Sample records for station launch facilities

  1. Lightning interaction with launch facilities (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Rakov, V. A.


    Lightning is a major threat to launch facilities. In 2008 and 2009 there have been a significant number of strikes within 5 nautical miles of Launch Complexes 39A and 39B at the Kennedy Space Center. On several occasions, the Shuttle Space Vehicle (SSV) was at the pad. Fortunately, no accidents or damage to the flight hardware occurred, but these events resulted in many launch delays, one launch scrub, and many hours of retesting. For complex structures, such as launch facilities, the design of the lightning protection system (LPS) cannot be done using the lightning protection standard guidelines. As a result, there are some “unprotected” or “exposed” areas. In order to quantify the lightning threat to these areas, a Monte Carlo statistical tool has been developed. This statistical tool uses two random number generators: a uniform distribution to generate origins of downward propagating leaders and a lognormal distribution to generate returns stroke peak currents. Downward leaders propagate vertically downward and their striking distances are defined by the polarity and peak current. Following the electrogeometrical concept, we assume that the leader attaches to the closest object within its striking distance. The statistical analysis is run for a large number of years using a long term ground flash density that corresponds to the geographical region where the structures being analyzed are located or will be installed. The output of the program is the probability of direct attachment to objects of interest with its corresponding peak current distribution. This tool was used in designing the lightning protection system of Launch Complex 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, FL, for NASA’s Constellation program. The tool allowed the designers to select the position of the towers and to design the catenary wire system to minimize the probability of direct strikes to the spacecraft and associated ground support equipment. This tool can be used to evaluate

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for the Deactivation/Facility Disposition of Atlas Space Launch Complex (SLC-36) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida (United States)


    canopy, which is constantly pruned and shaped by windborne salt spray. Coastal strand forms a dense thicket of shrubs, usually dominated by live...disturbed or open areas. Some areas of strand are densely blanketed with catbrier (Smilax auriculata) or coin vine (Dalbergia ecastophyllum). Two State...Station #4. Coastal oak scrub consists of dense, salt- pruned thickets of live oak, sand live oak, myrtle oak, and buckthorn, sometimes densely

  3. Remote video assessment for missile launch facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.; Stewart, W.A.


    The widely dispersed, unmanned launch facilities (LFs) for land-based ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) currently do not have visual assessment capability for existing intrusion alarms. The security response force currently must assess each alarm on-site. Remote assessment will enhance manpower, safety, and security efforts. Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the USAF Electronic Systems Center to research, recommend, and demonstrate a cost-effective remote video assessment capability at missile LFs. The project`s charter was to provide: system concepts; market survey analysis; technology search recommendations; and operational hardware demonstrations for remote video assessment from a missile LF to a remote security center via a cost-effective transmission medium and without using visible, on-site lighting. The technical challenges of this project were to: analyze various video transmission media and emphasize using the existing missile system copper line which can be as long as 30 miles; accentuate and extremely low-cost system because of the many sites requiring system installation; integrate the video assessment system with the current LF alarm system; and provide video assessment at the remote sites with non-visible lighting.

  4. Connection Facility Layout Model of Subway Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Yao


    Full Text Available As the key node of public transportation system, subway station has many functions such as attracting and distributing passengers and guiding the transfer from various traffic modes to subway. However, the poor facility scale and layout around subway stations in practice usually cause the inconvenience of transfer and low transfer efficiency, which causes the declination of travel efficiency and even loose of subway passengers. Taking subway stations as the study objects, this paper has emphasis on the connection characters between various traffic modes and subway stations. Considering the attraction region, the total transfer time, transfer distance, and connection cost were selected to form the efficiency index of connection layout of subway stations. Data envelopment analysis (DEA model is applied in the quantization of traffic resource consumption and output. At last, connection facility layout model of subway stations was established with the aim of improving the transfer efficiency. Meaningful results were obtained from the connection layout model of subway stations, which guide the planning and designing of the transfer facilities around subway stations.

  5. KSC facilities status and planned management operations. [for Shuttle launches (United States)

    Gray, R. H.; Omalley, T. J.


    A status report is presented on facilities and planned operations at the Kennedy Space Center with reference to Space Shuttle launch activities. The facilities are essentially complete, with all new construction and modifications to existing buildings almost finished. Some activity is still in progress at Pad A and on the Mobile Launcher due to changes in requirements but is not expected to affect the launch schedule. The installation and testing of the ground checkout equipment that will be used to test the flight hardware is now in operation. The Launch Processing System is currently supporting the development of the applications software that will perform the testing of this flight hardware.

  6. X-38 research aircraft launch from Space Station - computer animation (United States)


    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, CA, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  7. Centrifuge Facility for the International Space Station Alpha (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.


    The Centrifuge Facility planned for the International Space Station Alpha has under-one considerable redesign over the past year, primarily because the Station is now viewed as a 10 year mission rather than a 30 year mission and because of the need to simply the design to meet budget constraints and a 2000 launch date. The basic elements of the Centrifuge Facility remain the same, i.e., a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, a micro-g holding unit, plant and animal habitats, a glovebox and a service unit. The centrifuge will still provide the full range of artificial gravity from 0.01 a to 2 - as originally planned; however, the extractor to permit withdrawal of habitats from the centrifuge without stopping the centrifuge has been eliminated. The specimen habitats have also been simplified and are derived from other NASA programs. The Plant Research Unit being developed by the Gravitational Biology Facility will be used to house plants in the Centrifuge Facility. Although not as ambitious as the Centrifuge Facility plant habitat, it will provide much better environmental control and lighting than the current Shuttle based Plant Growth Facility. Similarly, rodents will be housed in the Advanced Animal Habitat being developed for the Shuttle program. The Centrifuge Facility and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform repeatable, high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies on both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The Centrifuge Facility will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will for the first time permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of micro-g from

  8. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer


    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  9. Physics of Colloids in Space: Microgravity Experiment Launched, Installed, and Activated on the International Space Station (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.


    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment is a Microgravity Fluids Physics investigation that is presently located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack on the International Space Station. PCS was launched to the International Space Station on April 19, 2001, activated on May 31, 2001, and will continue to operate about 90 hr per week through May 2002.

  10. Provisions of Disabled Facilities at The Malaysian Public Transport Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Isa Haryati


    Full Text Available Public transport stations need to provide access and facilities for people with disabilities (PWD in fulfilling the requirements of the Malaysian Standard Code of Practice on Access of Disabled Persons (MS. However, most public transport stations in Malaysia are reported as still lacking in terms of providing good designs and facilities for the PWDs. This inaccessible environment affects the PWDs to negatively participate in the social and economic mainstream. The research aims at identifying the compliance of disabled facilities provided at the electronic train service (ETS railway station in Perak. Two research objectives were established (1 to identify the range of disabled facilities provided at the ETS railway station in Perak and (2 to determine the compliance of the disabled facilities as outlined in the MS. Eight ETS railway stations in Perak were chosen for the case study. Purely qualitative methods were adopted. An observation checklist was developed by conducting document analysis on three main documents. The findings suggest that there are 14 disabled facilities to be provided at the ETS railway stations. Majority of these facilities are available and comply with the MS. Conversely, some improvement can be made to further promote sustainability atmosphere of the ETS railway stations.

  11. Preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility (Complex 39L) (United States)

    Matthews, H. Dennis; Jenson, Eric B.; Linsley, Jerald N.


    A preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility has been formulated. A permanently manned lunar base and a baseline lunar module are assumed. The major features of the facility are specified and major design areas are described.

  12. Provisions of Disabled Facilities at The Malaysian Public Transport Stations


    Mohd Isa Haryati; Zanol Halmi; Alauddin Kartina; Nawi Mohd Hafizuddin


    Public transport stations need to provide access and facilities for people with disabilities (PWD) in fulfilling the requirements of the Malaysian Standard Code of Practice on Access of Disabled Persons (MS). However, most public transport stations in Malaysia are reported as still lacking in terms of providing good designs and facilities for the PWDs. This inaccessible environment affects the PWDs to negatively participate in the social and economic mainstream. The research aims at identifyi...

  13. Space Station life science research facility - The vivarium/laboratory (United States)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Arno, R. D.


    Research opportunities possible with the Space Station are discussed. The objective of the research program will be study gravity relationships for animal and plant species. The equipment necessary for space experiments including vivarium facilities are described. The cost of the development of research facilities such as the vivarium/laboratory and a bioresearch centrifuge is examined.

  14. Climate analysis of lightning launch commit criteria for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station


    Muller, Eric C.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited We have conducted climate analyses of natural lightning activity at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (KSC/CCAFS). These analyses were conducted to improve forecasts of lightning related hazards for, and the planning of, space vehicle launches at KSC/CCAFS. If a space vehicle is hit by lightning during launch, the vehicle and payload may sustain irreparable damage. Lightning-based rules for conducting launch a...

  15. A simulation facility for testing Space Station assembly procedures (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Shehad, Nagy M.


    NASA plans to construct the Space Station Freedom (SSF) in one of the most hazardous environments known to mankind - space. It is of the utmost importance that the procedures to assemble and operate the SSF in orbit are both safe and effective. This paper describes a facility designed to test the integration of the telerobotic systems and to test assembly procedures using a real-world robotic arm grappling space hardware in a simulated microgravity environment.

  16. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air... (United States)


    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. Rocket...

  17. Qualitative risk assessment of Sandia`s rocket preparation and launch facility at Barking Sands, Kauai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A.


    This paper demonstrates the application of a qualitative methodology for performing risk assessments using the consequence and probability binning criteria of DOE Order 5481.1B. The particular application that is the subject of this paper is a facility risk assessment conducted for Sandia National Laboratories` Kauai Test Facility (KTF). The KTF is a rocket preparation and launch facility operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy and is located on the US Navy`s Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Barking Sands on the western side of the island of Kauai, Hawaii. The KTF consists of an administrative compound and main launch facility located on the north end of the PMRF, as well as the small Kokole Point launch facility located on the south end of the PMRF. It is classified as a moderate hazard facility in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B. As such, its authorization basis for operations necessitates a safety/risk assessment. This paper briefly addresses the hazards associated with KTF operations and the accidents selected for evaluation, introduces the principal elements of the accident assessment methodology, presents analysis details for two of the selected accidents, and provides a summary of results for all of the accidents evaluated.

  18. Research Opportunities on the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) on the International Space Station (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Chuan; Adriaans, Mary Jayne; Pensinger, John; Israelsson, Ulf


    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is a state-of-the-art facility for long duration science Investigations whose objectives can only be achieved in microgravity and at low temperature. LTMPF consists of two reusable, cryogenic facilities with self-contained electronics, software and communication capabilities. The Facility will be first launched by Japanese HIIA Rocket in 2003 and retrieved by the Space Shuttle, and will have at least five months cryogen lifetime on the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) of the International Space Station. A number of high precision sensors of temperature, pressure and capacitance will be available, which can be further tailored to accommodate a wide variety of low temperature experiments. This paper will describe the LTMPF and its goals and design requirements. Currently there are six candidate experiments in the flight definition phase to fly on LTMPF. Future candidate experiments will be selected through the NASA Research Announcement process. Opportunities for utilization and collaboration with international partners will also be discussed. This work is being carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work was funded by NASA Microgravity Research Division.

  19. Contamination Impact of Station Brush Fire on Cleanroom Facilities (United States)

    Carey, Phil; Blakkolb, Brian


    Brush and forest fires, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic in origin, in proximity to space flight hardware processing facilities raise concerns about the threat of contamination resulting from airborne particulate and molecular components of smoke. Perceptions of the severity of the threat are possibly heightened by the high sensitivity of the human sense of smell to some components present in the smoke of burning vegetation.On August 26th, 2009, a brushfire broke out north of Pasadena, California, two miles from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Station Fire destroyed over 160,000 acres, coming within a few hundred yards of JPL. Smoke concentrations on Lab were very heavy over several days. All Lab operations were halted, and measures were taken to protect personnel, critical hardware, and facilities. Evaluation of real-time cleanroom monitoring data, visualinspection of facilities, filter systems, and analysis of surface cleanliness samples revealed facility environments andhardware were minimally effected.Outside air quality easily exceeded Class Ten Million. Prefilters captured most large ash and soot; multi-stage filtration greatly minimized the impact on the HEPA/ULPA filters. Air quality in HEPA filtered spacecraft assembly cleanrooms remained within Class 10,000 specification throughout. Surface cleanliness was inimally affected, as large particles were effectively removed from the airstream, and sub-micron particles have extremely long settling rates. Approximate particulate fallout within facilities was 0.00011% area coverage/day compared to 0.00038% area coverage/day during normal operations. Deposition of condensable airborne components, as measured in real time, peaked at approximately1.0 ng/cm2/day compared to 0.05 ng/cm2/day nominal.

  20. Space Station Furnace Facility. Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD), volume 2, appendix 5 (United States)

    Kephart, Nancy


    The function of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is to support materials research into the crystal growth and solidification processes of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will employ a variety of furnace modules operated, regulated, and supported by a core of common subsystems. Furnace modules may be reconfigured or specifically developed to provide unique solidifcation conditions for each set of experiments. The SSFF modular approach permits the addition of new or scaled-up furnace modules to support the evolution of the facility as new science requirements are identified. The SSFF Core is of modular design to permit augmentation for enhanced capabilities. The fully integrated configuration of the SSFF will consist of three racks with the capability of supporting up to two furnace modules per rack. The initial configuration of the SSFF will consist of two of the three racks and one furnace module. This Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD) describes the integrated facility requirements for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Integrated Configuration-1 (IC1) mission. The IC1 SSFF will consist of two racks: the Core Rack, with the centralized subsystem equipment, and the Experiment Rack-1, with Furnace Module-1 and the distributed subsystem equipment to support the furnace.

  1. Fifteen-foot diameter modular space station Kennedy Space Center launch site support definition (space station program Phase B extension definition) (United States)

    Bjorn, L. C.; Martin, M. L.; Murphy, C. W.; Niebla, J. F., V


    This document defines the facilities, equipment, and operational plans required to support the MSS Program at KSC. Included is an analysis of KSC operations, a definition of flow plans, facility utilization and modifications, test plans and concepts, activation, and tradeoff studies. Existing GSE and facilities that have a potential utilization are identified, and new items are defined where possible. The study concludes that the existing facilities are suitable for use in the space station program without major modification from the Saturn-Apollo configuration.

  2. Experiment/facility requirements document for the Space Station Furnace Facility. Section 1: Integrated configuration (United States)


    The function of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is to support materials research into the crystal growth and solidification processes of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will employ a variety of furnace modules which will be operated, regulated, and supported by a core of common subsystems. Furnace modules may be reconfigured or specifically developed to provide unique solidification conditions for each set of experiments. The SSFF modular approach permits the addition of new or scaled-up furnace modules to support the evolution of the facility as new science requirements are identified. The SSFF Core is of modular design to permit augmentation for enhanced capabilities. The fully integrated configuration of the SSFF will consist of three racks with the capability of supporting up to two furnace modules per rack. The initial configuration of the SSFF will consist of two of the three racks and one furnace module. This Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD) describes the integrated facility requirements for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Integrated Configuration-1 (IC1) mission. The IC1 SSFF will consist of two racks: the Core Rack, with the centralized subsystem equipment; and the Experiment Rack-1, with Furnace Module-1 and the distributed subsystem equipment to support the furnace. The SSFF support functions are provided by the following Core subsystems: power conditioning and distribution subsystem (SSFF PCDS); data management subsystem (SSFF DMS); thermal control Subsystem (SSFF TCS); gas distribution subsystem (SSFF GDS); and mechanical structures subsystem (SSFF MSS).

