. UV-decontamination of potable and sewage water in the city with population over one million

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The waterworks system in a modern city is a complex challenge. From the one hand, it is necessary to provide high-quality potable water to the residents with observance of all sanitary and hygienic requirements; from the other hand, the sewage water discharged from the city should not affect the environment. Meanwhile, the microbiological safety is the top-priority and crucial parameter for evaluation of any work and any project. In Novosibirsk, solutions have been found for both of them by using the cutting-edge approaches in the decontamination technologies. The UV-decontamination enabled to create a multi-barrier efficient protection when dealing with the potable water treatment and ensure environmentally-friendly decontamination of the sewage water.

  5. Potable water as a source of airborne 222Rn in US dwellings: a review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Doyle, S.M.; Nero, A.V.; Sextro, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Using a long-term-average, single-cell model and available data for U.S. housing, the concentration of 222 Rn in indoor air due to the use of potable water is assessed. The ratio of the airborne 222 Rn concentration to the concentration in water is represented by a lognormal distribution with geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.65 X 10(-4) and 2.88, respectively, in fair agreement with the previously reported results of direct measurements of the ratio in 13 houses. By combining this result with data on 222 Rn concentrations in U.S. water supplies, potable water is estimated to contribute an average of 24, 1.3, and 0.1 Bq m-3 to the airborne 222 Rn concentration in residences served by private wells, public ground water, and surface water supplies, respectively

  6. Removal of arsenic from potable water by adsorptive media treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, S.; Khan, S.; Aslam, M.T.; Khan, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This study was conducted to investigate the arsenic removal efficiency of different adsorptive media from water. Different naturally occurring materials such as bauxite, plastic clay, plaster of Paris, lime, alum, and alumina etc. were used for the development of media to remove arsenic As/sup +5/ present in the artificially contaminated water. Different ratios of the selected materials were combined and ignited at 9000 C to enhance its arsenic removing efficiency. It was found that the media bauxite, plastic clay, lime (1:1:1) has a maximum removal (99%) of As +5 species from aqueous media and can be used on- site to reduce the arsenic contamination of potable water. Furthermore, the materials used in this experiment were cheaply and abundantly available within the country. The method is very simple and economically viable, for removal of arsenic from potable water. (author)

  7. Radium in potable waters from Central Victoria, Australia - an application of the Australian drinking water guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Determinations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in potable mineral waters from springs located in the Daylesford-Hepburn region of Victoria, Australia are presented. Concentrations ranged from 230-810 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra and 200-800 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra. These levels approach or exceed the guideline limits recommended in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The annual committed effective dose and health risks from radium in potable water is discussed. Assuming consumption of 2 L per day the average annual committed effective dose received from 226 Ra was 0.087 mSv y -1 and from 226 Ra was 0.10 mSv y -1

  8. Feasibility study of an aeration treatment system in a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source

    OpenAIRE

    Fronk, Robert Charles

    1996-01-01

    The systems engineering process has been utilized to determine the feasibility of an aeration treatment system for a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source. This system will be used to ensure a consistently high quality of raw water by the addition of dissolved oxygen into the reservoir. A needs analysis establishes the importance and requirements for a consistently high quality of raw water used as a source for a potable water treatment facility. This s...

  9. Selective intake of down-pit water and separating potable water from water-bearing seams at the Rydultowy mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiolik, H; Sikora, A; Murek, R

    1987-06-01

    Discusses problems of pit water selection. Describes the method of water intake, down-pit transport, pumping the separated potable water and its treatment at the Rydultowy mine. Stresses the usefulness of pit water selection in view of the existing shortage of potable water. Geologic and mining conditions at the mine are described along with the amount of water influx into the mine. Advantages arising from mine water utilization are outlined.

  10. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  11. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) along Potable Water Distribution Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Bentham, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of potable water presents a potential route of exposure to opportunistic pathogens and hence warrants significant public health concern. This study used qPCR to detect opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC at multiple points along two potable water distribution pipelines. One used chlorine disinfection and the other chloramine disinfection. Samples were collected four times over the year to provide seasonal variation and the chlorine or chloramine residual was measured during collection. Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC were detected in both distribution systems throughout the year and were all detected at a maximum concentration of 103 copies/mL in the chlorine disinfected system and 106, 103 and 104 copies/mL respectively in the chloramine disinfected system. The concentrations of these opportunistic pathogens were primarily controlled throughout the distribution network through the maintenance of disinfection residuals. At a dead-end and when the disinfection residual was not maintained significant (p < 0.05) increases in concentration were observed when compared to the concentration measured closest to the processing plant in the same pipeline and sampling period. Total coliforms were not present in any water sample collected. This study demonstrates the ability of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC to survive the potable water disinfection process and highlights the need for greater measures to control these organisms along the distribution pipeline and at point of use. PMID:25046636

  12. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  13. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) along potable water distribution pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Bentham, Richard

    2014-07-18

    Inhalation of potable water presents a potential route of exposure to opportunistic pathogens and hence warrants significant public health concern. This study used qPCR to detect opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC at multiple points along two potable water distribution pipelines. One used chlorine disinfection and the other chloramine disinfection. Samples were collected four times over the year to provide seasonal variation and the chlorine or chloramine residual was measured during collection. Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC were detected in both distribution systems throughout the year and were all detected at a maximum concentration of 103 copies/mL in the chlorine disinfected system and 106, 103 and 104 copies/mL respectively in the chloramine disinfected system. The concentrations of these opportunistic pathogens were primarily controlled throughout the distribution network through the maintenance of disinfection residuals. At a dead-end and when the disinfection residual was not maintained significant (p pipeline and sampling period. Total coliforms were not present in any water sample collected. This study demonstrates the ability of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC to survive the potable water disinfection process and highlights the need for greater measures to control these organisms along the distribution pipeline and at point of use.

  14. Sobre el Uso del DDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés Carlos

    1949-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el advenimiento del DDT como elemento de lucha contra las numerosas pestes que atacan a las plantas y a los animales y definitivamente probada su gran efectividad para ello, su uso se ha hecho extensivo en todas partes y en todas las ocasiones posibles, y así este insecticida ha venido desplazando a los que hasta la fecha se estaban empleando

  15. Uso indicado e uso referido de medicamentos durante a gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos descrevem a utilização de medicamentos na gravidez com detalhamento de práticas prescritivas. A pesquisa integra grande inquérito sobre atenção perinatal em hospitais do Município do Rio de Janeiro. A natureza do hospital - se pública, contratada/conveniada ao SUS ou privada - determinou estratificação de 10.072 puérperas internadas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevista e por consulta a prontuários, cobrindo medicamentos utilizados durante a gravidez e prescritos durante a internação hospitalar quando do parto. Medicamentos foram classificados pela ATC e outro sistema para casos especiais de uso referido. Houve média de 2,08 medicamentos prescritos no parto e 2,3 usados durante a gestação, sendo os mais prescritos anestésicos, antibióticos, ocitocina e analgésicos, com diferenças significativas entre estratos, e os mais referidos sulfato ferroso, vitaminas, escopolamina e paracetamol. Para interromper a gravidez, 49,7% relatam o uso de chás e 9,2% de misoprostol. O perfil de utilização é corroborado pela literatura. A pesquisa oferece oportunidade de conhecimento de padrões de prescrição ao parto e de uso referido durante a gestação nos setores público e privado.

  16. Uso indicado e uso referido de medicamentos durante a gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio-de-Castro Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos descrevem a utilização de medicamentos na gravidez com detalhamento de práticas prescritivas. A pesquisa integra grande inquérito sobre atenção perinatal em hospitais do Município do Rio de Janeiro. A natureza do hospital - se pública, contratada/conveniada ao SUS ou privada - determinou estratificação de 10.072 puérperas internadas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevista e por consulta a prontuários, cobrindo medicamentos utilizados durante a gravidez e prescritos durante a internação hospitalar quando do parto. Medicamentos foram classificados pela ATC e outro sistema para casos especiais de uso referido. Houve média de 2,08 medicamentos prescritos no parto e 2,3 usados durante a gestação, sendo os mais prescritos anestésicos, antibióticos, ocitocina e analgésicos, com diferenças significativas entre estratos, e os mais referidos sulfato ferroso, vitaminas, escopolamina e paracetamol. Para interromper a gravidez, 49,7% relatam o uso de chás e 9,2% de misoprostol. O perfil de utilização é corroborado pela literatura. A pesquisa oferece oportunidade de conhecimento de padrões de prescrição ao parto e de uso referido durante a gestação nos setores público e privado.

  17. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Passivation with Ionic Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; McCoy, LaShelle e.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial growth is common on wetted surfaces in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems despite the use of chemical and physical disinfection methods. Advanced control technologies are needed to limit microorganisms and increase the reliability of life support systems required for long-duration human missions. Silver ions and compounds are widely used as antimicrobial agents for medical applications and continue to be used as a residual biocide in some spacecraft water systems. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified silver fluoride for use in the potable water system on the next generation spacecraft. Due to ionic interactions between silver fluoride in solution and wetted metallic surfaces, ionic silver is rapidly depleted from solution and loses its antimicrobial efficacy over time. This report describes research to prolong the antimicrobial efficacy of ionic silver by maintaining its solubility. Three types of metal coupons (lnconel 718, Stainless Steel 316, and Titanium 6AI-4V) used in spacecraft potable water systems were exposed to either a continuous flow of water amended with 0.4 mg/L ionic silver fluoride or to a static, pre-treatment passivation in 50 mg/L ionic silver fluoride with or without a surface oxidation pre-treatment. Coupons were then challenged in a high-shear, CDC bioreactor (BioSurface Technologies) by exposure to six bacteria previously isolated from spacecraft potable water systems. Continuous exposure to 0.4 mg/L ionic silver over the course of 24 hours during the flow phase resulted in a >7-log reduction. The residual effect of a 24-hour passivation treatment in 50 mg/L of ionic silver resulted in a >3-log reduction, whereas a two-week treatment resulted in a >4-log reduction. Results indicate that 0.4 mg/L ionic silver is an effective biocide against many bacteria and that a prepassivation of metal surfaces with silver can provide additional microbial control.

  18. System Dynamics Approach for Critical Infrastructure and Decision Support. A Model for a Potable Water System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, D.; Witkowski, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection / Decision Support System (CIP/DSS) project, supported by the Science and Technology Office, has been developing a risk-informed Decision Support System that provides insights for making critical infrastructure protection decisions. The system considers seventeen different Department of Homeland Security defined Critical Infrastructures (potable water system, telecommunications, public health, economics, etc.) and their primary interdependencies. These infrastructures have been modeling in one model called CIP/DSS Metropolitan Model. The modeling approach used is a system dynamics modeling approach. System dynamics modeling combines control theory and the nonlinear dynamics theory, which is defined by a set of coupled differential equations, which seeks to explain how the structure of a given system determines its behavior. In this poster we present a system dynamics model for one of the seventeen critical infrastructures, a generic metropolitan potable water system (MPWS). Three are the goals: 1) to gain a better understanding of the MPWS infrastructure; 2) to identify improvements that would help protect MPWS; and 3) to understand the consequences, interdependencies, and impacts, when perturbations occur to the system. The model represents raw water sources, the metropolitan water treatment process, storage of treated water, damage and repair to the MPWS, distribution of water, and end user demand, but does not explicitly represent the detailed network topology of an actual MPWS. The MPWS model is dependent upon inputs from the metropolitan population, energy, telecommunication, public health, and transportation models as well as the national water and transportation models. We present modeling results and sensitivity analysis indicating critical choke points, negative and positive feedback loops in the system. A general scenario is also analyzed where the potable water system responds to a generic disruption.

  19. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation at an indirect potable reuse facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, Massimiliano; Roccaro, Paolo; Oelker, Gregg L; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-03-01

    Full-scale experiments to evaluate N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation and attenuation were performed within an advanced indirect potable reuse (IPR) treatment system, which includes, sequentially: chloramination for membrane fouling control, microfiltration (MF), reverse osmosis (RO), ultraviolet irradiation with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H₂O₂), final chloramination, and pH stabilization. Results of the study demonstrate that while RO does effectively remove the vast majority of NDMA precursors, RO permeate can still contain significant concentrations of NDMA precursors resulting in additional NDMA formation during chloramination. Thus, it is possible for this advanced treatment system to produce water with NDMA levels higher than regional requirements for potable applications (10 ng/L). The presence of H2O2 during UV oxidation reduced NDMA photolysis efficiency and increased NDMA formation (∼22 ng/L) during the secondary chloramination and lime stabilization. This is likely due to formation of UV/H₂O₂ degradation by-products with higher NDMA formation rate than the parent compounds. However, this effect was diminished with higher UV doses. Bench-scale experiments confirmed an enhanced NDMA formation during chloramination after UV/H2O2 treatment of dimethylformamide, a compound detected in RO permeate and used as model precursor in this study. The effect of pre-ozonation for membrane fouling control on NDMA formation was also evaluated at pilot- (ozone-MF-RO) and bench-scale. Relatively large NDMA formation (117-227 ng/L) occurred through ozone application that was dose dependent, whereas chloramination under typical dosages and contact times of IPR systems resulted in only a relatively small increase of NDMA (∼20 ng/L). Thus, this research shows that NDMA formation within a potable water reuse facility can be challenging and must be carefully evaluated and controlled. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental Study on the Palatability Impacts of Potable Water as a Hydronic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Prybysh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydronic systems installed in buildings utilize water to transport thermal energy within the building for heating and cooling purposes. These systems can be closed loop, where the water is chemically treated and circulated indefinitely, or they can be open loop, where the water is not treated and is effluxed as a result of occupant activities, such as bathing or cooking. Water in an open loop system may circulate within the system for a limited time before it is extracted from the system by occupant activities and replaced with new water from the local water supply. The implementation of open loop hydronic systems is becoming more common in multi-unit residential buildings, even though a number of questions regarding the use of such systems remain unanswered. One concern regarding the use of circulated potable water for heating purposes is the potential effects on the occupant perceptions of the palatability of the service water being delivered to their suites. In an open-loop HVAC system (Heating Ventilating, Air Conditioning System, heating water is subject to repeated thermal cycles and continuous recirculation, which creates the potential for chemical alterations of the materials present in the water or leaching of materials from the equipment and piping. Through the use of Flavor Profile Analysis (FPA established by the American Water Works Association, and a multi-unit HVAC system constructed in a controlled environment, the palatability effects of the operational system were evaluated for a number of scenarios. The collected feedback from the study participants was then tabulated to quantify the impacts of using potable water as a recirculating heating medium on the perceptions of the occupants. The resulting observations led us to conclude that utilizing potable water as a heating medium has a negligible effect on the palatability of water in the system for average retention times under one day, and a non-objectionable, but noticeable

  1. Biosensor for detection of dissolved chromium in potable water: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Puja; Karn, Abhinav Kumar; Balasubramanian, P; Kale, Paresh G

    2017-08-15

    The unprecedented deterioration rate of the environmental quality due to rapid urbanization and industrialization causes a severe global health concern to both ecosystem and humanity. Heavy metals are ubiquitous in nature and being used extensively in industrial processes, the exposure to excessive levels could alter the biochemical cycles of living systems. Hence the environmental monitoring through rapid and specific detection of heavy metal contamination in potable water is of paramount importance. Various standard analytical techniques and sensors are used for the detection of heavy metals include spectroscopy and chromatographic methods along with electrochemical, optical waveguide and polymer based sensors. However, the mentioned techniques lack the point of care application as it demands huge capital cost as well as the attention of expert personnel for sample preparation and operation. Recent advancements in the synergetic interaction among biotechnology and microelectronics have advocated the biosensor technology for a wide array of applications due to its characteristic features of sensitivity and selectivity. This review paper has outlined the overview of chromium toxicity, conventional analytical techniques along with a particular emphasis on electrochemical based biosensors for chromium detection in potable water. This article emphasized porous silicon as a host material for enzyme immobilization and elaborated the working principle, mechanism, kinetics of an enzyme-based biosensor for chromium detection. The significant characteristics such as pore size, thickness, and porosity make the porous silicon suitable for enzyme entrapment. Further, several schemes on porous silicon-based immobilized enzyme biosensors for the detection of chromium in potable water are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potable water recovery for spacecraft application by electrolytic pretreatment/air evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    A process for the recovery of potable water from urine using electrolytic pretreatment followed by distillation in a closed-cycle air evaporator has been developed and tested. Both the electrolytic pretreatment unit and the air evaporation unit are six-person, flight-concept prototype, automated units. Significantly extended wick lifetimes have been achieved in the air evaporation unit using electrolytically pretreated, as opposed to chemically pretreated, urine feed. Parametric test data are presented on product water quality, wick life, process power, maintenance requirements, and expendable requirements.

  3. [Incidence of non-communicable diseases and health risks due to potable water quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skudarnov, S E; Kurkatov, S V

    2011-01-01

    Iron and fluorine concentrations and water mineralization and hardness, which exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations, were found to cause an increase in overall morbidity and morbidity from skeletal-and-muscular, urogenital, and digestive system involvement in the population of the Krasnoyarsk Region. A quantitative relationship were found between the concentrations of iron, the hardness and dry residue of water and the incidence rates of urogenital, skeletal-and-muscular and digestive diseases. The consumption of potable water contaminated with chloroform and methane tetrachloride presents unacceptable carcinogenic risks to the population of the Krasnoyarsk Region.

  4. Quantifying pathogen risks associated with potable reuse: A risk assessment case study for Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoueyan, Erfaneh; Ahmad, Sajjad; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Pecson, Brian; Gerrity, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the reliability and equivalency of three different potable reuse paradigms: (1) surface water augmentation via de facto reuse with conventional wastewater treatment; (2) surface water augmentation via planned indirect potable reuse (IPR) with ultrafiltration, pre-ozone, biological activated carbon (BAC), and post-ozone; and (3) direct potable reuse (DPR) with ultrafiltration, ozone, BAC, and UV disinfection. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed to (1) quantify the risk of infection from Cryptosporidium oocysts; (2) compare the risks associated with different potable reuse systems under optimal and sub-optimal conditions; and (3) identify critical model/operational parameters based on sensitivity analyses. The annual risks of infection associated with the de facto and planned IPR systems were generally consistent with those of conventional drinking water systems [mean of (9.4 ± 0.3) × 10 -5 to (4.5 ± 0.1) × 10 -4 ], while DPR was clearly superior [mean of (6.1 ± 67) × 10 -9 during sub-optimal operation]. Because the advanced treatment train in the planned IPR system was highly effective in reducing Cryptosporidium concentrations, the associated risks were generally dominated by the pathogen loading already present in the surface water. As a result, risks generally decreased with higher recycled water contributions (RWCs). Advanced treatment failures were generally inconsequential either due to the robustness of the advanced treatment train (i.e., DPR) or resiliency provided by the environmental buffer (i.e., planned IPR). Storage time in the environmental buffer was important for the de facto reuse system, and the model indicated a critical storage time of approximately 105 days. Storage times shorter than the critical value resulted in significant increases in risk. The conclusions from this study can be used to inform regulatory decision making and aid in the development of design or operational

  5. Medida de la concentración de actividad Alfa/Beta grueso, en agua potable

    OpenAIRE

    Zutta Villate, Julián Mateo

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La calidad del agua de consumo humano es de creciente interés en el mundo; para que esta pueda ser considerada como potable, debe ajustarse a ciertos niveles biológicos, químicos, físicos y radiológicos. Siguiendo recomendaciones de organismos internacionales de salud o, a estándares emitidos por cada país, establecidos según sus condiciones tanto ambientales, como socioeconómicas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), en sus guías de potabilización del agua de consu...

  6. Remediation of ultra low level of transuranics from potable water using hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    In case of nuclear accidents like Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima, Japan (11 March, 2011) and nuclear accidents like Chernobyl, USSR (March, 1986), where large amount of activity spread in public domain necessitate the need of development of new material which can efficiently remove transuranic from potable water without disturbing its water quality. Three different types of natural sorbents were developed using natural siliceous material, sodium alginate and impregnation of goethite in alginate matrix. Experiments were carried out for decontamination of americium and plutonium by using Calcium Alginate (Cal-Alg) and Goethite impregnated Cal-Alg (Geo-Cal-Alg) respectively

  7. Potable water quality monitoring of primary schools in Magura district, Bangladesh: children's health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Hashem, Abul; Nur-A-Tomal, Shahruk

    2016-12-01

    Safe potable water is essential for good health. Worldwide, school-aged children especially in the developing countries are suffering from various water-borne diseases. In the study, drinking water supplies for primary school children were monitored at Magura district, Bangladesh, to ensure safe potable water. APHA standard analytical methods were applied for determining the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, the samples were collected from 20 randomly selected tube wells of primary schools at Magura. The metal contents, especially arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), in the water samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The range of physicochemical parameters found in water samples were as follows: pH 7.05-9.03, electrical conductivity 400-2340 μS/cm, chloride 10-640 mg/L, hardness 200-535 mg/L as CaCO 3 , and total dissolved solids 208-1216 mg/L. The level of metals in the tube well water samples were as follows: As 1 to 55 μg/L, Fe 40 to 9890 μg/L, and Mn 10 to 370 μg/L. Drinking water parameters of Magura district did not meet the requirement of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guideline, or the Drinking Water Quality Standards of Bangladesh.

  8. Potential for nuclear desalination as a source of low cost potable water in North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Based on the limited regional water resources and in recognizing the possible role of nuclear energy in seawater desalination, the five North African Countries (NACs): Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia submitted a request to the IAEA in 1990 for assistance in carrying out a feasibility study on the use of nuclear energy for seawater desalination in some pre-selected sites in these countries to cover their medium- and long-term needs for economical potable water. The present report has been prepared and is presented to the NACs in response to their request. It contains an assessment of the regional specific aspects, the available technical options with respect to desalination processes and energy sources, the cost evaluation of various technical options for the production of desalinated water, as well as the financial constraints and options, and finally the necessary steps needed to ensure the successful implementation of a nuclear desalination programme. The report also complements other work of the IAEA in the field of nuclear desalination, carried out in response to various resolutions of the IAEA General Conferences since 1989, namely: ``Use of Nuclear Reactors for Seawater Desalination``, IAEA-TECDOC-574 (1990) and ``Technical and Economic Evaluation of Potable Water Production through Desalination of Seawater by using Nuclear Energy and Other Means``, IAEA-TECDOC-666 (1992). 105 refs, 39 figs, tabs.

  9. Legionella Risk Management and Control in Potable Water Systems: Argument for the Abolishment of Routine Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet

    2016-12-24

    Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health significance. One of the main sources of Legionella is potable water systems. As a consequence of aging populations there is an increasing demographic considered at high risk for Legionellosis and, as such, a review of the guidelines is required. Worldwide, Legionella has been detected from many potable water sources, suggesting it is ubiquitous in this environment. Previous studies have identified the limitations of the current standard method for Legionella detection and the high possibility of it returning both false negative and false positive results. There is also huge variability in Legionella test results for the same water sample when conducted at different laboratories. However, many guidelines still recommend the testing of water systems. This commentary argues for the removal of routine Legionella monitoring from all water distribution guidelines. This procedure is financially consuming and false negatives may result in managers being over-confident with a system or a control mechanism. Instead, the presence of the pathogen should be assumed and focus spent on managing appropriate control measures and protecting high-risk population groups.

  10. Potential for nuclear desalination as a source of low cost potable water in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Based on the limited regional water resources and in recognizing the possible role of nuclear energy in seawater desalination, the five North African Countries (NACs): Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia submitted a request to the IAEA in 1990 for assistance in carrying out a feasibility study on the use of nuclear energy for seawater desalination in some pre-selected sites in these countries to cover their medium- and long-term needs for economical potable water. The present report has been prepared and is presented to the NACs in response to their request. It contains an assessment of the regional specific aspects, the available technical options with respect to desalination processes and energy sources, the cost evaluation of various technical options for the production of desalinated water, as well as the financial constraints and options, and finally the necessary steps needed to ensure the successful implementation of a nuclear desalination programme. The report also complements other work of the IAEA in the field of nuclear desalination, carried out in response to various resolutions of the IAEA General Conferences since 1989, namely: ''Use of Nuclear Reactors for Seawater Desalination'', IAEA-TECDOC-574 (1990) and ''Technical and Economic Evaluation of Potable Water Production through Desalination of Seawater by using Nuclear Energy and Other Means'', IAEA-TECDOC-666 (1992). 105 refs, 39 figs, tabs

  11. Nuclear Heat Application: Desalination as an Alternative Process for Potable Water Production in Indonesia (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir-Rusli

    2000-01-01

    A survey of water supply and demand system and identification of desalination process need for Indonesia has been carried out. Even Indonesia is located in tropical zone of equator; it is still reported lack of water resources, especially during 6 months dry season. Due to miss-water management and bad attitude of the people itself occurred in the past; most of conventional water resources of river, lake and reservoir were damaged during development period of industrial and agriculture sectors. A half of 200 millions peoples of Indonesian population are still scarce of potable drinking water during the year of 1997. Jakarta as the capital has a population of 10 millions people which is the worse water availability in capita per year in the world at present. Seawater intrusion problem to about more than 11 km away is also detected in big cities of the main islands of Indonesia, and these same conditions are faced to other thousands of small islands. Therefore it is an urgent situation to develop a total integrated water management system in order to improve the performance of water resources. Desalination system of seawater/brackish water is considered and showed a good alternative for potable water production for domestic or industrial purposes. But in the long-term, water management system of the effectiveness cycle use of water should be implemented at sites. (author)

  12. The provision of potable water in eradication of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North, Southeastern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Alison Okorie; Nwaokoro, Joakin Chidozie; Iwuala, C C; Amadi, A N; Akpelu, Ugochinyere Alvana

    2014-10-01

    Guinea worm is a parasite found in unprotected drinking water sources, causes considerable morbidity and loss of agricultural production among rural people. The study was to determine the current status of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North and to evaluate the impact of control measures on guinea worm infection. A total of 200 individuals in Ezza North Southeastern, Nigeria were examined for guinea worm infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the effect of potable water on guinea worm eradication/control, the source of drinking water, information on the knowledge, attitude, symptom management practices, availability of health facilities and boreholes installation status. The instrument for data collection was well constructed, validated and reliable tested questionnaire by an expert. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi-Info model 3.4 versions. Results of a study indicated majority of the respondents 195 (97.5 %) have access to safe drinking water supply which indicated no case of Guinea worm infection. The active use of potable water supply was found among the age group of 20-30 years 71 (35.5 %) and higher in male (57.5 %) than females (42.5 %). The drastic reduction of Guinea worm infection to zero (0) level in Ezza North were due to multiple factors as health education, availability of functional boreholes, presence of health centers for immediate treatment if any case discovered.

  13. Characterization of modified PVDF membrane by gamma irradiation for non-potable water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Shin, In Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluorine) (PVDF) membranes were grafted by gamma-ray irradiation and were sulfonated by sodium sulfite to modify the surface of the membranes. The characteristics of the modified PVDF membranes were evaluated by the data of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), the contact angle of the membrane surface and the water permeability. From the results of FT-IR, XPS and FE-SEM, it was shown that the modified membranes were successfully grafted by gamma-ray irradiation and were sulfonated. The content of oxygen and sulfur increased with the monomer concentration, while the content of fluorine sharply decreased. The pore size of the modified membranes decreased after gamma-ray irradiation. The contact angle and the water permeability showed that the hydrophilicity of the modified membranes played a role in determining the membrane performance. The feasibility study of the modified PVDF membranes for using non-potable water reuse were carried out using a laboratory-scale microfiltration system. Grey wastewater was used as the influent in the filtration unit, and permeate quality satisfied non-potable water reuse guidelines in the Republic of Korea.

  14. Electrólisis de Salmuera para el Suministro de agua potable en poblaciónes marginadas

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    En nuestro país el Instituto de Acueductos y Alcantarillados Nacionales (IDAAN) es el responsable de dotar a toda la población panameña de agua potable. Sin embargo las comunidades con menos 1,500 habitantes son atendidas por el MINSA, por los llamados acueductos rurales; los cuales son manejados por las mismas comunidades. La mayoría de estos acueductos rurales operan con muchas deficiencias. Por lo cual, la disponibilidad de agua potable a estas poblaciones rurales es muy insegura.

  15. Uso de la electrólisis de salmuera como técnica para la desinfección de agua y alimentos domiciliarios en Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Melgar, Orlando; Barranco, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo describe, principalmente, el uso de la electrólisis con sal común como alternativa para la desinfección de agua de consumo en comunidades marginadas. El autor hace una breve descripción sobre la calidad del agua potable y su situación en Panamá. Presenta una revisión de los diferentes métodos de tratamiento existentes. Discute los fundamentos, procedimiento, ventajas y desventajas de la desinfección por electrólisis de salmuera. Y finalmente, se concluye que este tipo de t...