  3. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.


    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and its Optical Transient Detector (OTD) predecessor that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) spanning a period from May 1995 through April 2015. As an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The STP-H5 payload containing LIS is scheduled launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center to the ISS in November 2016, aboard the SpaceX Cargo Resupply Services-10 (SpaceX-10) mission, installed in the unpressurized "trunk" of the Dragon spacecraft. After the Dragon is berth to ISS Node 2, the payload will be removed from the trunk and robotically installed in a nadir-viewing location on the external truss of the ISS. Following installation on the ISS, the LIS Operations Team will work with the STP-H5 and ISS Operations Teams to power-on LIS and begin instrument checkout and commissioning. Following successful activation, LIS orbital operations will commence, managed from the newly established LIS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the National Space Science Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. The well-established and robust processing, archival, and distribution infrastructure used for TRMM was easily adapted to the ISS mission, assuring that lightning

  4. Parameters of passenger facilities according to railway station characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej HAVLENA


    Full Text Available The article presents ways and goals of categorization of railway stations and stops in the Czech railway network. The aim of this categorization is to classify railway stations (or stops in the railway network according to a suite of entrance parameters (e.g. municipality population, transfer links, job opportunities, tourist attractiveness. On the basis of these parameters, railway stations and stops will be classified into several categories, which will be used to specify the conclusions for station equipment concerning ticket offices, commercial services, waiting rooms and other accessories. Research results can be used as a support for infrastructure managers and railway operators to optimise the scale of their services.

  5. Coastal Boundary Layer Characteristics of Wind, Turbulence, and Surface Roughness Parameter over the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Namboodiri


    Full Text Available The study discusses the features of wind, turbulence, and surface roughness parameter over the coastal boundary layer of the Peninsular Indian Station, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS. Every 5 min measurements from an ultrasonic anemometer at 3.3 m agl from May 2007 to December 2012 are used for this work. Symmetries in mesoscale turbulence, stress off-wind angle computations, structure of scalar wind, resultant wind direction, momentum flux (M, Obukhov length (L, frictional velocity (u*, w-component, turbulent heat flux (H, drag coefficient (CD, turbulent intensities, standard deviation of wind directions (σθ, wind steadiness factor-σθ relationship, bivariate normal distribution (BND wind model, surface roughness parameter (z0, z0 and wind direction (θ relationship, and variation of z0 with the Indian South West monsoon activity are discussed.

  6. Forces during Tim Peake's Launch to the International Space Station (United States)

    Mobbs, Robin


    Despite the advanced technology and engineering that has gone onto the International Space Station and other space programmes, the measurement of the force experienced in the spacecraft is tested using a method that is well over 350 years old. The time of oscillation of a simple pendulum, as often investigated in school physics, provides the basis…

  7. The experimental facility of Tournemire; La station experimentale de Tournemire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents the underground facility of Tournemire (Aveyron, France). The Tournemire abandoned railway tunnel gives access to a 250 m thick Jurassic clay bed covered with 250 m of limestones. The main goal of the Tournemire project is the study of the mechanical properties and fracturing of a clay formation and of its ability to be used as a deep underground storage facility for radioactive wastes. The document comprises a general presentation brochure and a description of the geologic, tectonic, geomechanical and hydro-geochemical surveys carried out in the facility. (J.S.)

  8. Level II Documentation of Launch Complex 31/32, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida (United States)


    stations when the satellite passed close enough overhead. The second type of satellite featured a “recoverable” system in which a capsule loaded with...project. NASA used a modified Titan II as the booster for Project Gemini capsules and a Mercury capsule – twice the size of earlier capsules was used...large inhabitable structure into orbit around the earth for use in collecting scientific data. Apollo- Soyuz was a cooperative project between the

  9. Launching vignettes and its consequences on traffic in toll station areas


    Buh, Miha


    In July 2008, system of partial payments on motorways was aborted and for most of the traffic replaced by a vignette system. Vignettes are bought in advance and are valid for a longer period of time. The switch of system caused major changes on traffic – traffic increased on motorways and decreased on some lower order state roads (for which payment is not demanded). The biggest change is seen in toll station areas. Increased traffic on motorways caused shorter distances among vehicles and mor...

  10. Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility (United States)

    Martin, Donald F.; Mellott, Kenneth D.


    The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains 82 PV panels. The PV power modules provide a 160 V nominal operating voltage. Previous research has shown that there are electrical interactions between a plasma environment and a photovoltaic power source. The interactions take two forms: parasitic current loss (occurs when the currect produced by the PV panel leaves at a high potential point and travels through the plasma to a lower potential point, effectively shorting that portion of the PV panel); and arcing (occurs when the PV panel electrically discharges into the plasma). The PV solar array panel plasma interaction test was conceived to evaluate the effects of these interactions on the Space Station Freedom type PV panels as well as to conduct further research. The test article consists of two active solar array panels in series. Each panel consists of two hundred 8 cm x 8 cm silicon solar cells. The test requirements dictated specifications in the following areas: plasma environment/plasma sheath; outgassing; thermal requirements; solar simulation; and data collection requirements.

  11. 77 FR 2766 - Facility Operating License Amendment from Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC., Catawba Nuclear Station... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Facility Operating License Amendment from Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC., Catawba Nuclear Station... and NPF-52 issued to Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Catawba Nuclear...

  12. Impact of assembly, testing and launch operations on the airborne bacterial diversity within a spacecraft assembly facility clean-room (United States)

    Newcombe, David A.; La Duc, Myron T.; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri


    In an effort to minimize the probability of forward contamination of pristine extraterrestrial environments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration requires that all US robotic spacecraft undergo assembly, testing and launch operations (ATLO) in controlled clean-room environments. This study examines the impact of ATLO activity on the microbial diversity and overall bioburden contained within the air of the clean-room facility in which the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) underwent final preparations for launch. Air samples were collected from several facility locations and traditional culture-based and molecular methodologies were used to measure microbial burden and diversity. Surprisingly, the greatest estimates of airborne bioburden, as derived from ATP content and cultivation assays, were observed prior to the commencement of MER ATLO activities. Furthermore, airborne microbial diversity gradually declined from the initiation of ATLO on through to launch. Proteobacterial sequences were common in 16S rDNA clone libraries. Conspicuously absent were members of the Firmicutes phylum, which includes the genus Bacillus. In previous studies, species of this genus were repeatedly isolated from the surfaces of spacecraft and clean-room assembly facilities. Increased cleaning and maintenance initiated immediately prior to the start of ATLO activity could explain the observed declines in both airborne bioburden and microbial diversity.

  13. Plasmakristall-4: A microgravity complex plasma facility on the way to launch (United States)

    Pustylnik, Mikhail; Thomas, Hubertus; Fortov, Vladimir; Thoma, Markus; Lipaev, Andrey; Morfill, Gregor; Molotkov, Vladimir; Usachev, Alexander; Zobnin, Andrey; Tarantik, Karl; Albrecht, Sebastian; Deysenroth, Christian; Rau, Christian; Mitic, Slobodan; Nosenko, Vladimir; Fink, Martin; Prof

    chamber. For the diagnostics of the microparticles, two CCD cameras and an illumination laser sheet are available. Cameras and the laser focal plane are movable along the plasma chamber and cover almost the entire working area. Moving the laser sheet and cameras across the plasma chamber axis will allow to obtain information on the 3D structure of the microparticle clouds. Background plasma may be monitored by the so-called plasma glow camera, which produces three kaleidoscopic images of the plasma. Two of these images are filtered for two neon spectral lines and the third one represents the integral glow. Also, a spectrometer whose receiving optics is movable together with the cameras is available as a diagnostic means. Several microparticles manipulation techniques are implemented in PK-4, starting from simple discharge current modulation to using a powerful infrared laser exerting radiation pressure on microparticles. The experiment is going to be conducted on board of the International Space Station. The launch is scheduled to October 2014. Even before being launched into orbit, the PK-4 project already delivered lots of interesting scientific results, obtained in ground laboratory and parabolic flight experiments and numerical simulations. First of all, the kinetic model of the discharge was built and the discharge parameters, such as electron density and temperature, number density of metastable atoms were measured. Diagnostic methods are being further developed to be used on orbit. Then, the microscopic properties of the microparticles (i.e. their charge and forces acting on them) were determined using dynamic methods. Size dynamics (growth and etching) of microparticles in PK-4 discharges were studied. Collective plasma phenomena (such as e.g. dust-acoustic) waves were investigated. And, finally, the interdisciplinary experiments, making a link between the PK-4 plasmas and real condensed matter were conducted. Such phenomenon as electrorheology was successfully

  14. Psychiatric components of a Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.


    The operational psychiatric requirements for a comprehensive Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on a permanently manned Space Station are examined. Consideration is given to the psychological health maintenance program designed for the diagnosis of mental distress in astronauts during flight and for prevention of mental breakdown. The types of mental disorders that can possibly affect the astronauts in flight are discussed, including various organic, psychotic, and affective mental disorders, as well as anxiety, adjustment, and somatoform/dissociative disorders. Special attention is given to therapeutic considerations for psychiatric operations on Space Station, such as restraints, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, and psychosocial support.

  15. An assessment of clinical chemical sensing technology for potential use in space station health maintenance facility (United States)


    A Health Maintenance Facility is currently under development for space station application which will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on Earth. This final report addresses the study of alternate means of diagnosis and evaluation of impaired tissue perfusion in a microgravity environment. Chemical data variables related to the dysfunction and the sensors required to measure these variables are reviewed. A technology survey outlines the ability of existing systems to meet these requirements. How the candidate sensing system was subjected to rigorous testing is explored to determine its suitability. Recommendations for follow-on activities are included that would make the commercial system more appropriate for space station applications.

  16. Life Sciences Research Facility automation requirements and concepts for the Space Station (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.


    An evaluation is made of the methods and preliminary results of a study on prospects for the automation of the NASA Space Station's Life Sciences Research Facility. In order to remain within current Space Station resource allocations, approximately 85 percent of planned life science experiment tasks must be automated; these tasks encompass specimen care and feeding, cage and instrument cleaning, data acquisition and control, sample analysis, waste management, instrument calibration, materials inventory and management, and janitorial work. Task automation will free crews for specimen manipulation, tissue sampling, data interpretation and communication with ground controllers, and experiment management.

  17. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments (United States)


    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  18. Space Environment Data Acquisition with the Kibo Exposed Facility on the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Obara


    Full Text Available The Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment (SEDA, which was mounted on the Exposed Facility (EF of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, also known as "Kibo" on the International Space Station (ISS, was developed to measure the space environment along the orbit of the ISS. This payload module, called the SEDA-Attached Payload (AP, began to measure the space environment in August 2009. This paper reports the mission objectives, instrumentation, and current status of the SEDA-AP.

  19. Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the needs of space biology (United States)

    Allen, Katherine; Wade, Charles


    The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be functional from the earliest utilization flights through the permanent manned phase. Gravitational biology research will also make use of other Life Sciences equipment on the space station as well as existing equipment developed for the space shuttle. The facility equipment will be developed based on requirements derived from experiments proposed by the scientific community to address critical questions in the Space Biology Program. This requires that the facility have the ability to house a wide variety of species, various methods of observation, and numerous methods of sample collection, preservation, and storage. The selection of the equipment will be done by the members of a scientific working group (5 members representing cell biology, 6 developmental biology, and 6 plant biology) who also provide requirements to design engineers to ensure that the equipment will meet scientific needs. All equipment will undergo extensive ground based experimental validation studies by various investigators addressing a variety of experimental questions. Equipment will be designed to be adaptable to other space platforms. The theme of the Gravitational Biology Facility effort is to provide optimal and reliable equipment to answer the critical questions in Space Biology as to the effects of gravity on living systems.

  20. Comparing facility-level methane emission rate estimates at natural gas gathering and boosting stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Vaughn


    Full Text Available Coordinated dual-tracer, aircraft-based, and direct component-level measurements were made at midstream natural gas gathering and boosting stations in the Fayetteville shale (Arkansas, USA. On-site component-level measurements were combined with engineering estimates to generate comprehensive facility-level methane emission rate estimates (“study on-site estimates (SOE” comparable to tracer and aircraft measurements. Combustion slip (unburned fuel entrained in compressor engine exhaust, which was calculated based on 111 recent measurements of representative compressor engines, accounts for an estimated 75% of cumulative SOEs at gathering stations included in comparisons. Measured methane emissions from regenerator vents on glycol dehydrator units were substantially larger than predicted by modelling software; the contribution of dehydrator regenerator vents to the cumulative SOE would increase from 1% to 10% if based on direct measurements. Concurrent measurements at 14 normally-operating facilities show relative agreement between tracer and SOE, but indicate that tracer measurements estimate lower emissions (regression of tracer to SOE = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.83–0.99, R2 = 0.89. Tracer and SOE 95% confidence intervals overlap at 11/14 facilities. Contemporaneous measurements at six facilities suggest that aircraft measurements estimate higher emissions than SOE. Aircraft and study on-site estimate 95% confidence intervals overlap at 3/6 facilities. The average facility level emission rate (FLER estimated by tracer measurements in this study is 17–73% higher than a prior national study by Marchese et al.

  1. A 20 Year Lifecycle Study for Launch Facilities at the Kennedy Space Center (United States)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Li. Wenyan; Hintze, Paul E.; Calle, Luz-Marina


    The lifecycle cost analysis was based on corrosion costs for the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complexes and Mobile Launch Platforms. The first step in the study involved identifying the relevant assets that would be included. Secondly, the identification and collection of the corrosion control cost data for the selected assets was completed. Corrosion control costs were separated into four categories. The sources of cost included the NASA labor for civil servant personnel directly involved in overseeing and managing corrosion control of the assets, United Space Alliance (USA) contractual requirements for performing planned corrosion control tasks, USA performance of unplanned corrosion control tasks, and Testing and Development. Corrosion control operations performed under USA contractual requirements were the most significant contributors to the total cost of corrosion. The operations include the inspection of the pad, routine maintenance of the pad, medium and large scale blasting and repainting activities, and the repair and replacement of structural metal elements. Cost data was collected from the years between 2001 and 2007. These costs were then extrapolated to future years to calculate the 20 year lifecycle costs.

  2. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.L. Jr.


    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

  3. Study of optimum propellant production facilities for launch of space shuttle vehicles (United States)

    Laclair, L. M.


    An integrated propellant manufacturing plant and distribution system located at Kennedy Space Center is studied. The initial planned propellant and pressurant production amounted to 160 tons/day (TPD) LH2, 10 TPD GH2, 800 TPD LO2, 400 TPD LN2, and 120 TPD GN2. This was based on a shuttle launch frequency of 104 per year. During the study, developments occurred which may lower cryogen requirements. A variety of plant and processing equipment sizes and costs are considered for redundancy and supply level considerations. Steam reforming is compared to partial oxidation as a means of generating hydrogen. Electric motors, steam turbines, and gas turbines are evaluated for driving compression equipment. Various sites on and off Government property are considered to determine tradeoffs between costs and problems directly associated with the site, product delivery and storage costs, raw material costs, and energy costs. Coproduction of other products such as deuterium, methanol, and ammonia are considered. Legal questions are discussed concerning a private company's liabilities and its rights to market commercial products under Government tax and cost shelters.

  4. Conceptual design of the hot cell facility universal docking station at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, A., E-mail: [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Benchikhoune, M.; Friconneau, J.P.; Ivanov, V. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lemee, A. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue Rene Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Martins, J.P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Tamassy, G. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue Rene Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France)


    Between main shutdowns of the ITER machine, in-vessel components and Iter Remote Maintenance System (IRMS) are transferred between the Tokamak complex and the Hot Cell Facility using different types of sealed casks. Transfer Casks have different physical interfaces with the Vacuum Vessel, which need to be the same at the docking stations of the HCF. It means that in-vessel components and IRMS are cleaned in the same cells, which is in fact not convenient. Furthermore, logistic studies showed that the use rate of the cells is very inhomogeneous. In order to have dedicated cell for decontamination of Remote Handling tools, in order to increase the operability efficiency and to removes the hot cell docking operation from the critical path, the concept of a universal docking station has been investigated. Based on an existing design, the work was focused on a review of requirements, the re-design and the integration within the HCF layout. The universal docking station has been proposed and is now integrated in HCF design.

  5. Peak Wind Forecasts for the Launch-Critical Wind Towers on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase IV (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred


    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds arc an important forecast clement for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to update the statistics in the current peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool includes onshore and offshore flow climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  6. Preliminary control system design and analysis for the Space Station Furnace Facility thermal control system (United States)

    Jackson, M. E.


    This report presents the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) thermal control system (TCS) preliminary control system design and analysis. The SSFF provides the necessary core systems to operate various materials processing furnaces. The TCS is defined as one of the core systems, and its function is to collect excess heat from furnaces and to provide precise cold temperature control of components and of certain furnace zones. Physical interconnection of parallel thermal control subsystems through a common pump implies the description of the TCS by coupled nonlinear differential equations in pressure and flow. This report formulates the system equations and develops the controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to satisfy flow rate tracking requirements. Extensive digital simulation results are presented to show the flow rate tracking performance.

  7. Flight Reynolds Number Testing of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.


    A 6%-scale unpowered model of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) ALAS-11-rev3c configuration was tested in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility to obtain static aerodynamic data at flight Reynolds numbers. Subsonic and transonic data were obtained for Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.95 for angles of attack from -4 to +22 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 to +10 degrees. Data were also obtained at various intermediate Reynolds numbers between 2.5 million and 45 million depending on Mach number in order to examine the effects of Reynolds number on the vehicle. Force and moment data were obtained using a 6-component strain gauge balance that operated both at warm temperatures (+120 . F) and cryogenic temperatures (-250 . F). Surface pressure data were obtained with electronically scanned pressure units housed in heated enclosures designed to survive cryogenic temperatures. Data obtained during the 3-week test entry were used to support development of the LAV aerodynamic database and to support computational fluid dynamics code validation. Furthermore, one of the outcomes of the test was the reduction of database uncertainty on axial force coefficient for the static unpowered LAV. This was accomplished as a result of good data repeatability throughout the test and because of decreased uncertainty on scaling wind tunnel data to flight.

  8. Application of 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler to launch operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station (United States)

    Schumann, Robin S.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Smith, Steve A.; Wilfong, Timothy L.


    This paper presents a case study where a significant wind shift, not detected by jimspheres, was detected by the 50 MHz DRWP (Doppler Radar Wind Profiler) and evaluated to be acceptable prior to the launch of a Shuttle. This case study illustrates the importance of frequent upper air wind measurements for detecting significant rapidly changing features as well as for providing confidence that the features really exist and are not due to instrumentation error. Had the release of the jimsphere been timed such that it would have detected the entire wind shift, there would not have been sufficient time to release another jimsphere to confirm the existence of the feature prior to the scheduled launch. We found that using a temporal median filter on the one minute spectral estimates coupled with a constraining window about a first guess velocity effectively removes nearly all spurious signals from the velocity profile generated by NASA's 50 MHz DRWP while boosting the temporal resolution to as high as one profile every 3 minutes. The higher temporal resolution of the 50 MHz DRWP using the signal processing algorithm described in this paper ensures the detection of rapidly changing features as well as provides the confidence that the features are genuine. Further benefit is gained when the profiles generated by the DRWP are examined in relation to the profiles measured by jimspheres and/or rawinsondes. The redundancy offered by using two independent measurements can dispel or confirm any suspicion regarding instrumentation error or malfunction and wind profiles can be examined in light of their respective instruments' strengths and weaknesses.

  9. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed: A Facility for Space Calibration and Measurement of Solar Cells on the International Space Station (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Jenkins, Phillip; Sexton, J. Andrew; Scheiman, David; Christie, Robert; Charpie, James; Gerber, Scott S.; Johnson, D. Bruce


    The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed ("PET") is a facility to be flown on the International Space Station to perform calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells in the space environment and then returning the cells to Earth for laboratory use. PET will allow rapid turnaround testing of new photovoltaic technology under AM0 conditions.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III


    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind

  11. Performance Evaluation of the International Space Station Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) Test Facility (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Mackey, Jeff; Hall, Nancy; Frankenfield, Bruce; Harpster, George; May, Rochelle; Mudawar, Issam; Kharangate, Chirag R.; hide


    A ground-based experimental facility to perform flow boiling and condensation experiments is built in support of the development of the long duration Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) destined for operation on board of the International Space Station (ISS) Fluid Integrated Rack (FIR). We performed tests with the condensation test module oriented horizontally and vertically. Using FC-72 as the test fluid and water as the cooling fluid, we evaluated the operational characteristics of the condensation module and generated ground based data encompassing the range of parameters of interest to the condensation experiment to be performed on the ISS. During this testing, we also evaluated the pressure drop profile across different components of the fluid subsystem, heater performance, on-orbit degassing subsystem, and the heat loss from different components. In this presentation, we discuss representative results of performance testing of the FBCE flow loop. These results will be used in the refinement of the flight system design and build-up of the FBCE which is scheduled for flight in 2019.

  12. Analysis of an M/G/1 Queue with Multiple Vacations, N-policy, Unreliable Service Station and Repair Facility Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu


    Full Text Available This paper studies an M/G/1 repairable queueing system with multiple vacations and N-policy, in which the service station is subject to occasional random breakdowns. When the service station breaks down, it is repaired by a repair facility. Moreover, the repair facility may fail during the repair period of the service station. The failed repair facility resumes repair after completion of its replacement. Under these assumptions, applying a simple method, the probability that the service station is broken, the rate of occurrence of breakdowns of the service station, the probability that the repair facility is being replaced and the rate of occurrence of failures of the repair facility along with other performance measures are obtained. Following the construction of the long-run expected cost function per unit time, the direct search method is implemented for determining the optimum threshold N* that minimises the cost function.

  13. Optimal Facility Location Model Based on Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Siting Urban Refueling Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Chen


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact factors and principles of siting urban refueling stations and proposes a three-stage method. The main objective of the method is to minimize refueling vehicles’ detour time. The first stage aims at identifying the most frequently traveled road segments for siting refueling stations. The second stage focuses on adding additional refueling stations to serve vehicles whose demands are not directly satisfied by the refueling stations identified in the first stage. The last stage further adjusts and optimizes the refueling station plan generated by the first two stages. A genetic simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem in the second stage and the results are compared to those from the genetic algorithm. A case study is also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and algorithm. The results indicate the proposed method can provide practical and effective solutions that help planners and government agencies make informed refueling station location decisions.

  14. Space Station Furnace Facility Management Information System (SSFF-MIS) Development (United States)

    Meade, Robert M.


    This report summarizes the chronology, results, and lessons learned from the development of the SSFF-MIS. This system has been nearly two years in development and has yielded some valuable insights into specialized MIS development. General: In December of 1994, the Camber Corporation and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) were contracted to design, develop, and implement a MIS for Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Station Furnace Facility Project. The system was to be accessible from both EBM-Compatible PC and Macintosh platforms. The system was required to contain data manually entered into the MIS as well as data imported from other MSFC sources. Electronic interfaces were established for each data source and retrieval was to be performed at prescribed time intervals. The SOW requirement that predominantly drove the development software selection was the dual-platform (IBM-PC and Macintosh) requirement. The requirement that the system would be maintained by Government personnel influenced the selection of Commercial Off-the-shelf software because of its inherent stability and readily available documentation and support. Microsoft FoxPro Professional 2.6 for Windows and Macintosh was selected as the development tool. This is a software development tool that has been in use for many years. It is stable and powerful. Microsoft has since released the replacement for this product, Microsoft Visual FoxPro, but at the time of this development, it was only available on the Windows platform. The initial contract included included the requirement for capabilities relating to the Work- and Organizational Breakdown Structures, cost (plan and actuals), workforce (plan and actuals), critical path scheduling, trend analysis, procurements and contracts, interface to manufacturing, Safety and Mission Assurance, risk analysis, and technical performance indicators. It also required full documentation of the system and training of users. During the course of

  15. Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, A. [EC JRC, (JRC F.5) PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Del Nevo, A., E-mail: [ENEA, C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Moretti, F.; D' Auria, F. [GRNSPG, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Elkin, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre, Electrogorsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project 'TACIS 2.03/97', Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

  16. Surrogate Plant Data Base : Volume 3. Appendix D : Facilities Planning Data ; Operating Manpower, Manufacturing Budgets and Pre-Production Launch ... (United States)


    This four volume report consists of a data base describing "surrogate" automobile and truck manufacturing plants developed as part of a methodology for evaluating capital investment requirements in new manufacturing facilities to build new fleets of ...

  17. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Similar Industries and/or Launch Facilities Survey (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Trejo, David; Whitten, Mary C.; hide


    A trade study and litera ture survey of refractory materials (fi rebrick. refractory concrete. and si licone and epoxy ablatives) were conducted to identify candidate replacement materials for Launch Complexes 39A and 398 at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In addition, site vis its and in terviews with industry expens and vendors of refractory materials were conducted. As a result of the si te visits and interviews, several products were identified for launch applications. Firebrick is costly to procure and install and was not used in the si tes studied. Refractory concrete is gunnable. adheres well. and costs less 10 install. Martyte. a ceramic fi lled epoxy. can protect structural stccl but is costly. difficullto apply. and incompatible with silicone ablatives. Havanex, a phenolic ablative material, is easy to apply but is costly and requires frequent replacement. Silicone ablatives are ineJ[pensive, easy to apply. and perl'onn well outside of direct rocket impingement areas. but refractory concrete and epoxy ablatives provide better protection against direcl rocket exhaust. None of the prodUCIS in this trade study can be considered a panacea for these KSC launch complexes. but the refractory products. individually or in combination, may be considered for use provided the appropriate testing requirements and specifications are met.

  18. An overview of the space medicine program and development of the Health Maintenance Facility for Space Station (United States)

    Pool, Sam Lee


    Because the prolonged stay on board the Space Station will increase the risk of possible inflight medical problems from that on Skylab missions, the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) planned for the Space Station is much more sophisticated than the small clinics of the Skylab missions. The development of the HMF is directed by the consideration of three primary factors: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of injuries and illnesses that may occur in flight. The major components of the HMF include the clinical laboratory, pharmacy, imaging system, critical-care system, patient-restraint system, data-management system, exercise system, surgical system, electrophysiologic-monitoring system, introvenous-fluid system, dental system, and hyperbaric-treatment-support system.

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for the Deactivation and Turnover of Titan Space Launch Vehicle Capability at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida (United States)


    Space Gateway Support SHPO State Historic Preservation Office SJRWMD Saint John’s River Water Management District SLC Space Launch Complex...demolition process. • Service Towers – Leave the MST in the maintenance position (away from launch pad) and apply hurricane tie-downs. Secure/drain all...well as the 45 SW Asbestos Management Plan. The point of contact for ART is Bart Geyer at 867-2400. • FDEP must be notified 10 days in advance

  20. Endeavour rolls out of OPF for stacking before STS-108 launch (United States)


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Endeavour rolls out of the Orbiter Processing Facility to begin the next stage of launch preparation: stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters. Endeavour is scheduled to be launched Nov. 29 on mission STS-108. The 11-day mission will carry the replacement Expedition 4 crew to the International Space Station as well as the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, filled with supplies and equipment.

  1. Microbiomes of the dust particles collected from the International Space Station and Spacecraft Assembly Facilities. (United States)

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Probst, Alexander J; Vaishampayan, Parag; White, James R; Kumar, Deepika; Stepanov, Victor G; Fox, George E; Nilsson, Henrik R; Pierson, Duane L; Perry, Jay; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri


    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique built environment due to the effects of microgravity, space radiation, elevated carbon dioxide levels, and especially continuous human habitation. Understanding the composition of the ISS microbial community will facilitate further development of safety and maintenance practices. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the viable microbiome of the ISS-built environment. A second objective was to determine if the built environments of Earth-based cleanrooms associated with space exploration are an appropriate model of the ISS environment. Samples collected from the ISS and two cleanrooms at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, Pasadena, CA) were analyzed by traditional cultivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) assays to estimate viable microbial populations. The 16S rRNA gene Illumina iTag sequencing was used to elucidate microbial diversity and explore differences between ISS and cleanroom microbiomes. Statistical analyses showed that members of the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were dominant in the samples examined but varied in abundance. Actinobacteria were predominant in the ISS samples whereas Proteobacteria, least abundant in the ISS, dominated in the cleanroom samples. The viable bacterial populations seen by PMA treatment were greatly decreased. However, the treatment did not appear to have an effect on the bacterial composition (diversity) associated with each sampling site. The results of this study provide strong evidence that specific human skin-associated microorganisms make a substantial contribution to the ISS microbiome, which is not the case in Earth-based cleanrooms. For example, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium (Actinobacteria) but not Staphylococcus (Firmicutes) species are dominant on the ISS in terms of viable and total bacterial community composition. The results obtained will

  2. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev arrives for launch (United States)


    Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, smiles on his arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. He joins other crew members Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman for pre-launch preparations for mission STS-88 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scheduled time of launch is 3:56 a.m. EST on Dec. 3 from Launch Pad 39A. The mission is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module which the crew will be mating with the Russian- built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  3. Investigation of the Interplanetary Transfer of Microbes in the Tanpopo Mission at the Exposed Facility of the International Space Station. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yano, Hajime; Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Yamagishi, Akihiko


    The Tanpopo mission will address fundamental questions on the origin of terrestrial life. The main goal is to test the panspermia hypothesis. Panspermia is a long-standing hypothesis suggesting the interplanetary transport of microbes. Another goal is to test the possible origin of organic compounds carried from space by micrometeorites before the terrestrial origin of life. To investigate the panspermia hypothesis and the possible space origin of organic compounds, we performed space experiments at the Exposed Facility (EF) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). The mission was named Tanpopo, which in Japanese means dandelion. We capture any orbiting microparticles, such as micrometeorites, space debris, and terrestrial particles carrying microbes as bioaerosols, by using blocks of silica aerogel. We also test the survival of microbial species and organic compounds in the space environment for up to 3 years. The goal of this review is to introduce an overview of the Tanpopo mission with particular emphasis on the investigation of the interplanetary transfer of microbes. The Exposed Experiment Handrail Attachment Mechanism with aluminum Capture Panels (CPs) and Exposure Panels (EPs) was exposed on the EF-JEM on May 26, 2015. The first CPs and EPs will be returned to the ground in mid-2016. Possible escape of terrestrial microbes from Earth to space will be evaluated by investigating the upper limit of terrestrial microbes by the capture experiment. Possible mechanisms for transfer of microbes over the stratosphere and an investigation of the effect of the microbial cell-aggregate size on survivability in space will also be discussed. Panspermia-Astrobiology-Low-Earth orbit. Astrobiology 16, 363-376.