  16. Greenstone: uso actual en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fushimi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características e historia del software para crear y gestionar bibliotecas digitales Greenstone, desarrollado inicialmente por la Universidad de Waikato, Nueva Zelandia en 1997. En primer lugar, se describe la comunidad de usuarios a nivel global, focalizando en el uso actual que el software ha alcanzado en Argentina: la cantidad de implementaciones disponibles, su evolución, el tipo, tamaño y variedad de los desarrollos existentes, así como su aplicación a la gestión de repositorios digitales de ciencia y tecnología en el ámbito de las instituciones científicas, tecnológicas y de educación superior en Argentina. En segundo lugar, se detallan las acciones llevadas a cabo a partir de la creación del Centro Nacional de Promoción de Greenstone en Argentina en 2009. Datos recabados en encuestas realizadas permitieron observar que las razones predominantes para elegir esta plataforma fueron, entre otras, su facilidad de instalación y configuración, su bajo nivel de requerimiento tecnológico, la generalizada escasez de recursos humanos dedicados a esta actividad, y la complejidad que presentaban los softwares alternativos existentes en ese momento. A lo largo de estos 8 años, tanto los repositorios digitales como los sistemas que los soportan evolucionaron drásticamente, modificando el escenario actual. Paralelamente, en 2016 la nueva versión mayor de Greenstone implementó una reingeniería completa del software para su adaptación a las tecnologías en uso: XML, XSLT, Web-services y Java. Como consecuencia de esto, la comunidad de desarrollo local se plantea nuevos desafíos para la migración de las bibliotecas digitales y repositorios implementados con versiones anteriores.

  17. Analysis of radon, uranium 238 and thorium 232 in potable waters: Dose to adult members of the Moroccan urban population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Ouabi, H.; Merzouki, A.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium ( 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) concentrations as well as radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) alpha-activities per unit volume have been measured inside various potable water samples collected from nineteen cities in Morocco by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measured radon alpha-activities ranged from (0.37 ± 0.02) Bq l -1 to (13.6 ± 1.10) Bq l -1 for the potable water samples studied. Alpha-activities due to radon from the ingestion of the studied potable water samples were determined in different compartments of the gastrointestinal system by using the ICRP compartmental model for radon. Annual committed equivalent doses due to radon were evaluated in the gastrointestinal compartments from the ingestion of the potable water samples studied. The influence of the target tissue mass, radon intake and alpha-activity integral due to radon on the annual committed equivalent doses in the gastrointestinal compartments was investigated

  18. Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Dillon, Peter; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Toze, Simon; Sidhu, Jatinder; Barry, Karen; Levett, Kerry; Kremer, Sarah; Regel, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation.

  19. Guidelines for Learning Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  20. Estudio preliminar de tres modelos de destiladores solares para producir sal y agua potable (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S. Nandwani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed three solar stills of areas 0.5-1.0 m2 to produce salt and potable water, using local technology and local materials. We have studied the thermal efficiency of these stills as a function of solar intensity, covers, geometrical configuration, quantity of water, salt concentration and artificial cooling of the cover. Some of the important results are: still with glass cover destill more water than still with plastic cover, thermal efficiency vary between 10-30%, amount of water which can be evaporated and condense is 2-4 l/day/m2, exist 25-60% of loss of water in the still and finally artificial cooling of the cover can be accelerate the process of condensation, etc. Finally we have mentioned the chemical analysis of destilled and normal tap water.

  1. Étude pilote d'affinage par nanofiltration pour la production d'eau potable

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnelly, Mathieu

    2005-01-01

    Un traitement conventionnel suivi d'un affinage par nanofiltration (NF) permet de produire une eau potable de qualité exceptionnelle à partir d'une eau de surface, et ce tout en minimisant le colmatage des membranes de NF et en favorisant l'approche multibarrières. L'objectif principal de la présente étude est d'évaluer l'effet des conditions d'opération de la NF sur la productivité de ce traitement d'affinage. Des essais pilotes ont été réalisés entre octobre 2003 et mai 2004 à l'usine de ...

  2. Quorum Sensing Activity of Mesorhizobium sp. F7 Isolated from Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Yong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a bacterial isolate (F7 from potable water. The strain was identified as Mesorhizobium sp. by 16S rDNA gene phylogenetic analysis and screened for N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL production by an AHL biosensor. The AHL profile of the isolate was further analyzed using high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS which confirmed the production of multiple AHLs, namely, N-3-oxo-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL and N-3-oxo-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL. These findings will open the perspective to study the function of these AHLs in plant-microbe interactions.

  3. Administrative limits for tritium concentrations found in non-potable groundwater at nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.; Hart, D.; WIllert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a regulatory limit available for tritium in drinking water, but no such limit for non-potable groundwater. Voluntary administrative limits for site groundwater may be established at nuclear power facilities to ensure minimal risk to human health and the environment, and provide guidance for investigation or other actions intended to prevent exceedances of future regulatory or guideline limits. This work presents a streamlined approach for nuclear power facilities to develop three tiers of administrative limits for tritium in groundwater so that facilities can identify abnormal/uncontrolled releases of tritium at an early stage, and take appropriate actions to investigate, control, and protect groundwater. Tier 1 represents an upper limit of background, Tier 2 represents a level between background and Tier 3, and Tier 3 represents a risk-based concentration protective of down-gradient receptors. (author)

  4. Minimal climate change impacts on natural organic matter forecasted for a potable water supply in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Connie; Ledesma, José L J; Coll, John; Murnane, John G; Nolan, Paul; Mockler, Eva M; Futter, Martyn N; Xiao, Liwen W

    2018-07-15

    Natural organic matter poses an increasing challenge to water managers because of its potential adverse impacts on water treatment and distribution, and subsequently human health. Projections were made of impacts of climate change on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the primarily agricultural Boyne catchment which is used as a potable water supply in Ireland. The results indicated that excluding a potential rise in extreme precipitation, future projected loads are not dissimilar to those observed under current conditions. This is because projected increases in DOC concentrations are offset by corresponding decreases in precipitation and hence river flow. However, the results presented assume no changes in land use and highlight the predicted increase in DOC loads from abstracted waters at water treatment plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Direct potable reuse microbial risk assessment methodology: Sensitivity analysis and application to State log credit allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Jeffrey A; Eftim, Sorina E; Nappier, Sharon P

    2018-01-01

    Understanding pathogen risks is a critically important consideration in the design of water treatment, particularly for potable reuse projects. As an extension to our published microbial risk assessment methodology to estimate infection risks associated with Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) treatment train unit process combinations, herein, we (1) provide an updated compilation of pathogen density data in raw wastewater and dose-response models; (2) conduct a series of sensitivity analyses to consider potential risk implications using updated data; (3) evaluate the risks associated with log credit allocations in the United States; and (4) identify reference pathogen reductions needed to consistently meet currently applied benchmark risk levels. Sensitivity analyses illustrated changes in cumulative annual risks estimates, the significance of which depends on the pathogen group driving the risk for a given treatment train. For example, updates to norovirus (NoV) raw wastewater values and use of a NoV dose-response approach, capturing the full range of uncertainty, increased risks associated with one of the treatment trains evaluated, but not the other. Additionally, compared to traditional log-credit allocation approaches, our results indicate that the risk methodology provides more nuanced information about how consistently public health benchmarks are achieved. Our results indicate that viruses need to be reduced by 14 logs or more to consistently achieve currently applied benchmark levels of protection associated with DPR. The refined methodology, updated model inputs, and log credit allocation comparisons will be useful to regulators considering DPR projects and design engineers as they consider which unit treatment processes should be employed for particular projects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Trabalho e usos da subjetividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Newton Garcia de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pone en duda la hipótesis según la cual las estrategias de gestión que consideran la subjetividad del trabajador serían esencialmente libertarias. Condiciones históricas son discutidas antes de la llegada del capitalismo en Brasil-Colonia y en Francia del siglo XVIII, donde la subjetividad del trabajador se moviliza instrumentalmente. Las investigaciones de Elton Mayo son vistas como un momento especial en que la psicología industrial conservadora "descubre" la subjetividad. También se discuten, en el contexto de las prácticas de gestión, las reflexiones de Foucault, para quien el ejercicio del poder supone el uso de la libertad. Él examina la teoría del capital humano y la ideología del emprendimiento como nuevas formas de movilización de la subjetividad, en tiempos de crisis de la sociedad de retribución. En este trayecto, se argumenta que la movilización de la subjetividad también tiene un propósito antilibertario.

  7. Uso de hipoglicemiantes orales durante la lactancia

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang,Du Young; Carvajal,Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: Los hipoglicemiantes orales son una alternativa emergente en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG), pero existe poca información acerca de su uso durante la lactancia. Objetivo: Revisar la evidencia respecto a la seguridad del uso de los hipoglicemiantes orales durante la lactancia. Resultados: Encontramos 3 trabajos que evaluaron el paso de metformina a la leche materna: hubo traspaso de metformina a leche materna en todos los casos. La concentración de metfo...

  8. Estudio de factibilidad de mínimo costo del sistema de producción de agua potable de la ciudad de Iquitos

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchi Valdez, Marco Antonio; Pinchi Valdez, Marco Antonio; Pinchi Valdez, Marco Antonio

    1997-01-01

    El presente informe técnico recopila el trabajo realizado en la ciudad de Iquitos acerca del Sistema de producción de agua potable de la ciudad de iquitos, por el Concurso internacional de Méritos N“ 001-94- PRES-VMI-PRONAP, que fue convocado por el proyecto especial “Programa Nacional de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado” (PRONAP), del Ministerio de la Presidencia, para la elaboración de los “Estudios de Factibilidad de los Planes de Expansión de Mínimo Costo de los Servicios de Agua Potable y A...

  9. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  10. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  11. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  12. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  13. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  14. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  15. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  16. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  17. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  18. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  19. Gouvernance de l’eau potable et dynamiques locales en zone rurale au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Hounmenou

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans la fourniture des services de base aux populations, les politiques publiques de plusieurs pays, en particulier celles des Pays en Voie de Développement (PED, ont connu ces dernières années une profonde mutation. Les changements les plus remarquables se rapportent à la remise en cause du service public gratuit. Outre la nécessité fondamentale pour les Etats d’assainir leurs économies, ces réformes visent à favoriser une participation des populations dans la conduite des opérations ayant pour objectif la satisfaction de leurs besoins. La question de la participation constitue actuellement un élément capital pour l’organisation des services au niveau communautaire. En effet, plusieurs expériences ont montré que les projets réalisés sans la participation des populations concernées ont échoué au moment de l’exécution ou, faute d’entretien, n’ont eu que des retombées éphémères (Banque Mondiale, 1994. Au Bénin, certaines opérations de développement, en particulier celles conduites dans le secteur de l’approvisionnement en eau potable des populations rurales, n’ont pas échappé à cette réalité. En effet, jusqu’à la fin des années 1980, plusieurs ouvrages d’approvisionnement en eau potable ont été construits par les pouvoirs publics, sans une réelle participation des communautés bénéficiaires en milieu rural béninois. Cette situation a occasionné un manque d’intérêt des populations, qui s’est exprimé par l’abandon des ouvrages en cas de panne, et le recours à l’utilisation de sources d’eau non potable. Pour y remédier, le Bénin a opté en 1992 pour une nouvelle stratégie nationale d’alimentation en eau potable. La stratégie a pour objectif l’implication des populations du monde rural dans tout le processus d’appropriation de l’alimentation en eau. Les principes fondamentaux de cette stratégie sont notamment, la décentralisation du processus de prise de d

  20. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.

  1. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  2. Real Time Assessment of Potable Water Quality in Distribution Network based on Low Cost Multi-Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Karunesh K.; Khatri, Punit

    2018-03-01

    New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameters measurement systems. This paper proposed a new way of potable water quality assessment in distribution network using Multi Sensor Array (MSA). Extensive research suggests that following parameters i.e. pH, Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.), Conductivity, Oxygen Reduction Potential (ORP), Temperature and Salinity are most suitable to detect overall quality of potable water. Commonly MSA is not an integrated sensor array on some substrate, but rather comprises a set of individual sensors measuring simultaneously different water parameters all together. Based on research, a MSA has been developed followed by signal conditioning unit and finally, an algorithm for easy user interfacing. A dedicated part of this paper also discusses the platform design and significant results. The Objective of this proposed research is to provide simple, efficient, cost effective and socially acceptable means to detect and analyse water bodies regularly and automatically.

  3. De l'eau potable dans les foyers grâce à un dispositif révolutionnaire ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 déc. 2010 ... Pour en savoir plus. DES EFFETS DURABLES > ACCÈS À L'EAU · Eau potable et meilleure santé grâce au filtre biosable · DESEA Perú · mantzwaterinfo.ca · Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology · Écosystèmes et santé humaine ...

  4. CDIP Station Data Collection - All Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego — The Coastal Data Information Program's station data collection consists of all publicly-released coastal environment measurements taken over the program's history, a...

  5. Amendoins silvestres para uso ornamental.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferraz de Arruda Veiga

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies silvestres de amendoim (Arachis spp. gênero Arachis L. (Fabaceae, vêm sendo utilizadas como forração em jardins no Brasil, porém todas com pouca variabilidade já que a distribuição do germoplasma é feita sempre pelos mesmos acessos4. Por outro lado, inúmeras coletas têm sido realizadas, particularmente pela Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (Cenargen, disponibilizando acessos até então inacessíveis à pesquisa científica. Em virtude dessa nova disponibilidade e igualmente de híbridos resultantes de pesquisas do Cenargen, organizou-se este trabalho. Foram objeto desta pesquisa cinco espécies: A. glabrata Benth., A. helodes Mart. ex Krapov.& Rigoni, A. pintoi‘Krapov.& W.C.Gregory, A. repens Handro e A. kempff-mercadoi Krapov.,W.C.Gregory & C.E.Simpson, e seis híbridos originados dos paternais: A. appressipila Krapov.&W.C.Gregory, A. paraguariensis Chodat & Hassl., A. pintoi, A. repens e A. vallsi Krapov.& W.C.Gregoryi. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período dos anos agrícolas de 1998 a 2000, na Fazenda Santa Elisa do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, em Campinas (SP, anotando-se o número de flores por planta, a velocidade de desenvolvimento, a capacidade de cobertura do solo, aspectos ornamentais como exuberância das flores e folíolos, coloração e, ainda, sanidade e vigor dos acessos. Os híbridos apresentaram um bom comportamento, porém com ciclo anual, ao passo que os acessos de Arachis kempffmercadoi, A.helodes, A. repens e A. glabrata mostraram-se mais recomendáveis para o uso em jardins por serem perenes. Todos os acessos ficam mais bonitos no verão em razão do período de floração e graças ao verde de sua massa foliar.

  6. La disponibilidad a pagar de las familias por mejorar el servicio de agua potable en la ciudad de Aguascalientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gonzalez Acolt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo tiene como objetivo exponer la disposición que tienen los hogares en la ciudad de Aguascalientes respecto al pago del consumo de agua potable. Para ello, se utilizó el método de valoración contingente (MVC que consiste en preguntar a las familias su disposición a pagar (DAP a fin de mejorar las condiciones del servicio de agua. Los resultados indican que las mujeres tienen una mayor DAP por el servicio de agua potable; por otra parte, aunque a mayor ingreso de la familia mayor es su DAP, son los hogares de menores ingresos los que en su mayoría respondieron afirmativamente sobre su DAP. Se infiere que los jóvenes, en comparación con los adultos, tienen más conciencia respecto a la valoración del recurso hidráulico que se expresa en una alta DAP por el servicio, lo cual también se ve reflejado en el nivel de escolaridad. La investigación proporciona datos sobre la valoración económica y social del servicio de agua potable por parte de los hogares, y puede ser utilizada cuando se pretenda diseñar e implementar políticas públicas de mejoramiento del servicio en la ciudad de Aguascalientes.

  7. Las acciones colectivas en torno al agua potable en dos ciudades medias de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Helena Treviño

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una reflexión derivada de una investigación desarrollada en dos ciudades medias de México (Querétaro y Celaya, en torno al análisis de las relaciones sociales y de las formas de organización que se generan a partir de la demanda de la población por el servicio de agua potable y alcantarillado, en ciudades que, como en este caso, comparten una misma cuenca hidrográfica. Las formas organizadas y el tipo de relaciones sociales construidas forman parte de un campo novedoso sobre el cual se discute el cómo este recurso es pensado y apropiado desde lo institucional y lo social. Todo esto se encuentra enmarcado en el debate teórico sobre movimientos sociales y acciones colectivas, así como en las nuevas categorías sociales que se construyen para explicar los actuales fenómenos urbanos.

  8. Siting study for Test Area North potable water deep well project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1993-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various locations for a new potable ground water well at Test Area North (TAN). The new well is proposed to replace two existing wells located within a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume. Several locations were evaluated using computer simulations based on the hydrogeology of the site. The modeling effort involved: (1) producing a water table map, (2) superimposing the effects of pumping the proposed new production well on the water table map using the model CAPZONE, and (3) calculating the capture zone for these wells using the GWPATH model. A three dimensional contaminant transport model was used to evaluate siting a well in a deeper horizon of the aquifer. The following scenarios were investigated: (1) placing a new well 500 ft north of the existing wells; (2) locating a well 3,000 ft northwest of the existing wells; (3) deepening one of the existing wells 100 to 150 ft to produce water from beneath an interbed that acts as a hydraulic barrier; and (4) drilling a new well about 500 ft northwest of the existing wells to produce water from beneath the interbed. The recommended new well site (fourth scenario) is northwest of the existing wells, with the well completed from 500 to 600 ft below land surface to produce water from beneath the Q-R interbed. Locating the well northwest of the existing wells places the new well out of the TCE plume and reduces the possibility of transporting contaminated water across the interbed

  9. Thermodynamic and economic evaluation of co-production plants for electricity and potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Within the framework of the IAEA's activities related to seawater desalination using nuclear energy, a need was identified for developing criteria and methodologies in order to facilitate comparative economic evaluations of nuclear and fossil fuelled energy sources for desalination and generation of electricity. The aspect of costing of electricity and potable water from co-production plants is of particular interest. In response to these needs, the IAEA carried out a study to establish methodologies for allocating costs to the two final products of co-production plants based on thermodynamic criteria and to enable economic ranking of co-production plant alternatives. This publication describes the methodologies and presents the results obtained from analyzing a reference case, taken as an example. This publication has been discussed and reviewed at a consultants meeting convened by the IAEA in September 1996 in Vienna. The methodologies have been incorporated in an EXCEL spreadsheet routine which is available upon request from the IAEA. The IAEA staff member responsible for this publication is L. Breidenbach of the Division of Nuclear Power and the Fuel Cycle. 30 refs, figs, tabs

  10. Spatial analysis of Ardabil plain aquifer potable groundwater using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kord

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality of drinking water and qualitative classification of potable water in Ardabil plain aquifer. To determine the chemical properties 58 water samples were collected from wells and analyzed. Distribution of each quality parameter was estimated using data driven techniques of kriging and fuzzy logic modeling. According to the obtained results, the fuzzy model provides better results compared to kriging. Different water quality standards are used for assessment of drinking water. The quantitative limits specified in these standards and also water quality data are associated with uncertainty. To reduce the uncertainty a fuzzy based decision making approach was applied for interpretation of groundwater quality. Final output was presented in the form of a zoning map with three categories as ‘Desirable’, ‘Acceptable’ and ‘Not acceptable’. This map indicates that most parts of the aquifer have acceptable and desirable water quality for drinking; but the groundwater in the Southwest and North of the plain, being in conformity with Miocene formations, is undesirable (Not acceptable. This spatial distribution map can help a lot for groundwater supply and offers a good insight of groundwater qualitative trend in this study area.

  11. Principles for scaling of distributed direct potable water reuse systems: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianjiao; Englehardt, James D

    2015-05-15

    Scaling of direct potable water reuse (DPR) systems involves tradeoffs of treatment facility economy-of-scale, versus cost and energy of conveyance including energy for upgradient distribution of treated water, and retention of wastewater thermal energy. In this study, a generalized model of the cost of DPR as a function of treatment plant scale, assuming futuristic, optimized conveyance networks, was constructed for purposes of developing design principles. Fractal landscapes representing flat, hilly, and mountainous topographies were simulated, with urban, suburban, and rural housing distributions placed by modified preferential growth algorithm. Treatment plants were allocated by agglomerative hierarchical clustering, networked to buildings by minimum spanning tree. Simulations assume advanced oxidation-based DPR system design, with 20-year design life and capability to mineralize chemical oxygen demand below normal detection limits, allowing implementation in regions where disposal of concentrate containing hormones and antiscalants is not practical. Results indicate that total DPR capital and O&M costs in rural areas, where systems that return nutrients to the land may be more appropriate, are high. However, costs in urban/suburban areas are competitive with current water/wastewater service costs at scales of ca. one plant per 10,000 residences. This size is relatively small, and costs do not increase significantly until plant service areas fall below 100 to 1000 homes. Based on these results, distributed DPR systems are recommended for consideration for urban/suburban water and wastewater system capacity expansion projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental Study on Feasibility of Non Potable Water with Lime on Properties of Ppc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Babu, G.; Madhusudana Reddy, B.; Ramana, N. V.; Sudharshan Reddy, B.

    2017-08-01

    This research aimed to investigate feasibility of outlet water of water treatment plant and limewater on properties of Portland pozzolana cement (PPC). Twenty water treatment plants were found out in the Bhimavaram municipality region in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Approximately, each plant supplying potable water about 4000 to 5000 L/day. All plants are extracting ground water and treating through Reverse Osmosis (RO) process. At outlet, huge quantity of wasted water is being discharged into side drains in Bhimavaram municipality. One typical treatment plant was selected, and water at outlet was collected and Physical and chemical analysis was carried out as per producer described in APHA. The effect of plant outlet water(POW), lime water(LM), and plant outlet water with lime (POWL) on physical properties i.e., setting times, compressive strength, and flexural strength of Portland pozzolana Cement (PPC) were studied in laboratory and compared same with reference specimens i.e., made with Distilled Water (DW) as mixing water. No significant change was observed in initial and finial setting time in POW, LW, and (POWL) as compared with reference specimens made with distilled water (DW). Compressive strength was significantly increased with LW and (POWL) specimens compared to that of reference specimens. XRD technique was employed to study the mineralogical analysis.

  13. TECHNIQUES FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT USING APPROPRIATE LOW COST NATURAL MATERIALS IN THE TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Onesmus Nzung’a

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mechanical filtration and solar irradiation in water treatment was evaluated. Selected metals and non-metals ions before and after treatment were determined colorimetrically while turbidity was measured using a turbidimeter. pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO and temperature were measured using a portable universal multiline P4 WTW meter while total alkalinity was determined titrimetrically. The load of coliform bacteria contamination before and after treatment was determined by Millipore filtration method. Screening for the presence of pathogenic bacteria was carried out using standard methods. The levels of the properties before and after treatment were each compared with the recommended drinking water standards according to Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS and World Health Organization (WHO. The water was treated by being subjected to mechanical filtration and solar irradiation and changes in their physico-chemical properties and bacteriological load determined. The results obtained after treatment revealed that solar irradiation killed most of the pathogenic bacteria after exposure for eight hours but had no impact on the physico-chemical properties except nitrates (from 24.5 to 8.0 mg.L-1. Mechanical filtration reduced total coliforms and E. coli by 30 %. It also reduced the loads of Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Fe, nitrate nitrogen and turbidity of the water treated to an almost potable state. Water treatment using a combination of mechanical filtration system and solar disinfection was found to be very effective in reducing the bacterial load.

  14. Vertical and temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the Carpina potable water reservoir in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A N; Dantas, E W; Oliveira, H S B; Bittencourt-Oliveira, M C

    2011-05-01

    This study analysed vertical and temporal variations of cyanobacteria in a potable water supply in northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from four reservoir depths in the four months; September and December 2007; and March and June 2008. The water samples for the determination of nutrients and cyanobacteria were collected using a horizontal van Dorn bottle. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for taxonomic analysis using an optical microscope, and water aliquots were preserved in acetic Lugol solution for determination of density using an inverted microscope. High water temperatures, alkaline pH, low transparency, high phosphorous content and limited nitrogen content were found throughout the study. Dissolved oxygen stratification occurred throughout the study period whereas temperature stratification occurred in all sampling months, with the exception of June. No significant vertical differences were recorded for turbidity or total and dissolved forms of nutrients. There were high levels of biomass arising from Planktothrix agardhii, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Pseudanabaena catenata. The study demonstrates that, in a tropical eutrophic environment with high temperatures throughout the water column, perennial multi-species cyanobacterial blooms, formed by species capable of regulating their position in the water column (those that have gas vesicles for buoyancy), are dominant in the photic and aphotic strata.

  15. Vertical and temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the Carpina potable water reservoir in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Moura

    Full Text Available This study analysed vertical and temporal variations of cyanobacteria in a potable water supply in northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from four reservoir depths in the four months; September and December 2007; and March and June 2008. The water samples for the determination of nutrients and cyanobacteria were collected using a horizontal van Dorn bottle. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for taxonomic analysis using an optical microscope, and water aliquots were preserved in acetic Lugol solution for determination of density using an inverted microscope. High water temperatures, alkaline pH, low transparency, high phosphorous content and limited nitrogen content were found throughout the study. Dissolved oxygen stratification occurred throughout the study period whereas temperature stratification occurred in all sampling months, with the exception of June. No significant vertical differences were recorded for turbidity or total and dissolved forms of nutrients. There were high levels of biomass arising from Planktothrix agardhii, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Pseudanabaena catenata. The study demonstrates that, in a tropical eutrophic environment with high temperatures throughout the water column, perennial multi-species cyanobacterial blooms, formed by species capable of regulating their position in the water column (those that have gas vesicles for buoyancy, are dominant in the photic and aphotic strata.

  16. La provisión de agua potable en la periferia del AMBA, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Caceres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la problemática de la provisión de agua potable domiciliaria en territorios con escasa cobertura de las redes, en el principal aglomerado urbano de la Argentina denominado Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Se recuperan los aportes de una investigación exploratoria que recurrió al estudio de caso y el análisis de fuentes primarias y secundarias. Principalmente centra la atención en la caracterización de los circuitos mercantiles que emergen ante la ausencia de las redes, comprendidos por la presencia de empresas formales e informales que realizan perforaciones e instalan equipos para la explotación individual de los acuíferos por parte de hogares que no acceden a las redes de agua. También se analiza la exigua regulación, control y fiscalización estatal.  

  17. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  18. Governing Non-Potable Water-Reuse to Alleviate Water Stress: The Case of Sabadell, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Šteflová

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The world will experience an estimated 40% freshwater supply shortage by 2030, converting water scarcity into one of the principal global challenges that modern society faces. Urban water reuse is recognized as a promising and necessary measure to alleviate the growing water stress in many regions. The transformation to widespread application of water-reuse systems requires major changes in the way water is governed, and countries such as Spain already find themselves involved in this process. Through the systematic assessment of the city of Sabadell (Spain, we aim to identify the main barriers, opportunities and transferable lessons that can enhance governance capacity to implement systems for non-potable reuse of treated wastewater in cities. It was found that continuous learning, the availability and quality of information, the level of knowledge, and strong agents of change are the main capacity-building priorities. On the other hand, awareness, multilevel network potential and implementing capacity are already well-established. It is concluded that in order to undertake a widespread application of water-reuse practices, criteria examining water quality according to its use need to be developed independently of the water’s origin. The development and implementation of such a legislative frame should be based on the experience of local water-reuse practices and continuous evaluation. Finally, the need for public engagement and adequate pricing mechanisms are emphasized.

  19. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered. PMID:19151430

  20. Development and Optimum Composition of Locally Developed Potable Water Treatment Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Oladele BABATOLA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current high level of energy cost and operational cost of membrane technologies and couple with difficulties in obtaining chemicals for potable water treatment give rooms for development of local substance and low cost adsorbents for water treatment. This paper presents a follow-up study on an earlier work in which some water treatment Tablets were produced and tested. The current work was directed at establishing the optimum composition of the tablets. Alum, calcium hypochlorite and lime were combined in proportion and made into pastes and tablets. Residual chlorine contents of the tablets were determined. The quality of stream water samples treated with the tablets was measured by chlorine content, pH and turbidity removal. It is concluded that the best composition is one part alum, two parts hypochlorite and three parts lime and this produced treated water pH of 7.8, chlorine residual of 5.0 mg/l and settled water turbidity 3.0 NTU. The product is aimed for use in rural communities to reduce rampaging death from water borne diseases.