  4. A Test Facility for the International Linear Collider at SLAC End Station A, for Prototypes of Beam Delivery and IR Components

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, M.; Frisch, J.; Hast, C.; Jobe, R.K.; Keller, L.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Nelson, T.; Phinney, N.; Raubenheimer, T.; Ross, M.; Seryi, Andrei; Smith, S.; Szalata, Z.; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Beard, C.; Densham, C.; Greenhalgh, R.Justin; Jackson, F.; Kalinin, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Zagorodnov, I.; Sugimoto, Y.; Walston, S.; Burton, D.; Smith, J.; Shales, N.; Sopczak, A.; Tucker, R.; Barlow, R.; Kurevlev, G.; Mercer, A.; Hildreth, M.; Burrows, P.; Christian, G.; Clarke, C.; Hartin, A.; Molloy, S.; White, G.; Mueller, W.; Weiland, T.; Watson, N.; Bailey, D.; Cussans, D.; Kolomensky, Y.; Slater, M.; Thomson, M.; Ward, D.; Boogert, S.; Liapine, A.; Malton, S.; Miller, D.J.; Wing, M.; Arnold, R.; Sinev, N.; Torrence, E.


    The SLAC Linac can deliver damped bunches with ILC parameters for bunch charge and bunch length to End Station A. A 10Hz beam at 28.5 GeV energy can be delivered there, parasitic with PEP-II operation. We plan to use this facility to test prototype components of the Beam Delivery System and Interaction Region. We discuss our plans for this ILC Test Facility and preparations for carrying out experiments related to collimator wakefields and energy spectrometers. We also plan an interaction region mockup to investigate effects from backgrounds and beam-induced electromagnetic interference.

  5. Orbit lifetime characteristics for Space Station (United States)

    Deryder, L.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M.

    The factors that influence the orbital lifetime characteristics of the NASA Space Station are discussed. These include altitude, attitude, launch date, ballistic coefficient, and the presence of large articulating solar arrays. Examples from previous program systems studies are presented that illustrate how each factor affects Station orbit lifetime. The effect of atmospheric density models on orbit lifetime predictions is addressed along with the uncertainty of these predictions using current trajectory analysis of the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft. Finally, nominal reboost altitude profiles and fuel requirement considerations are presented for implementing a reboost strategy based on planned Shuttle Orbiter rendezvous strategy and contingency considerations.

  6. NASA's Space Launch System Progress Report (United States)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Lyles, Garry M.; Beaman, David E.


    Exploration beyond Earth will be an enduring legacy for future generations, confirming America's commitment to explore, learn, and progress. NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is responsible for designing and developing the first exploration-class rocket since the Apollo Program's Saturn V that sent Americans to the Moon. The SLS offers a flexible design that may be configured for the MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle and associated equipment, or may be outfitted with a payload fairing that will accommodate flagship science instruments and a variety of high-priority experiments. Both options support a national capability that will pay dividends for future generations. Building on legacy systems, facilities, and expertise, the SLS will have an initial lift capability of 70 metric tons (mT) and will be evolvable to 130 mT. While commercial launch vehicle providers service the International Space Station market, this capability will surpass all vehicles, past and present, providing the means to do entirely new missions, such as human exploration of asteroids and Mars. With its superior lift capability, the SLS can expand the interplanetary highway to many possible destinations, conducting revolutionary missions that will change the way we view ourselves, our planet and its place in the cosmos. To perform missions such as these, the SLS will be the largest launch vehicle ever built. It is being designed for safety and affordability - to sustain our journey into the space age. Current plans include launching the first flight, without crew, later this decade, with crewed flights beginning early next decade. Development work now in progress is based on heritage space systems and working knowledge, allowing for a relatively quick start and for maturing the SLS rocket as future technologies become available. Together, NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are partnering to develop this one-of-a-kind asset. Many of NASA's space

  7. Newport Research Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  8. Acceptability and use of portable drinking water and hand washing stations in health care facilities and their impact on patient hygiene practices, Western kenya. (United States)

    Bennett, Sarah D; Otieno, Ronald; Ayers, Tracy L; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Quick, Robert


    Many health care facilities (HCF) in developing countries lack access to reliable hand washing stations and safe drinking water. To address this problem, we installed portable, low-cost hand washing stations (HWS) and drinking water stations (DWS), and trained healthcare workers (HCW) on hand hygiene, safe drinking water, and patient education techniques at 200 rural HCFs lacking a reliable water supply in western Kenya. We performed a survey at baseline and a follow-up evaluation at 15 months to assess the impact of the intervention at a random sample of 40 HCFs and 391 households nearest to these HCFs. From baseline to follow-up, there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of dispensaries with access to HWSs with soap (42% vs. 77%, phand washing (10% vs. 35%, phand washing steps correctly (32% vs. 43%, p = 0.01), and report treatment of stored drinking water using any method (73% vs. 92%, phand washing and drinking water stations in rural HCFs without access to 24-hour piped water helped assure that health workers had a place to wash their hands and provide safe drinking water. This HCF intervention may have also contributed to the improvement of hand hygiene and reported safe drinking water behaviors among households nearest to HCFs.

  9. Facilities, Landscape, City. To the origins of a missed meeting. Travelling around the new high-speed Naples-Afragola train station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fatigati


    Full Text Available This article gives an account of a series of researches and town plans drawn up in the early 21st century about the areas nearby the settlement of the future high-speed train station in Afragola. Ten years later, during the construction of the facilities of the station, designed by the architect Zaha Hadid, it is probably about time to wonder why the hige cost that the construction of the railway required was not redistributed to the community in terms of utilities and improvement in the landscape. And why did no one, neither the public operators not the politic makers, act "rationally", by following up on the technical solutions concerning the problems caused by politics itself? The depressing landscape absolutely recalls the wide gap between design and town planning practices.

  10. Performance of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) and other hardware in the microgravity environment (United States)

    Hogan, Robert P.; Dalton, Bonnie P.


    This paper discusses the performance of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) plus other associated hardware during the recent flight of Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1). The RAHF was developed to provide proper housing (food, water, temperature control, lighting and waste management) for up to 24 rodents during flights on the Spacelab. The GPWS was designed to contain particulates and toxic chemicals generated during plant and animal handling and dissection/fixation activities during space flights. A history of the hardware development involves as well as the redesign activities prior to the actual flight are discussed.

  11. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3. (United States)

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

  12. Launching the First Indian Satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the spectacular and remarkable developments in Space Science & Technology. Thus the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station was established in 1963 to explore the upper atmosphere and ionosphere with sounding rockets. Such scientific studies have an important bearing on the understanding of meteorological ...

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Naval Ordnance Test Unit Engineering Services Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (United States)


    CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION 15 CHAPTER 2: DESCRIPTION OF SITE REQUIREMENTS, THE PROPOSED ACTION, AND ALTERNATIVES freshwater lakes. Boating...mangrove estuaries and shorelines, salt marshes, freshwater wetlands, brackish water impoundments, and drainage canals, all of which support various fish...herbicide containing triclopyr or glyphosate would be applied directly to the tree’s foliage. The leaves will wilt and the herbicide will be translocated

  14. Successful launch of SOHO (United States)


    "Understanding how the Sun behaves is of crucial importance to all of us on Earth. It affects our everyday lives" said Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA, who witnessed SOHO's spectacular nighttime launch from Cape Canaveral. "When SOHO begins work in four months time, scientists will, for the first time, be able to study this star 24 hours a day, 365 days a year". The 12 instruments on SOHO will probe the Sun inside out, from the star's very centre to the solar wind that blasts its way through the solar system. It will even listen to sounds, like musical notes, deep within the star by recording their vibrations when they reach the surface. SOHO was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida, atop an Atlas IIAS rocket, at 09:08 CET on Saturday 2 December 1995. The 1.6 tonne observatory was released into its transfer orbit from the rocket's Centaur upper stage about two hours after launch. It will take four months for the satellite to reach its final position, a unique vantage point, located 1.5 million kilometres from Earth, where the gravitational pull of the Earth and Sun are equal. From here, the Lagrange point, SOHO will have an unobstructed view of the Sun all year round. SOHO's launch was delayed from 23 November because a flaw was discovered in a precision regulator, which throttles the power of the booster engine on the Atlas rocket. The system was replaced and retested before the launch. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. The spacecraft was designed and built in Europe, NASA provided the launch and will operate the satellite from its Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland. European scientists provided eight of the observatory's instruments and US scientists a further three. The spacecraft is part of the international Solar-Terrestrial Science Programme, the next member of which is Cluster, a flotilla of four spacecraft that will study how the Sun affects Earth and surrounding space. Cluster is scheduled for

  15. An Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility, and the Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research Performed in the MSG on the International Space Station (ISS) (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Sheredy, William A.; Flores, Ginger


    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation, The MSG's unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, +/-12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, reaction control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG and an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG. In addition, this paper will address possible changes to the MSG utilization process that will be brought about by the transition to ISS as a National Laboratory.

  16. Study of the background in the measuring station at the n_TOF facility at CERN: sources and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Aerts, G; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Angelopoulous, A; Assimakopoulos, Panayiotis; Bacri, C-O; Badurek, G; Berthoumieux, E; Baumann, P; Beer, H; Benlliure, J; Berthier, B; Bondarenko, I; Borcea, C; Bos, A J J; Boscolo-Marchi, E; Bustreo, N; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carlson, P; Charpak, Georges; Chauvin, N; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortina-Gil, D; Corvi, F; Cusmano, A; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; Damianoglou, D; David, S; Dimovasili, E; Domingo, C; Doroshenko, A; Duran-Escribano, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Kölbl, H; Furman, W; Fursov, B; Garzón, J A; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gledenov, Y; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haefner, P; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-martinez, A; Hollander, P; Ioannou, P; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kayukova, A; Kazakov, L; Kelic, A; Ketlerov, V; Kitis, G; Köhler, P E; Kopach, Y; Kossionides, E; Kroshkina, I; Lacoste, V; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Leprêtre, A; Lopes, M; Lozano, M; Marrone, S; Martínez-Val, J M; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Meunier, R; Mezentsev, A J; Milazzo, P; Minguez, E; Mitrofanov, V; Moreau, C; Müller, A; Nicolis, N; Nikolenkov, V; Oberhummer, Heinz; Pakou, A; Pancin, J; Papadopoulous, K; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Paradelis, T; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrez-Parra, A; Perriale, L; Perlado, J M; Peskov, Vladimir; Piksaikin, V; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, Armando; Popov, A; Popov, Y P; Pretel, C; Quesada, J M; Radermacher, E; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rejmund, F; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Samylin, B; Savvidis, I; Savvidis, S; Sedyshev, P; Stéphan, C; Szalanski, P; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tapia, C; Tassan-Got, L; Terchychnyi, R; Tsabaris, C; Tsangas, N; van Eijk, C W E; Vannini, G; Ventura, A; Villamarin, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voinov, A; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K; Zanini, L; Zeinalov, S; Zhuravlev, B; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division


    A background roughly two orders of magnitude higher than tolerable was found in the n_TOF facility at CERN during the first measurements [1]. This note describes a series of additional measurements performed in the n_TOF experimental area to study the origin and the characteristics of the background. The program of these measurements was determined taking into account the results from the simulations carried out by the EET group [2]. A first phase of measurements confirmed what was expected from the simulations, namely that the dominant source of background was due to neutrons generated by negative muon capture. Actions to reduce the background were taken according to the results from both measurements and simulations. An iron shielding wall 3.2 m thick was then placed in between the sweeping magnet and the second collimator, with the purpose of stopping most of the muons. In a second phase of measurements, results showed that the additional shielding reduced the main component of the background by about a fa...

  17. Space Station operations (United States)

    Gray, R. H.


    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  18. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hekinan thermal power station is situated at the port of Kinuura in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Unit 1 began commercial operation in October 1991, Unit 2 in June 1992 and Unit 3 in April 1993. This brochure gives the specification of the main facilities of the power station, shows its layout; illustrates its pollution control equipment, gives specifications of its flue gas treatment systems and of its large steam turbine, describes its coal handling facilities and gives their specifications, and mentions the power station`s automated control system.

  19. AMS ready for launch

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    On 29 April, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) will complete its long expedition to the International Space Station on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The Endeavour is set to lift off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Station at 15:47 EST (21:47 CET).   Samuel Ting, principal investigator for the AMS project, and Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, visit the Kennedy Space Centre before the AMS launch.  Courtesy of NASA and Kennedy Space Center. AMS is a CERN recognised experiment, created by an internal collaboration of 56 institutes. It will be the first large magnetic spectrometer to be used in space, and has been designed to function as an external module on the ISS. AMS will measure cosmic rays without atmospheric interference, allowing researchers on the ground to continue their search for dark matter and antimatter in the Universe. Data collected by AMS will be analysed in CERN’s new AMS Control Centre in Building 946 (due for completion in June 2011). The End...

  20. Space Station fluid management logistics (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.


    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  1. Launching technological innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren


    have received less attention. This study considers the interdependencies between strategic, internally and externally, directed tactical launch activities and investigates both direct and indirect performance effects. The analysis is based upon data from 113 technological innovations launched...... in industrial markets. The launch strategy and tactics addressing resistance of customers, market players and parties from the broader firm environment are found to have a direct impact on market success. The launch strategy also drives both internally and externally directed launch tactics. For launch tactics...

  2. Innovative Manufacturing of Launch Vehicle Structures - Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process (United States)

    Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Tayon, Wesley; Bird, Richard K.


    Reducing launch costs is essential to ensuring the success of NASA's visions for planetary exploration and earth science, economical support of the International Space Station, and competitiveness of the U.S. commercial launch industry. Reducing launch vehicle manufacturing cost supports NASA's budget and technology development priorities.

  3. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the Space Station Mockup Facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints (United States)

    Brooks, Carolyn A.


    The Salad Machine Research has continued to be a two path effort with the research at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focusing on the design, construction, and operation of a semiautomated system (Salad Machine) for the production of salad vegetables within a standard rack. Boeing Corporation in cooperation with NASA MSFC constructed a four drawer Salad Machine which was occasionally placed within the Space Station Freedom Mockup facility for view by selected visitors. Final outfitting of the Salad Machine is awaiting the arrival of parts for the nutrient delivery system. Research at the Alabama A&M facilities focused on compatibility of radish and lettuce plants when grown on the same nutrient solution. Lettuce fresh weight shoot yield was significantly enhanced when lettuce plants were grown on nutrient solution which was shared with radish. Radish tuber production was not significantly affected although there was a trend for radish from shared solutions to be heavier than those grown on separate nutrient solutions. The effect of sharing nutrient solutions on carbohydrate partitioning reflected the effect of sharing solution on fresh weight yield. Lettuce shoot dry weight was significantly greater for plants from shared solutions than from separate. There was no significant effect on sharing nutrient solution on radish tuber dry weight. Partitioning of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, and potassium was not affected by sharing, there was, however, a disproportionate amount of potassium in the tissues, suggesting luxury consumption of potassium in all plants and tissues. It is concluded that lettuce plants benefit from sharing nutrient solution with radish and that radish is not harmed.

  4. Natural Weathering Exposure Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  5. An experimental station for advanced research on condensed matter under extreme conditions at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - BM29 beamline (United States)

    Filipponi, Adriano; Borowski, Michael; Bowron, Daniel T.; Ansell, Stuart; Di Cicco, Andrea; De Panfilis, Simone; Itiè, Jean-Paul


    We describe state-of-the-art experimental techniques using the beamline BM29 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). This station exploits the unique characteristics of an ESRF bending magnet source to provide a tunable, collimated, x-ray beam to perform high quality x-ray absorption spectroscopy within the energy range of E=5-75 keV using Si(111), Si(311), and Si(511) crystal pairs. Energy scans can be performed over this wide energy range with excellent reproducibility, stability and resolution, usually better than ΔE/E≃5×10-5. The experimental setup has been exploited to study condensed matter under extreme conditions. We describe here two sample environment devices; the L' Aquila-Camerino oven for high-temperature studies up to 3000 K in high vacuum and the Paris-Edinburgh press suitable for high-pressure high-temperature studies in the range 0.1-7 GPa and temperatures up to 1500 K. These devices can be integrated in an experimental setup which combines various control and detection systems suitable to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray absorption temperature scans, and energy scanning x-ray diffraction (ESXD). The ESXD setup is based on a scintillator detector behind a fixed angle collimator aligned to the sample. The combination of these three measurements, which can be performed in rapid sequence on the sample during the experiment, provides an essential tool for structural investigations and in situ sample characterization.

  6. Space station operations management (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.


    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  7. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect... existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital Class A TV station will not be...

  8. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also...... includes some alpine stations located outside the Arctic. The INTERACT research stations provide an ideal platform for circumarctic research and monitoring. Activities span from small short term research projects to larger long term monitoring programmes. The stations are thus visited by many researchers...... and research groups. Therefore, INTERACT has produced a catalogue of research stations including descriptions of the physical setting, facilities and services offered at the stations. It is our hope that this catalogue will help researchers identify research stations that suit their specific needs. The 2015...

  9. ESA to launch six scientific satellites (United States)


    ship to Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Since then, all the satellite subsystems and scientific instruments have been thoroughly tested and found to be in order. ISO is now waiting its turn to be mated with the Ariane 44P launcher. The launch campaign will resume in early October for a launch on 3 November. Preparations for flight operations by ESA's space operation centre, ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany and the flight control centre at Villafranca, near Madrid, Spain are also in the final stages. Most of the work in the last two months before a launch involves training and performing simulations to prove flight readiness. The scientific community is eagerly awaiting the preliminary results of ISO's first look into space in November. SOHO SOHO arrived at Kennedy Space Centre on 1 August. It was given a welcome by hurricane ERIN, which forced an immediate transfer to its reserved NASA facility just after its transport plane had safely landed. Spacecraft preparation for launch has started with a thorough check of all the systems and instruments onboard SOHO and will proceed with an end-to-end test with the NASA control station at Goddard Spaceflight Centre. Parallel activities are proceeding in Europe on the final testing and inspection of the four reaction wheels which the spacecraft control system uses to keep all its instruments pointed very precisely at the sun. At the end of its preparation, the spacecraft will be mated to its Atlas IIAS launcher, which is due to lift off in the first week of December. CLUSTER All four Cluster spacecraft, together with all ancillary equipment, have now arrived at Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The spacecraft have been set up for final electrical testing in the Final Assembly Building , a new Ariane 5 facility. Major milestones in the campaign are the start of spacecraft fuelling operations at the beginning of November and the start of integration of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle in mid- December. The

  10. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)


    The purpose was to use the operational experience at the launch site to identify, describe and quantify the operational impacts of the various configurations on the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and/or space station launch sites. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) configurations are being developed/defined by contractor teams. Lacking an approved configuration, the KSC Study Team defined a Reference Configuration to be used for this study. This configuration then become the baseline for the identification of the facilities, personnel and crew skills required for processing the OTV in a realistic manner that would help NASA achieve the lowest possible OTV life cycle costs. As the study progressed, researchers' initial apraisal that the vehicle, when delivered, would be a sophisticated, state-of-the-art vehicle was reinforced. It would be recovered and reused many times so the primary savings to be gained would be in the recurring-cycle of the vehicle operations--even to the point where it would be beneficial to break from tradition and make a significant expenditure in the development of processing facilities at the beginning of the program.

  11. Iraq Radiosonde Launch Records (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Iraqi upper air records loaned to NCDC from the Air Force 14th Weather Squadron. Scanned notebooks containing upper air radiosonde launch records and data. Launches...

  12. Life Science on the International Space Station Using the Next Generation of Cargo Vehicles (United States)

    Robinson, J. A.; Phillion, J. P.; Hart, A. T.; Comella, J.; Edeen, M.; Ruttley, T. M.


    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.

  13. A comparative analysis of high speed rail station development into destination and/or multi-use facilities : the case of San Jose Diridon. (United States)


    As a burgeoning literature on high-speed rail development indicates, good station-area planning is a very important prerequisite for the : eventual successful operation of a high-speed rail station; it can also trigger opportunities for economic deve...

  14. A comparative analysis of high-speed rail station development into destination and multi-use facilities : the case of San Jose Diridon. (United States)


    As a burgeoning literature on high-speed rail development indicates, good station-area planning is a very important prerequisite for the eventual successful operation of a high-speed rail station; it can also trigger opportunities for economic develo...

  15. Internationalization of the Space Station (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.


    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  16. China's Launch Vehicle Operations (United States)

    Bai, Jingwu


    China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science

  17. COSMOS Launch Services (United States)

    Kalnins, Indulis


    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  18. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital...

  19. National Launch System comparative economic analysis (United States)

    Prince, A.


    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  20. Cube Sat Launching Investigation


    Shahmari, Elham; Molaverdikhani, Karan; Jazebizadeh, Hooman; Bakhtiari Mojaz, Sahar; Taheran, Mahsa


    Today different groups started to manufacture cubesats because of the low cost of manufacturing and launching the satellites. With the growth of cubesat manufacturing, the scientist has tried to produce the small launchers to respond the needs of new researchers and young scientists. In 1980 the manufactured the commercial small launcher and starting launch in 1990. Also Russia with improvement of their ballistic missile and performing changes and improvement tried to manufacture small launch...

  1. White Mountain Research Station: 25 years of high-altitude research. [organization and functions of test facility for high altitude research (United States)

    Pace, N.


    The organization and functions of a test facility for conducting research projects at high altitudes are discussed. The projects conducted at the facility include the following: (1) bird physiology, (2) cardiorespiratory physiology, (3) endocrinological studies, (4) neurological studies, (5) metabolic studies, and (6) geological studies.

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  3. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary


    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  4. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  5. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory. (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert


    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  6. The First Large Balloon Launch from Antarctica (United States)


    d) Sep 29,1987 Solar panels delivered to Holloman AFB, NM. e) Oct 8,1987 Tesi of the upwind launch system. f) Oct 9,1987 Detector system delivered to...McMurdo Station, had not yet been identified. c) Solar panels would provide long-duration power for the payload in lieu of a large weight of that the solar panels faced the sun and the gamma ray detector pointed toward the supernova. f) The crews for the launch, telemetry, instrumentation

  7. Railroad Terminals and Stations - INTERMODAL_TERMINAL_NTAD_IN: Intermodal Terminal Facilities in Indiana (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 1:100,000 Point Shapefile) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — BTS metadata states – “The Intermodal Terminal Facilities data set contains geographic data for trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and container-on-flatcar (COFC) highway...

  8. U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy to Award - Marine Corps Air Station Miramar for Energy Conservation, Tour state-of-the-art green facilities (United States)

    LOS ANGELES - On Wednesday, May 20th U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar officials to present the 2015 EPA Federal Green Challenge award for Energy. The base is being recognized for having the great

  9. Fire Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  10. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel


    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  11. The Princess Elisabeth Station (United States)

    Berte, Johan


    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  12. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst


    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  13. First Accessible Boat Launch (United States)

    This is a story about how the Northwest Indiana urban waters partnership location supported the process to create and open the first handicap accessible canoe and kayak launch in the state of Indiana.

  14. Anchor Trial Launch (United States)

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  15. Solid Waste Management Facilities with Permits by the Iowa DNR (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  16. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations. (United States)


    ... limited the probability of the space station becoming a source of debris by collisions with small debris... operator has assessed and limited the probability of the space station becoming a source of debris by collisions with large debris or other operational space stations. Where a space station will be launched into...

  17. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the Space Station Mockup facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints (United States)

    Brooks, Carolyn


    This research has continued along two lines, one at Marshall Space Flight Center with Salad Machine Rack development and the design and construction of a mockup for placement in the Huntsville Space Station Freedom mockup. The second avenue of research has addressed issues of relevance to the operation of the Salad Machine and Bioregenerative systems. These issues include plant species compatibility when grown on shared hydroponic systems and microbial populations of mixed species hydroponic systems. Significant progress is reported.

  18. Launch under attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbruner, J.


    The strategy of launch under attack calls for launching nuclear weapons on warning that attacking weapons are on their way. The political pressures for adopting this strategy are symptomatic of an increasing instability in the nuclear balance. The author describes a Brookings Institute model, which indicates that the problems of decentralized control and precise timing could lead to failures in retargeting procedures. The major concern is that the strategy imposes powerful incentives for preemption as the most promising means of conducting nuclear war.

  19. The Demeter micro satellite launch campaign (United States)

    Dubourg, V.; Kainov, V.; Thoby, M.; Silkin, O.; Solovey, V.

    The CNES Micro satellite DEMETER is planned for launch by the end of June 2004 on a DNEPR launcher, from the Baíkonur cosmodrome. DEMETER will be the main payload among nine co-passengers. DEMETER, initiated by CNES in 1998, is the first model of the MYRIADE micro satellites line of product; at the time when this abstract is issued, the satellite is going through the final integration tests, as well as the last system validation phase. The space head module of the launcher has been developed by the Ukrainian YSDO company, and a successful fit check test campaign has been performed in December 2003 and January 2004 that allowed confirming the compatibility of the payloads with their launcher interface. The launch campaign is in process of preparation, implying a close partnership between the satellite team at CNES and Russian and Ukrainian launcher authorities: DEMETER is a pioneer not only for the satellite concept itself, but also for being the first satellite of this range (3 axis stabilized, including an hydrazine propulsion system and developed by a national space agency) being launched on a Russian space adapted intercontinental ballistic missile SS18. The launch service is contracted and managed by ISC Kosmotras, and it will also be the first sun synchronous orbit launch for DNEPR. Thus the launch preparation proved to be a very challenging endeavour providing all the actors with very rich human experience, as well as technical exchanges, in the fields of launcher technology and interfaces, facilities adaptation, logistics and project coordination. In the coming paper, a short presentation of the DEMETER satellite and of the DNEPR launcher will be made, but the main purpose is to present: the launch campaign preparation milestones, the launch campaign itself and related preliminary results and the lessons learnt from this first CNES/DNEPR experience to open the way to the future MYRIADE launches. A common CNES/KOSMOTRAS presentation is proposed at the

  20. The Interaction between SKYLON and the International Space Station (United States)

    Hempsell, M.

    As part of the overall test flight programme of the SKYLON launch system it is planned to include 16 flights to the ISS in order to verify SKYLON's ability to interact with orbital facilities. These flights will test SKYLON equipped with two support systems, the SOFI (SKYLON Orbital Facility Interface), for unpressurised attachment, and the SPLM (SKYLON Passenger/ Logistics Module), for pressurised crew and logistics delivery. The issues involved with integrating the SKYLON test programme with the ISS are explored. Over the course of one year these flights could deliver almost 90 tonnes and 16 station crew but this is not without some problems. The number of flights and the quantity of logistics threaten to overwhelm the ISS, it would require a new docking system to be mounted on the ISS, and the fact they are test flights rather than operational flights may limit the support role they can undertake.

  1. Conceptual design of transfer station materials and energy recovery facility, City of Berkeley, Solid Waste Management Center. Final report: executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A conceptual design was developed for the Berkeley Solid Waste Management Center incorporating modular combustion units. Markets for recovered materials and energy were confirmed in the study. Additional work briefly discussed covered an analysis of the waste stream; assessment of the front-end processing technology; an identification of regulatory agency requirements and environmental constraints; preparation of preliminary design and budget cost estimates for the transfer station/modular combustion plant; development of financing and procurement arrangements; identification of project risks; and establishment of an implementation master plan.

  2. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  3. Environmental Assessment Construction of Antenna Parts Storage Facility and Demolition of Hazardous Materials Storage Shed and Oil Change Pit, Jordan Lake Air Force Space Surveillance Station, Alabama (United States)


    decided that the environmental effects are not significant. The Air Force will issue a FONSI; an environ- mental impact statement (EIS) is not...related to environmental issues addressed in this EA are briefly described in Table 1. EA — Construction of Storage Facility and Demolition of...foxes, bobcats, game birds and other animals. Large numbers of migratory ducks and geese winter in the state. 3.4.4 Protected Species A protected

  4. Amtrak Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  5. Rockot Launch Vehicle Commercial Operations for Grace and Iridium Program (United States)

    Viertel, Y.; Kinnersley, M.; Schumacher, I.


    The GRACE mission and the IRIDIUM mission on ROCKOT launch vehicle are presented. Two identical GRACE satellites to measure in tandem the gravitational field of the earth with previously unattainable accuracy - it's called the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment, or and is a joint project of the U.S. space agency, NASA and the German Centre for Aeronautics and Space Flight, DLR. In order to send the GRACE twins into a 500x500 km , 89deg. orbit, the Rockot launch vehicle was selected. A dual launch of two Iridium satellites was scheduled for June 2002 using the ROCKOT launch vehicle from Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northern Russia. This launch will inject two replacement satellites into a low earth orbit (LEO) to support the maintenance of the Iridium constellation. In September 2001, Eurockot successfully carried out a "Pathfinder Campaign" to simulate the entire Iridium mission cycle at Plesetsk. The campaign comprised the transport of simulators and related equipment to the Russian port-of-entry and launch site and also included the integration and encapsulation of the simulators with the actual Rockot launch vehicle at Eurockot's dedicated launch facilities at Plesetsk Cosmodrome. The pathfinder campaign lasted four weeks and was carried out by a joint team that also included Khrunichev, Russian Space Forces and Eurockot personnel on the contractors' side. The pathfinder mission confirmed the capability of Eurockot Launch Services to perform the Iridium launch on cost and on schedule at Plesetsk following Eurockot's major investment in international standard preparation, integration and launch facilities including customer facilities and a new hotel. In 2003, Eurockot will also launch the Japanese SERVI'S-1 satellite for USEF. The ROCKOT launch vehicle is a 3 stage liquid fuel rocket whose first 2 stages have been adapted from the Russian SS-19. A third stage, called "Breeze", can be repeatedly ignited and is extraordinarily capable of manoeuvre. Rockot can place

  6. Donato Mancini Print Launch


    Shing, Cherman; Mancini, Donato


    During Institutions by Artists, Fillip was pleased to present a series of free, parallel events in the lobby of SFU Woodward’s that investigated the material culture produced by the institutional practices of artists. The Print Centre featured talks, launches, and screenings by conference presenters and attendees. Presented in collaboration with a temporary book store hosted by Motto Books (Berlin).