  1. Emulador de Master System 2 corriendo bajo PlayStation Portable

    OpenAIRE

    García Flores, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Creación de un emulador de Master System 2 (videoconsola de SEGA) para ser ejecutado en PlayStation Portable (videoconsola de Sony), implentando los lenguajes de programación C y ensamblados. El uso de este emulador servirá para poder ejecutar los videojuegos para Master System 2 en la videoconsola PlayStation Portable. Ingeniería Técnica en Informática de Gestión

  2. Analysis of South Atlantic Anomaly perturbations on Sentinel-3A Ultra Stable Oscillator. Impact on DORIS phase measurement and DORIS station positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalabert, Eva; Mercier, Flavien

    2018-07-01

    DORIS measurements rely on the precise knowledge of the embedded oscillator which is called the Ultra Stable Oscillator (DORIS USO). The important radiations in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) perturb the USO behavior by causing rapid frequency variations when the satellite is flying through the SAA. These variations are not taken into account in standard DORIS processing, since the USO is modelled as a third degree polynomial over 7-10 days. Therefore, there are systematic measurements errors when the satellite passes through SAA. In standard GNSS processing, the clock is directly estimated at each epoch. On Sentinel-3A, the GPS receiver and the DORIS receiver use the same USO. It is thus possible to estimate the behavior of the USO using GPS measurements. This estimated USO behavior can be used in the DORIS processing, instead of the third degree polynomial, hence allowing an estimation of the orbit sensitivity to these USO anomalies. This study shows two main results. First, the SAA effect on the DORIS USO is observed well using GPS measurements. Second, the USO behavior observed with GPS can be used to mitigate the SAA effect. Indeed, when used in Sentinel-3A processing, the resulting DORIS orbit shows improved phase measurements and station positioning for stations inside the SAA (Arequipa and Cachoeira). The phase measurements residuals are improved by up to 10 cm, and station vertical positioning (i.e. on the estimated Up component in the North-East-Up station frame) is improved by up to a few centimeters. However, the orbit itself is not sensitive to the correction because only two stations (out of almost 60) are SAA-sensitive on Sentinel-3A.

  3. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  4. Auditoría energética en una planta de tratamiento de agua potable

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Álvarez, Silvino

    2012-01-01

    En el panorama energético actual, con las recientes incertidumbres asociadas a los precios de la energía y las inestabilidades políticas en algunos países exportadores de hidrocarburos, reducir el consumo energético mediante tecnologías más eficientes es fundamental en la definición de nuevos usos de la energía en nuestra sociedad. Dada la actual coyuntura medioambiental, económica y social, hemos de encontrar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo sostenible, incrementando la productividad de nuestra...

  5. Base Station Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  6. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  7. Environmental transport and fate of endocrine disruptors from non-potable reuse of municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B; Beller, H; Bartel, C M; Kane, S; Campbell, C; Grayson, A; Liu, N; Burastero, S

    2005-11-16

    This project was designed to investigate the important but virtually unstudied topic of the subsurface transport and fate of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) when treated wastewater is used for landscape irrigation (non-potable water reuse). Although potable water reuse was outside the scope of this project, the investigation clearly has relevance to such water recycling practices. The target compounds, which are discussed in the following section and include EDCs such as 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 17{beta}-estradiol, were studied not only because of their potential estrogenic effects on receptors but also because they can be useful as tracers of wastewater residue in groundwater. Since the compounds were expected to occur at very low (part per trillion) concentrations in groundwater, highly selective and sensitive analytical techniques had to be developed for their analysis. This project assessed the distributions of these compounds in wastewater effluents and groundwater, and examined their fate in laboratory soil columns simulating the infiltration of treated wastewater into an aquifer (e.g., as could occur during irrigation of a golf course or park with nonpotable treated water). Bioassays were used to determine the estrogenic activity present in effluents and groundwater, and the results were correlated with those from chemical analysis. In vitro assays for estrogenic activity were employed to provide an integrated measure of estrogenic potency of environmental samples without requiring knowledge or measurement of all bioactive compounds in the samples. For this project, the Las Positas Golf Course (LPGC) in the City of Livermore provided an ideal setting. Since 1978, irrigation of this area with treated wastewater has dominated the overall water budget. For a variety of reasons, a group of 10 monitoring wells were installed to evaluate wastewater impacts on the local groundwater. Additionally, these wells were regularly monitored for tritium ({sup 3}H

  8. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  9. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  10. Energy saving program in an operating potable water and sanitation organism; Programa de ahorro de energia en un organismo operador de agua potable y saneamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Cruz, Juan Jose [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia Electrica, (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    For the achievement of the objectives it was decided to use, among others, the following strategies: Personnel training, increase of the efficiency of the electromechanical equipment, study of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tariffs, correction of low power factors, increase of load factors, operation automate, regulation of the operation times, preventive maintenance of the equipment, establishment of technical standards, rational and efficient use of air conditioning equipment and illumination. So that these actions were applied in an easy and opportune form, it was established that within the structure of the General Coordination of Foreign Municipalities, the Program of Energy Saving depended directly of the Technical Management of CFE. In this way, the recommendations are first put under consideration of high-level officers, and then are lowered to the operative departments. [Spanish] Para el logro de los objetivos se acordo utilizar, entre otras, las siguientes estrategias: capacitacion del personal; aumentar la eficiencia de los equipos electromecanicos; estudio de tarifas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE); correccion de bajos factores de potencia; aumento de los factores de carga; automatizar la operacion; regular de los tiempos de operacion; mantenimiento preventivo a los equipos; establecimiento de normas tecnicas; uso racional y eficiente de aire acondicionado e iluminacion. Para que estas acciones se aplicaran en forma agil y oportuna, se establecio que dentro de la estructura de la Coordinacion General de Municipios Foraneos, el Programa de Ahorro de Energia dependiera directamente de la Gerencia Tecnica de la CRE. De esta forma, las recomendaciones primero se someten a consideracion de los funcionarios de alto nivel, y luego bajan a los departamentos operativos.

  11. Life cycle assessment of four potable water treatment plants in northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great concern about the processes that directly or indirectly contribute to the potential for global warming, such as stratospheric ozone depletion or acidification. In this context, and provided that treated water is a basic public utility in urban centers around the world as well as in some rural areas, its impact on the environment is of great interest. Therefore, this study applied the environmental methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental loads of four potable water treatment plants (PWTPs located in northeastern Colombia following the international guidelines delineated in ISO 14040. The different stages of the drinking water process were thoroughly assessed, from the catchment point through pumping to the distribution network. The functional unit was defined as 1 m3 of drinking water produced at the plant. The data were analyzed through the database Ecoinvent v.3.01, and modeled and processed in the software LCA-Data Manager. The results showed that in plants PLA-CA and PLA-PO, the flocculation process has the highest environmental load, which is mostly attributable to the coagulant agent, with a range between 47-73% of the total impact. In plants PLA-TON and PLA-BOS, electricity consumption was identified as the greatest impact source, with percentages ranging from 67 to 85%. Treatment processes and techniques, bioclimatic conditions and culturally driven consumption behavior varied from region to region. Furthermore, changes in treatment processes and techniques are likely to affect the environment during all stages of a plant’s operational cycle.

  12. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing ultrafiltration membrane fouling during potable water reuse using pre-ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Park, Minkyu; Liang, Heng; Wu, Shimin; Lopez, Israel J; Ji, Weikang; Li, Guibai; Snyder, Shane A

    2017-11-15

    Wastewater reclamation has increasingly become popular to secure potable water supply. Low-pressure membrane processes such as microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) play imperative roles as a barrier of macromolecules for such purpose, but are often limited by membrane fouling. Effluent organic matter (EfOM), including biopolymers and particulates, in secondary wastewater effluents have been known to be major foulants in low-pressure membrane processes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-ozonation as a pre-treatment for UF on the membrane fouling caused by EfOM in secondary wastewater effluents for hydrophilic regenerated cellulose (RC) and hydrophobic polyethersulfone (PES) UF membranes. It was found that greater fouling reduction was achieved by pre-ozonation for the hydrophilic RC membrane than the hydrophobic PES membrane at increasing ozone doses. In addition, the physicochemical property changes of EfOM, including biopolymer fractions, by pre-ozonation were systemically investigated. The classical pore blocking model and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theories were employed to scrutinize the fouling alleviation mechanism by pre-ozonation. As a result, the overarching mechanisms of fouling reduction were attributed to the following key reasons: (1) Ozone degraded macromolecules such as biopolymers like proteins and polysaccharides into smaller fractions, thereby increasing free energy of cohesion of EfOM and rendering them more hydrophilic and stable; (2) pre-ozonation augmented the interfacial free energy of adhesion between foulants and the RC/PES membranes, leading to the increase of repulsions and/or the decrease of attractions; and (3) pre-ozonation prolonged the transition from pore blocking to cake filtration that was a dominant fouling mechanism, thereby reducing fouling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Health risk induced by estrogens during unplanned indirect potable reuse of reclaimed water from domestic wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian-Yuan; Shao, Yi-Ru; Wang, Chao; Sun, Yan; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-03-01

    The estrogenic endocrine disruptors in reclaimed water from domestic wastewater may induce health risks to human being, when reclaimed water is used for augmentation of drinking water unplannedly and indirectly. This study investigated changes in concentrations of estrone, estradiol, 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol and octylphenol in reclaimed water during the reuse of reclaimed water for augmentation to water source such as lakes and reservoir via river. Thereafter, health risk induced by estrogens during the resue of reclaimed water was evaluated. The concentration of estrogen in secondary effluent ranged 0.1-100 ng x L(-1). The highest concentrations of bisphenol A and nonylphenol reached up to 1-10 microg x L(-1). During the indirect reuse of reclaimed water as potable water, the dilution and degradation in river and lake, and the removal by drinking water treatment process could change the concentrations of estrogen. The non-carcinogenic risks of estrone, estradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol and octylphenol were lower than 1. When the hydraulic retention time of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in lakes and reservoir was higher than 30 days, the non-carcinogenic risk of EE2 was lower than 1 in most cases. When the hydraulic retention time of EE2 in lakes and reservoir was less than 30 days and the percentages of reclaimed water in drinking water were higher than 50%, the non-carcinogenic risk induced by EE2 was higher than 1 in 20%-50% samples. This indicated that the risks of EE2 should be concerned.

  15. Municipal management and geo-hydrological aspects of importance in the potable water supply of Lindley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Nealer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When the South African Government in 1998 re-demarcated its 283 municipalities so that they completely cover the country in a “wall-to-wall” manner, their main focus was on growing local economies and maintaining the provision of an increased number of diverse and more complex basic municipal services to new geographical areas consisting of millions of citizens who might previously had been neglected. In most of the instances the newly established and merged municipalities were demarcated according to geographical aspects inherited from the previous political dispensation, historical municipal areas and magisterial district farm names. The fact that these municipal government jurisdictions for the purpose of improving co-operative municipal- and integrated water resources management (IWRM, in most instances do not correspond with environmental and physical land features such as the demarcated surface water (rivers drainage regions’ boundaries, could lead to the ineffective, inefficient and non-economic municipal management of water, sanitation and environmental services. The aforementioned is a case with reference to water services management in the Free State Province town of Lindley located in the Vals River catchment and the Nketoana Local Municipality’s area of jurisdiction. An extensive literature review, the use and study of geographic tools such as maps, ortho- photos and information data bases, as well as two field visits to the area, enabled the researchers to identify the essential geographical, geo-hydrological and municipal management aspects of importance for the potable water service providers and managers in the Lindley municipal area. The researchers argue that effective trans-boundary municipal management through simunye-type co-operative governance and IWRM must be facilitated in the Vals River surface water catchment between the respective local- and district municipalities for the benefit of the Lindley, Arlington

  16. Discovery and Identification of Dimethylsilanediol as a Contaminant in ISS Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.; Kuo, C. Mike; Curtis, Matthew; Jones, Patrick R.; Sparkman, O. David; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, analysis of ISS potable water samples was undertaken to determine the contaminant(s) responsible for a rise of total organic carbon (TOC) in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water. As analysis of the routine target list of organic compounds did not reveal the contaminant, efforts to look for unknown compounds were initiated, resulting in discovery of an unknown peak in the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis for glycols. A mass spectrum of the contaminant was then generated by concentrating one of the samples and analyzing it by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Although a computer match of the compound identity could not be obtained with the instrument database, a search with a more up-to-date mass spectral library yielded a good match with dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). Inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) analyses showed abnormally high silicon levels in the samples, confirming that the unknown compound(s) contained silicon. DMSD was then synthesized to confirm the identification and provide a standard to develop a calibration curve. Further confirmation was provided by external direct analysis in real time time of flight (DART TOF) mass spectrometry. To routinely test for DMSD in the future, a quantitative method was needed. A preliminary GC/MS method was developed and archived samples from various locations on ISS were analyzed to determine the extent of the contamination and provide data for troubleshooting. This paper describes these events in more detail as well as problems encountered in routine GC/MS analyses and the subsequent development of high performance liquid chromatography and LC/MS/MS methods for measuring DMSD.

  17. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  18. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...... catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  19. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  20. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solito, J.

    1978-04-01

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n 0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed [pt

  1. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  2. Ondergronds Station Blijdorp, Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266562426; Cohen, K.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374

    2014-01-01

    Het is in de herfst van 2005. Een lief meisje, Marieke, rijdt op haar vouwfiets door Rotterdam. Bij het Centraal Station is het al tijden een grote bouwplaats. Onder de nieuwe hal komt een veel groter metrostation en ook onder de Statenweg in Blijdorp is een grote bouwput voor een nieuw station.

  3. [STEM on Station Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  4. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addressed. A number of safety rules based on European standards apply to AC charging equipment up to 44 kW. The connection interlock and the automatic de......-energization are identified as fundamental requirements for safety in such a charging station. The connection interlock is a solution which ensures that no power is applied to the DC cable when the EV connector is not connected. The automatic de-energization device ensures that whenever a strain on the cable is detected, e...

  5. A Study of Failure Events in Drinking Water Systems As a Basis for Comparison and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Potable Reuse Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Laura A; Quinn, Chloe; Tng, Keng H; Wood, James G; Leslie, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Potable reuse is implemented in several countries around the world to augment strained water supplies. This article presents a public health perspective on potable reuse by comparing the critical infrastructure and institutional capacity characteristics of two well-established potable reuse schemes with conventional drinking water schemes in developed nations that have experienced waterborne outbreaks. Analysis of failure events in conventional water systems between 2003 and 2013 showed that despite advances in water treatment technologies, drinking water outbreaks caused by microbial contamination were still frequent in developed countries and can be attributed to failures in infrastructure or institutional practices. Numerous institutional failures linked to ineffective treatment protocols, poor operational practices, and negligence were detected. In contrast, potable reuse schemes that use multiple barriers, online instrumentation, and operational measures were found to address the events that have resulted in waterborne outbreaks in conventional systems in the past decade. Syndromic surveillance has emerged as a tool in outbreak detection and was useful in detecting some outbreaks; increases in emergency department visits and GP consultations being the most common data source, suggesting potential for an increasing role in public health surveillance of waterborne outbreaks. These results highlight desirable characteristics of potable reuse schemes from a public health perspective with potential for guiding policy on surveillance activities.

  6. ANALISIS PERAN SERTA MASYARAKAT DALAM PENGELOLAAN AIR BERSIH (The Analysis of Community Roles in Potable Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrani Syahrani

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kondisi air sungai yang terpolusi karena penebangan hutan, penambangan, dan limbah domestik menyebabkan rendahnya kualitas air yang dikonsumsi masyarakat. Pada tahun l996 telah dibentuk Unit Pengelola Air (UPS-AB oleh komunitas di Kumpai Batu untuk membantu pengadaan air bagi masyarakat. Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji kinerja UPS-AB melalui survai lapangan terhadap 160 rumah tangga. Variabel yang dikaji meliputi aktivitas UPS-AB. cara pengelolaannya dan keterlibatan masyarakat dalam pengelolaan air. Data ini kemudian diproses dengan analisa deskriptif dan analisis regresi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa tingkat partisipasi masyarakat cukup tinggi. Tingginya tingkat partisipasi ini disebabkan karena kebutuhan komunitas yang tinggi akan pelayanan air. Meskipun demikian masyarakat merasakan pentingnya peningkatan pengelolaaut air oleh UPS-AB khususnya dalam hal: peningkatan kualitas air. kontinuitas suplai. sistim pembayaran dan sistim pencatatan.   ABSTRACT Polluted river water due to destructed forest, mining and population settlement have created lower quality of up-stream water that households generally consume. Considering the scarcity of water, in 1996, Potable Water Management Unit (UPS-AB of Kumpai Batu was founded as community association to participate in the potable water preparation, development and maintenance. This study was conducted through a field survey on 160 households selected using random sampling method. The variable studied were the availability of UPS-AB, involvement indecision making, involvement in activity, involvement in evaluation and social economic condition of village community. Data were processed using descriptive an regression analysis. The result showed that availability of UPS-AB involvement in decision making, involvement in activities, involvement in evaluation and social-economic condition of village community positively affected community participation in potable water management.

  7. Quality characteristics of potable water from different sources of district Bannu (Pakistan) and their possible health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Hussain, F.; Khan, M.; Riaz, M.; Hussain, F.

    1999-01-01

    The quality of potable water samples collected from 8 tube wells, 8 hand pumps, 15 wells and 4 surface water sources in Bannu District were investigated and compared with international standards. It was observed that water form with and hand pumps seemed to be more polluted than those from other sources due to high nitrite levels. Similarly the oxygen demanding content was higher in 88% hand pumps, 60% wells and 25% surface water, whereas the magnesium level was higher in almost all the samples. The synergetic effect of magnesium and sulphate concentrations has suggested that all hand pumps. 73% well water and the stream water were unfit for drinking due to their laxative nature. It concludes that all hand pump water and 73% of all well water were not potable. The stream water was found to be laxative in nature due to higher concentration of both magnesium and sulphate. Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and chloride concentrations in all the samples were found to be within the permissible limits. The tube well water appeared to be comparatively safer, compared to other sources, due to lower COD and NO/sub 2//sup -/ concentrations. Due to the presence of NO/sub 2//sup -/, 88% samples of well waters, 50% surface waters, 38% hand pump waters and only 13% tube well water were not potable. Overall, the water of Bannu District has been found to be unsuitable for drinking purposes and are considered to be harmful to humans which may adversely affect the overall health of the people on prolonged usage of these substandard waters. (author)

  8. Effects of selected water chemistry variables on copper pitting propagation in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Hung; Taxen, Claes; Williams, Keith; Scully, John

    2011-01-01

    . Malachite, bronchantite, cuprite, nantokite and atacamite corrosion products were both observed in experiment and predicted by the model. Stifling and/or repassivation occurred when the resistance of the corrosion product layer became high enough to lower the pit bottom potential and pit current density such as 10 -5 A/cm 2 could be attained with thick and dense layer. The ramifications of these findings towards pit propagation characteristics in potable waters will be discussed with improved insight into the roles of Cl - and SO 4 2- ions.

  9. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  10. Cogeneration of Electricity and Potable Water Using The International Reactor Innovative And Secure (IRIS) Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Binder, J.L.; Kostin, V.I.; Panov, Y.K.; Polunichev, V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Conti, D.; Alonso, G.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide demand for potable water has been steadily growing and is projected to accelerate, driven by a continued population growth and industrialization of emerging countries. This growth is reflected in a recent market survey by the World Resources Institute, which shows a doubling in the installed capacity of seawater desalination plants every ten years. The production of desalinated water is energy intensive, requiring approximately 3-6 kWh/m3 of produced desalted water. At current U.S. water use rates, a dedicated 1000 MW power plant for every one million people would be required to meet our water needs with desalted water. Nuclear energy plants are attractive for large scale desalination application. The thermal energy produced in a nuclear plant can provide both electricity and desalted water without the production of greenhouse gases. A particularly attractive option for nuclear desalination is to couple a desalination plant with an advanced, modular, passively safe reactor design. The use of small-to-medium sized nuclear power plants allows for countries with smaller electrical grid needs and infrastructure to add new electrical and water capacity in more appropriate increments and allows countries to consider siting plants at a broader number of distributed locations. To meet these needs, a modified version of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant design has been developed for the cogeneration of electricity and desalted water. The modular, passively safe features of IRIS make it especially well adapted for this application. Furthermore, several design features of the IRIS reactor will ensure a safe and reliable source of energy and water even for countries with limited nuclear power experience and infrastructure. The IRIS-D design utilizes low-quality steam extracted from the low-pressure turbine to boil seawater in a multi-effect distillation desalination plant. The desalination plant is based on the horizontal

  11. Eficiencia en el uso de los medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez Peña

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el tema de la eficiencia del uso de los medicamentos. Se estudian las diferentes acciones asociadas con el uso como la selección, las guías terapéuticas, las terapéuticas no farmacológicas, el monitoreo de la prescripción y utilización de los medicamentos, así como la importancia de la información terapéutica independiente y su impacto en la eficiencia de la utilización de fármacos.The topic of the drug use efficiency is dealt with. The different actions associated with it as the selection, the therapeutic guides, the non-pharmacological therapeutics, the monitoring of the prescription and the utilization of drugs, as well as the independent therapeutic information and its impact on the efficiency of drug use are studied.

  12. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  13. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  14. Inventario nacional del uso actual del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Oficina Nacional de Evaluación de Recursos Naturales

    1984-01-01

    Establece como se emplea el agua en el Perú, teniendo en cuenta el tipo de uso, consuntivo y no consuntivo, discriminando según sea el destino: agrícola, pecuario, poblacional,industrial, minero, energético y pesquero, así como su localización geográfica; ello con la finalidad de que sirva de información básica para la planificación del desarrollo.

  15. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  16. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  17. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

  18. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  19. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  20. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  1. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  2. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  3. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  4. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  5. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  6. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  7. Mapping and analysis of the groundwater potability in the Lajeado municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Strohschoen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater sources spread in extensive areas and are relatively protected from pollution agents when compared to rivers and artificial reservoirs. These aspects, combined with low exploitation costs, provided a considerable growth in the groundwater use in the last decades. Groundwater became an important alternative source for public water supply in Brazil. This paper shows the georeferenced location of the groundwater exploitation points in the Lajeado, RS municipality and the potability analysis of this water. The groundwater exploitation in the study area is accomplished in the Serra Geral and Guarani aquifers and the exploitation points were identified in field campaigns using a GPS receiver and plotted over satellite imagery using remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. The groundwater potability assessment was based on 100 samples for microbiological and physico-chemical analyses that included 78 samples of tubular wells and 22 of dug wells. Contour maps were generated for the analyzed parameters in the tubular wells, using geostatistics procedures. In this study, 362 tubular wells and 253 dug wells were studied. The results show that the dug wells are located mainly in rural areas and 77.27% of them aren’t suitable for human consumption due to high levels of contamination. The tubular wells are concentrated in urban areas and results revealed that 76.92% of them have water with suitable quality for the human consumption.

  8. Sensitivity of Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Systems to Potable Water Constituents, Contaminants and Air Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Trevino, Luis A.; Fritts, Sharon; Tsioulos, Gus

    2008-01-01

    The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is the baseline heat rejection technology selected for development for the Constellation lunar suit. The first SWME prototype, designed, built, and tested at Johnson Space Center in 1999 used a Teflon hydrophobic porous membrane sheet shaped into an annulus to provide cooling to the coolant loop through water evaporation to the vacuum of space. This present study describes the test methodology and planning and compares the test performance of three commercially available hollow fiber materials as alternatives to the sheet membrane prototype for SWME, in particular, a porous hydrophobic polypropylene, and two variants that employ ion exchange through non-porous hydrophilic modified Nafion. Contamination tests will be performed to probe for sensitivities of the candidate SWME elements to ordinary constituents that are expected to be found in the potable water provided by the vehicle, the target feedwater source. Some of the impurities in potable water are volatile, such as the organics, while others, such as the metals and inorganic ions are nonvolatile. The non-volatile constituents will concentrate in the SWME as evaporated water from the loop is replaced by the feedwater. At some point in the SWME mission lifecycle as the concentrations of the non-volatiles increase, the solubility limits of one or more of the constituents may be reached. The resulting presence of precipitate in the coolant water may begin to plug pores and tube channels and affect the SWME performance. Sensitivity to macroparticles, lunar dust simulant, and air bubbles will also be investigated.

  9. Polygeneration microgrids: A viable solution in remote areas for supplying power, potable water and hydrogen as transportation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Dounis, Anastasios I.; Rozakis, Stelios; Arvanitis, Konstantinos G.; Papadakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polygeneration of power, hydrogen and potable water through desalination in remote areas. → Particle Swarm Optimization for the design of Polygeneration microgrid design with TRNSYS, GenOpt and TRNOPT. → Economic evaluation with Monte Carlo simulation for the calculation of NPV distribution. → Polygeneration microgrids are technically feasible and most likely financially profitable. -- Abstract: This paper presents the concept and the design of a hybrid renewable energy polygeneration microgrid along with its technical and economical evaluation. The energy of the sun and the wind is harvested by photovoltaics and a wind turbine. Besides that, the components of the microgrid include a battery bank, a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, a PEM electrolyzer, a metal hydride tank, a reverse osmosis desalination unit using energy recovery and a control system. The microgrid covers the electricity, transport and water needs and thus its products are power, hydrogen as transportation fuel and potable water through desalination. Hydrogen and the desalinated water also act as medium to long term seasonal storage. A design tool based on TRNSYS 16, GenOpt 2.0 and TRNOPT was developed using Particle Swarm Optimization method. The economic evaluation of the concept was based on the discounting cash flow approach. The Monte Carlo Simulation method was used in order to take uncertainty into account. A technically feasible polygeneration microgrid adapted to a small island is financially profitable with a probability of 90% for the present and 100% at the medium term.

  10. The effect of influent temperature variations in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment--a computational fluid dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Karapantsios, Thodoris D; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2008-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used to assess the effect of influent temperature variation on solids settling in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment. The model is based on the CFD code Fluent and exploits several specific aspects of the potable water application to derive a computational tool much more efficient than the corresponding tools employed to simulate primary and secondary wastewater settling tanks. The linearity of the particle conservation equations allows separate calculations for each particle size class, leading to the uncoupling of the CFD problem from a particular inlet particle size distribution. The usually unknown and difficult to be measured particle density is determined by matching the theoretical to the easily measured experimental total settling efficiency. The present model is adjusted against data from a real sedimentation tank and then it is used to assess the significance of influent temperature variation. It is found that a temperature difference of only 1 degrees C between influent and tank content is enough to induce a density current. When the influent temperature rises, the tank exhibits a rising buoyant plume that changes the direction of the main circular current. This process keeps the particles in suspension and leads to a higher effluent suspended solids concentration, thus, worse settling. As the warmer water keeps coming in, the temperature differential decreases, the current starts going back to its original position, and, thus, the suspended solids concentration decreases.

  11. Use of ozone-biofiltration for bulk organic removal and disinfection byproduct mitigation in potable reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mayara; Batista, Jacimaria; Dickenson, Eric; Gerrity, Daniel

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the impacts of ozone dose and empty bed contact time (EBCT) in ozone-biofiltration systems on disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential. The data were used to evaluate the possibility of using DBP formation potential as an alternative guideline for total organic carbon (TOC) removal in potable reuse applications. A pilot-scale ozone-biofiltration system was operated with O 3 /TOC ratios ranging from 0.1 to 2.25 and EBCTs ranging from 2 to 20 min. The biofiltration columns contained anthracite or biological activated carbon (BAC). Bench-scale chlorination was performed using the uniform formation conditions (UFC) approach, and quenched samples were analyzed for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and regulated haloacetic acids (HAA5s). The data demonstrated that ozone-biofiltration achieved TOC removals ranging from ∼10 to 30%, depending on operational conditions, but biofiltration without ozone generally achieved <10% TOC removal. UFC testing demonstrated that ozone alone was efficient in transforming bulk organic matter and reducing DBP formation potential by 10-30%. The synergistic combination of ozone and biofiltration achieved average overall reductions in TTHM and HAA5 formation potential of 26% and 51%, respectively. Finally, a maximum TOC concentration of 2.0 mg/L was identified as a recommended treatment target for reliable compliance with TTHM and HAA5 regulations for potable reuse systems in the United States. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of total inorganic arsenic in potable water through spectroscopy of atomic absorption with generation of hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Roman, S.

    1997-01-01

    This study developed a method for the cuantitative analysis of arsenic in potable water , through the spectrophotometric technique of atomic absorption. It used an automatic system of injection of flux for the generation of hydrides. It studied the effect produced by reducer agents, in the prereduction of arsenic in water, obtaining the best result with the use of potasium iodide 1.5% and ascorbic acid 0.25% in hydrochloric acid 3.7%, for the direct determination of total inorganic arsenic. It observed the effect produced by cadmium and selenium to the half of the concentration of arsenic, chromium, lead and silver at the same concentration, and barium at a ten times higher concentration, in the recuperation of total inorganic arsenic. It also used sodium borohydride 0.3% in sodium hydroxide 0.05% (5mL/min), for the formation of the volatile hydrides. It used hydrochloric acid 3.7% (12 mL/min) as disolution of transport; argon as inert gas, and a flame air-acetylene, for the atomization of the hydrides. This method was applied to 19 samples of potable water, and the result was no detectable for all of them. (S. Grainger)

  13. Preliminary studies on membrane filtration for the production of potable water: a case of Tshaanda rural village in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molelekwa, Gomotsegang F; Mukhola, Murembiwa S; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Luis, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) systems have been used globally for treating water from resources including rivers, reservoirs, and lakes for the production of potable water in the past decade. UF membranes with a pore size of between 0.1 and 0.01 micrometres provide an effective barrier for bacteria, viruses, suspended particles, and colloids. The use of UF membrane technology in treating groundwater for the supply of potable water in the impoverished and rural village, Tshaanda (i.e., the study area) is demonstrated. The technical and administrative processes that are critical for the successful installation of the pilot plant were developed. Given the rural nature of Tshaanda, the cultural and traditional protocols were observed. Preliminary results of the water quality of untreated water and the permeate are presented. Escherichia coli in the untreated water during the dry season (i.e., June and July) was 2 cfu/100 ml and was 2419.2 cfu/100 ml) before UF. Following UF, it dramatically reduced to acceptable level (7 cfu/100 ml) which is within the WHO recommended level of water for suspended particles and colloids. Considering these data, it can be concluded that the water is suitable for human consumption, following UF.

  14. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  15. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  16. Tobruk power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergardts, B

    1978-01-01

    In February of 1975, the Electricity Corporation Benghazi (ECB) awarded a contract for the construction of a turnkey power station and seawater desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya to a consortium under the leadership of BBC Mannheim. This power station has an output of 129 MW and supplies about 24,000 m/sup 3/ of drinking water daily. It went into operation in 1977, two and a half years after the contract was awarded.

  17. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  18. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  19. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  20. Comparación medioambiental de dos plantas de producción de agua potable basada en el método ACV

    OpenAIRE

    Poch Barrera, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad, las medidas adoptadas para reducir la contaminación del agua son varias. Sin embargo, la purificación del agua para consumo como agua potable en lasciudades requiere la implementación de procesos de purificación de carácter industrial.Estos procesos a su vez afectan el medio ambiente y contribuyen al cambio climático.La producción de agua potable es una actividad que puede implicar, entre otrosprocesos, la ultrafiltración del agua y por lo tanto exige un consumo de energíaco...

  1. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  2. Informe: Agua potable - la EPA necesita adoptar medidas adicionales para garantizar que los pequeños sistemas de agua comunitarios señalados como graves infractores logren cumplir con las normas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Informe #16-P-0108, 22 de Marzo de 2016. La EPA puede proteger mejor al público del agua potable contaminada, lo que incluye a casi 200,000 personas en Puerto Rico que todavía carecen de agua potable segura.

  3. Nuclear power station siting experience in the United Kingdom: past and present and proposals for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, T.P.; Usher, E.F.F.W.

    1975-01-01

    Foremost of the many factors in site selection considerations are population distribution, cooling-water availability and amenity. Others are safety of potable water sources, geological stability and the risk of external hazards. Where cooling-water supplies are a limiting factor, the choica of reactor system is of major importance. To determine as early as possible the effect a station might have on its environment, desk studies, visual surveys and wind-tunnel tests are carried out. The Central Electricity Generating Board places great importance on obtaining the fullest degree of acceptance by the public for its nuclear stations and ensures that full consultation is provided with the relevant authorities at all stages of power-station development. It also provides public exhibitions, public meetings and liaison with the local inhabitants. Recruitment of station staff where possible from the immediate area of the station and formation of sports and social clubs are two of the practical steps which help to integrate the station into the local community. Whilst the current energy crisis has reinforced the need for a substantial nuclear programme, possible ways of further reducing the impact of nuclear stations on the environment are being considered. The paper concludes that sufficient nuclear sites can be provided for future needs but that continuing effort will be required to ensure public acceptance. (author)

  4. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2009-05-01

    lungs to the body parts. This situation is known to occur as a result of methemoglobin compounds deposited in the blood stream in association with excess nitrite consumption. Nitrogen isotope analysis from eight random samples recorded an average δ 15 N value of 6.7‰ thereby indicating that the nitrite is probably derived from the nitrogen based fertilizers that are commonly applied to the paddy fields and the shrimp farms. The observed δ 15 N values, ranging from 0.35‰ to 11.82‰ are higher than the typical numbers expected for nitrogen based fertilizers. In this context, the high content of ammonium, ranging from 0.59 to 28.01 mg/L, clearly indicates that the nitrogen in the system has undergone denitrification in a bio-chemically reduced condition, which resulted in the increased delta values. The above results clearly show that in addition to the already known risks of arsenocosis from groundwater, there are serious threats of blood disorders among the population that routinely consumes water with high levels of nitrite. Nevertheless, the existing problems of arsenic and other metals in water are expected to become worse over the time because of highly anoxic condition. All the above results from this study warrant immediate actions by the appropriate government agencies to arrange for alternative potable water for more than 6 million people living in the region.

  5. El pozo: usos, seguridad y tradición en la subcuenca del río San Javier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chávez Valdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue conocer la contribución de los pozos tradicionales en el suministro de agua a la población rural vis a vis las redes de agua potable en cinco comunidades rurales de bajos ingresos en el poniente del Estado de México. La información se obtuvo mediante trabajo de campo, entrevistas a informantes clave y usuarios. Se encontró que, en la mayoría de las localidades, los pozos tradicionales se han convertido en la principal fuente de abastecimiento para uso doméstico y que ayudan a resolver la grave crisis del agua. Si bien los pozos son un patrimonio familiar, cumplen una función social más ya que por lo regular son compartidos de manera gratuita con vecinos. La tecnología y el costo en de construcción y operación están al alcance de las familias rurales. Los pozos contribuyen a brindar seguridad en el suministro de agua durante el año.

  6. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  7. Elaboración de un plan de producción más limpia para los sistemas de agua potable de Papallacta y la Mica de la Empresa Pública Metroplitana de Agua Potable y Saneamiento de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Guerra, Andrea Paulina; Elizalde Guevara, Ángel Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    La empresa tiene como misión proveer servicios de agua potable y saneamiento con eficiencia, responsabilidad social y ambiental, es por ello que nace la idea de proponer mejoras continuas a los procesos que se generan en la captación, conducción y potabilización de cada uno de los sistemas, por medio de los planes de producción más limpia. Para llegar a obtener los planes de producción más limpia de los sistemas, se siguió la metodología del Centro Ecuatoriano de Producción más limpia (CEPL)....

  8. Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

  9. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    . A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling......This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...

  10. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  11. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea.

  12. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  13. The modular pebble bed nuclear reactor - the preferred new sustainable energy source for electricity, hydrogen and potable water production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a joint project of Massachusetts Institute of technology, Nu-Tec Inc. and Proto Power. The elegant simplicity of graphite moderated pebble bed reactor is the basis for the 'generation four' nuclear power plants. High Temperature Gas Cooled (HTGC) nuclear power plant have the potential to become the preferred base load sustainable energy source for the new millennium. The great attraction of these helium cooled 'Generation Four' nuclear plant can be summarised as follows: Factory assembly line production; Modularity and ease of delivery to site; High temperature Brayton Cycle ideally suited for cogeneration of electricity, potable water and hydrogen; Capital and operating costs competitive with hydrocarbon plant; Design is inherently meltdown proof and proliferation resistant

  14. Autotrophic nitrogen removal process in a potable water treatment biofilter that simultaneously removes Mn and NH4(+)-N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan'an; Li, Dong; Liang, Yuhai; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH4(+)-N) removal pathways were investigated in a potable water treatment biofilter that simultaneously removes manganese (Mn) and NH4(+)-N. The results indicated a significant loss of nitrogen in the biofilter. Both the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process and nitrification were more likely to contribute to NH4(+)-N removal. Moreover, the model calculation results demonstrated that the CANON process contributed significantly to the removal of NH4(+)-N. For influent NH4(+)-N levels of 1.030 and 1.749mg/L, the CANON process contribution was about 48.5% and 46.6%, respectively. The most important finding was that anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria were detectable in the biofilter. It is interesting that the CANON process was effective even for such low NH4(+)-N concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Algorithmic Optimal Management of a Potable Water Distribution System: Application to the Primary Network of Bonaberi (Douala, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Simeu-Abazi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal management of a potable water distribution system requires the control of the reference (standard data, the control points, control of the drainage parameters (pressure, flow, etc. and maintenance parameters. The control of the mentioned data defines the network learning process [1]. Besides classic IT functions of acquisition, storage and data processing, a geographical information system (GIS can be used as the basis for an alarm system, allowing one to identify and to localize the presence of water leaks in the network [2]. In this article we propose an algorithm coupling the various drainage parameters for the management of the network. The algorithm leads to an optimal management of leaks. An application is in progress on the primary network in the region of Bonaberi in Douala, the largest city of Cameroon.

  16. Participación ciudadana en las colonias sin agua potable y alcantarillado de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Córdova Bojórquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis de la participación ciudadana en la gestión del agua en 14 colonias que carecen del servicio de agua potable y alcantarillado en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. La metodología consistió en analizar y relacionar las influencias externas e internas de los ciudadanos resultando una participación ciudadana muy baja en la gestión del agua determinada en gran medida por el poco conocimiento sobre el tema, la poca confianza en las instituciones públicas, la mínima disposición de participar en proyectos comunitarios y por la gran influencia que tiene el sistema político en la gestión del servicio.

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ruben P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, Wendy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  18. LLNL Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  19. Nefrocalcinose associada ao uso de esteroide anabolizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverton Machado Luchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Os esteroides anabolizantes têm sido usados como arma terapêutica em diversas condições clínicas. Entretanto, o uso abusivo e indiscriminado, associado a outros suplementos nutricionais, tem gerado efeitos adversos graves. Relato do caso: Sexo masculino, 21 anos, admitido com náuseas, astenia, hiporexia, cefaleia e hipertensão arterial. Exames no sangue evidenciaram Cr: 3,9 mg/dl U:100 mg/dl e Cálcio total 14 mg/dl. Ultrassonografia e biópsia renal compatíveis com nefrocalcinose. Houve melhora gradativa da função renal e da calcemia após hidratação vigorosa e furosemida. Entretanto, após 1 ano, persistiram depósitos renais de cálcio e relação córticomedular reduzida ao ultrassom e creatinina estável em 1,4 mg/dl. Casos anteriores evidenciaram necrose tubular aguda e nefrite intersticial com poucos depósitos de cálcio no interstício renal. Nesse caso, encontramos nefrocalcinose acentuada associada à nefroesclerose. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar a ocorrência de injúria renal aguda com nefrocalcinose associada ao uso de esteroide anabolizante e oferecer uma revisão do assunto.

  20. Evaluación ambiental de las condiciones de explotación y uso del recurso hidríco subterráneo en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones, Tandil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Corina Iris

    2009-01-01

    Se basa esta investigación en la evaluación ambiental de las condiciones de explotación y uso del recurso hídrico subterráneo en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones, ubicado al Oeste de la ciudad de Tandil, en el centro-SE de la provincia de Buenos Aires. El interés por dicho sector surgió a partir de las falencias en la provisión de agua potable y servicios sanitarios. El objetivo principal consistió en la generación de pautas de gestión sustentable basadas en el análisis y evaluación del sistema sub...

  1. Why chlorate occurs in potable water and processed foods: a critical assessment and challenges faced by the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlitz, Beate; Kemendi, Gabriella; Thorgrimsson, Nigel; Cattoor, Nele; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Le Bail-Collet, Yves; Maphosa, Farai; Perrichet, Aurélie; Christall, Birgit; Stadler, Richard H

    2016-06-01

    Recently, reports have been published on the occurrence of chlorate mainly in fruits and vegetables. Chlorate is a by-product of chlorinating agents used to disinfect water, and can be expected to be found in varying concentrations in drinking water. Data on potable water taken at 39 sampling points across Europe showed chlorate to range from foods of 0.01 mg kg(-1). This default MRL has now led to significant problems in the EU, where routinely disinfected water, used in the preparation of food products such as vegetables or fruits, leaves chlorate residues in excess of the default MRL, and in strict legal terms renders the food unmarketable. Due to the paucity of data on the chlorate content of prepared foods in general, we collated chlorate data on more than 3400 samples of mainly prepared foods, including dairy products, meats, fruits, vegetables and different food ingredients/additives. In total, 50.5% of the food samples contained chlorate above 0.01 mg kg(-1), albeit not due to the use of chlorate as a pesticide but mainly due to the occurrence of chlorate as an unavoidable disinfectant by-product. A further entry point of chlorate into foods may be via additives/ingredients that may contain chlorate as a by-product of the manufacturing process (e.g. electrolysis). Of the positive samples in this study, 22.4% revealed chlorate above 0.1 mg kg(-1). In the absence of EU levels for chlorate in water, any future EU regulations must consider the already available WHO guideline value of 0.7 mg l(-1) in potable water, and the continued importance of the usage of oxyhalides for disinfection purposes.

  2. Hydraulic Model for Drinking Water Networks, Including Household Connections; Modelo hidraulico para redes de agua potable con tomas domiciliarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero Angulo, Jose Oscar [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa (Mexico); Arreguin Cortes, Felipe [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents a hydraulic simulation model for drinking water networks, including elements that are currently not considered household connections, spatially variable flowrate distribution pipelines, and tee secondary network. This model is determined by solving the equations needed for a conventional model following an indirect procedure for the solution of large equations systems. Household connection performance is considered as dependent of water pressure and the way in which users operate the taps of such intakes. This approach allows a better a acquaintance with the drinking water supply networks performance as well as solving problems that demand a more precise hydraulic simulation, such as water quality variations, leaks in networks, and the influence of home water tanks as regulating devices. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo de simulacion hidraulica para redes de agua potable en el cual se incluyen elementos que no se toman en cuenta actualmente, como las tomas domiciliarias, los tubos de distribucion con gastos espacialmente variado y la red secundaria, resolviendo el numero de ecuaciones que seria necesario plantear en un modelo convencional mediante un procedimiento indirecto para la solucion de grandes sistemas de ecuaciones. En las tomas domiciliarias se considera que su funcionamiento depende de las presiones y la forma en que los usuarios operan las llaves de las mismas. Este planteamiento permite conocer mejor el funcionamiento de las redes de abastecimiento de agua potable y solucionar problemas que requieren de una simulacion hidraulica mas precisa, como el comportamiento de la calidad del agua, las fugas en las redes y la influencia reguladora de los tinacos de las casas.

  3. Preliminary studies on membrane filtration for the production of potable water: a case of Tshaanda rural village in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomotsegang F Molelekwa

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration (UF systems have been used globally for treating water from resources including rivers, reservoirs, and lakes for the production of potable water in the past decade. UF membranes with a pore size of between 0.1 and 0.01 micrometres provide an effective barrier for bacteria, viruses, suspended particles, and colloids. The use of UF membrane technology in treating groundwater for the supply of potable water in the impoverished and rural village, Tshaanda (i.e., the study area is demonstrated. The technical and administrative processes that are critical for the successful installation of the pilot plant were developed. Given the rural nature of Tshaanda, the cultural and traditional protocols were observed. Preliminary results of the water quality of untreated water and the permeate are presented. Escherichia coli in the untreated water during the dry season (i.e., June and July was 2 cfu/100 ml and was 2419.2 cfu/100 ml before UF. Following UF, it dramatically reduced to acceptable level (7 cfu/100 ml which is within the WHO recommended level of <10 cfu/100 ml. Additionally, during the wet/rainy season E. coli and enterococci were unacceptably high (40.4 cfu/100 ml and 73.3 cfu/100 ml, respectively before UF but were completely removed following UF, which are within the WHO and SANS recommended limit. The values for electrical conductivity (EC and turbidity were constantly within the WHO recommended limits of 300 µS/cm corrected at 25°C and <5 NTU, respectively, before and after UF, during dry season and wet season. This suggests that there is no need for pre-treatment of the water for suspended particles and colloids. Considering these data, it can be concluded that the water is suitable for human consumption, following UF.

  4. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  5. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Topical Report is a synopsis of the decontamination of plant components and structures at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document the preparation activities in support of the shipment of radioactive wastes and the unconditional release of the site and structural materials. 1 ref., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  7. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  8. Avoiding Service Station Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.; Burton, John R.

    1982-01-01

    High school students are warned against service station fraud. A problem-solving section is designed to help students calculate consumer costs for various fraudulent transactions. Several ways of reducing fraud or of lessening the chances of problems are noted. (MP)

  9. The Service Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to encourage the primary student to expand his or her awareness of jobs within the community. The role of the service station worker is examined, with emphasis on the goods and services provided. Subject areas for which the materials in this guide have potential are social studies, art, and language. Each set…

  10. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  11. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  12. Mojave Base Station Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielski, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  13. Biological filters and their use in potable water filtration systems in spaceflight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Starla G.; Kumar, Manish

    2018-05-01

    Providing drinking water to space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) is a costly requirement for human habitation. To limit the costs of water transport, wastewater is collected and purified using a variety of physical and chemical means. To date, sand-based biofilters have been designed to function against gravity, and biofilms have been shown to form in microgravity conditions. Development of a universal silver-recycling biological filter system that is able to function in both microgravity and full gravity conditions would reduce the costs incurred in removing organic contaminants from wastewater by limiting the energy and chemical inputs required. This paper aims to propose the use of a sand-substrate biofilter to replace chemical means of water purification on manned spaceflights.

  14. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  15. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  16. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  17. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettner, B.

    1987-04-01

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG) [de

  18. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  19. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stote, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  20. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  1. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  2. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  3. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  4. Microbiology and Crew Medical Events on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Kadwa, Biniafer; Taiym, Wafa; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane; Baalen, Mary Van

    2014-01-01

    The closed environment of the International Space Station (ISS) creates an ideal environment for microbial growth. Previous studies have identified the ubiquitous nature of microorganisms throughout the space station environment. To ensure safety of the crew, microbial monitoring of air and surface within ISS began in December 2000 and continues to be monitored on a quarterly basis. Water monitoring began in 2009 when the potable water dispenser was installed on ISS. However, it is unknown if high microbial counts are associated with inflight medical events. The microbial counts are determined for the air, surface, and water samples collected during flight operations and samples are returned to the Microbiology laboratory at the Johnson Space Center for identification. Instances of microbial counts above the established microbial limit requirements were noted and compared inflight medical events (any non-injury event such as illness, rashes, etc.) that were reported during the same calendar-quarter. Data were analyzed using repeated measures logistic regression for the forty-one US astronauts flew on ISS between 2000 and 2012. In that time frame, instances of microbial counts being above established limits were found for 10 times for air samples, 22 times for surface samples and twice for water. Seventy-eight inflight medical events were reported among the astronauts. A three times greater risk of a medical event was found when microbial samples were found to be high (OR = 3.01; p =.007). Engineering controls, crew training, and strict microbial limits have been established to mitigate the crew medical events and environmental risks. Due to the timing issues of sampling and the samples return to earth, identification of particular microorganisms causing a particular inflight medical event is difficult. Further analyses are underway.

  5. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  6. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  7. Usos alternativos para la biomasa (residuos de madera)

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Guerra, Ricardo D.; Islas Díaz, Andrea A.; Loftus Asseeva, Liam; Madero Hernández, Camila

    2017-01-01

    Tiene por objetivo informar y conscientizar a la población en general y, específicamente, a los trabajadores de sectores medioambientales sobre los usos alternativos de la biomasa (residuos de madera). Se propone disminuir o eliminar la quema de biomasa para elevar el uso de energías sustentables y 100% limpias. De esta manera, un uso alternativo e innovador de la biomasa es la producción de tablas de polimero a base de madera para la construcción sustentable. En este recursos infográfico se ...

  8. Energy use and carbon footprint for potable water and wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presura Elena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs are sources of emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs, such as carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4. Carbon dioxide emissions have a big contribution to climate change. In general they come from burning fossil fuels to generate the electricity necessary for operating the treatment processes. The demand of energy depends on the treatment processes, but also on the quality of water source or wastewater influent. Water companies have to continuously supply safe drinking water to population and to treat and discharge wastewater according to regulations at a cost as low as possible. In Romania reporting of GHGs is not mandatory for water companies. Evaluation of GHG emissions from water industry have become a subject of great interest because of concern regarding climate change. Research and regulation have been conducted by different authors based on a regional basis. This paper proposes to estimate and compare the carbon emissions resulting from power consumption of Constanta South WWTP and PALAS Constanta DWTP. The energy supplier is different for these plants. In order to calculate the carbon emissions the amount of specific CO2 emissions is determined. The contribution of each primary source to produce the amount of electricity which is consumed is taken into account. WWTP has high power consumption in biological processes, because there are the aeration tanks, the sewage pumping station and the equipment for sludge. DWTP has high power consumption because of the pumping equipment used for raw water abstraction from deep wells and those for drinking water distribution to consumers. In order to identify, sort and display possible causes of the high power consumption of WWTP, Ishikawa chart is used. Through its configuration, the diagram allows highlighting and prioritizing the causes which generate this effect. Some management options are presented in

  9. Space station orbit maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  10. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  11. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  12. PlayStation purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2010-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma.

  13. Energy saving in the pumping of drinking water, Municipality of San Felipe, Guanajuato; Ahorro de energia electrica en bombeo de agua potable, en el municipio de San Felipe, Gto.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz Sanchez, Lorenzo [Applied Technology Center de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    This paper shows the results attained in energy saving through a project of potable water pumping, which took an investment of $433,043.00 and an internal rate of return of 126%. This project puts into evidence that it is possible to reduce between 15 and 30% of the total invoicing for energy consumption in potable water pumping if an equipment of poor efficiency is replaced by another of high efficiency. The project was requested by the Guanajuato's State Water Comision and the Municipal Bureau of Sewage and Potable Water, with the double intention of reducing the energy consumption along with the corresponding invoicing and incrementing the output of the wells in order to improve the potable water supply. In the site two high efficiency submersible motor-pumps were installed previously to the energy diagnosis that triggered profitable operation results and a convenient invoicing. [Spanish] Se documentan los resultados obtenidos en un proyecto de ahorro de energia en el bombeo de agua potable realizado con una inversion de $433,043.00 y con una tasa interna de retorno de 126%. Este proyecto pone en evidencia que es posible reducir entre el 15 y 30% de la facturacion total por consumo de energia electrica en el bombeo de agua potable si se sustituye un equipo poco eficiente por otro de alta eficiencia. El proyecto fue solicitado por la Comision Estatal del Agua de Guanajuato y la Junta Municipal de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado del municipio, con un doble proposito, reducir el consumo de energia junto con la facturacion correspondiente e incrementar la capacidad de produccion de los pozos con la intencion de mejorar el abasto de agua potable. En el lugar se instalaron dos motobombas sumergibles de alta eficiencia previo diagnostico energetico que desencadenaron rentables resultados operativos y de facturacion.

  14. Tether applications for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, W.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of space station applications for tethers were reviewed. Many will affect the operation of the station itself while others are in the category of research or scientific platforms. One of the most expensive aspects of operating the space station will be the continuing shuttle traffic to transport logistic supplies and payloads to the space station. If a means can be found to use tethers to improve the efficiency of that transportation operation, it will increase the operating efficiency of the system and reduce the overall cost of the space station. The concept studied consists of using a tether to lower the shuttle from the space station. This results in a transfer of angular momentum and energy from the orbiter to the space station. The consequences of this transfer is studied and how beneficial use can be made of it.

  15. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  16. Wind turbine power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-11-01

    The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW's) policy on wind turbine power stations needs to be read in the context of CCW's document Energy:Policy and perspectives for the Welsh countryside. This identifies four levels of action aimed at reducing emission of gases which contribute towards the risk of global warming and gases which cause acid deposition. These are: the need for investment in energy efficiency; the need for investment in conventional power generation in order to meet the highest environmental standards; the need for investment in renewable energy; and the need to use land use transportation policies and decisions to ensure energy efficiency and energy conservation. CCW views wind turbine power stations, along with other renewable energy systems, within this framework. CCW's policy is to welcome the exploitation of renewable energy sources as an element in a complete and environmentally sensitive energy policy, subject to the Environmental Assessment of individual schemes and monitoring of the long-term impact of the various technologies involved. (Author)

  17. An Integrated and Optimal Joint Scheduling of Energy Resources to Feed Electrical, Thermal and Potable Water Demands in Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghaffarpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous spread of distributed energy resources (DERs such as combined heating and power (CHP, diesel generators, boilers and renewable energy sources provide an effective solution to energy related problems to serve the power and heat demands with minimum cost. Moreover, the DERs may play a significant role for supplying power and heat in rural areas, where grid electricity is not available. Also, some dry areas may face water scarcity and salinity problems. So, one important solution is the use of DERs to drive desalination units in order to solve water scarcity and salinity problems. In this study, the optimal scheduling of DERs and reverse osmosis (RO desalination unit that feed the required electric, thermal and potable water demands are determined. The present paper describes the operation constraints and cost function of components of the system in detail. Operation constraints of generation units as well as feasible region of operation CHP in dual dependency characteristic are taken into account. To confirm the performance of the proposed model the approach is tested on a realistic remote area over a 24-h period. The results show that the economical scheduling of DERs and desalination units can be obtained using proposed methodology by implementing the proposed formulation.

  18. Radiological quality in drinking water from Granada city; Calidad radiologica del agua potable de la ciudad de Granada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Penalver, J. J.; Gonzalez Gomez, C.; Ferro Garcia, M. A.; Prados Joya, G.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to present data on gross alpha and beta activities in the drinking water from Granada city, during six years, 2000 to 2005. The samples were measured using a gas-flow proportional counter Bert hold LB 770-2/5. The results show that the gross alpha and gross beta cavity is lower than the maximum contaminant level based on the World Health Organisation, who which indicates 0.1 Bq.1-1 and 1.0 Bq.l''-1 as maximum contaminant level of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in potable water, respectively. Concentration ranging from 4.1.10''-3 to 3.9.10''2 Bq.l''-1 and from 4.9.10''-3 to 5.6.10''-2 Bq.l''-1 were observed from the gross alpha and beta activities, respectively. An average annual effective dose equivalent of 2.909 {mu}Sv-yr''-1 was obtained together with a range of 0.186 to 0.326 {mu}Sv.mo''-1. (Author) 10 refs.

  19. Reclamation of grey water for non-potable purposes using pilot-scale solar photocatalytic tubular reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Sarangapany; Arunkumar, Patchaiyappan; Manjari, Gangarapu; Devipriya, Suja P

    2018-05-05

    Application of pilot-scale slurry-type tubular photocatalytic reactor was tested for the decentralized treatment of actual grey water. The reactors were fabricated by reusing the locally available materials at low cost, operated in batch recycle mode with 25 L of grey water. The influence of operational parameters such as catalysts' concentration, initial slurry pH and addition of H 2 O 2 on COD abatement were optimized. The results show that Ag-decorated TiO 2 showed a two-fold increase in COD abatement than did pure TiO 2 . Better COD abatement was observed under acidic conditions, and addition of H 2 O 2 significantly increases the rate of COD abatement. Within 2 h, 99% COD abatement was observed when the reactor was operated with optimum operational conditions. Silver ion lixiviate was also monitored during the experiment and is five times less than the permissible limits. The catalyst shows good stability even after five cycles without much loss in its photocatalytic activity. The results clearly reveal that pilot-scale slurry tubular solar photocatalytic reactors could be used as a cost-effective method to treat grey water and the resulting clean water could be reused for various non-potable purposes, thus conserving precious water resource. This study favours decentralized grey water treatment and possible scaling up of solar photocatalytic reactor using locally available materials for the potential reuse of treated water.