  7. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics (United States)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.


    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  8. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.


    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several

  9. Atomic hydrogen as a launch vehicle propellant (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.


    An analysis of several atomic hydrogen launch vehicles was conducted. A discussion of the facilities and the technologies that would be needed for these vehicles is also presented. The Gross Liftoff Weights (GLOW) for two systems were estimated; their specific impulses (I sub sp) were 750 and 1500 lb(sub f)/s/lb(sub m). The atomic hydrogen launch vehicles were also compared to the currently planned Advanced Launch System design concepts. Very significant GLOW reductions of 52 to 58 percent are possible over the Advanced Launch System designs. Applying atomic hydrogen propellants to upper stages was also considered. Very high I(sub sp) (greater than 750 lb(sub f)/s/lb(sub m)) is needed to enable a mass savings over advanced oxygen/hydrogen propulsion. Associated with the potential benefits of high I(sub sp) atomic hydrogen are several challenging problems. Very high magnetic fields are required to maintain the atomic hydrogen in a solid hydrogen matrix. The magnetic field strength was estimated to be 30 kilogauss (3 Tesla). Also the storage temperature of the propellant is 4 K. This very low temperature will require a large refrigeration facility for the launch vehicle. The design considerations for a very high recombination rate for the propellant are also discussed. A recombination rate of 210 cm/s is predicted for atomic hydrogen. This high recombination rate can produce very high acceleration for the launch vehicle. Unique insulation or segmentation to inhibit the propellant may be needed to reduce its recombination rate.

  10. Smart Coatings for Launch Site Corrosion Protection (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.


    Smart, environmentally friendly paint system for early corrosion detection, mitigation, and healing that will enable supportability in KSC launch facilities and ground systems through their operational life cycles. KSC's Corrosion Technology Laboratory is developing a smart, self-healing coating that can detect and repair corrosion at an early stage. This coating is being developed using microcapsules specifically designed to deliver the contents of their core when corrosion starts.

  11. Insert Concepts for the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) on the International Space Station (ISS) (United States)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul


    The Material Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit NASA's planned inserts include the Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI). The QMI is a high-gradient Bridgman-type vacuum furnace with quench capabilities used for experiments on directional solidification of metal alloys. The DMI is a vacuum Bridgman-Stockbarger-type furnace for experiments on Fickian and Soret diffusion in liquids. This paper discusses specific design features and performance capabilities of each insert. The paper also presents current prototype QMI hardware analysis and testing activities and selected results.

  12. Launch strategy for manned spacecraft: Improving safety or increasing of launch mass? (United States)

    Murtazin, Rafail; Petrov, Nikolay; Ulybyshev, Yuri


    Traditionally the launch mass of a crew vehicle with a launch abort system (LAS) should be in compliance with the ultimate launch vehicle (LV) payload mass capability. The LAS is used to provide crew safety in the case of LV failure. An additional propellant for the LV (that exceeds the mass of propellant required for the injection into a nominal orbit) may contribute to crew safety in the case of LV failures. Currently rescue strategies used to provide emergency landing or splashdown along the ground track (for a spacecraft with a low lift-to-drag ratio ( L/D), such as the Soyuz descent capsule) or landing on a back-up runway located near the flight path (for spacecraft with a high L/D, such as the Buran or Space Shuttle Orbiter). The advanced Russian human spacecraft with a low L/D that delivers crew to the International Space Station is designed to launch from the new Vostochny launch site. Major part of the LV ground track will pass over the Pacific Ocean. It means that any rescue operation will be challenging and complex. The paper explores possible launch abort strategies when an additional LV propellant is used. The optimal strategy is to provide a controlled abort landing into specified areas. The number and size of the areas should be minimal in order to minimize search-and-rescue time. A qualitative comparison between the traditional and proposed strategies is shortly discussed.

  13. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev suits up for launch (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev gets assistance from suit technician George Brittingham while donning his orange launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. STS-88 will be Krikalev's fourth spaceflight, but only his second on the Space Shuttle. He also twice flew on long- duration missions aboard the Russian Space Station Mir. Krikalev and the five other STS-88 crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is poised for liftoff on the first U.S. mission dedicated to the assembly of the International Space Station.

  14. TDRS-H is lifted up launch tower at CCAFS (United States)


    An overhead crane is positioned on the nose fairing covering the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-H) in order to lift it up the tower at Launch Pad 36A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will be mated with the Atlas IIA/Centaur rocket, which is already stacked, for launch on June 29. The satellite will augment the TDRS system's existing S- and Ku-band frequencies by adding Ka- band capability. TDRS will serve as the sole means of continuous, high-data-rate communication with the Space Shuttle, with the International Space Station upon its completion, and with dozens of unmanned scientific satellites in low earth orbit.

  15. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities (United States)

    Furnas, Randall B.


    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  16. Launch of Zoological Letters. (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru


    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  17. Space Probe Launch (United States)


    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  18. Advanced Launch System Complex (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Area 1-120 consists of three liquid rocket stands, with five firing positions, a control center and various support facilities. Vertical Stand 1A is a...

  19. Launch Control Network Engineer (United States)

    Medeiros, Samantha


    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is being built at the Kennedy Space Center in order to successfully launch NASA’s revolutionary vehicle that allows humans to explore further into space than ever before. During my internship, I worked with the Network, Firewall, and Hardware teams that are all contributing to the huge SCCS network project effort. I learned the SCCS network design and the several concepts that are running in the background. I also updated and designed documentation for physical networks that are part of SCCS. This includes being able to assist and build physical installations as well as configurations. I worked with the network design for vehicle telemetry interfaces to the Launch Control System (LCS); this allows the interface to interact with other systems at other NASA locations. This network design includes the Space Launch System (SLS), Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), and the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). I worked on the network design and implementation in the Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) lab.

  20. LC-39A RSS Rollback before launch of STS-113 (United States)


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Rotating Service Structure has been rolled back to reveal Space Shuttle Endeavour awaiting launch on Launch Pad 39A. The primary mission of STS-113 is to bring the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. Another major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58:40 a.m. EST.

  1. Launch window extensions and launch opportunities for Navstar GPS (United States)

    Vaughan, Scott H.; Mullikin, Thomas L.

    The original nine minute launch window for Navstar Global Positioning System vehicles allowed a very limited capability to overcome problems late in the countdown sequence. A longer launch window was desired in order to minimize the chance of an aborted launch attempt. However, the methods used to determine the original launch window could not provide an extended window without producing a conflict with the tight tolerances required for the final orbit plane. By taking full advantage of the dynamics and geometry of the plane change maneuver, we have developed a launch window definition that will provide as much as a 32 minute window. This definition maintains tight orbit plane tolerances and identifies all possible launch opportunities. The extended launch window has been in use since the eighth Navstar launch and has been highly successful.

  2. 78 FR 49729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and... (United States)


    ... incidental to launching space launch vehicles, intercontinental ballistic and small missiles, aircraft and... from noise or visual disturbance from rocket and missile launches, as well as from the use of heavy... missiles launched from various facilities on North VAFB, including the Minuteman III and several types of...

  3. Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo Elements for Space Station (United States)

    Kappus, Kathy O.; Driskill, Timothy C.; Parks, Russel A.; Patterson, Alan (Technical Monitor)


    From December 1996 to May 2001, the Modal and Control Dynamics Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted modal tests on seven large elements of the International Space Station. Each of these elements has been or will be launched as a Space Shuttle payload for transport to the International Space Station (ISS). Like other Shuttle payloads, modal testing of these elements was required for verification of the finite element models used in coupled loads analyses for launch and landing. The seven modal tests included three modules - Node, Laboratory, and Airlock, and four truss segments - P6, P3/P4, S1/P1, and P5. Each element was installed and tested in the Shuttle Payload Modal Test Bed at MSFC. This unique facility can accommodate any Shuttle cargo element for modal test qualification. Flexure assemblies were utilized at each Shuttle-to-payload interface to simulate a constrained boundary in the load carrying degrees of freedom. For each element, multiple-input, multiple-output burst random modal testing was the primary approach with controlled input sine sweeps for linearity assessments. The accelerometer channel counts ranged from 252 channels to 1251 channels. An overview of these tests, as well as some lessons learned, will be provided in this paper.

  4. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight (United States)


    the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet.

  5. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom


    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  6. Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station (United States)

    Kawabata, Ryoji; Kurihara, Shinobu; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Jiro; Tanabe, Tadashi; Mukai, Yasuko; Nishikawa, Takashi


    The Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. This report summarizes activities of the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station in 2012. More than 200 sessions were observed with the Tsukuba 32-m and other GSI antennas in accordance with the IVS Master Schedule of 2012. We have started installing the observing facilities that will be fully compliant with VLBI2010 for the first time in Japan.

  7. Research objectives, opportunities, and facilities for microgravity science (United States)

    Bayuzick, Robert J.


    Microgravity Science in the U.S.A. involves research in fluids science, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, and fundamental physics. The purpose is to achieve a thorough understanding of the effects of gravitational body forces on physical phenomena relevant to those disciplines. This includes the study of phenomena which are usually overwhelmed by the presence of gravitational body forces and, therefore, chiefly manifested when gravitational forces are weak. In the pragmatic sense, the research involves gravity level as an experimental parameter. Calendar year 1992 is a landmark year for research opportunities in low earth orbit for Microgravity Science. For the first time ever, three Spacelab flights will fly in a single year: IML-1 was launched on January 22; USML-1 was launched on June 25; and, in September, SL-J will be launched. A separate flight involving two cargo bay carriers, USMP-1, will be launched in October. From the beginning of 1993 up to and including the Space Station era (1997), nine flights involving either Spacelab or USMP carriers will be flown. This will be augmented by a number of middeck payloads and get away specials flying on various flights. All of this activity sets the stage for experimentation on Space Station Freedom. Beginning in 1997, experiments in Microgravity Science will be conducted on the Space Station. Facilities for doing experiments in protein crystal growth, solidification, and biotechnology will all be available. These will be joined by middeck-class payloads and the microgravity glove box for conducting additional experiments. In 1998, a new generation protein crystal growth facility and a facility for conducting combustion research will arrive. A fluids science facility and additional capability for conducting research in solidification, as well as an ability to handle small payloads on a quick response basis, will be added in 1999. The year 2000 will see upgrades in the protein crystal growth and

  8. Space Station Freedom - What if...? (United States)

    Grey, Jerry


    The use of novel structural designs and the Energia launch system of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program is evaluated by means of a concept analysis. The analysis assumes that: (1) Energia is used for all cargo and logistics resupply missions; (2) the shuttles are launched from the U.S.; and (3) an eight-person assured crew return vehicle is available. This launch/supply scenario reduces the deployment risk from 30 launches to a total of only eight launches reducing the cost by about 15 billion U.S. dollars. The scenario also significantly increases the expected habitable and storage volumes and decreases the deployment time by three years over previous scenarios. The specific payloads are given for Energia launches emphasizing a proposed design for the common module cluster that incorporates direct structural attachment to the truss at midspan. The design is shown to facilitate the accommodation of additional service hangars and to provide a more efficient program for spacecraft habitable space.

  9. New Product Launching Ideas (United States)

    Kiruthika, E.


    Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance

  10. Launch Pad Coatings for Smart Corrosion Control (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.


    Corrosion is the degradation of a material as a result of its interaction with the environment. The environment at the KSC launch pads has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the US. The 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that are generated by the solid rocket boosters during a launch exacerbate the corrosiveness of the environment at the pads. Numerous failures at the pads are caused by the pitting of stainless steels, rebar corrosion, and the degradation of concrete. Corrosion control of launch pad structures relies on the use of coatings selected from the qualified products list (QPL) of the NASA Standard 5008A for Protective Coating of Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum on Launch Structures, Facilities, and Ground Support Equipment. This standard was developed to establish uniform engineering practices and methods and to ensure the inclusion of essential criteria in the coating of ground support equipment (GSE) and facilities used by or for NASA. This standard is applicable to GSE and facilities that support space vehicle or payload programs or projects and to critical facilities at all NASA locations worldwide. Environmental regulation changes have dramatically reduced the production, handling, use, and availability of conventional protective coatings for application to KSC launch structures and ground support equipment. Current attrition rate of qualified KSC coatings will drastically limit the number of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products available for the Constellation Program (CxP) ground operations (GO). CxP GO identified corrosion detection and control technologies as a critical, initial capability technology need for ground processing of Ares I and Ares V to meet Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) CxP 70000 operability requirements for reduced ground processing complexity, streamlined integrated testing, and operations phase affordability

  11. Observation Station (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather


    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  12. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others


    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  13. LHCb launches new website

    CERN Multimedia


    A new public website for the LHCb experiment was launched last Friday to coincide with CERN’s Open Day weekend. Designed to provide accessible information on all aspects of the experiment, the website contains images and key facts about the LHCb detector, its design and installation and the international team behind the project. "LHCb is going to be one of the most important b-physics experiments in the world when it starts taking data later this year", explains Roger Forty, the experiment’s deputy spokesperson. "We hope the website will be a valuable resource, enabling people to learn about this fascinating area of research." The new website can be found at:

  14. Personnel Launch System definition (United States)

    Piland, William M.; Talay, Theodore A.; Stone, Howard W.


    A lifting-body Personnel Launch System (PLS) is defined for assured manned access to space for future U.S. space missions. The reusable craft described is configured for reliable and safe operations, maintainability, affordability, and improved operability, and could reduce life-cycle costs associated with placing personnel into orbit. Flight simulations show the PLS to be a very flyable vehicle with very little control and propellant expenditure required during entry. The attention to crew safety has resulted in the design of a system that provides protection for the crew throughout the mission profile. However, a new operations philosophy for manned space vehicles must be adopted to fully achieve low-cost, manned earth-to-orbit transportation.

  15. The NASA Physical Science Program in Reduced Gravity: Combustion and Fluid Physics Work at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the International Space Station (United States)

    Sacksteder, Kurt

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) includes the launching and installa-tion of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), providing an unprecedented capability for conducting fundamental and applied research in the physical sciences. In addition to ongoing work, NASA has initiated a variety of investigations in combus-tion and fluid physics including ground-based testing and theoretical development to prepare for the utilization of these ISS capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the CIR and FIR facilities and the portfolio of investigations that are currently aboard the ISS utilizing these facilities and the investigations that are underway for future utilization.

  16. Launch area theodolite system (United States)

    Bradley, Lester M.; Corriveau, John P.; Tindal, Nan E.