  20. Conflictos ambientales urbanos. Estrategias de movilización asociadas al acceso al agua potable en Tandil, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Marcela Guerrero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La protesta social se caracteriza por una trama de esfuerzos coordinados y de nuevas formas de organización en red que enfatizan códigos culturales y roles identitarios a nivel comunitario. Estas formas de movilización y organización llaman la atención de los medios, la opinión pública, pero al mismo tiempo estimulan el pensamiento académico con enfoques diferentes como el de los nuevos movimientos sociales (NMS. Distintas formas de organización social han tenido presencia en la última década en la ciudad de Tandil, Argentina. Algunas de estas movilizaciones son debidas a los efectos ambientales de la actividad minera, la instalación de actividades nocivas, etc. En particular, el trabajo caracteriza las luchas locales por acceso al agua potable a partir del análisis historiográfico y documental. Ello permitió detectar analogías conceptuales con otros procesos similares comprendidos globalmente en los denominados NMS.

  1. CONFLICTOS AMBIENTALES URBANOS. ESTRATEGIAS DE MOVILIZACIÓN ASOCIADAS AL ACCESO AL AGUA POTABLE EN TANDIL, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Marcela Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La protesta social se caracteriza por una trama de esfuerzos coordinados y de nuevas formas de organización en red que enfatizan códigos culturales y roles identitarios a nivel comunitario. Estas formas de movilización y organización llaman la atención de los medios, la opinión pública, pero al mismo tiempo estimulan el pensamiento académico con enfoques diferentes como el de los nuevos movimientos sociales (NMS. Distintas formas de organización social han tenido presencia en la última década en la ciudad de Tandil, Argentina. Algunas de estas movilizaciones son debidas a los efectos ambientales de la actividad minera, la instalación de actividades nocivas, etc. En particular, el trabajo caracteriza las luchas locales por acceso al agua potable a partir del análisis historiográfico y documental. Ello permitió detectar analogías conceptuales con otros procesos similares comprendidos globalmente en los denominados NMS. (1

  2. Factores asociados al desempeño en organismos operadores de agua potable en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salazar Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available en este estudio se investigan los factores asociados con el desempeño de los organismos operadores de agua en México, mediante el análisis de la estructura de correlación de los principales indicadores para una muestra de 106 de ellos. Se clasificaron a partir de un análisis de cluster sobre componentes más importantes, para identificar patrones de eficiencia relacionados con variables contextuales. Los resultados indican que el volumen de agua no contabilizada es mayor en organismos con más empleados, por cada mil tomas. Esto también se correlaciona con bajos costos de producción y tasas elevadas de precipitación. Las ciudades más grandes y desarrolladas tienen mejor acceso a los servicios de agua potable y alcantarillado; aunque la cobertura tiende a ser menor en las que crecen con mayor rapidez. El porcentaje de recaudación y el ingreso promedio por metro cúbico son mayores en localidades con micromedición alta, donde también la relación ingreso-costo es mejor.

  3. Uso del arco en las cohortes pretorianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceñal Martínez, Héctor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have attempted to present a general idea of the use of a weapon that is not usually associated with Praetorian soldiers, showing how soldiers were forced to adapt to new times. We have analyzed epigraphic and literary sources, and we can consider as proven the employment of this weapon in the praetorium throughout the 3rd century AD as a result of adaptation to new battle techniques in the face of old and new enemies.

    A lo largo de este artículo hemos realizado una aproximación al uso de un arma que normalmente no se asocia con los soldados de la guardia pretoriana, mostrando así cómo los nuevos tiempos obligaron a estos soldados a adaptarse. Para ello hemos recurrido tanto a las fuentes clásicas como a la epigrafía. Así podemos aseverar sin duda el empleo de esta arma en el pretorio durante el siglo III d. C., como consecuencia de los nuevos modos de combate ante enemigos nuevos y viejos.

  4. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  5. Innovative Railway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  6. Bradwell Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    When built, the Magnox reactors were expected to have operating lifetimes of 20-25 years. In order to satisfy the licensing authorities of their continued safety, long term safety reviews (LTSRs) are being carried out as the reactors reach 20 years of operation. This is the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate's (NII) summary report on Bradwell nuclear power station. The objectives of the LTSR are stated. A description of the plant is followed by an explanation of the statutory position on licensing. The responsibilities of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the NII are defined. From the examination of the CEGB's LTSR it is concluded that this generally confirms the validity of the existing safety case for present operation. However, some recommendations are made as to work required for reactor operation up to 1992. A summary of the NII findings is presented. This includes the reactor pressure circuit integrity, effects of ageing and in-service wear and radiation doses. (U.K.)

  7. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  8. El uso del lenguaje estadístico R: herramientas para su uso en docencia e investigación

    OpenAIRE

    Cid, Fabricio Damian

    2017-01-01

    El uso del lenguaje estadístico R: Herramientas para su uso en docencia e investigación. Articulo publicado en la sección "TICs y Docencia" de la Revista Actualidad Analítica" Fil: Cid, Fabricio Damian. Universidad Nacional de San Luis. Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina

  9. Uso racional y sostenible de los recursos hídricos del acuífero del valle de Toluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gárfias Soliz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua subterránea constituye la principal fuente de agua potable en el valle de Toluca, esto ha inducido a una sobreexplotación del acuífero, así como la extinción de zonas húmedas y una constante degradación de la calidad del agua, por lo cual es necesario adoptar medidas de protección, realizando una evaluación cuantitativa de la evolución del acuífero y sus efectos a partir de estudios detallados en un contexto multidisciplinario y de datos fiables. En un primer paso hacia esta meta, el presente artículo tiene como finalidad plantear estrategias de ordenación de este recurso en el marco de un sistema más integrado y equitativo que conlleve a una explotación adecuada y duradera del recurso hidráulico. En consecuencia, se examinan algunas de las opciones de políticas esenciales en relación con distintos aspectos de la gestión del agua, ya que brindan considerables posibilidades de ser catalizadoras de un proceso más amplio de reforma de las políticas y la gestión de los recursos hídricos. Finalmente se describen los pasos para evolucionar hacia el uso sostenible de las aguas subterráneas en el valle de Toluca, buscando una mejora del conocimiento base en el que se adaptan los enfoques administrativos de ecosistemas y la administración en el manejo de las aguas subterráneas.

  10. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  11. Cefaleia por uso excessivo de medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Maria Fonseca MIRANDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma variante da cefaleia crônica diária, a cefaleia por uso excessivo de medicamentos é uma manifestação clínica de frequência ≥ 15 dias por mês, durante 3 meses. Possui um diagnóstico deficiente e um tratamento dividido em etapas, sendo a desintoxicação, a etapa de fundamental importância. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre o tema, contribuindo para o esclarecimento das principais manifestações clínicas, principais teorias envolvendo sua fisiopatologia e a terapêutica farmacológica empregada. A metodologia utilizada foi uma revisão de publicações europeias e americanas, no período de 2001 a 2013, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Todos os medicamentos utilizados no tratamento sintomático das cefaleias são capazes de cronificar uma cefaleia preexistente, desde que sejam utilizados excessivamente, de forma regular e continuada. A suspensão de tais agentes terapêuticos resultará em melhoria na maioria dos pacientes, porém pode ser necessária a introdução de uma terapia de suporte de transição e/ou terapia profilática. Os tratamentos nao farmacológicos, quando associados ao farmacológico, ampliam a possibilidade de resultados satisfatórios, evitando recaídas.

  12. Application for the Tape Station

    CERN Document Server

    Solero, A

    2003-01-01

    The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

  13. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  14. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  15. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dominants in the selected events are events from Meditterranian, East Kazakhstan, India/Burma/China, South and Central America and North Ascension island regions. The limited number of events reporting at the station was due to low operational gain at the station which permitted only events whose magnitudes are ...

  16. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA MESA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico del estado actual de conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en la Amazonia colombiana, se revisaron las principales fuentes de información. Treinta y seis de las 41 etnias indígenas consideradas tuvieron registros de uso. Se registraron 82 especies de palmas usadas (78% de las potenciales y 165 usos distribuidos en ocho categorías; todos los usos se presentan de manera detallada en un catálogo. Las categorías de uso más importantes fueron: utensilios y herramientas, construcción, y alimentación humana. Las diez especies más importantes fueron Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa, Oenocarpus minor, Astrocaryum chambira, Iriartea deltoidea, Oenocarpus bacaba y Socratea exorrhiza; la mayoría de ellas también han sido registradas como las más importantes en otras partes del Neotrópico. No se encontró ninguna información sobre usos de palmas para varios grupos indígenas, especialmente para las etnias cocama, letuama, piaroa, pisamira y yurí, para las cuales se requieren investigaciones detalladas. Se concluye que a pesar de los vacíos de información, los resultados muestran que las palmas son un recurso muy importante con un gran potencial, y una pieza fundamental para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo sustentable de la Amazonia colombiana. Sugerimos la inclusión de las especies más importantes en programas de manejo y agroforestales, al igual que la implementación y popularización de técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Recomendamos además que las investigaciones futuras estén enfocadas en desarrollar estrategias de manejo que garanticen el uso sostenible de todas estas especies útiles.

  17. Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uday Kumar, N.T.; Mohan, Gowtham; Martin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar driven cogeneration system integrating membrane distillation technology is developed. • System utilizes solar thermal energy for the operations without auxiliary heaters. • Three different system integrations are experimentally investigated in UAE. • Economical benefits of solar cogeneration system is also reported. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal cogeneration system featuring the provision of potable water with membrane distillation in combination with domestic hot water supply has been developed and experimentally analyzed. The system integrates evacuated tube collectors, thermal storage, membrane distillation unit, and heat exchangers with the overall goals of maximizing the two outputs while minimizing costs for the given design conditions. Experiments were conducted during one month’s operation at AURAK’s facility in UAE, with average peak global irradiation levels of 650 W/m"2. System performance was determined for three integration strategies, all utilizing brackish water (typical conductivity of 20,000 μs/cm) as a feedstock: Thermal store integration (TSI), which resembles a conventional indirect solar domestic hot water system; Direct solar integration (DSI) connecting collectors directly to the membrane distillation unit without thermal storage; and Direct solar with thermal store integration (DSTSI), a combination of these two approaches. The DSTSI strategy offered the best performance given its operational flexibility. Here the maximum distillate productivity was 43 L/day for a total gross solar collector area of 96 m"2. In terms of simultaneous hot water production, 277 kWh/day was achieved with this configuration. An economic analysis shows that the DSTSI strategy has a payback period of 3.9 years with net cumulative savings of $325,000 during the 20 year system lifetime.

  18. Removal of phages and viral pathogens in a full-scale MBR: Implications for wastewater reuse and potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Sarah; Ebdon, James; Buck, Austen; Tupper, Martyn; Taylor, Huw

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how seasonal variability in the removal efficacy of enteric viral pathogens from an MBR-based water recycling system might affect risks to human health if the treated product were to be used for the augmentation of potable water supplies. Samples were taken over a twelve month period (March 2014-February 2015), from nine locations throughout a water recycling plant situated in East London and tested for faecal indicator bacteria (thermotolerant coliforms, intestinal enterococci n = 108), phages (somatic coliphage, F-specific RNA phage and Bacteroides phage (GB-124) n = 108), pathogenic viruses (adenovirus, hepatitis A, norovirus GI/GII n = 48) and a range of physico-chemical parameters (suspended solids, DO, BOD, COD). Thermotolerant coliforms and intestinal enterococci were removed effectively by the water recycling plant throughout the study period. Significant mean log reductions of 3.9-5.6 were also observed for all three phage groups monitored. Concentrations of bacteria and phages did not vary significantly according to season (P < 0.05; Kruskal-Wallis), though recorded levels of norovirus (GI) were significantly higher during autumn/winter months (P = 0.027; Kruskal-Wallis). Log reduction values for norovirus and adenovirus following MBR treatment were 2.3 and 4.4, respectively. However, both adenovirus and norovirus were detected at low levels (2000 and 3240 gene copies/L, respectively) post chlorination in single samples. Whilst phage concentrations did correlate with viral pathogens, the results of this study suggest that phages may not be suitable surrogates, as viral pathogen concentrations varied to a greater degree seasonally than did the phage indicators and were detected on a number of occasions on which phages were not detected (false negative sample results). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenges in setting up a potable water supply system in a United Nations peacekeeping mission: the South Sudan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Aniruddha

    2013-01-01

    A United Nations peacekeeping contingent was deployed in the conflict affected areas of South Sudan with inadequate environmental sanitation, lack of clean drinking water and a heightened risk of water-borne diseases. In the immediate post-deployment phase, the contingent-owned water purification system was pressed into service. However, laboratory analyses of processed water revealed its unsuitability for human consumption. A systematic, sanitary survey was conducted to identify the shortcomings in the water supply system's ability to provide potable water. Under field conditions, the 'H2S method' was used to detect faecal contamination of drinking water. The raw water from the only available source, the White Nile River, was highly turbid and contaminated by intestinal and other pathogens due to an unprotected watershed. Water sterilizing powder was not readily available in the local area to replenish the existing stocks that had deteriorated during the long transit period from the troop contributing country. The water pipelines that had been laid along the ground, under water-logged conditions, were prone to microbial recontamination due to leakages in the network. The critical evaluation of the water supply system and necessary modifications in the purification process, based upon locally available options, yielded safe drinking water. Provision of safe drinking water in the mission area requires an in-depth analysis of prevailing conditions and appropriate planning in the pre-deployment phase. The chemicals for water purification should be procured through UN sources via a 'letter of assist' request from the troop contributor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Controversial power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    When information on plans to build a power station in Trebisov first appeared reactions differed. A 40-billion investment in a town with more than 20% unemployment seemed attractive. But some people did not like the idea of having a power plant located in the town. Around one year after the investment was officially announced TREND returned to Trebisov. In the meantime the investor has managed to overcome one of the biggest obstacles on its way to building a new power plant. The ministry responsible gave the environmental study a positive rating. But objectors are still not sure that everything is fine. They claim that the study misinterprets data and that the ministry did not show expertise when evaluating it. 'Is it possible that a coal power plant located in a town would have twice as many positive effects on peoples' health than negative ones? Why don't we build them everywhere?'asked the chairman of the civic society, Trebisov nahlas, Gejza Gore. The developer of the project, Ceskoslovenska energeticka spolocnost (CES), Kosice is fighting back and claims that their counterpart lacks professional arguments. In the meantime it is preparing for area management proceedings. Trebisov is also involved in the discussion and claims that the town planning scheme does not include such a project. The Ministry of Construction has a different opinion. In the opinion of the Ministry the town planning scheme allows a 885-megawatt power plant to be built only a few hundred meters away from housing estates. (author)

  1. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  2. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stote, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    At the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project, the central idea of the communications program that was developed for use was purposely designed to be as uncomplicated as possible. The central theme, that was developed and communicated, is that all nuclear plants will someday need to be retired and also decommissioned. The Shippingport Plant, originally constructed as a demonstration nuclear power plant, was now being decommissioned as a demonstration to the world-wide nuclear industry that this evolution can be done in a safe and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the technology currently exists to complete this process. The new phase of the communications program was initiated even before the responsibility for the plant was transferred from Duquesne Light to GE. With such a change forthcoming, it was necessary to inform local officials of these plans, and the reasons for them. Equally important was the need to inform a variety of agencies and offices in the three-state area of the changes, and the continuing need to involve them in the Site Emergency Plan. This document was also revised in recognition of changing site conditions, as well as the changes in responsibility. 1 ref

  3. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  4. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  5. RF-Station control crate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzekom, M.G. van; Es, J.T. van.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives a description of the electronic control-system for the RF-station of AmPS. The electronics form the connection between the computer-system and the hardware of the RF-station. Only the elements of the systems which are not described in the other NIKHEF-reports are here discussed in detail. (author). 7 figs

  6. Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

  7. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  8. Monitoring of Hazardous Inorganic Pollutants and Heavy Metals in Potable Water at the Source of Supply and Consumers end of a Tropical Urban Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A. B.; Singh, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    River water is not only an indispensable source for irrigation but also plays a vital role for drinking water supply for most of the urban municipalities. Water from rivers is pumped at specific sites and after treatment at municipal water treatment plants supplied as domestic potable water supply. The present study was undertaken to assess the suitability of Gomti river water at Gaughat being used as the source of water supply for Lucknow city and to evaluate post-treatment potable water quality at the consumer end by monitoring the levels of inorganic pollutants (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphate) and heavy metals. Municipal water supply at Gaughat showed marked variations in the levels of p H (7.13-8.63) and electrical conductivity (375.66-571.67μS/cm). The amount of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphate was observed 26.25, 0.082, 6.9 and 1.82 mg/l respectively at Gaughat. Also, the levels of heavy metals in the municipal water source at Gaughat varied significantly for Fe (0.33-1.65 mg/l), Cu (0.077-0.108 mg/l), Cd (0.03-0.052 mg/l), Pb (0.68-0.96 mg/l) and Cr (0.036-0.065 mg/l). Water at the user end was also contaminated as the concentration of analysed inorganic pollutants and heavy metals were correspondingly higher than observed at the source. While comparing potable water at the user end of Lucknow municipality with the BIS (Drinking Water Specifications) and WHO standards for drinking water, the concentration of all studied heavy metals and other inorganic contaminants were much above the permissible levels, thus posing a serious threat to the public health.

  9. The Trencin water power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This leaflet describes the Trencin water power station. The Trencin water power station was built seven years after the Dubnica nad Vahom water power station started its operation and was the last stage of the first and the oldest derived cascade of water power stations on the Vah River. After completing water power stations at Ladce (1936), Ilava (1946) and Dubnica nad Vahom (1949) and before constructing the Trencin water power station, the whole second derived cascade of water power stations including water power stations at Kostolna, Nove Mesto nad Vahom and Horna Streda was built as soon as possible mainly because the need to get compensation for discontinued electricity supplies as well as energetic coal from the Czech Republic. Hereby, experiences from the construction of previous grades were used, mainly as far as the dimensioning was concerned, as the fi rst installed power stations had, in comparison with the growing requirements on the electricity supplies, very low absorption capacity - only 150 m 3 .s -1 . Thus the Trencin power station (original name was the Skalka power station) was already dimensioned for the same absorption capacity as the cascade located downstream the river, that is 180 m 3 .s -1 . That was related also to growing demands on electricity supplies during the peaks in the daily electric system load diagram, and thus to the transfer from continuous operation of the water power station to semi-peak or even peak performance. According to the standards of power station classification, the Trencin water power station is a medium size, low pressure, channel power station with two units equipped by Kaplan turbines and synchronous hydro-alternators. The water power station installed capacity is 16.1 MW in total and its designed annual production of electrical energy for medium water year is 85,000 MWh, while the average annual production during the last 30 years is 86,252 MWh. Installed unit has a four-blade Kaplan turbine with the diameter

  10. Recuento y determinación de viabilidad de giardia spp. y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas potables y residuales en la cuenca alta del rio Bogotá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlén Andrea Alarcón

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La transmisión de enfermedades de origen hídrico está relacionada con la contaminación de origen fecal en aguas residuales y potables. Estas enfermedades son causadas por la presencia de bacterias, virus y parásitos, los cuales generan altos porcentajes de morbimortalidad, especialmente, en la población infantil. Se han seleccionado Giardia spp. y Cryptosporidium spp. como organismos indicadores de contaminación de origen parasitario y su análisis es útil para evaluar la calidad del agua y determinar el riesgo sanitario. En Colombia se conoce poco sobre la presencia y la concentración de estos parásitos en aguas, razón por la cual es importante continuar su estudio. Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la presencia de estos protozoos en cinco estaciones de muestreo de la cuenca alta del río Bogotá y en dos sistemas de potabilización de la misma área. Materiales y métodos. Las técnicas aplicadas para la determinación y el recuento de las formas quísticas fueron: floculación inorgánica para aguas residuales, filtración para aguas potables y pruebas de colorantes vitales para viabilidad. Resultados. Se confirmó la presencia de Cryptosporidium spp. en dos de las estaciones del río Bogotá y en las dos potabilizadoras. Giardia spp. se encontró en las dos potabilizadoras pero no en el río Bogotá. La viabilidad fue positiva para Cryptosporidium spp. en una muestra proveniente del río, y negativa para las muestras de agua potable. Conclusiones. Estos resultados muestran la presencia de protozoos en aguas potables y residuales lo cual puede generar riesgo sanitario para la población de dicha zona.

  11. Preparación de Membranas para Producción de Agua Potable Preparation of Membranes for the Production of Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa M Ribeiro; Rosângela Bergamasco; Marcelino L Gimenes; Carmen M. O Müller

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la síntesis de membranas poliméricas asimétricas para la producción de agua potable. La filtración usando membranas es un proceso alternativo para el tratamiento de aguas, donde la membrana actúa como una barrera selectiva que bloquea el pasaje de algunos componentes. En este trabajo algunas muestras de agua fueron infectadas con 10(7) a 10(8) unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC) por ml con la bacteria Escherichia coli. El proceso utilizado fue la...

  12. El enfoque sistémico: aplicación al subsector de agua potable y alcantarillado (A.P.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Triviño M.

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Al presentar en este documento una síntesis de los principios básicos del análisis de sistemas y su aplicación al sector de agua potable y saneamiento, se desea contribuir en forma práctica a la divulgación y aplicación de una ciencia relativamente joven que permite mejorar cada vez más las organizaciones y su administración, sin causar traumatismos ni ocasionar resistencias al cambio deseado, en beneficio de la salud del hombre.

  13. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  14. Diversification des ressources du réseau d’eau non potable parisien : contribution à une gestion durable des ressources en eau

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh , Bich-Thuy

    2017-01-01

    At the scale of a city, a sustainable water management raises questions about the links between uses and resources: what water quality is needed for what purpose? The Parisian context is a favourable ground for conducting such type of reflection thanks to the existence of a non-potable water network (RENP) dating from the late nineteenth century. The network is currently supplied by summarily filtrated water from the Seine river (20%) and the canal de l’Ourcql (80%). It is mainly used for mun...

  15. Anticorrupción en la regulación del servicio de suministro de agua potable: estudio de caso para Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Boehm; Olga Rocío Bohórquez Suárez

    2011-01-01

    El agua es un recurso natural indispensable para la vida humana. No obstante, cientos de miles de personas en el mundo no tienen acceso a este recurso. La crisis del agua tiene su origen primordialmente en un problema de gobernabilidad, y la corrupción es uno de los factores centrales de esto. El servicio de suministro de agua potable, por tener características de monopolio natural, debe ser regulado. Sin embargo, la regulación está expuesta a problemas de información asimétrica en varios niv...

  16. Influencia de la calidad en la cobertura y el servicio de agua potable que brinda la empresa Emapa San Martín S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Asmat Sigueñas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    La calidad del agua es una exigencia de los mercados globales, pasó hacer una pauta comercial obligada junto a la evolución de los criterios de calidad que valorizan al hombre como consumidor por excelencia; es uno de los aspectos más sensibles en la prestación de los servicios de saneamiento. Una mala calidad del agua puede tener efectos devastadores sobre la población, razón por la cual es necesario ofertar con calidad el servicio de agua potable a fin de prevenir cualquier problema. Del mi...

  17. Space station propulsion requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  18. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  19. Recomendador t-incluye para un uso inclusivo del lenguaje

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Fort, Maria; Padró, Lluís; Turmo Borras, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Sistema que procesa un texto escrito en castellano detectando usos del lenguaje no inclusivos. Para cada sintagma nominal sospechoso el sistema propone una serie de alternativas. El sistema permite también la adquisición automática de ejemplos positivos a partir de documentos que hagan un uso inclusivo del lenguaje. Éstos ejemplos seran usados, junto a su contexto, en la presentación de sugerencias. System to detect exclusive language in spanish documents. For each noun phrase detected as ...

  20. Usos populares de la flora tipica del oeste de Cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Madrid, María José; Martínez Madrid, Isabel María

    2011-01-01

    Se recopilan los usos que popularmente se llevan o llevaban a cabo con la flora local del Oeste de Cartagena, para as´ı estudiar los conocimientos que a ´un conserva la poblaci´on y realizar un peque ˜ no sondeo de las plantas m´as utilizadas, atendiendo a su ubicaci´on y uso. Esta recopilaci´on de datos la he realizado mediante una serie de entrevistas abiertas a diversas personas de distintas edades en las que les preguntaba por plantas medicinales, enfermedades q...

  1. USO DE TABACO ENTRE ADOLESCENTES: REVISÃO DE LITERATURA

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Márcia dos Santos Reinaldo; Camila Cesar Goecking; Jennifer Perucci de Almeida; Yasmin Narciso Goulart

    2010-01-01

    Revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre el uso de tabaco entre adolescentes. La utilización del tabaco entre adolescentes, en general, puede estar asociada al éxito, a la necesidad de aceptación, a cuestiones familiares, entre otros factores que incentivan de cierta forma a su uso. Las políticas de salud para el área trabajan para prevenir y reducir el consumo, alertando en relación al riesgo al que tal población se expone cuando utiliza tabaco. Conocer el perfil de los adolescentes que u...

  2. Motivos de uso de los servicios de urgencias

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Ricardo Molano Gutiérrez; Claudia Mylena Escobar Grisales; María Angélica García Vargas; Paola Andrea Salazar Molina; Laura Camila Mejía Venegas; Wilson Giovanni Jiménez Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar los motivos que tienen las personas para hacer uso de los servicios de urgencias. Metodología: Artículo de revisión de literatura adelantado mediante la organización y análisis de artículos sobre el tema, así como resultados de estudios de investigación localizados en las principales bases de datos, centros de evidencia científica y revistas indexadas. Resultados: se clasificaron los motivos de uso de los servicios de urgencias en cinco grupos: factores demográficos y epi...

  3. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  4. Space Station Freedom food management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  5. Torness: proposed nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The need for and desirability of nuclear power, and in particular the proposed nuclear power station at Torness in Scotland, are questioned. Questions are asked, and answered, on the following topics: position, appearance and cost of the proposed Torness plant, and whether necessary; present availability of electricity, and forecast of future needs, in Scotland; energy conservation and alternative energy sources; radiation hazards from nuclear power stations (outside, inside, and in case of an accident); transport of spent fuel from Torness to Windscale; radioactive waste management; possibility of terrorists making a bomb with radioactive fuel from a nuclear power station; cost of electricity from nuclear power; how to stop Torness. (U.K.)

  6. The role of pesticide fate modelling in a prevention-led approach to potable water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Tom; Pullan, Stephanie; Whelan, Mick; Parsons, David

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse inputs from agriculture are commonly the main source of pesticide contamination in surface water and may have implications for the quality of treated drinking water. After privatisation in 1991, UK water companies primarily focused on the provision of sufficient water treatment to reduce the risk of non-compliance with the European Drinking Water Directive (DWD), under which all pesticide concentrations must be below 0.1µg/l and UK Water Supply Regulations for the potable water they supply. Since 2000, Article 7 of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) has begun to drive a prevention-led approach to compliance with the DWD. As a consequence water companies are now more interested in the quality of 'raw' (untreated) water at the point of abstraction. Modelling (based upon best available estimates of cropping, pesticide use, weather conditions, pesticide characteristics, and catchment characteristics) and monitoring of raw water quality can both help to determine the compliance risks associated with the quality of this 'raw' water resource. This knowledge allows water companies to prioritise active substances for action in their catchments, and is currently used in many cases to support the design of monitoring programmes for pesticide active substances. Additional value can be provided if models are able to help to identify the type and scale of catchment management interventions required to achieve DWD compliance for pesticide active substances through pollution prevention at source or along transport pathways. These questions were explored using a simple catchment-scale pesticide fate and transport model. The model employs a daily time-step and is semi-lumped with calculations performed for soil type and crop combinations, weighted by their proportions within the catchment. Soil properties are derived from the national soil database and the model can, therefore, be applied to any catchment in England and Wales. Various realistic catchment management

  7. Heat transmission systems for heating and potable water. New requirements and problem solutions for hygiene, safety and improved heat utilization. Waermeuebertragungssysteme fuer Heizung und Trinkwasser. Neue Anforderungen und Problemloesungen bezueglich Hygiene, Sicherheit und besserer Waermenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, R

    1989-10-01

    In the past, additional demands were made on heat transmission systems regarding hygienic requirements in potable water heating plant for hospitals, hotels, sanatoriums and old-age homes, safety requirements to protect the potable water from the penetration of hazardous substances and requirements for improved heat utilization through return flow cooling and condensate cooling in the district heating. Where potable water heaters are concerned, safety radiators for heat transfer which comply with the requirements of DIN 1988 Part 2 and Part 4, as well as water heaters with permanent disinfection which are legionnaires' disease-proof, are now available for use in hospitals, old age homes and sanatoriums. For the district heating sector, improved range systems with low concentration in the hot water sector as well as condensate heat utilizing systems have been further developed in the steam heating sector. (orig.).

  8. VT Data - Electric Charging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Locations of Electric Charging Stations provided by the NREL national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy....

  9. NOAA Weather Radio - Station Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search COVERAGE County Coverage Listings State Coverage Listings NWR Station Search Maps SAME SAME Coding Using

  10. Services for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremann, M.; Ryckelynck

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an information as complete as possible about the activities of the french nuclear industry on the export-market. It describes the equipment and services available in the field of services for nuclear power stations [fr

  11. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  12. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  13. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  14. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  16. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  17. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Łukasz Rosłaniec; Rafał Bielas; Magdalena Błędzińska

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper...

  18. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  19. Space Station Freedom operations costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accola, Anne L.; Williams, Gregory J.

    1988-01-01

    Measures to reduce the operation costs of the Space Station which can be implemented in the design and development stages are discussed. Operational functions are described in the context of an overall operations concept. The provisions for operations cost responsibilities among the partners in the Space Station program are presented. Cost estimating methodologies and the way in which operations costs affect the design and development process are examined.

  20. Advances in power station construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about power stations - specifically about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales over the past decade. It describes the work of the CEGB's Generation Development and Construction Division, perhaps better known throughout the world as simply 'Barnwood' where it has its Headquarters in Gloucester, UK. Barnwood was formed in the early 1970s to concentrate the CEGB's then dispersed engineering construction resources to cope with the smaller number but greatly increased size and complexity of modern power station projects. Perhaps uniquely over the ten years since its formation Barnwood has managed the construction of all types of station; coal-fired, oil-fired, nuclear, pumped storage and hydro. This book tells the story of these various projects and gives detailed descriptions of the respective stations. However, it is not intended as a comprehensive description of power station technology. Rather it is intended to convey the scale of such projects and the many decisions and compromises which have to be made in the course of managing their construction

  1. Uso de glucocorticoides en enfermedades alérgicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rodríguez-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los glucocorticoides son análogos sintéticos de las hormonas adrenocorticales, de uso común, de gran utilidad en la práctica clínica del pediatra y se consideran la piedra angular del tratamiento farmacológico de enfermedades alérgicas.

  2. Uso de terreno urbano y rural en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    El Proyecto de Analisis de Gap de Puerto Rico (PRGAP) (Gould et al. 2008) desarrollo tres usos de terrenos para Puerto Rico: Urbano, Suburbano, y Rural (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Estas regiones tambien pueden ser consideradas como urbano, densamente-poblado rural, y escasamente-poblado rural, o como urbano y area silvestre con una interfase de area silvestre-urbana. La...

  3. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed on...

  4. Development of a separate tank with an electrolysis-dependent bacteria controlling system for the long term storage of potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Akinori; Tanji, Masataka; Hayashi, Nobuatsu; Wakabayashi, Akihiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Hotta, Kunimoto

    2006-12-01

    For the long term storage of tap water, we developed a separate type of tank (5 m3) equipped with an electrolysis system to control bacterial growth. The electrolysis conditions using 20A direct current and a water flow rate of 10 L/min were capable of producing available chlorine (AC) at the rate of 5-8mg/min and raising the AC level of the stored tap water by about 0.2 mg/kg within 20-30 min The electrolyzed tap water with 0.2 mg/kg AC showed a capability per ml of killing 10(5)-10(6) cfu of bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 15 sec. A 6-month trial operation of the storage system with an automatic electrolysis control to keep AC level ranging 0.2-0.4 mg/kg demonstrated that the system worked well for the stored tap water in suppressing bacterial growth as well as in keeping good potable quality with reference to the 46 parameters specified for Japanese tap water. Actually, the electrolysis treatment was administered intermittently with an interval of about two weeks. Thus we believe the developed system has good potential to secure a potable water supply not only in the occasion of emergencies but also in countries having problems in the supply of safe drinking water.

  5. Anticorrupción en la regulación del servicio de suministro de agua potable: estudio de caso para Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Boehm

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El agua es un recurso natural indispensable para la vida humana. No obstante, cientos de miles de personas en el mundo no tienen acceso a este recurso. La crisis del agua tiene su origen primordialmente en un problema de gobernabilidad, y la corrupción es uno de los factores centrales de esto. El servicio de suministro de agua potable, por tener características de monopolio natural, debe ser regulado. Sin embargo, la regulación está expuesta a problemas de información asimétrica en varios niveles, lo que puede restar eficiencia a las instituciones involucradas y puede dar pie a la aparición de prácticas corruptas. En Colombia, la regulación del servicio de suministro de agua potable tiene una estructura legal que busca promover la participación, transparencia, rendición de cuentas e integridad. Sin embargo, hay una brecha significativa entre lo que dice la ley y lo que en efecto se hace en la práctica. Es necesario que desde la regulación se fortalezca la aplicación de medidas que hagan posible la prestación de un servicio eficiente a la población, para que así el derecho al libre acceso a un recurso hídrico de calidad sea una realidad.

  6. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Rabia M.; Hamilton, Kerry A.; Haas, Charles N.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0–100% treated wastewater effluent) were assessed. Additionally, we assessed risks for different blending ratios (0–100% surface water blended into advanced-treated DPR water) when source surface water consisted of 50% wastewater effluent. De facto reuse risks exceeded the yearly 10−4 infections risk benchmark while all modeled DPR risks were significantly lower. Contamination with 1% or more wastewater effluent in the source water, and blending 1% or more wastewater-impacted surface water into the advanced-treated DPR water drove the risk closer to the 10−4 benchmark. We demonstrate that de facto reuse by itself, or as an input into DPR, drives microbial risks more so than the advanced-treated DPR water. When applied using location-specific inputs, this framework can contribute to project design and public awareness campaigns to build legitimacy for DPR. PMID:28608808

  7. Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting to fulfill potable water demand using quantitative water management in low-lying delta regions of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Hossain, F.

    2016-12-01

    Low-lying deltas of Asian region are usually densely populated and located in developing countries situated at the downstream end of major rivers. Extensive dam construction by the upstream countries has now caused water scarcity in large portions of low-lying deltas. Most inhabitants depend on shallow tube well for safe drinking water that tend to suffer from water quality issues (e.g. Arsenic contamination). In addition, people also get infected from water borne diseases like Cholera and Typhoid due to lack of safe drinking water. Developing a centralized piped network based water supply system is often not a feasible option in rural regions. Due to social acceptability, environment friendliness, lower capital and maintenance cost, rainwater harvesting can be the most sustainable option to supply safe drinking water in rural areas. In this study, first we estimate the monthly rainfall variability using long precipitation climatology from satellite precipitation data. The upper and lower bounds of monthly harvestable rainwater were estimated for each satellite precipitation grid. Taking this lower bound of monthly harvestable rainwater as input, we use quantitative water management concept to determine the percent of the time of the year potable water demand can be fulfilled. Analysis indicates that a 6 m³ reservoir tank can fulfill the potable water demand of a 6 person family throughout a year in almost all parts of this region.

  8. La planificación y gestión del suministro de agua potable en los municipios urbano-turísticos de Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Francisco Morote Seguido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En los municipios urbano-turísticos el suministro de agua potable se convierte en uno de losservicios más importantes para el desarrollo de la actividad turística, tanto para la oferta residencial,hotelera y de ocio. El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer y analizar como las empresasgestionan y planifican el suministro de agua potable en los municipios litorales de Alicante yponer de manifiesto la implicación de estas empresas en la vertebración del territorio y la puestaen valor de un recurso tan escaso en esta provincia como es el agua. Metodológicamente se hanrealizado diferentes entrevistas a los responsables y técnicos de estas empresas para conocer deprimera mano la gestión del suministro de agua. Algunas de las conclusiones extraídas han sidola mejora en la eficiencia del suministro de agua y por tanto, un ahorro de este recurso y las buenasprácticas de gestión. También cabe indicar la labor estratégica que ejercen estas empresas conel abastecimiento a la población, especialmente en urbanizaciones que se construyeron antes dela iniciación del servicio, resolviendo problemas, tanto en cantidad como en calidad del agua.

  9. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia M. Chaudhry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0–100% treated wastewater effluent were assessed. Additionally, we assessed risks for different blending ratios (0–100% surface water blended into advanced-treated DPR water when source surface water consisted of 50% wastewater effluent. De facto reuse risks exceeded the yearly 10−4 infections risk benchmark while all modeled DPR risks were significantly lower. Contamination with 1% or more wastewater effluent in the source water, and blending 1% or more wastewater-impacted surface water into the advanced-treated DPR water drove the risk closer to the 10−4 benchmark. We demonstrate that de facto reuse by itself, or as an input into DPR, drives microbial risks more so than the advanced-treated DPR water. When applied using location-specific inputs, this framework can contribute to project design and public awareness campaigns to build legitimacy for DPR.

  10. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Rabia M; Hamilton, Kerry A; Haas, Charles N; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-06-13

    Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium , and Salmonella . Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0-100% treated wastewater effluent) were assessed. Additionally, we assessed risks for different blending ratios (0-100% surface water blended into advanced-treated DPR water) when source surface water consisted of 50% wastewater effluent. De facto reuse risks exceeded the yearly 10 -4 infections risk benchmark while all modeled DPR risks were significantly lower. Contamination with 1% or more wastewater effluent in the source water, and blending 1% or more wastewater-impacted surface water into the advanced-treated DPR water drove the risk closer to the 10 -4 benchmark. We demonstrate that de facto reuse by itself, or as an input into DPR, drives microbial risks more so than the advanced-treated DPR water. When applied using location-specific inputs, this framework can contribute to project design and public awareness campaigns to build legitimacy for DPR.

  11. 75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Moynihan Station Development Project... availability of and public comment period for the Moynihan Station Development Project Environmental Assessment... 22675

  12. Variáveis biométricas da cana-de-açúcar fertilizada com resíduos orgânico e industrial e irrigada com água servida e potável Biometric variable of sugar cane fertilized with organic and industrial residues irrigated with potable and wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio O. de Nobile

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso agrícola de resíduos orgânicos e industriais é uma alternativa de aproveitamento como fertilizante e fonte de matéria orgânica ao solo. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso do composto de lixo e biofertilizante como fonte de nutrientes, e o resíduo do processamento da bauxita como corretivo da acidez do solo, para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar (cana-planta, irrigada com água potável e servida. Para tanto foi conduzido experimento em vaso, utilizando-se de solo Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, cultivado com a variedade RB855536. Foram avaliadas variáveis biométricas da planta, tais como: altura de plantas, diâmetro do colmo, perfilhamento, número de folhas, matéria seca de raiz e parte aérea. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a qualidade da água de irrigação, potável ou servida, não influenciou as variáveis avaliadas. A aplicação de composto de lixo e de biofertilizante constituiu-se numa fonte eficiente de nutrientes para as plantas de cana-de-açúcar, mas é necessária a aplicação adicional de fertilizantes para a obtenção de produção de colmos, similar ao do tratamento com adubação mineral convencional. Já o resíduo do processamento da bauxita mostrou-se eficiente na correção da acidez, apresentando as variáveis físicas semelhantes ao tratamento com adubação mineral, com exceção da matéria seca de raiz.The agricultural use of organic and industrial residues is an alternative of exploitation with fertilization and source of organic matter to the soil. In this direction, the objective of this research was to evaluate the use of the urban solid waste and biofertilizer as nutrient source, and residue of the bauxite processing as agricultural liming materials of the soil for sugar cane (cane plant and culture yields, irrigated with potable water and wastewater. For in such an experiment in vase was lead, under Alfisol soil, cultivated with the variety RB855536. It had

  13. Valor económico de la calidad del agua: inferencias a partir de la demanda residencial de agua potable considerando percepción imperfecta de precios y complementariedad débil de las preferencias

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo de Souza, Samuel David

    2017-01-01

    Nuestro estudio aproxima una medida conservadora de la disposición a pagar (WTP) de las familias por evitar una reducción de la calidad bacteriológica del agua potable que consumen. Para ello se propone recuperar las preferencias individuales utilizando la función de demanda marshalliana por un bien privado que, se presume, es débilmente complementario a la calidad del agua: el volumen de agua potable consumido por el hogar. En la lógica de Mäller (1974) y Larson (1991), la existencia de una ...

  14. Juventud y redes sociales: Motivaciones y usos preferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Colás Bravo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio sobre la utilización que hacen los jóvenes andaluces de las redes sociales. Los objetivos fundamentales son: conocer los usos preferentes de las redes sociales, su frecuencia y los motivos que les impulsan a su utilización. Además se estudia si existen diferencias de sexo tanto en la frecuencia como en las motivaciones de uso. Se aplica un cuestionario para la recogida de datos. La muestra es de 1.487 adolescentes de Andalucía. Los resultados muestran que los jóvenes en su mayoría usan de manera habitual las redes sociales y se identifican dos vertientes motivacionales en su uso: una social y otra psicológica. No se hallan diferencias significativas entre sexos en cuanto a frecuencia de uso, pero sí en las motivaciones para su acceso. Las de los chicos son de tipo emocional, mientras que en las chicas predomina la motivación de carácter relacional. Los resultados obtenidos muestran coincidencias con investigaciones internacionales realizadas en contextos muy diferentes al presente estudio. En la discusión de resultados se plantean futuras líneas de trabajo, a la vez que se identifican implicaciones que los usos de las redes sociales tienen para la formación e integración social de una ciudadanía activa y participativa, así como para el enriquecimiento de dimensiones como el desarrollo del capital social y la educación.

  15. The Miksova water power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This leaflet describes the Miksova water power station. The Miksova water power station is part of the second derived cascade of hydro power stations on the river Vah. It was built at the end of a huge development in Slovak hydro-energy in the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's. It is the second water power station on this derived cascade, which is situated downstream the Hricov reservoir and water power station. At the power station, three turbine sets with vertical Kaplan turbines are installed with a total power output of 3 x 31.2 = 93.6 MW. With this power output the Miksova water power station (Miksova I) was the biggest water power station in the Slovak Republic until the construction of Pumping water power station Liptovska Mara. And it is still the biggest channel water power station on the Vah so far. It was put into operation during the period 1963 to 1965. There are three turbine sets with Kaplan turbines from CKD Blansko, with a synchronous hydro-alternator installed in the power station. Their installed capacity is 93.6 MW in total and the projected annual production of electrical energy is 207 GWh. The turbines are fi ve-bladed (on the Hricov and Povazska Bystrica water power stations they are four-bladed) and the impeller wheel has a diameter of 4800 mm. They are designed for extension of the head from 24.1 to 22.21 m and each of them has an absorption capacity of 134 m 3 .s -1 nd a nominal operating speed of 2.08 m 3 .s -1 , runaway speed 4.9 m 3 .s -1 . Each synchronous hydro-alternator has a maximum power output of 31.2 MW, a nominal voltage of 10.5 kV and power factor cos φ of 0.8. Power from the power station is led out through 110 kV switchgear. The water power station operates under automatic turbine mode of operation with remote indication and control from the Dispatch Centre at Vodne elektrarne, in Trencin. From start of operation until the end of 2003 all three turbine sets operated for a total of 450,500 running hours and the

  16. Pumped energy transfer stations (STEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournery, Jean-Francois

    2015-12-01

    As objectives of development are high for renewable energies (they are supposed to cover 50 per cent of new energy needs by 2035), pumped energy transfer stations are to play an important role in this respect. The author first discusses the consequences of the development of renewable energies on the exploitation of electric grids: issue of intermittency for some of them, envisaged solutions. Then, he addresses one of the solutions: the storage of electric power. He notices that increasing the potential energy of a volume of water is presently the most mature solution to face massive needs of the power system. Dams and pumped energy transfer stations represent now almost the whole installed storage power in the world. The author then presents these pumped energy transfer stations: principle, brief history (the first appeared in Italy and Switzerland at the end of the 1890's). He indicates the various parameters of assessment of such stations: maximum stored energy, installed power in pumping mode and turbine mode, time constant, efficiency, level of flexibility. He discusses economic issues. He describes and comments the operation of turbine-pump groups: ternary groups, reversible binary groups. He discusses barriers to be overcome and technical advances to be made for varying speed groups and for marine stations. He finally gives an overview (table with number of stations belonging to different power ranges, remarkable installations) of existing stations in China, USA, Japan, Germany, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, France and UK, and indicate predictions regarding storage needs at the world level. Some data are finally indicated for the six existing French installations

  17. Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

  18. The Paks Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdosi, N.; Szabo, L.

    1978-01-01

    As the first stage in the construction of the Paks Nuclear Power Station, two units of 440 MW(e) each will be built. They are operated with two coolant loops each. The reactor units are VVER 440 type water-moderated PWR type heterogeneous power reactors designed in the Soviet Union and manufactured in Czechoslovakia. Each unit operates two Soviet-made K-220-44 steam turbines and Hungarian-made generators of an effective output of 220 MW. The output of the transformer units - also of Hungarian made - is 270 MVA. The radiation protection system of the nuclear power station is described. Protection against system failures is accomplished by specially designed equipment and security measures especially within the primary circuit. Some data on the power station under construction are given. (R.P.)

  19. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  20. Monitoring of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ull, E.; Labudda, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to create a process for undelayed automated detection and monitoring of accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the relevant local measurements, such as radiation dose, components and type of radiation and additional relevant meteorological parameters being collected by means of wellknown data collection platforms, these being transmitted via transmission channels by means of satellites to suitable worldwide situated receiving stations on the ground, being processed there and being evaluated to recognise accidents. The local data collection platforms are used in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear power station. The use of aircraft, ships and balloons as data collection systems is also intended. (HWJ)

  1. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howles, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  2. Uso coordenado de ambientes virtuais e outros recursos mediacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Figueiredo Paula

    2012-08-01

    Este trabalho investiga a percepção de estudantes sobre o uso de um laboratório virtual como recurso de ensino e aprendizagem. Esse ambiente virtual permite a manipulação de elementos de circuito e aparelhos medidores. Além desse recurso, outros sete recursos foram concebidos para serem usados de maneira coordenada, de modo a mediar a ação dos estudantes, bem como as interações estudante-estudante e estudantes-professor, os quais têm como foco o ensino e a aprendizagem do conhecimento escolar sobre circuitos elétricos. Neste artigo, são discutidos os conceitos de mediação, ação mediada e recursos mediacionais, bem como uma interpretação teórica, elaborada a posteriori, das escolhas que nos levaram a conceber e a coordenar os recursos que utilizamos. A avaliação da pertinência de nossas expectativas, em relação às contribuições do uso de ambientes virtuais pelos estudantes levou-nos às seguintes questões: (a como se compara o engajamento declarado pelos estudantes no uso do laboratório virtual simulador de circuitos, com o engajamento declarado por esses sujeitos no uso dos outros recursos mediacionais?; (b para os estudantes, o uso do laboratório virtual contribuiu para a realização das ações de ensino e aprendizagem mediadas pelos outros recursos? Os dados que construímos para responder a essas questões foram produzidos a partir de um questionário de avaliação do curso e de autoavaliação respondido pelos estudantes ao final de um trimestre letivo. Os resultados encontrados mostram um alto engajamento discente no uso dos recursos mediacionais e sua percepção acerca da importância do ambiente virtual para a realização das ações mediadas pelos outros recursos.

  3. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location. [65 FR 30003, May 10, 2000] ...

  4. Developments of space station; Uchu station no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    This paper introduces the Japanese experiment module (JEM) in developing a space station. The JEM consists of systems of a pressurizing section, an exposure section, a pressurizing portion of a supply section, a manipulator and an exposure portion of the supply section. The pressurizing section circulates and controls air so that crews can perform experiments under pressurized environment. The exposure section is a part in which experiments are carried out under exposure environment. The supply section runs between a station and the ground, with required devices loaded on it. The manipulator performs attaching a payload for the exposure section and replaces experimental samples. The JEM undergoes a schedule of fabricating an engineering model, testing for a certification a prototype flight model, and putting the model on a flight. The pressurizing section, exposure section and manipulator are at the stage of system tests. Surveillance of the JEM and control of the experiments are carried out at the Tsukuba Space Center. The Center is composed of a space experiment building, a zero-gravity environment testing building, an astronaut training building, a space station operating building, and a space station testing building. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Space Station personal hygiene study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  6. Space Station - Risks and vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    In assessing the prospects of the NASA Space Station program, it is important to take account of the long term perspective embodied in the proposal; its international participants are seen as entering a complex web of developmental and operational interdependence of indefinite duration. It is noted to be rather unclear, however, to what extent this is contemplated by such potential partners as the ESA, which has its own program goals. These competing hopes for eventual autonomy in space station operations will have considerable economic, technological, and political consequences extending well into the next century.

  7. Q-PCR Based Culture-Independent Enumeration and Detection of Enterobacter: An Emerging Environmental Human Pathogen in Riverine Systems and Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chandra B.; Shanker, Rishi; Gupta, Vijai K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of safe and pristine water is a global challenge when large numbers of natural and anthropogenic water resources are being depleted with faster rate. The remaining water resources are severely contaminated with various kinds of contaminants including microorganisms. Enterobacter is one of the fecal coliform bacteria of family Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacter was earlier used as an indicator bacterium along with other fecal Coliforms namely Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, and Klebsiella, but it is now known to cause various diseases in human beings. In this study, we have collected 55 samples from potable water and riverine system and proved their presence using their conserved sequences of 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes with the help of SYBR green real-time PCR, which showed very high specificity for the detection of Enterobacter. The Enterobacter counts in potable water were found to 1290 ± 32.89 to 1460 ± 39.42 cfu/100 ml. The Enterobacter levels in surface water were 1.76 × 104 ± 492, 1.33 × 104 ± 334, 1.15 × 104 ± 308, 2.56 × 104 ± 802, 2.89 × 104 ± 962, 8.16 × 104 ± 3443 cfu/100 ml; the levels of Enterobacter contamination associated with hydrophytes were 4.80 × 104 ± 1804, 3.48 × 104 ± 856, 8.50 × 104 ± 2074, 8.09 × 104 ± 1724, 6.30 × 104 ± 1738, 3.68 × 104 ± 949 cfu/10 g and the Enterobacter counts in sediments of the river, were 2.36 × 104 ± 703, 1.98 × 104 ± 530, 9.92 × 104 ± 3839, 6.80 × 104 ± 2230, 8.76 × 104 ± 3066 and 2.34 × 104 ± 732 cfu/10 g at the sampling Site #1, Site #2, Site #3, Site #4, Site #5, and Site #6, respectively. The assay could be used for the regular monitoring of potable water and other water reservoirs to check waterborne outbreaks. PMID:26925044

  8. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-11-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation ( Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation ( Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  9. Diseño de la planta de tratamiento de agua potable para el Batallón de Infantería No. 21-Vargas- Granada-Meta

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo, Miguel Ángel; Guerrero Arango, Nelson Javier

    1993-01-01

    El proyecto describe como punto de partida, la situación existente en el batallón relacionada con el suministro de agua potable. Desarrolla todos los estudios preliminares necesarios para satisfacer la demanda de agua en la unidad táctica.

  10. [Trattamento farmacologico del disturbo da uso di alcol. Evidenze scientifiche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attilia, Fabio; Perciballi, Roberta; Rotondo, Claudia; Capriglione, Ida; Iannuzzi, Silvia; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Vitali, Mario; Alessandrini, Giovanni; Scamporrino, Maria Concetta Marcella; Fiore, Marco; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La terapia farmacologica nei pazienti con disturbo da uso di alcol riveste un ruolo centrale nel progetto terapeutico, altamente contestualizzato in un approccio multidisciplinare. Sebbene i trattamenti non farmacologici per la dipendenza da alcol risultino ben strutturati e in continua evoluzione, dal punto di vista medico le possibilità di intervento sono realmente ristrette, con poche molecole a disposizione approvate per il disturbo da uso di alcol: nello specifico, l'acamprostato, il naltrexone e, più recentemente, il nalmefene tra gli anticraving; il disulfiram tra gli avversivanti. Nuovi approcci sperimentali stanno cercando di ampliare tale gamma attraverso l'utilizzo di farmaci off-label. Evidenze scientifiche devono supportare l'indicazione terapeutica, quest'ultima deve dimostrarsi "cucita" sulle esigenze del paziente e sulle comorbilità presenti tenendo conto del profilo bio-psico-sociale individuale. Fondamentale risulta il follow-up per valutare la ritenzione in trattamento e il monitoraggio degli outcome alcologici.

  11. Trayectos de uso de TIC: Caso de la Universidad Javeriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Irlanda Brijaldo-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la investigación fue conocer de qué mane - ra los docentes universitarios de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia, utilizan las herramientas tec - nológicas digitales para apoyar su docencia. La metodología empleada combinó estrategias cualitativas y cuantitativas que posibilitaron la comprensión de los usos que hacen los docen - tes de las herramientas tecnológicas. Los resultados permitie - ron delimitar concepciones de tecnología, niveles de acerca - miento a las TIC y definición de los trayectos de uso de las TIC en los profesores universitarios. En este artículo se presenta la discusión sobre los trayectos que desarrollan los docentes cuando utilizan las TIC. Las conclusiones muestran las posibi - lidades que ofrece la cartografía de las trayectorias descritas.

  12. Uso de la metformina en la diabetes mellitus tipo II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana Salazar ÁLvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Metformina es una biguanida eficaz en el control metabólico de la diabetes mellitus tipo II, no insulinodependiente cuando el control dietético falla. Dada su probada eficacia y actual accesibilidad en el mercado de medicamentos en Cuba, para ser utilizada a nivel primario de atención no solo en pacientes sintomáticos sino en la población en riesgo, se presenta este artículo cuyo propósito es actualizar a los especialistas de Medicina General Integral y Medicina Interna acerca de aspectos de interés relacionados con este medicamento, como: interacciones medicamentosas, enfermedades concomitantes, la biotransformación de la droga y los posibles efectos adversos que se pueden asociar a su uso. Se presentan consideraciones finales acerca del uso de esta droga.

  13. Eucalipto : ambiente, desarrollo y usos de la madera en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Acosta, Martín

    2010-01-01

    La Universidad de Huelva, a través del Centro de Investigación y Documentación del Eucalipto (CIDEU), organizó el viernes 29 de octubre de 2010 una conferencia impartida por el ingeniero de Montes Martín Sánchez Acosta y titulada "Aspectos ambientales y socioeconómicos del uso de la madera del eucalipto". La conferencia fue retrasmitida on-line.

  14. El uso del piercing en la cavidad bucal de adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Haces Acosta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el uso del piercing intraoral en los adolescentes constituye una amenaza para la salud bucal. Objetivo: caracterizar el uso del piercing en la cavidad bucal de los adolescentes desde el punto de vista clínico y epidemiológico. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en el policlínico Dr. "Modesto Gómez Rubio" del municipio San Juan y Martínez, Pinar del Río, en el período comprendido de septiembre del 2011 a enero del 2013. El universo estuvo conformado por 400 adolescentes que acudieron al servicio del policlínico de los cuales 250 constituyeron la muestra, seleccionada a través del método aleatorio simple. Se les realizó el examen bucal, como medida de resumen se utilizaron el número absoluto y el porcentaje. Resultados: se pudo constatar que de 250 adolescentes examinados 34 presentaban perforaciones intraorales para un 13,6%, de ellos 24 son masculinos para un 70,59% y 10 femeninas representando el 29,41%, la edad de mayor uso de 15 y 18 años con 31 para un 21,85, los efectos nocivos de mayor frecuencia la gingivitis crónica con el 52,94% , seguidas por las fracturas dentarias con el 47,06%, el 97% respondieron que su motivación era la moda. Conclusiones: el uso del piercing en la cavidad bucal de los adolescentes estudiados se caracteriza por manifestarse con mayor frecuencia en las edades entre 15 y 18 años, con predominio del sexo masculino y el efecto nocivo más frecuente la enfermedad gingivitis crónica, seguidas por las fracturas dentarias, motivación la moda.

  15. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  16. Merchant funding for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, B.; Bartlam, M.

    1997-01-01

    The next frontier for project finance is merchant generation: the financing of IPPs without long-term offtake contracts. Banks are just beginning to finance merchant generation power stations. One of the first was Destec's Indian Queens project in Cornwall, UK. Bruce Johnston and Martin Bartlam of Wilde Sapte discuss the project. (UK)

  17. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  18. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  19. Automating Space Station operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  20. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  1. Space Station power system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

  2. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital...

  3. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A...

  4. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... base station or a small control station. (a) Except for a GMRS system licensed to a non-individual, one or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any point...