    White Sands Missile Range has developed a Launch Area Theodolite (LAT) optical tracking system that provides improved Time-Space-Position-Information (TSPI) for the new class of hyper-velocity missiles being developed by the Army. The LAT system consists of a high- performance optical tracking mount equipped with an 8-12 micrometers Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor, a newly designed full-frame pin-registered 35-mm film camera, and an auto- focused 50-in. focal length lens. The FLIR has been integrated with the WSMR in-house developed statistical based automatic video tracker to yield a powerful system for the automatic tracking of missiles from a short standoff distance. The LAT has been designed to replace large fixed-camera arrays for test programs on short-range anti-tank missiles. New tracking techniques have been developed to deal with angular tracking rates that exceed one radian in both velocity and acceleration. Special techniques have been developed to shock the tracking mount at the missile launch to match the target motion. An adaptive servo control technique allows a Type III servo to be used to compensate for the high angular accelerations that are generated by the placement of the LAT mounts along the missile flight path. An automated mode selection adjustment is employed as the missile passes a point perpendicular to the tracking mount to compensate for the requirement to rapidly decelerate the tracking mount and keep the target in the field-of-view of the data camera. This paper covers the design concept for a network of eight LAT mounts, the techniques of automatic video tracking using a FLIR sensor, and the architecture of the servo control algorithms that have allowed the LAT system to produce results to a degree never before achieved at White Sands Missile Range.

  17. Space Station Biological Research Project (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.


    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  18. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.


    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  19. The MATROSHKA Facility - History and science overview (United States)

    Reitz, G.; Berger, T.

    The ESA MATROSHKA facility was realized through the German Aerospace Center DLR Cologne as main contractor On the 29th of January 2004 the facility was launched with a Russian PROGRESS vehicle to the International Space Station It was installed outside the Russian segment Zvezda on the 26th February 2004 and remained there until August 2005 and simulates as exact as possible an astronaut during an extravehicular activity EVA The MATROSHKA facility basically consists of a human phantom a Base Structure and a Container The container as well as the phantom is mounted to the base structure which serves as a footprint for the human phantom The container is a Carbon Fiber structure and forms with the Base Structure a closed volume that contains a dry oxygen atmosphere and protects the phantom against e g space vacuum space debris solar UV and material off-gassing It acts also as a simulation of the space suit The phantom body is made of commercial phantom parts well introduced in the field of radiotherapy It consists of 33 slices composed of natural bones embedded in tissue equivalent plastic of different density for tissue and lung The Phantom slices are equipped with channels and cut-outs to allow the accommodation of active and passive dosemeters temperature and pressure sensors The radiation experiments accommodated in the facility are performed under leadership of DLR in a cooperation of more than 15 research institutes from all over the world The MATROSHKA experiments represent therefore the currently biggest international

  20. 76 FR 24538 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station... (United States)


    ..., 50-270, and 50-287] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3; Notice of Withdrawal of... the Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, located in York County, South Carolina; Renewed Facility...

  1. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1... (United States)


    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  2. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Overview: The Crew Launch Vehicle and the Cargo Launch Vehicle Systems (United States)

    Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.


    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration (January 2004) serves as the foundation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. As the NASA Administrator outlined during his confirmation hearing in April 2005, these include: 1) Flying the Space Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human space flight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. In spring 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The ESAS team performed in-depth evaluations of a number of space transportation architectures and provided recommendations based on their findings? The ESAS analysis focused on a human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) for astronaut transport and a heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) to carry equipment, materials, and supplies for lunar missions and, later, the first human journeys to Mars. After several months of intense study utilizing safety and reliability, technical performance, budget, and schedule figures of merit in relation to design reference missions, the ESAS design options were unveiled in summer 2005. As part of NASA's systems engineering approach, these point of departure architectures have been refined through trade studies during the ongoing design phase leading to the development phase that

  3. Peer Review of Launch Environments (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.


    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  4. Urban poor program launched. (United States)


    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  5. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1 (United States)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo


    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  6. NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy (United States)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Singer, Christer E.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO). The SLS may also provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration for decades to come.

  7. STS-81 Launch (side view across water) (United States)


    The Space Shuttle Atlantis transforms the early morning at KSC into near-daylight as its more than 7 million pounds of rocket thrust propels it from Launch Pad 39B at 4:27:23 a.m. EST Jan. 12 on its way to dock with the Mir space station for the fifth time.The 10-day mission will feature the transfer of Mission Specialist Jerry Linenger to Mir to replace astronaut John Blaha, who has been on the orbital laboratory since Sept. 19, 1996. The other STS-81 crew members include Mission Commander Michael A. Baker; Pilot Brent W. Jett, Jr.; and Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld, Peter J. K. 'Jeff' Wisoff and Marsha S. Ivins. During the five-day docking operations, the Shuttle and Mir crews will conduct risk mitigation, human life science, microgravity and materials processing experiments that will provide data for the design, development and operation of the International Space Station. The primary payload is the SPACEHAB-DM double module that will provide space for more than 2,000 pounds of hardware, food and water that will be transferred into the Russian space station. The SPACEHAB will also be used to return experiment samples from the Mir to Earth for analysis and for microgravity experiments during the mission.

  8. STS-81 Launch of Atlantis (side view) (United States)


    The Space Shuttle Atlantis transforms the early morning at KSC into near-daylight as its more than 7 million pounds of rocket thrust propels it from Launch Pad 39B at 4:27:23 a.m. EST Jan. 12 on its way to dock with the Mir space station for the fifth time.The 10-day mission will feature the transfer of Mission Specialist Jerry Linenger to Mir to replace astronaut John Blaha, who has been on the orbital laboratory since Sept. 19, 1996. The other STS-81 crew members include Mission Commander Michael A. Baker; Pilot Brent W. Jett, Jr.; and Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld, Peter J. K. 'Jeff' Wisoff and Marsha S. Ivins. During the five-day docking operations, the Shuttle and Mir crews will conduct risk mitigation, human life science, microgravity and materials processing experiments that will provide data for the design, development and operation of the International Space Station. The primary payload is the SPACEHAB-DM double module that will provide space for more than 2,000 pounds of hardware, food and water that will be transferred into the Russian space station. The SPACEHAB will also be used to return experiment samples from the Mir to Earth for analysis and for microgravity experiments during the mission.

  9. STS-81 Launch (Landscape across water) (United States)


    Like a rising sun lighting up the night, the Space Shuttle Atlantis soars from Launch Pad 39B at 4:27:23 a.m. EST Jan. 12 on its way to dock with the Mir space station for the fifth time. The 10-day mission will feature the transfer of Mission Specialist Jerry Linenger to Mir to replace astronaut John Blaha, who has been on the orbital laboratory since Sept. 19, 1996. The other STS-81 crew members include Mission Commander Michael A. Baker; Pilot Brent W. Jett, Jr.; and Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld, Peter J. K. 'Jeff' Wisoff and Marsha S. Ivins. During the five-day docking operations, the Shuttle and Mir crews will conduct risk mitigation, human life science, microgravity and materials processing experiments that will provide data for the design, development and operation of the International Space Station. The primary payload is the SPACEHAB-DM double module that will provide space for more than 2,000 pounds of hardware, food and water that will be transferred into the Russian space station.The SPACEHAB will also be used to return experiment samples from the Mir to Earth for analysis and for microgravity experiments during the mission.

  10. Solar panels for the International Space Station are uncrated and moved in the SSPF (United States)


    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the overhead crane slowly moves solar panels intended for the International Space Station (ISS). The panels are the first set of U.S.-provided solar arrays and batteries for ISS, scheduled to be part of mission STS-97 in December 1999. The mission, fifth in the U.S. flights for construction of ISS, will build and enhance the capabilities of the Space Station. It will deliver the solar panels as well as radiators to provide cooling. The Shuttle will spend 5 days docked to the station, which at that time will be staffed by the first station crew. Two space walks will be conducted to complete assembly operations while the arrays are attached and unfurled. A communications system for voice and telemetry also will be installed. At the left of the crane and panels is the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), the Leonardo A reusable logistics carrier, the MPLM is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Mission STS-100, targeted for April 2000.

  11. Compilation of ozonesonde profiles from the Antarctic Georg-Forster-Station from 1985 to 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. König-Langlo


    Full Text Available On 22 May 1985 the first balloon-borne ozonesonde was successfully launched by the staff of Georg-Forster-Station (70°46' S, 11°41' E. The subsequent weekly ozone soundings mark the beginning of a continuous investigation of the vertical ozone distribution in the southern hemisphere by Germany.

    The measurements began the year the ozone hole was discovered. They significantly contribute to other measurements made prior to and following 1985 at other stations. The regular ozone soundings from 1985 until 1992 are a valuable reference data set since the chemical ozone loss became a significant feature in the southern polar stratosphere.

    The balloon-borne soundings were performed at the upper air sounding facility of the neighbouring station Novolazarevskaya, just 2 km from Georg-Forster-Station. Until 1992, ozone soundings were taken without interruption. Thereafter, the ozone sounding program was moved to Neumayer-Station (70°39' S, 8°15' W 750 km further west.

  12. Large-Scale Cryogen Systems and Test Facilities (United States)

    Johnson, R. G.; Sass, J. P.; Hatfield, W. H.


    NASA has completed initial construction and verification testing of the Integrated Systems Test Facility (ISTF) Cryogenic Testbed. The ISTF is located at Complex 20 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The remote and secure location is ideally suited for the following functions: (1) development testing of advanced cryogenic component technologies, (2) development testing of concepts and processes for entire ground support systems designed for servicing large launch vehicles, and (3) commercial sector testing of cryogenic- and energy-related products and systems. The ISTF Cryogenic Testbed consists of modular fluid distribution piping and storage tanks for liquid oxygen/nitrogen (56,000 gal) and liquid hydrogen (66,000 gal). Storage tanks for liquid methane (41,000 gal) and Rocket Propellant 1 (37,000 gal) are also specified for the facility. A state-of-the-art blast proof test command and control center provides capability for remote operation, video surveillance, and data recording for all test areas.

  13. Launch Vehicle Assessment for Space Solar Power (United States)

    Olds, John R.


    A recently completed study at Georgia Tech examined various launch vehicle options for deploying a future constellation of Space Solar Power satellites of the Suntower configuration. One of the motivations of the study was to determine whether the aggressive $400/kg launch price goal established for SSP package delivery would result in an attractive economic scenario for a future RLV developer. That is, would the potential revenue and traffic to be derived from a large scale SSP project be enough of an economic "carrot" to attract an RLV company into developing a new, low cost launch vehicle to address this market. Preliminary results presented in the attached charts show that there is enough economic reward for RLV developers, specifically in the case of the latest large GEO-based Suntower constellations (over 15,500 MT per year delivery for 30 years). For that SSP model, internal rates of return for the 30 year economic scenario exceed 22%. However, up-front government assistance to the RLV developer in terms of ground facilities, operations technologies, guaranteed low-interest rate loans, and partial offsets of some vehicle development expenses is necessary to achieve these positive results. This white paper is meant to serve as a companion to the data supplied in the accompanying charts. It's purpose is to provide more detail on the vehicles and design processes used, to highlight key decisions and issues, and to emphasize key results from each phase of the Georgia Tech study.

  14. International Space Station Systems Engineering. Case Study (United States)


    cargo transfer vehicle that is launched on the Ariane V expendable rocket. The first ATV (named Jules Verne ) successfully completed its first...Griffin to the Subcommittee on Space, Aeronautics and Related Sciences, 15 November 2007 63 “ Jules Verne Refuels the International Space Station

  15. NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly F.


    Major hardware and software for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) began rolling off assembly lines in 2016, setting the stage for critical testing in 2017 and the launch of a major new capability for deep space human exploration. SLS continues to pursue a 2018 first launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). At NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, LA, Boeing completed welding of structural test and flight liquid hydrogen tanks, and engine sections. Test stands for core stage structural tests at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. neared completion. The B2 test stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center, MS, completed major structural renovation to support core stage green run testing in 2018. Orbital ATK successfully test fired its second qualification solid rocket motor in the Utah desert and began casting the motor segments for EM-1. Aerojet Rocketdyne completed its series of test firings to adapt the heritage RS-25 engine to SLS performance requirements. Production is under way on the first five new engine controllers. NASA also signed a contract with Aerojet Rocketdyne for propulsion of the RL10 engines for the Exploration Upper Stage. United Launch Alliance delivered the structural test article for the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage to MSFC for tests and construction was under way on the flight stage. Flight software testing at MSFC, including power quality and command and data handling, was completed. Substantial progress is planned for 2017. Liquid oxygen tank production will be completed at Michoud. Structural testing at Marshall will get under way. RS-25 hotfire testing will verify the new engine controllers. Core stage horizontal integration will begin. The core stage pathfinder mockup will arrive at the B2 test stand for fit checks and tests. EUS will complete preliminary design review. This paper will discuss the technical and programmatic successes and challenges of 2016 and look ahead to plans for 2017.

  16. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth (United States)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  17. Microgravity particle research on the Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squyres, S.W.; Mckay, C.P.; Schwartz, D.E.


    Science questions that could be addressed by a Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility for studying small suspended particles were discussed. Characteristics of such a facility were determined. Disciplines covered include astrophysics and the solar nebula, planetary science, atmospheric science, exobiology and life science, and physics and chemistry.

  18. The Falcon I Launch Vehicle


    Koenigsmann, Hans; Musk, Elon; Shotwell, Gwynne; Chinnery, Anne


    Falcon I is the first in a family of launch vehicles designed by Space Exploration Technologies to facilitate low cost access to space. Falcon I is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon I can carry over 1000 lbs to sun-synchronous orbit and 1500 lbs due east to 100 NM. To minimize failure modes, the...

  19. NASA's SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM: Development and Progress (United States)

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry


    NASA is embarked on a new era of space exploration that will lead to new capabilities, new destinations, and new discoveries by both human and robotic explorers. Today, the International Space Station (ISS) and robotic probes are yielding knowledge that will help make this exploration possible. NASA is developing both the Orion crew vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS) (Figure 1), that will carry out a series of increasingly challenging missions leading to human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the development and progress on the SLS. The SLS architecture was designed to be safe, affordable, and sustainable. The current configuration is the result of literally thousands of trade studies involving cost, performance, mission requirements, and other metrics. The initial configuration of SLS, designated Block 1, will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (mT) (154,324 pounds) into low Earth orbit - significantly greater capability than any current launch vehicle. It is designed to evolve to a capability of 130 mT (286,601 pounds) through the use of upgraded main engines, advanced boosters, and a new upper stage. With more payload mass and volume capability than any existing rocket, SLS offers mission planners larger payloads, faster trip times, simpler design, shorter design cycles, and greater opportunity for mission success. Since the program was officially created in fall 2011, it has made significant progress toward launch readiness in 2018. Every major element of SLS continued to make significant progress in 2015. Engineers fired Qualification Motor 1 (QM-1) in March 2015 to test the 5-segment motor, including new insulation, joint, and propellant grain designs. More than 70 major components of test article and flight hardware for the Core Stage have been manufactured. Seven test firings have been completed with an RS-25 engine under SLS operating conditions. The test article for the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS) has also been completed

  20. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia


    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  1. Persistant Launch Range Surveillance Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch site infrastructure and space vehicle assets represent multi-billion dollar investments that must be protected. Additionally, personnel and equipment must be...

  2. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model (United States)


    The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control.

  3. Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The very large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Plum Brook Station, is currently under construction and is due to...