  5. O uso de leitores de tela no TelEduc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sussumu Wataya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se, no Ambiente Telemático TelEduc, a acessibilidade de Pessoas com Necessidades Especiais Visuais (PNEV's, utilizando os softwares Leitores de Tela - LT DosVox e Jaws, tendo como ponto de partida uma revisão de literatura relacionada ao uso de tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC e à Educação a Distância (EAD. Primeiramente investigou-se como os softwares LT, as ferramentas e os conteúdos do curso do programa do Proinesp-II auxiliaram a capacitação à distância de professores no uso de informática na Educação Especial. Em uma segunda etapa, analisou-se o uso dos referidos softwares LT e das ferramentas da plataforma TelEduc com duas PNEV's, em vinte sessões, gravadas e transcritas em forma de tabelas. Resultados indicam, entre outros aspectos, que ambos os softwares LT - DosVox e Jaws -, com pequenas diferenças entre si, permitem o acesso das PNEV's no TelEduc.

  6. Estigma social sobre o uso de álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Mota Ronzani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de álcool e outras drogas é um importante problema de saúde pública em todo o mundo, com relativa complexidade no entendimento do tema e nas ações de prevenção e tratamento. O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre estigma social e uso de álcool. Estudos que investigam o estigma social associado ao usuário de álcool e de outras drogas sugerem que tal associação apresenta um importante impacto tanto para a definição de políticas públicas quanto para ações de prevenção e tratamento. A moralização e os estereótipos associados aos usuários podem influenciar direta ou indiretamente nos resultados e na qualidade da prevenção e tratamento do uso. Dessa forma, estudos e ações que visem diminuir o impacto do estigma na qualidade de assistência de usuários tornam-se relevantes.

  7. O passado condicional: formas e contextos de uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Meister Ko. Freitag

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste trabalho investigamos o uso e regularização das formas relacionadas à expressão do valor semântico-discursivo de passado condicional no português falado em Itabaiana/SE. Adotamos os pressupostos de análise sociofuncionalista, que lida com a emergência de formas (via gramaticalização e a regularização do uso (via mudança linguística. Os resultados apontam para a tendência de especialização de formas em contextos de uso/ funções, indiciando um processo de gramaticalização.Palavras-chave: Passado condicional; gramaticalização; especialização; sociofuncionalismo.Abstract: In this paper we investigate the use and regulation of forms associate at the expression of the semantic-discursive past conditional tense on spoken Portuguese in Itabaiana/SE. We follow the sociofuncionalist analysis that treats the emergence of forms (by grammaticalization and regulating the use (by language change. The result points to the trend towards specialization of forms in certain contexts of use/function, indicating an incipience process of grammaticalization.Keywords: Conditional past tense; grammaticalization; specialization; sociofuncionalist approach.

  8. FATORES DESENCADEANTES DO USO DE DROGAS DE ABUSO EM MULHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Marangoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar y discutir factores desencadenantes del uso de drogas en mujeres. Estudio cualitativo de carácter descriptivo con 12 mujeres provenientes de tres municipios de Paraná, notificadas a un centro de asistencia toxicológica en los años 2008 a 2010. Los datos fueron colectados de la ficha de Incidencia Toxicológica, de los expedientes, y del itinerario para entrevista semi- estructurado aplicada durante visita domiciliar y analizados por contenido temático. La mayoría era de la raza/color pardo, estaba entre 17 y 33 años y convivía en unión estable. Los factores desencadenantes del uso de drogas estaban relacionados a las características individuales de las mujeres y aspectos socio-culturales. Se destacaron la edad precoz, baja escolaridad, baja inserción en el mercado de laboral, conflictos intrafamiliares y el uso y tráfico de drogas por los compañeros y familiares. Se verificaron vínculo afectivo débil, con dinámica familiar inadecuada. Amigos, familiares y compañeros favorecieron el comportamiento adictivo.

  9. Abasto futuro de agua potable, análisis espacial y vulnerabilidad de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, México

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Servín Carlos; Galindo Mendoza María Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    En el presente artículo se analizan y se presentan las circunstancias físicas, sociales y económicas que en conjunto afectan al panorama y a la problemática actual del abastecimiento de agua potable de la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí. Entre los temas que se abordan se encuentra la relación entre la disponibilidad del agua y el incremento de la población, así como la evolución de la extracción de aguas subterráneas. Por otra parte, la investigación muestra un diagnóstico ...

  10. Goûts, odeurs et perception relatifs à la qualité de l'eau potable : une perspective spatio-temporelle

    OpenAIRE

    Proulx, François

    2009-01-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude des goûts, odeurs et la perception relative à l'eau potable. Le cas à l'étude est l'eau distribuée dans un réseau d'aqueduc de la Ville de Québec. La thèse est divisée en quatre volets. Le premier volet fait la revue de la problématique des composés responsables des goûts et odeurs en réseau de distribution. Plus spécifiquement, les aspects concernant l'origine de ces composés et leurs analyses physico-chimiques et sensorielles sont abordés. Le second chapitre tr...

  11. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  12. Point-of-care controls for nosocomial legionellosis combined with chlorine dioxide potable water decontamination: a two-year survey at a Welsh teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, I K; Hill, D W; Tan, T Y; Butchart, E G; Wilson, K; Finlay, G; Burge, S; Ribeiro, C D

    2005-10-01

    This study reports a two-year programme of attempted eradication of Legionella colonization in the potable water supply of a 1000-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Wales. There was a simultaneous, point-of-care, sterile-water-only policy for all intensive care units (ICU) and bone marrow and renal transplant units in order to prevent acquisition of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. The programme was initiated following a case of nosocomial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1-Bellingham-like genotype A on the cardiac ICU. The case occurred 14 days after mitral and aortic valve replacement surgery. Clinical and epidemiological investigations implicated aspiration of hospital potable water as the mechanism of infection. Despite interventions with chlorine dioxide costing over 25000 UK pounds per annum, Legionella has remained persistently present in significant numbers (up to 20000 colony forming units/L) and with little reduction in the number of positive sites. Two further cases of nosocomial disease occurred over the following two-year period; in one case, aspiration of tap water was implicated again, and in the other case, instillation of contaminated water into the right main bronchus via a misplaced nasogastric tube was implicated. These cases arose because of inadvertent non-compliance with the sterile-water-only policy in high-risk locations. Enhanced clinical surveillance over the same two-year period detected no other cases of nosocomial disease. This study suggests that attempts at eradication of Legionella spp. from complex water systems may not be a cost-effective measure for prevention of nosocomial infections, and to the best of our knowledge is the first study from the UK to suggest that the introduction of a sterile-water-only policy for ICUs and other high-risk units may be a more cost-effective approach.

  13. Field-analysis of potable water quality and ozone efficiency in ozone-assisted biological filtration systems for surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanacic, Enisa; Stavrinides, John; McMartin, Dena W

    2016-11-01

    Potable water treatment in small communities is challenging due to a complexity of factors starting with generally poor raw water sources, a smaller tax and consumption base that limit capital and operating funds, and culminating in what is typically a less sophisticated and robust water treatment plant for production and delivery of safe, high quality potable water. The design and optimization of modular ozone-assisted biological filtration systems can address some of these challenges. In surface water treatment, the removal of organic matter (e.g., dissolved organic carbon - DOC), inorganic nutrients and other exposure-related contaminants (e.g., turbidity and dissolved solids) from the raw water source is essential. Thus, a combination of chemical and biological oxidation processes can produce an effective and efficient water treatment plant design that is also affordable and robust. To that end, the ozone-assisted biological filtration water treatment plants in two communities were evaluated to determine the efficacy of oxidation and contaminant removal processes. The results of testing for in-field system performance indicate that plant performance is particularly negatively impacted by high alkalinity, high organics loading, and turbidity. Both bicarbonate and carbonate alkalinity were observed to impede ozone contact and interaction with DOC, resulting in lower than anticipated DOC oxidation efficiency and bioavailability. The ozone dosage at both water treatment plants must be calculated on a more routine basis to better reflect both the raw water DOC concentration and presence of alkalinities to ensure maximized organics oxidation and minimization of trihalomethanes production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Arsenic Content of the Drinking Water Source, for the Guadiana Valley, Mexico; Contenido de arsenico en el agua potable de Valle del Guadiana, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon Herrera, Maria Teresa [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (Mexico); Flores Montenegro, Isela [Sistema Desentralizado de agua Potable y alcantarillado Durango (Mexico); Romero Navar, Pedro [Comision Nacional del Agua (Mexico); Martin Dominguez, Ignacio [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (Mexico); Trejo Vazquez, Rodolfo [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, high levels of arsenic concentration have been detected in some drinking water sources of the Guadiana Valley (Durango and surrounding towns) in Mexico. These levels are above the limits recommended bye the world Health Organization (WHO) and the maximum levels allowed by the Mexican standards. due to the well.known toxicity of this element, this study set as its objective to determine in quantitative terms the arsenic content of the drinking water sources for the Guadiana Valley, as the first step in the way to solve environment problems, It was found that 59% of the sources in the south, northeast and Northwest zones of Durango exceed in 40% the maximum level established by Mexican standards for arsenic content. In the Guadiana towns, 48% of the sources surpass such levels even in 46%. If the maximum levels suggested bye the WHO are taken as the reference, then virtually all sources exceed such level. [Spanish] En los ultimos anos, en la region del valle de Gadiana (ciudad de Durango y poblados cercanos) se han detectado niveles de concentracion de arsenico (As) en algunos pozos de abastecimiento de agua potable que superan los limites recomendados por la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud(OMS) y el limite maximo permisible establecido por la legislacion mexicana. Dada la conocida toxicidad de dicho elemento, en el presente estudio se propuso determinar cuantitativamente el contenido de arsenico en los pozos de abastecimiento de agua potable del valle del Guadiana, como un primer paso hacia la solucion de la problematica ambiental. Se encontro que en la zona sureste, noroeste y noreste de la ciudad, en 59% de los pozos se excede hasta en 40% la concentracion de arsenico establecida como limite maximo por la legislacion mexicana. En las poblaciones del valle del Guadiana, 48% de los pozos superan los limites mencionados hasta en un 136%. Si se toma como referencia el limite maximo establecido por la OMS, practicamente todos los pozos exceden el

  15. EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SISTEMAS DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE AGUA POTABLE EN EL MARCO DE UN PLAN DE SEGURIDAD DEL AGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Amézquita Marroquín

    Full Text Available La evaluación del riesgo es una etapa clave de un Plan de Seguridad del Agua (PSA y se logra mediante la identificación de peligros o eventos peligrosos y la valoración del riesgo. Este estudio evaluó los riesgos en el Sistema de Distribución de Agua potable (SDA de la ciudad de Cali (Colombia abastecido por el río Cauca, identificando los eventos peligrosos y posteriormente realizando la estimación del riesgo usando una matriz semicuantitativa adaptada. La estimación del riesgo se efectuó inicialmente sin considerar las medidas de control existentes del SDA y luego se reestimó considerando el nivel de eficacia de las mismas. Los resultados mostraron los eventos con mayor nivel de riesgo asociados al deterioro de la integridad física e hidráulica del SDA (daños en tuberías, fluctuaciones de presión, ausencia de información sistematizada sobre el SDA, fallas humanas, falta de capacitación, supervisión, conciencia del concepto aseguramiento del agua, corrosión interna y externa de elementos del SDA. La evaluación del riesgo es un instrumento de gestión para empresas prestadoras del servicio que permite priorizar recursos humanos y financieros hacia el mejoramiento de las medidas de control como estrategia para reducir los riesgos y asegurar la calidad del agua potable en el SDA.

  16. Uso de medicamentos por gestantes em seis cidades brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengue Sotero S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os medicamentos utilizados por gestantes que fizeram o pré-natal em serviços do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde em cidades brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Utilizando-se um questionário estruturado, foram entrevistadas 5.564 gestantes entre a 21ª e a 28ª semanas de gravidez, que se apresentaram para consulta em serviço de pré-natal do SUS em seis grandes cidades brasileiras. As perguntas foram agrupadas em "uso orientado" para dor, cólica, enjôo, tosse e outros e em "medicamento orientado" para vitamina, ferro e flúor. Foi adotada a classificação de risco do FDA (Food and Drug Administration, entre 1991 e 1995. RESULTADOS: Do total de 5.564, 4.614 (83,8% das gestantes usaram pelo menos um medicamento durante a gestação, somando 9.556 medicamentos. Os medicamentos mais utilizados foram as vitaminas associadas a antianêmicos (33,5%, os medicamentos que atuam sobre o aparelho digestivo (31,3%, os analgésicos/antiinflamatórios (22,2%, os antianêmicos (19,8% e os antimicrobianos (11,1%. Quanto à classificação de risco para a gestação, 3.243 (34,0% foram incluídos na categoria A, 1.923 (22,6% na categoria B, 3.798 (39,7% na categoria C, 289 (3,0% na categoria D e 55 (0,6% na categoria X. CONCLUSÕES: Foram observadas grandes variações quanto ao uso de medicamentos, principalmente antianêmicos e vitaminas associadas a antianêmicos, entre as várias cidades estudadas, mostrando a ausência de um padrão nacional quanto ao uso desses medicamentos na gestação. Para uma proporção de 12,9% dos medicamentos utilizados, não foi localizada qualquer informação na literatura sobre a segurança para o uso durante a gestação. Essa proporção, somada aos 26,9% dos medicamentos classificados no grupo "C", mostra que 40% do uso de medicamentos na gestação são feitos sem bases definidas de segurança. Entretanto, medicamentos claramente contra-indicados durante a gestação corresponderam a apenas 3% dos 9

  17. Factores de necesidad asociados al uso adecuado del control prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarybel Miranda Mellado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Por las implicaciones sociales de la mortalidad y morbilidad materna es importante determinar los factores de necesidad que influyen en el uso adecuado del control prenatal en gestantes de Sincelejo. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio analítico de corte transversal, que incluyó 730 gestantes, seleccionadas mediante muestreo aleatorio por conglomerados, de las comunas de la ciudad. La información fue recolectada por medio de una encuesta sociodemográfica, una ficha de uso de control prenatal y un Cuestionario para evaluar los factores de necesidad  propuestos por el Modelo de Promoción de la Salud de Nola Pender. Las gestantes fueron contactadas en sus domicilios y diligenciaron los instrumentos. Los datos fueron analizados aplicando estadística descriptiva e inferencial para determinar las asociaciones entre variables. Resultados: El 97,7% (713 de las gestantes asistía al control prenatal, con una mediana de 4 controles prenatales. Un 2,3% (17 no lo habían iniciado al momento de la encuesta y 24,4% (178 hizo uso inadecuado. El 80,7% (589 de las gestantes califican su estado de salud como bueno o muy bueno, 94,8% (692 percibieron beneficios del control prenatal. Se encontró asociación significativa entre la percepción de beneficios y el uso adecuado de control prenatal [OR=5,5 (IC 95%: 2,8 - 10,8]. Discusión y Conclusiones: La percepción que las mujeres tienen sobre los buenos resultados que reporta la asistencia al control prenatal, es el principal factor que puede explicar la adherencia al control y el cumplimiento regular de las consultas. Cómo citar este artículo: Miranda C, Castillo IY. Factores de necesidad asociados al uso adecuado del control prenatal. Rev Cuid. 2016; 7(2: 1345-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v7i2.340

  18. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  19. 20 years of power station master training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, O.

    1977-01-01

    In the early fifties, the VGB working group 'Power station master training' elaborated plans for systematic and uniform training of power station operating personnel. In 1957, the first power station master course was held. In the meantime, 1.720 power station masters are in possession of a master's certificate of a chamber of commerce and trade. Furthermore, 53 power station masters have recently obtained in courses of the 'Kraftwerksschule e.V.' the know-how which enables them to also carry out their duty as a master in nuclear power stations. (orig.) [de

  20. Consumption of locally grown foods by the populations residing near nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, P.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The studies carried out by the Geographical Institute of Aix-en-Provence and the B.E.G.E.A. are in three forms: the first studies the local rural production (farming, animal rearing and fishing); the second is concerned with the food intake of the population within a radius of 5 to 10 km around the site; the third consists in working out a soil utilization map covering an area of about 2500 hectares around the site in order to determine the agricultural and urban areas as well as the open spaces, and the exact sort of cultivation carried out, plot by plot. The map also represents all the phenomena concerning hydrography, irrigation, watering and the supply of potable water. All these studies concern only a few parishes and enable an accurate knowledge of the environment to be acquired. The food studies seek an order of magnitude of the amount of local produce consumed by the populations of the nuclear power station sites with a view to determining radioactive contamination levels. The results show the specific food consumption features of a population bearing the deep stamp of its environment and its rural origin [fr

  1. Training of power station staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusserre, J.

    1993-01-01

    ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE currently operates 51 generating stations with 900 and 1300 MW Pressurized Water Reactors while, only 15 years ago, France possessed only a very small number of such stations. It was therefore vital to set up a major training organization to produce staff capable of starting, controlling and maintaining these facilities with a constant eye to improving quality and safety. Operator and maintenance staff training is based on highly-structured training plans designed to match both the post to be filled and the qualifications possessed by the person who is to fill it. It was essential to set up suitable high-performance training resources to handle this fast growth in staff. These resources are constantly being developed and allow EDF to make steady progress in a large number of areas, varying from the effects of human factors to the procedures to be followed during an accident

  2. Le projet de station touristique

    OpenAIRE

    Vlès, Vincent

    1996-01-01

    Cet ouvrage traite du savoir-faire du technicien, de l'ingénieur, du directeur d'office de tourisme qui façonne, depuis maintenant près de trois décennies, le territoire local de la production touristique : la station. Il analyse les stratégies, les mises en œuvre, les pratiques de l'aménagement et du développement touristique. Il propose une construction du projet de station, méthode qui est l'aboutissement d'expériences de terrain. Il présente un guide des interventions. Il décrit des modes...

  3. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  4. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  5. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  6. Decommissioning of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the Electricity Boards, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and BNFL cooperate on all matters relating to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) policy endorses the continuing need for nuclear power, the principle of reusing existing sites where possible and the building up of sufficient funds during the operating life of a nuclear power station to meet the cost of its complete clearance in the future. The safety of the plant is the responsibility of the licensee even in the decommissioning phase. The CEGB has carried out decommissioning studies on Magnox stations in general and Bradwell and Berkeley in particular. It has also been involved in the UKAEA Windscale AGR decommissioning programme. The options as to which stage to decommission to are considered. Methods, costs and waste management are also considered. (U.K.)

  7. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ±0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  8. Fortaleza Station Report for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Pereira de Lucena, A. Macilio; Sombra da Silva, Adeildo

    2013-01-01

    This is a brief report about the activities carried out at the Fortaleza geodetic VLBI station (ROEN: R´adio Observat´orio Espacial do Nordeste), located in Eus´ebio, CE, Brazil, during the period from January until December 2012. The observing activities were resumed in May after the major maintenance that comprised the azimuth bearing replacement. The total observational experiments consisted of 103 VLBI sessions and continuous GPS monitoring recordings.

  9. Do cities deserve more railway stations? The choice of a departure railway station in a multiple-station region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting the use of rail is an important element in sustainable transport policy. One of the most important decisions to make in planning the railway network is on the number of stations to provide. Stations are the access points to rail services and while each additional station increases rail's

  10. Pumps for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Shiro

    1979-01-01

    16 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation in Japan, and nuclear power generation holds the most important position among various substitute energies. Hereafter also, it is expected that the construction of nuclear power stations will continue because other advantageous energy sources are not found. In this paper, the outline of the pumps used for BWR plants is described. Nuclear power stations tend to be large scale to reduce the construction cost per unit power output, therefore the pumps used are those of large capacity. The conditions to be taken in consideration are high temperature, high pressure, radioactive fluids, high reliability, hydrodynamic performances, aseismatic design, relevant laws and regulations, and quality assurance. Pumps are used for reactor recirculation system, control rod driving hydraulic system, boric acid solution injecting system, reactor coolant purifying system, fuel pool cooling and purifying system, residual heat removing system, low pressure and high pressure core spraying systems, and reactor isolation cooling system, for condensate, feed water, drain and circulating water systems of turbines, for fresh water, sea water, make-up water and fire fighting services, and for radioactive waste treating system. The problems of the pumps used for nuclear power stations are described, for example, the requirement of high reliability, the measures to radioactivity and the aseismatic design. (Kako, I.)

  11. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  12. CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, H.

    2004-01-01

    I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about biodiesel fueling infrastructure codes Case Studies California Ramps Up Biofuels Infrastructure Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate

  14. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  15. 47 CFR 74.882 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...'s call sign or designator, its location, and the call sign of the broadcasting station or name of... operation. Identification may be made by transmitting the station call sign by visual or aural means or by...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public file. The notice must state that the station's public file is available for inspection and that consumers can view it at the station's main studio and on its Web site. At least one of the announcements...

  17. Spent fuel canister docking station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The

  18. Ergonomic Application on the Work Station Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyo Widagdo; Darlis

    2003-01-01

    Work station layout in the ideal way has been made. The dimension of the work station is 9.4 m x 7.1 m. The workers to be stationed should feel comfort. This can be done by honoring the dimensions and the sum of the tools that should be stationed and also the free space that should be mention between the tools as state in EPRI, NP-2411. (author)

  19. Geochemical and isotopic methods for management of artificial recharge in mazraha station (Damascus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.; Kadkoy, N.

    2009-11-01

    Artificial recharge of shallow groundwater at specially designed facilities is an attractive option increasing the storage capacity of potable water in arid and semi arid region such as Syria, Damascus Oasis. This operation needs integral management and detailed knowledge of groundwater dynamics and quantity and quality development of water. The objective of this study is to determine the temporal and spatial variations of chemical and environmental isotopic characteristics of groundwater during injection and recovery process. The geochemical and environmental isotope techniques are ideally suited for these investigations. 400 to 500 x10 3 m 3 of spring water were injected annually into the ambient groundwater in Mazraha station, Damascus Oasis, which is used later for drinking purpose. Native groundwater and injected water are calcium bicarbonate type with EC of about 850±100 μS/cm and 300±50 μS/cm respectively. The injected water is under saturated with respect to calcite, while ambient groundwater is over saturated and the mixed water is in equilibrium after injection. It was observed that The injection process created a dilution cloud decreasing chemical concentrations progressively that improve the groundwater quality. After completed injection, the dilution center moved about 200 m during 85 days to the south southeast according to the ambient groundwater flow path. Based on this observation, the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is estimated about 7.5±1.3x10 -4 m/s. The spatial distribution maps of CFC-11 and CFC-12, after injection, showed the same shape and flow direction of the spatial distribution of chemical elements. The effective diameter of artificial recharge is limited to about 250 m from the injection wells, as EC, Cl- and NO 3 - concentrations are effected significantly. Mixing ratio of 30% is required in order to lower nitrate concentration to less than 50 mg/l in native groundwater for potable water. Depending on pumping rate, the

  20. Usos de las herramientas digitales entre las personas mayores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona Cadavieco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Una sociedad «multiedades» supone diseñar y crear nuevos espacios de aprendizaje y comunicación, capaces de gestionar la demanda existente por parte de las personas mayores. En este artículo, se aborda la relación de las personas mayores con las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC y para ello se plantean dos objetivos: el primero va dirigido a conocer los recursos tecnológicos que utilizan y el segundo, a describir objetivamente los tipos de uso que estas personas hacen de las TIC. Para ello, se utiliza la técnica de encuesta, cuyos resultados son contrastados mediante grupos de discusión. En el estudio participaron 215 personas mayores usuarias de las TIC y siete grupos de discusión de cinco personas cada uno. Los resultados encontrados indican que los recursos que más utilizan los mayores son, los ordenadores e Internet y el uso que hacen de los mismos se ha agrupado en cuatro grandes categorías: formación, información, comunicación y entretenimiento, no encontrándose diferencias significativas en función del género o de la edad y sí se encontraron diferencias en cuanto a la disponibilidad de dichos recursos para uso particular en función del nivel de estudios.

  1. USO DA INTERNET: DIFERENÇAS ENTRE CLASSE MÉDIA E ALTA

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ferreira da Silva; Patricia Nogueira Gaia; Jorge Brantes Ferreira; Cristiane Junqueira Giovannini

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo busca propor e testar um modelo que explique o uso da internet pelos jovens e identificar possíveis diferenças neste uso entre jovens de classe média e alta. A motivação para a pesquisa partiu da observação dos novos hábitos de consumo originados do uso da internet por estes jovens, que consideram a tecnologia indispensável em suas vidas. Baseado na literatura, o modelo final envolveu os seguintes fatores: Barreiras Percebidas ao Acesso, Comunicação, Interatividade e Uso da Intern...

  2. Estudio de la viscosidad y densidad de diferentes aceites para su uso como biocombustible

    OpenAIRE

    Legaz Berbel, Ramsés

    2010-01-01

    En este proyecto se realiza una breve introducción al mundo de las energías renovables, como alternativa muy importante al uso del petróleo. Más concretamente se explicará la importancia del uso de los biocombustibles, así como las ventajas e inconvenientes del uso de los mismos. El objetivo principal del proyecto es el uso de aceites vegetales como combustible para un motor diesel, solucionando un inconveniente, la diferencia existente entre las propiedades físicas del gasoil y los aceite...

  3. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A...

  4. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telephone Radio Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service; (5) [Reserved] (6) Stations operating pursuant... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... of each station in the Public Mobile Services must ensure that the transmissions of that station are...

  5. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent persons...

  6. Fire protection concept for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitzmann, H.

    The author shows how a systematic approach permits the design of a fire-protected power station. The special conditions of an individual power station are here treated as marginal conditions. The article describes how the concept is realized in the completed power station, taking account of the information provided by fire statistics. (orig.) [de

  7. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  8. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stations. (4) It is any type of radiopositioning or radar station authorized in a service other than the... procedure. Except as provided for in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, each station or system shall be identified by the transmission of the assigned call sign during each transmission or exchange of...

  9. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station. Identify by one of the following means: (1) Aircraft radio station call sign. (2) The type of... type of aircraft followed by the last three characters of the registration marking. Notwithstanding any... of stations are exempted from the use of a call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter, air...

  10. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drawbridges may be identified by use of the name of the bridge in lieu of the call sign. Identification must...) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign. In lieu of the identification of the station by voice, the official call sign may be transmitted by...

  11. Disfunción sexual asociada al uso de anticonvulsionantes

    OpenAIRE

    San José Pérez, Noemí

    2017-01-01

    [EN] En el presente análisis se trata de establecer la relación que existe entre el uso de anticonvulsivantes y la disfunción sexual, uno de los posibles efectos secundarios de estos fármacos a menudo infravalorado. Dicha relación influye en la calidad de vida del paciente, en aspectos psicosociales y con frecuencia es causa de incumplimiento terapéutico por lo que es importante la información sobre el tema y el correcto abordaje. La gran amplitud de bibliografía sobre el tema, proporciona...

  12. CONHECIMENTO DE IDOSAS SOBRE O USO DE PSICOTRÓPICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrícia Araújo Prudêncio; Lidya Tolstenko Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Del proceso de envejecimiento pueden emergí enfermedades y necesidad de medicamentos psicotrópicos. Esta investigación exploratoria y descriptiva, con enfoque cualitativo, tuvo como objetivo describir el conocimiento de ancianos acerca del uso de medicamentos psicotrópicos. Se entrevistaron a 18 pacientes durante de julio a agosto de 2009, registrados en la Estrategia de Salud Familiar que utilizaban benzodiazepina y/o antidepresivos. Los datos fueron organizados basados en la técnica de anál...

  13. Usos y competencias del weblog en las corporaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Sánchez Calero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas empiezan a hacer uso comunicativo del alto potencial de los blogs que en origen eran diarios personales. Hay una serie de herramientas de comunicación que se están implantando en las corporaciones, acordes con las características, productos o servicios y del perfil de sus empleados. El artículo se centra exclusivamente en el papel que está teniendo el weblog en el desarrollo de la comunicación de las organizaciones empresariales.

  14. Nuclear Station Facilities Improvement Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooks, R. W.; Lunardini, A. L.; Zaben, O.

    1991-01-01

    An effective facilities improvement program will include a plan for the temporary relocation of personnel during the construction of an adjoining service building addition. Since the smooth continuation of plant operation is of paramount importance, the phasing plan is established to minimize the disruptions in day-to-day station operation and administration. This plan should consider the final occupancy arrangements and the transition to the new structure; for example, computer hookup and phase-in should be considered. The nuclear industry is placing more emphasis on safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. In order to do this, more emphasis is placed on operations and maintenance. This results in increased size of managerial, technical and maintenance staffs. This in turn requires improved office and service facilities. The facilities that require improvement may include training areas, rad waste processing and storage facilities, and maintenance facilities. This paper discusses an approach for developing an effective program to plan and implement these projects. These improvement projects can range in magnitude from modifying a simple system to building a new structure to allocating space for a future project. This paper addresses the planning required for the new structures with emphasis on site location, space allocation, and internal layout. Since facility planning has recently been completed by Sargent and Leyden at six U. S. nuclear stations, specific examples from some of those plants are presented. Site planning and the establishment of long-range goals are of the utmost importance when undertaking a facilities improvement program for a nuclear station. A plan that considers the total site usage will enhance the value of both the new and existing facilities. Proper planning at the beginning of the program can minimize costs and maximize the benefits of the program

  15. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  16. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  17. Transceiver for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, M.; Bruno, R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the design of the Laser Communication Transceiver (LCT) system which was planned to be flight tested as an attached payload on Space Station Freedom. The objective in building and flight-testing the LCT is to perform a broad class of tests addressing the critical aspects of space-based optical communications systems, providing a base of experience for applying laser communications technology toward future communications needs. The LCT's functional and performance requirements and capabilities with respect to acquisition, spatial tracking and pointing, communications, and attitude determination are discussed.

  18. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... at the many layers of discourse, ‘thinking-in-process’ and collaboration. These processes led to particular presentational formats (display) and architectural frameworks for activities, and gave way to a variety of other material and situated performative modes of audience encounters. Here, we can trace avant...

  19. Plant diagnostics in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.; Doering, D.

    1985-01-01

    The method of noise diagnostics is dealt with as a part of plant diagnostics in nuclear power stations. The following special applications are presented: (1) The modular noise diagnostics system is used for monitoring primary coolant circuits and detecting abnormal processes due to mechanical vibrations, loose parts or leaks. (2) The diagnostics of machines and plants with antifriction bearings is based on bearing vibration measurements. (3) The measurement of the friction moment by means of acoustic emission analysis is used for evaluating the operational state of slide bearings

  20. Steam turbines for PWR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscroft, J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements and mechanical design features applying to modern GEC 3000 rev/min steam turbines for pressurised water reactor power stations are reviewed. The most recent developments include machines of 630 MW and 985 MW output which are currently under construction. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines associated with a variety of types of water cooled reactor and its relevance to the design of modern 3000 rev/min turbines for pressurised water reactor applications is emphasised. (author)

  1. Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    of fuel delivered to Summit via LC-130 at a price of $32/gal. (Lever et al. 2016), the cost for constructing and maintaining the skiway for the 2014...CRREL TR-16-9 18 The costs associated with the Twin Otter include a day rate plus an hourly mission rate, a per passenger rate, airport fees, fuel, a...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 9 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis Co ld

  2. The APS optics topography station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnicki, S.

    1996-01-01

    An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals

  3. UV Photolysis of Chloramine and Persulfate for 1,4-Dioxane Removal in Reverse-Osmosis Permeate for Potable Water Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Patton, Samuel; Gleason, Jamie M; Mezyk, Stephen P; Ishida, Kenneth P; Liu, Haizhou

    2018-06-05

    A sequential combination of membrane treatment and UV-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOP) has become the industry standard for potable water reuse. Chloramines are used as membrane antifouling agents and therefore carried over into the UV/AOP. In addition, persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- ) is an emerging oxidant that can be added into a UV/AOP, thus creating radicals generated from both chloramines and persulfate for water treatment. This study investigated the simultaneous photolysis of S 2 O 8 2- and monochloramine (NH 2 Cl) on the removal of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) for potable-water reuse. The dual oxidant effects of NH 2 Cl and S 2 O 8 2- on 1,4-D degradation were examined at various levels of oxidant dosage, chloride, and solution pH. Results showed that a NH 2 Cl-to-S 2 O 8 2- molar ratio of 0.1 was optimal, beyond which the scavenging by NH 2 Cl of HO • , SO 4 •- , and Cl 2 •- radicals decreased the 1,4-D degradation rate. At the optimal ratio, the degradation rate of 1,4-D increased linearly with the total oxidant dose up to 6 mM. The combined photolysis of NH 2 Cl and S 2 O 8 2- was sensitive to the solution pH due to a disproportionation of NH 2 Cl at pH lower than 6 into less-photoreactive dichloramine (NHCl 2 ) and radical scavenging by NH 4 + . The presence of chloride transformed HO • and SO 4 •- to Cl 2 •- that is less-reactive with 1,4-D, while the presence of dissolved O 2 promoted gaseous nitrogen production. Results from this study suggest that the presence of chloramines can be beneficial to persulfate photolysis in the removal of 1,4-D; however, the treatment efficiency depends on a careful control of an optimal NH 2 Cl dosage and a minimal chloride residue.

  4. Introdução a uma epistemologia do uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Ramos Moreno

    Full Text Available Em nosso texto, apresentando uma concepção de pragmática filosófica e tendo em conta uma exposição wittgensteiniana dos jogos de linguagem, pretendemos mostrar que a descrição terapêutica dos usos das palavras, através do procedimento de variações metodológicas de suas aplicações diversificadas, sugere uma série preciosa de elementos que permitem a exploração do conceito de uso como indicativo de um campo esclarecedor da atividade epistêmica de constituição da significação, através do trabalho com a linguagem e elementos do mundo extralinguístico. Desse ponto de vista, a atividade epistêmica não se limitaria a elaborar modelos cognitivos, mas deveria ser entendida como constitutiva da significação em geral, sendo as formas cognitivas um capítulo apenas, ainda que importante, da atividade mais geral de constituição que define o que é o objeto - ou melhor, define o seu sentido.

  5. Eficiencia en el uso del agua por las plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Medrano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La disponibilidad de agua es el principal factor limitante de la producción agrícola y ganadera en ambientes de clima mediterráneo. Limitación que, ante las previsiones de Cambio Climático Global realizadas por organismo internacionales, serán mucho mayores en los próximos años. En este escenario, la eficiencia en el uso de los recursos hídricos debe ser un aspecto transversal de las políticas públicas que debe, por tanto, ser afrontado desde diversos puntos de vista. En este sentido, uno de los temas claves a considerar es la eficiencia con la que las plantas usan el agua. El objetivo de este trabajo es hacer una revisión de los diferentes aspectos relacionados con este tema, considerando las diferentes escalas a las que se estudia la eficiencia en el uso del agua por las plantas (EUA, desde la hoja hasta el cultivo o el ecosistema. Así, se abordan las dificultades técnicas que existen para medir, de una forma precisa, la EUA de un cultivo o de un ecosistema, la importancia del ambiente y de las prácticas agronómicas como determinantes de la EUA, la diversidad genética inter e intraespecífica, y las implicaciones prácticas de estos factores a la hora de incrementar la EUA.

  6. Uso de contraceptivos por puérperas adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Schulz da Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Indagar el uso de métodos contraceptivos por las puérperas adolescentes a fin de relacionar su (desuso con el embarazo en la adolescencia. Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, realizado por medio de un instrumento estructurado con 181 puérperas adolescentes que tuvieron sus partos en el hospital participante de la investigación. Los datos fueron recolectados en el período de diciembre de 2008 a diciembre de 2009. Resultados: El 64,1% de las puérperas usaba algún método contraceptivo antes del embarazo; los métodos más utilizados fueron el anticoncepcional oral (51% y el preservativo masculino (29%. Para el 75% de las adolescentes el embarazo fue planeado y justificado por el deseo y la voluntad propia de experimentar la maternidad. Conclusión: Considerando que casi la mitad de las adolescentes entrevistadas deseaba el embarazo, se deduce que investigar y discutir apenas el uso o no de los métodos contraceptivos no es adecuado. Es necesario profundizar las investigaciones acerca de los significados de ser madre en la adolescencia.

  7. Estrategia para lograr un uso racional de los medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Julia García Milián

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los objetivos del Programa Nacional de Medicamentos del Ministerio de Salud Pública cubano es que se haga un buen uso de los medicamentos, pero para ello se requiere de la participación consciente y activa de diferentes eslabones como el productor, el prescriptor, el dispensador, y por último, el consumidor, que constituye el determinante final de su uso. Esta estrategia es una vía para alcanzar este objetivo mediante la participación comunitaria y la intersectorialidad.One of the objectives of the National Program of Drugs of the Ministry of Public Health is the proper use of drugs. However, for attaining this, the conscious and active involvement of different links such as the manufacturer, the physician, the seller and finally the consumer, who determines the ultimate use of the drug, is required. This strategy is a way for achieving this goal on the basis of the community participation and inter-sector involvement.

  8. O uso da aromaterapia na melhora da autoestima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram verificar se a inalação dos óleos essenciais de rosa e de ylang-ylang alteram a percepção da autoestima e comparar a eficácia dos mesmos. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Hospital da Universidade de São Paulo. Participaram 43 funcionários dos setores de Higienização e da Central de Materiais e Esterilização durante os meses de maio a julho de 2009. Os sujeitos foram randomizados em três grupos: dois que receberem os óleos essenciais e outro que recebeu placebo (essência de rosa. A avaliação da autoestima foi feita através de uma escala já validada no Brasil, sendo aplicada antes do uso dos aromas, depois de 30 dias de uso e ao completar 60 dias. Dentre os resultados, verificou-se que a amostra era constituída por 88,6% de indivíduos com média e alta autoestima e que os óleos essenciais em questão não alteraram de forma significativa a percepção da autoestima.

  9. O uso das terapias alternativas por enfermeiros docentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Julia Paes da Silva

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos e discussões sobre as Práticas Alternativas de Saúde (PAS estão mais freqüentes no âmbito da Enfermagem, propiciando discussões sobre o processo saúde-doença num paradigma diferente do modelo biomédico vigente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar quais as práticas alternativas utilizadas por docentes de Enfermagem em si mesmos e/ou nas respectivas famílias e se as discutem com seus alunos. A população do estudo foi 59 docentes de graduação em Enfermagem da cidade de São Paulo, que responderam a um questionário. Os respondentes foram escolhidos aleatoriamente e os dados coletados em outubro de 1996. Verificou-se que 39 (66,1% deles usaram as PAS sendo as mais comuns a homeopatia (24 vezes, os florais (21 e a massagem oriental (13. Mesmo os que não fizeram uso das PAS, são favoráveis ao seu uso em situações específicas; 56 (94,9% docentes são favoráveis ao seu ensino; apenas 31 (52,5% falam sobre isso com seus alunos.

  10. Retrofitting the potable water supply in Vira Gambarogno, Switzerland - Feasibility study of a small hydro power plant in the Muntin water reservoir; Risanamento dell'acquedotto Monti di Vira. Studio di fattibilita di recupero energetico al serbatoio Muntin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the retrofitting project for the potable water supply in the municipality of Vira Gambarogno, Southern Switzerland. The current status of the scheme and three possible variants are presented, including the technical and financial aspects. In a second part of the report a feasibility study is reported on for the energetic use of the potable water falling down from the springs, located at 1040 m over sea level, and the Muntin water reservoir, located at 460 m about sea level. A small hydroelectric plant can be created at the entry of the reservoir, with an electric power of about 20 kW, depending on the variant considered. Estimated energy yield and cost figures are given.

  11. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  12. Insurance of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

  13. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  14. Reduction of trihalomethane (THM) formation with potassium permanganate in potable water treatment; Aplicacion del permanganato potasico y la formacion de trihalometanos (THM) en los procesos de potabilizacion del agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre Pascual, G.; Monforte de Monleon, L.; Tos Boix, s.

    1996-04-01

    Replacing prechlorination with a preoxidation with potassium permanganate in potable water treatment has proved to be an effective way to reduce the formation of THM, organochlorinated compounds known to be carcinogenic. It has been proved that the use of potassium permanganate to reduce the formation of THM is a simple and economic treatment process, having the added affect of improving the taste of the treated water. (Author) 21 refs.

  15. SRS station guide. Station 2.3 manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.; Miller, M.; Laundy, D.

    1996-06-01

    The object of the manual is to effectively provide assistance to users so that they can perform successful experiments at station 2.3 during their visits. In order to compile a comprehensive document, the functions of the instrument hardware and software are described in detail. Where appropriate it also contains useful information and other documentation for help and/or reference. In addition, suggestions and instructions are available to overcome problems which inevitably face the users as the instrument is quite advanced in the performing of complex experimental tasks. This document can provide help as part of the overall user support facility and it is therefore intended that the manual is readily available in hardcopy as well as in electronic form. (author)

  16. Conductividad, oxígeno disuelto, PH y temperatura en el rio bermudez (Costa Rica y su relación con el uso del suelo en la cuenca (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron los patrones de variación espacial y temporal de la conductividad, el oxígeno disuelto, el pH y la temperatura en el río Bermúdez, Valle Central, Costa Rica, durante un período de 28 meses. El uso de la tierra más común en la cuenca es el cultivo del café (53%, seguido por el uso urbano (30%, el cual aumenta conforme se desciende hacia el piso del Valle. Si bien las aguas presentan una buena calidad en el área cercana a su origen, donde el uso de la tierra que predomina corresponde a bosque o pastos, a menudo protegidos por medio de parques recreativos, el río sufre un progresivo deterioro conforme desciende y sus aguas se tornan inadecuadas para consumo humano y peligrosas para la salud de las habitantes de la cuenca. La conductividad, el pH y el oxígeno disuelto varían estacionalmente en relación con el régimen de precipitación y el aporte de las aguas de desecho. El río Bermúdez puede considerarse representativo de los ríos del Valle Central. El deterioro de sus aguas ha hecho perder mucho de su atractivo escénico, y el río no puede ser utilizado como fuente de agua potable, ni para actividades agrícolas o recreativas. Los factores contaminantes persisten pues no se ha implementado un manejo adecuado de las aguas negras, no se ha puesto en práctica la legislación existente y vigente para obligar a las industrias a disminuir la contaminación provocada por sus efluentes, y por último, la contaminación orgánica proveniente del beneficiado del café, si bien ha disminuido por la puesta en marcha de políticas institucionales con este fin, continúa siendo de gran magnitud. Las aguas del río continúan siendo utilizadas para irrigar cultivos de hortalizas en la parte baja del río, lo que representa un peligro para la salud humana.

  17. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the USO Patriotic Festival Air Show. This action... Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA. (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  18. Guía de uso de la base de datos Emerald

    OpenAIRE

    Biblioteca de la Universidad de Málaga

    2014-01-01

    Guía de uso de la base de datos Emerald. Recoge publicaciones de diferentes áreas temáticas: Economía, Ciencias Sociales, Ingeniería, Biblioteconomía, etc. Guía de uso de la base de datos Emerald en PDF.

  19. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LAS TIERRAS BAJAS DEL PACÍFICO COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVA DOLORES LEDEZMA-RENTERÍA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en el Pacífico colombiano, para orientar las investigaciones futuras y para definir patrones generales de uso en la región, estudiamos las fuentes de información que documentan usos en esta región. Se registraron 90 tipos de usos en 52 especies de palmas útiles en el Pacífico, que equivalen al 61 % de las palmas que crecen en la región. Los usos se agruparon en ocho categorías de uso y 30 subcategorías; las categorías de uso más importantes fueron construcción, utensilios y herramientas, y alimentación humana. Las especies que registraron mayor número de usos fueron Bactris gasipaes, Astrocaryum standleyanum, Oenocarpus bataua, Euterpe oleracea, Oenocarpus minor, Cocos nucifera, Attalea cuatrecasana, Iriartea deltoidea, Desmoncus cirrhifer y Wettinia quinaria.

  20. Inhibidor de la enzima uracilo ADN glicosilasa y usos del mismo

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Heras, Gemma; Bravo, Alicia; Salas, Margarita

    2005-01-01

    Inhibidor de la enzima uracilo adn glicosilasa y usos del mismo Esta invención se refiere a una proteína que inhibe la enzima uracilo ADN glicosilasa (UDG) vírica, para su uso como un agente terapéutico, en particular como un agente antiví

  1. MODIFICACION DEL PLANO INCLINADO: UNA ALTERNATIVA SEGURA PARA EL USO EN NIÑOS

    OpenAIRE

    GUTIERREZ CARMONA., SONIA ALEJANDRA

    2013-01-01

    El uso de este aparato es seguro, higiénico y cómodo para el uso en niños con dentición temporal o mixta temprana. De igual manera es práctico, de fácil elaboración y con buenos resultados para el médico tratante

  2. Drinking-water hydropower station 'Loye' in Grone, Switzerland - Feasibility study; Petite centrale hydro-electrique de Loye sur le reseau d'eau potable de la commune de Grone. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a small hydropower project to be realised in Grone, southern Switzerland. The system planed is described. This provides the necessary pressure reduction in the drinking-water supply system between the springs in the mountains and the reservoir in the valley whilst generating electrical power at the same time. A one-injector Pelton turbine that meets all drinking-water quality requirements is used to generate 48 kW of electrical power using the pressure obtained from the height-difference of around 164 metres. The forecast electricity production amounts to 283,000 kWh/y, of which 88,000 kWh in the wintertime. The expected production cost is 0.219 CHF/kWh. A 550 m long pipeline has to be replaced.

  3. Local society and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report was made by the expert committee on region investigation, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum Inc., in fiscal years 1981 and 1982 in order to grasp the social economic influence exerted on regions by the location of nuclear power stations and the actual state of the change due to it, and to search for the way the promotion of local community should be. The influence and the effect were measured in the regions around the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the Mihama Power Station of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., and the Genkai Nuclear Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. The fundamental recognition in this discussion, the policy of locating nuclear power stations and the management of regions, the viewpoint and way of thinking in the investigation of the regions where nuclear power stations are located, the actual state of social economic impact due to the location of nuclear power stations, the connected mechanism accompanying the location of nuclear power stations, and the location of nuclear power stations and the acceleration of planning for regional promotion are reported. In order to economically generate electric power, the rationalization in the location of nuclear power stations is necessary, and the concrete concept of building up local community must be decided. (Kako, I.)

  4. POTENCIAL ZETA (Z COMO CRITERIO DE OPTIMIZACIÓN DE DOSIFICACIÓN DE COAGULANTE EN PLANTA DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUA POTABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBIANA BETANCUR C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad del agua cruda del Río Otún que abastece la planta de tratamiento de agua potable de Aguas y Aguas de Pereira puede presentar fluctuaciones en cortos periodos de tiempo. Por esta razón se requiere un instrumento que permita tomar decisiones rápidas para modificar la dosis de coagulante a utilizar en el tratamiento con base en un criterio cuantificable y preciso como el potencial zeta (ζ. En este estudio se determinó que para un intervalo de ζ desde -2.28 mV a +1.2 mV del agua coagulada se obtienen valores bajos de turbiedad y color del agua sedimentada. Es posible alcanzar un óptimo desempeño del proceso de floculación y sedimentación efectuando mediciones de ζ en el agua coagulada como indicador de desestabilización de las partículas. ζ presenta una correlación positiva con la dosis de coagulante aplicada, modificando la dosis de coagulante es posible alcanzar valores de ζ cercanos a cero.

  5. Acción del cloro y carbón activado en polvo sobre la remoción de microcistinas en tratamientos de agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las floraciones (bloom de algas cianofíceas en el Lago de Salto Grande (Argentina- Uruguay son consecuencia del estado de eutrofización y las condiciones ambientales. Representan un problema ecológico, sanitario y económico porque afectan el turismo, producen aumento del costo de tratamiento de agua potable y, lo más importante, riesgos para la salud pública por exposición a productos de su metabolismo: las cianotoxinas. Las microcistinas son las toxinas halladas con mayor frecuencia y más tóxicas sobre el ser humano, y se ha detectado su presencia en todas las floraciones registradas en el Lago. Se estudió la acción del cloro y el carbón activado en polvo para la remoción de microcistinas, en condiciones de laboratorio, demostrándose mayor efectividad sobre la remoción de las mismas del tratamiento de oxidación con cloro respecto del método de adsorción con carbón activado en polvo.

  6. Prevalence and distribution of Legionella spp in potable water systems in Germany, risk factors associated with contamination, and effectiveness of thermal disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Eva-Brigitta; Wehner, Arno; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, Legionella spp are a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Potable water systems are a main reservoir; however, exposure in the community is unknown. Water samples from 718 buildings in Germany were collected. Possible risk factors were prospectively recorded. All samples were tested for Legionella spp using cultural microbiologic methods. Samples were assigned to 1 of 5 levels of contamination. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the influence of risk factors for contamination and, in a subgroup of buildings, for unsuccessful thermal disinfection. In total, 4,482 water samples from 718 different water supply systems were analyzed. In 233 buildings (32.7%), Legionella spp were identified, 148 (63.5%) of which had a medium or higher level of contamination. The most common species was Legionella pneumophila (94%). Contamination was strongly associated with temperature in the circulation, but not with the size of the building, time of the year, or transport time to the laboratory. Thermal disinfection was successful in fewer than half of the buildings. There is relevant exposure to Legionella spp in the community. Water systems are not always up to current technical standards. Although microbiological risk assessment remains a challenge, there is a case for monitoring for Legionella spp outside of hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of natural radionuclides in wastes generated in the potable water treatment plants of the Zona da Mata of the State of Pernambuco-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Adriana M. de A.; França, Fernanda Cláudia S. da S.; Silveira, Patrícia B. da; Hazin, Clovis A.; Honorato, Eliane V.

    2017-01-01

    The water purification procedure aims to obtain a product appropriate for human consumption, minimizing the concentration of contaminants and toxic substances present in the water. Among these contaminants, some radionuclides of natural origin, such as uranium, thorium and their descendants, have been identified. Previous studies have shown that the stages of purification are quite effective in removing the radionuclides contained in the water. The removal is due to co-precipitation of the radionuclides with the suspended materials. The precipitated material is accumulated and characterized as a Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This wastes can present significant levels of radioactivity and, when discarded in the environment without any treatment, can generate a problem of environmental impact and a risk to the health of the population. In this way, some gamma emitters of the series of U and Th, as well as 40 K were determined in the residues generated at the Potable Water Treatment Plants PWTPs in six municipalities of Pernambuco. The results obtained corroborate the classification of the residues generated in the PWTPs as concentrators of the radioactive components contained in the water supplied to the system and reinforce the need for the release to the environment, which is the usual way of disposal of this waste, to be carried out only after considering the radiation protection standards established by CNEN. (author)

  8. Standardization and estimation of gross alpha and beta activities for potable water samples in presence of TDS using TDCR based LSA (Hidex 300SL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anil; Lenka, P.; Sahoo, S.K.; Patra, A.C.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Quality of water is important in environmental studies because of its daily use for human consumption and an important route of intake for various elements and radionuclides. Therefore radiological quality of drinking water must be ensured. The screening parameter to evaluate the radiological safety of potable water is by estimating gross alpha and gross beta activities with a limit of 0.5 Bq/l and 1 Bq/l respectively. These have been traditionally being done by radiochemical co-precipitation of alpha and beta emitters followed by counting by ZnS(Ag) counter for alpha and gas flow proportional counter for beta. Gross alpha estimation in water samples with high TDS by ZnS(Ag) is difficult and often leads to underestimation of result due to self-absorption of alpha within the residue. This study was carried out to standardize a method to provide rapid results by simultaneously estimating both gross alpha and gross beta activity in the presence of TDS with adequate sensitivity, minimum sample processing

  9. Determination of natural radionuclides in wastes generated in the potable water treatment plants of the Zona da Mata of the State of Pernambuco-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Adriana M. de A.; França, Fernanda Cláudia S. da S.; Silveira, Patrícia B. da; Hazin, Clovis A.; Honorato, Eliane V., E-mail: chazin@elogica.com.br, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: adrianamuniz.a@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The water purification procedure aims to obtain a product appropriate for human consumption, minimizing the concentration of contaminants and toxic substances present in the water. Among these contaminants, some radionuclides of natural origin, such as uranium, thorium and their descendants, have been identified. Previous studies have shown that the stages of purification are quite effective in removing the radionuclides contained in the water. The removal is due to co-precipitation of the radionuclides with the suspended materials. The precipitated material is accumulated and characterized as a Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This wastes can present significant levels of radioactivity and, when discarded in the environment without any treatment, can generate a problem of environmental impact and a risk to the health of the population. In this way, some gamma emitters of the series of U and Th, as well as {sup 40}K were determined in the residues generated at the Potable Water Treatment Plants PWTPs in six municipalities of Pernambuco. The results obtained corroborate the classification of the residues generated in the PWTPs as concentrators of the radioactive components contained in the water supplied to the system and reinforce the need for the release to the environment, which is the usual way of disposal of this waste, to be carried out only after considering the radiation protection standards established by CNEN. (author)

  10. A Fuzzy Linear Programming Model for Improving Productivity of Electrical Energy in Potable Water Supply Facilities (Case study: Sistan Water Supply Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Baradaran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important operational issues in urban drinking water production and distribution systems is to assign a plan for running hours of water supplying electric pumps. The cost of consuming electricity in these pumps allocates most of water and wastewater companies operational costs to itself which is dependent to their running hours. In this paper, meanwhile having a field study in Sistan rural water and wastewater company, the constraints for specifying electric pumps operational time in water supplying resources such as restrictions in fulfilling demand, supply potable water with suitable quality and uselessness of electric pumps have been identified. Due to uncertainty and fuzziness of the constraints, a linear programming model with fuzzy restrictions for determining electric pumps running hours per day is submitted with the aim to minimize electricity consumption and cost. After collecting and using required data for model, it proved that using the proposed model could reduce the costs of electrical energy and increase productivity up to 23 percent per month. The proposed mathematical fuzzy programming is able to specify electric pumps scheduling plan for water supply resources with the aim to reduce the costs of consuming energy.

  11. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  12. Patrón de uso de lentes de contacto y sintomatología asociada en estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Garza León

    2017-01-01

    Conclusiones: En este grupo de estudiantes la prevalencia de uso de LDC es baja, su uso es generalmente por cuestiones refractivas y existe un conocimiento de complicaciones alto y una alta frecuencia de sintomatología de ojo seco.

  13. The remote security station (RSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletta, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that, as an outgrowth of research into physical security systems, Sandia is investigating robotic technologies for improving physical security performance and flexibility. Robotic systems have the potential to allow more effective utilization of security personnel, especially in scenarios where they might be exposed to harm. They also can supplement fixed site installations where sensors have failed or where transient assets are present. The Remote Security Station (RSS) program for the defense Nuclear Agency is developing a proof-of-principle robotic system which will be used to evaluate the role, and associated cost, of robotic technologies in exterior physical security systems. The RSS consists of three primary elements: a fixed but quickly moveable tripod with intrusion detection sensors and assessment camera; a mobile robotic platform with a functionally identical security module; and a control console which allows an operator to perform security functions and teleoperate the mobile platform

  14. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  15. Flame visualization in power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Thus, A W; Verhage, A J.L. [KEMA - Fossil Power Plants, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1993-01-01

    The shapes and temperature of flames in power stations, fired with powder coal and gas, have been measured optically. Spectral information in the visible and near infrared is used. Coal flames are visualized in the blue part of the spectrum, natural gas flames are viewed in the light of CH-emission. Temperatures of flames are derived from the best fit of the Planck-curve to the thermal radiation spectrum of coal and char, or to that of soot in the case of gas flames. A measuring method for the velocity distribution inside a gas flame is presented, employing pulsed alkali salt injection. It has been tested on a 100 kW natural gas flame. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  17. Space Station automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A group of fifteen students in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Maryland, College Park, has been involved in a design project under the sponsorship of NASA Headquarters, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Systems Research Center (SRC) at UMCP. The goal of the NASA/USRA project was to first obtain a refinement of the design work done in Spring 1986 on the proposed Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS) for the Space Station. This was followed by design exercises involving the OMV and two armed service vehicle. Three students worked on projects suggested by NASA Goddard scientists for ten weeks this past summer. The knowledge gained from the summer design exercise has been used to improve our current design of the MRMS. To this end, the following program was undertaken for the Fall semester 1986: (1) refinement of the MRMS design; and (2) addition of vision capability to our design.

  18. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  19. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  20. Figuras, usos y valores del agua en Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Jaramillo Giraldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso del agua representa un factor central del proceso de urbanización de las sociedades. Involucra limitaciones a las nociones dominantes de orden, limpieza, higiene, y organización que operan sobre el espacio, el comportamiento individual, las prácticas sociales y la valoración que construimos sobre estos. En ciudades como Bogotá, cuyo crecimiento urbano espontáneo alcanzó casi a la mitad del total de viviendas levantadas durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, el agua, como las redes clandestinas de servicios, reflejan as Bogota, una forma de apropiación e integración al espacio social, que revela el conflicto entre la ciudad formal o establecida y la ciudad marginal. Palabras clave: Urbanización v abastecimiento services, reflecrs a wav of appropnation and de agua