  4. Illustration of Ares I During Launch (United States)


    The NASA developed Ares rockets, named for the Greek god associated with Mars, will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. In this early illustration, the Ares I is illustrated during lift off. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. With a primary mission of carrying four to six member crews to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS), or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Ares I uses a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine, derived from the J-2 engine used on the second stage of the Apollo vehicle, will power the Ares I second stage. Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. The Ares I is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of September 2006.

  5. Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study (United States)

    Ehrlich, Carl F., Jr.; Potts, Jack; Brown, Jerry; Schell, Ken; Manley, Mary; Chen, Irving; Earhart, Richard; Urrutia, Chuck; Randolph, Ray; Morris, Jim


    To assure national leadership in space operations and exploration in the future, NASA must be able to provide cost effective and operationally efficient space transportation. Several NASA studies and the joint NASA/DoD Space Transportation Architecture Studies (STAS) have shown the need for a multi-vehicle space transportation system with designs driven by enhanced operations and low costs. NASA is currently studying an advanced manned launch system (AMLS) approach to transport crew and cargo to the Space Station Freedom. Several single and multiple stage systems from air-breathing to all-rocket concepts are being examined in a series of studies potential replacements for the Space Shuttle launch system in the 2000-2010 time frame. Rockwell International Corporation, under contract to the NASA Langley Research Center, has analyzed a two-stage all-rocket concept to determine whether this class of vehicles is appropriate for the AMLS function. The results of the pre-phase A study are discussed.

  6. Aerodynamic Problems of Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Chol Chou


    Full Text Available The airflow along the surface of a launch vehicle together with vase flow of clustered nozzles cause problems which may affect the stability or efficiency of the entire vehicle. The problem may occur when the vehicle is on the launching pad or even during flight. As for such problems, local steady-state loads, overall steady-state loads, buffet, ground wind loads, base heating and rocket-nozzle hinge moments are examined here specifically.

  7. National Security Space Launch Report (United States)


    Company Clayton Mowry, President, Arianespace Inc., North American—“Launch Solutions” Elon Musk , CEO and CTO, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX...President, “Beyond the X Prize,” hearing on Commercial Space Transportation, House Transportation and Infrastructure Aviation Subcommittee, February 9...number. 1. REPORT DATE 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Security Space Launch

  8. Bumper Wac on Launch Pad (United States)


    A Bumper Wac, a combination the V-2 rocket with a WAC Corporal upper stage, awaits launch on July 24, 1950. It was the eighth in the Bumper Project and the vehicle reached the altitude of 393 kilometers. The Bumper was built by the German Rocket experts at the White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. In 1950, the last two Bumper launches took place in Florida, at the Long Range Proving Ground, located at Cape Canaveral.

  9. 33 CFR 6.01-4 - Waterfront facility. (United States)


    ... facility. Waterfront facility. “Waterfront facility,” as used in this part, means all piers, wharves, docks, or similar structures to which vessels may be secured and naval yards, stations, and installations...

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Towards First Launch (United States)

    May, Todd; Lyles, Garry


    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum programmatically and technically toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. Its first mission will be the launch of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back. SLS will also launch the first Orion crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a 130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. At KDP-C, the Agency Planning Management Council determines the readiness of a program to go to the next life-cycle phase and makes technical, cost, and schedule commitments to its external stakeholders. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015, and a launch readiness date of November 2018. Every SLS element is currently in testing or test preparations. The Program shipped its first flight hardware in 2014 in preparation for Orion's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December, a significant first step toward human journeys into deep space. Accomplishments during 2014 included manufacture of Core Stage test articles and preparations for qualification testing the Solid Rocket Boosters and the RS-25 Core Stage engines. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment

  11. Opportunities for Launch Site Integrated System Health Engineering and Management (United States)

    Waterman, Robert D.; Langwost, Patricia E.; Waterman, Susan J.


    The launch site processing flow involves operations such as functional verification, preflight servicing and launch. These operations often include hazards that must be controlled to protect human life and critical space hardware assets. Existing command and control capabilities are limited to simple limit checking durig automated monitoring. Contingency actions are highly dependent on human recognition, decision making, and execution. Many opportunities for Integrated System Health Engineering and Management (ISHEM) exist throughout the processing flow. This paper will present the current human-centered approach to health management as performed today for the shuttle and space station programs. In addition, it will address some of the more critical ISHEM needs, and provide recommendations for future implementation of ISHEM at the launch site.

  12. School Indoor Air Quality Assessments Go Mobile / EPA Launches School IAQ Assessment Mobile App (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today launched a new mobile app to assist schools and school districts with performing comprehensive indoor air quality (IAQ) facility assessments to protect the health of children and sch

  13. Shuttle derived vehicle analysis solid booster unmanned launch vehicle concept definition study, volume 2 (United States)


    The technical effort associated with the selection and definition of the recommended SRB-X concept is documented. Included are discussions concerning the trades leading to the selected concept, the analysis that established the concept's basic subsystem characteristics, selected configuration description and performance capabilities, launch site operations and facility needs, development schedule, cost characteristics, risk assessment, and a cursory comparison with other launch systems.

  14. Variable gravity research facility (United States)

    Allan, Sean; Ancheta, Stan; Beine, Donna; Cink, Brian; Eagon, Mark; Eckstein, Brett; Luhman, Dan; Mccowan, Daniel; Nations, James; Nordtvedt, Todd


    Spin and despin requirements; sequence of activities required to assemble the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF); power systems technology; life support; thermal control systems; emergencies; communication systems; space station applications; experimental activities; computer modeling and simulation of tether vibration; cost analysis; configuration of the crew compartments; and tether lengths and rotation speeds are discussed.

  15. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.


    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  16. Linked Station Neighbors (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — This file that is a subset of the Linked-Station Set file. This file specifies, for each U.S. or impeding Canadian station part of a linked station set, the set of...

  17. [STS-7 Launch and Land (United States)


    The prelaunch, launch, and landing activities of the STS-7 Space Shuttle mission are highlighted in this video, with brief footage of the deployment of the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS). The flight crew consisted of: Cmdr. Bob Crippen, Pilot Rich Hauck, and Mission Specialists John Fabian, Dr. Sally Ride, and Norm Thaggart. With this mission, Cmdr. Crippen became the first astronaut to fly twice in a Space Shuttle Mission and Dr. Sally Ride was the first American woman to fly in space. There is a large amount of footage of the Space Shuttle by the aircraft that accompanies the Shuttle launchings and landings.

  18. Building and Leading the Next Generation of Exploration Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Vanhooser, Teresa


    NASA s Constellation Program is depending on the Ares Projects to deliver the crew and cargo launch capabilities needed to send human explorers to the Moon and beyond. Ares I and V will provide the core space launch capabilities needed to continue providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS), and to build upon the U.S. history of human spaceflight to the Moon and beyond. Since 2005, Ares has made substantial progress on designing, developing, and testing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and has continued its in-depth studies of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. In 2009, the Ares Projects plan to: conduct the first flight test of Ares I, test-fire the Ares I first stage solid rocket motor; build the first integrated Ares I upper stage; continue testing hardware for the J-2X upper stage engine, and continue refining the design of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. These efforts come with serious challenges for the project leadership team as it continues to foster a culture of ownership and accountability, operate with limited funding, and works to maintain effective internal and external communications under intense external scrutiny.

  19. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin


    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  20. Breadboard Facility (United States)


    In the sixties, Chrysler was NASA's prime contractor for the Saturn I and IB test launch vehicles. The company installed and operated at Huntsville what was known as the Saturn I/IB Development Breadboard Facility. "Breadboard," means an array of electrical and electronic equipment for performing a variety of development and test functions. This work gave Chrysler a broad capability in computerized testing to assure quality control in development of solid-state electronic systems. Today that division is manufacturing many products not destined for NASA, most of them being associated with the company's automotive line. A major project is production and quality-control testing of the "lean-burn" engine, one that has a built-in Computer to control emission timing, and allow the engine to run on a leaner mixture of fuel and air. Other environment-related products include vehicle emission analyzers. The newest of the line is an accurate, portable solid state instrument for testing auto exhaust gases. The exhaust analyzers, now being produced for company dealers and for service

  1. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook (United States)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  2. STS-99 Mission Specialist Mohri arrives at KSC for launch (United States)


    After landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft, STS-99 Pilot Dominic Gorie stands ready to prepare for the second launch attempt of Endeavour Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The earlier launch scheduled for Jan. 31 was scrubbed due to poor weather and a faulty Enhanced Master Events Controller in the orbiter's aft compartment. Over the next few days, the crew will review mission procedures, conduct test flights in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and undergo routine preflight medical exams. STS-99 is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which will produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Landing is expected at KSC on Feb. 22 at 4:36 p.m. EST.

  3. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch (United States)

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  4. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Toward First Launch (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.


    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. It will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017. Its first crewed flight follows in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. In the NASA project life cycle process, SLS has completed 50 percent of its major milestones toward first flight. Every SLS element manufactured development hardware for testing over the past year. Accomplishments during 2013/2014 included manufacture of core stage test articles, preparations for qualification testing the solid rocket boosters and the RS-25 main engines, and shipment of the first flight hardware in preparation for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) in 2014. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment of economic challenges, the SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets through the studied use of hardware, infrastructure, and workforce investments the United States made in the last half century, while selectively using new technologies for design, manufacturing, and testing, as well as streamlined management approaches

  5. NASA'S Space Launch System: Opening Opportunities for Mission Design (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David


    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. While SLS's super-heavy launch vehicle predecessor, the Saturn V, was used for only two types of missions - launching Apollo spacecraft to the moon and lofting the Skylab space station into Earth orbit - NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. With a 5-meter (m) fairing consistent with contemporary Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), the Block 1 configuration can also deliver science payloads to high-characteristic-energy (C3) trajectories to the outer solar system. With the addition of an upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a new class of secondary payloads, larger than today's cubesats. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk and operational costs associated with shorter transit time to destination and reduced risk and complexity associated with launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. As this paper will

  6. Semigraphical model of railway stations operation


    Верлан, Анатолий Иванович


    Semigraphical model of railway stations operation for technical and operational evaluation of their technology is presented in the paper. The paper is aimed at improving the model structure to simplify the mechanical engineer's interaction with a computer at the stage of a formal description of the model. In the simulation, railway station is considered as a complex system, in which maintenance of facilities by technical means and executors is carried out by performing manufacturing operation...

  7. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  8. Business Intelligence Modeling in Launch Operations (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Davis, Rodney D.


    This technology project is to advance an integrated Planning and Management Simulation Model for evaluation of risks, costs, and reliability of launch systems from Earth to Orbit for Space Exploration. The approach builds on research done in the NASA ARC/KSC developed Virtual Test Bed (VTB) to integrate architectural, operations process, and mission simulations for the purpose of evaluating enterprise level strategies to reduce cost, improve systems operability, and reduce mission risks. The objectives are to understand the interdependency of architecture and process on recurring launch cost of operations, provide management a tool for assessing systems safety and dependability versus cost, and leverage lessons learned and empirical models from Shuttle and International Space Station to validate models applied to Exploration. The systems-of-systems concept is built to balance the conflicting objectives of safety, reliability, and process strategy in order to achieve long term sustainability. A planning and analysis test bed is needed for evaluation of enterprise level options and strategies for transit and launch systems as well as surface and orbital systems. This environment can also support agency simulation .based acquisition process objectives. The technology development approach is based on the collaborative effort set forth in the VTB's integrating operations. process models, systems and environment models, and cost models as a comprehensive disciplined enterprise analysis environment. Significant emphasis is being placed on adapting root cause from existing Shuttle operations to exploration. Technical challenges include cost model validation, integration of parametric models with discrete event process and systems simulations. and large-scale simulation integration. The enterprise architecture is required for coherent integration of systems models. It will also require a plan for evolution over the life of the program. The proposed technology will produce

  9. Preparation and Launch of the JEM ISS Elements - A NASA Mission Manager's Perspective (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.


    The pre-flight launch site preparations and launch of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) elements of the International Space Station required an intense multi-year, international collaborative effort between US and Japanese personnel at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This presentation will provide a brief overview of KSC, a brief overview of the ISS, and a summary of authors experience managing the NASA team responsible that supported and conducted the JEM element operations.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. NASA is working to develop this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen which combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new development projects that will evolve the capabilities of the launch vehicle. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved version of the vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight

  11. European global navigation satellite launches (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    The European Space Agency launched its first Galileo satellite on 28 December 2005.When fully deployed, the Galileo system will provide a European global navigation alternative to the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (Glonass).The Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites (27 operational plus three active spare satellites) that are scheduled to be launched and fully operational by the end of 2008.The system will provide real-time positioning within one meter of accuracy and be fully inter-operable with the U.S. and Russian systems. However, unlike GPS and Glonass, Galileo will be under civilian rather than military control.

  12. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner (United States)


    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...mathematically complex and require training to operate the software. A Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ) Excel (Microsoft Corporation, 2015...lockheed/data/ms2/documents/laun chers/MK41 VLS factsheet.pdf Microsoft Excel version 14.4.3, VBA computer software. (2011). Redmond, WA: Microsoft

  13. A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.


    A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.

  14. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station


    Tariq, S.; Ammigan, K.; Anderson, K.; Buccellato, S. A.; Crowley, C. F.; Hartsell, B. D.; Hurh, P.; Hylen, J.; Kasper, P.; Krafczyk, G. E.; Lee, A.; Lundberg, B.; Marchionni, A; Mokhov, N. V.; Moore, C. D.


    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-fil...

  15. 47 CFR 73.6020 - Protection of stations in the land mobile radio service. (United States)


    ... stations in the land mobile radio service. An application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of an existing Class A TV or digital Class A TV station will not be...) of this chapter, Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations must not cause interference to land...

  16. Launch Services, a Proven Model (United States)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.


    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  17. Launch and Landing of Russian Soyuz - Medical Support for US and Partner Astronauts (United States)

    Menon, Anil


    Launching, landing, flight route, expeditions, Soyuz, near Kazakhstan USOS Crew Surgeon -Quarantine and direct care to crew before launch, then present in close proximity to launch for abort. IP Crew Surgeon -same Deputy Crew Surgeon -Back up for crew surgeon, care for immediate family, stationed at airport for helicopter abort response Russian based US doctor -Coordinate with SOS staff USOS Crew Surgeon -Nominal helicopter response and initial medical care and support during return on gulfstreamIPcenter dotP Crew Surgeon -same Deputy Crew Surgeon -Ballistic helicopter support Russian based US doctor -Coordinate with SOS staff Direct return doctor -Direct medical care on return flight

  18. Deep Impact Delta II Launch Vehicle Cracked Thick Film Coating on Electronic Packages Technical Consultation Report (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Kichak, Robert A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Wilson, Timmy R.


    The Deep Impact spacecraft was launched on a Boeing Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on January 12, 2005. Prior to the launch, the Director of the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OS&MA) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) lead a team to render an independent opinion on the rationale for flight and the risk code assignments for the hazard of cracked Thick Film Assemblies (TFAs) in the E-packages of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Deep Impact Mission. The results of the evaluation are contained in this report.

  19. Facilities & Leadership (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  20. International Human Mission to Mars: Analyzing A Conceptual Launch and Assembly Campaign (United States)

    Cates, Grant; Stromgren, Chel; Arney, Dale; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce


    In July of 2013, U.S. Congressman Kennedy (D-Mass.) successfully offered an amendment to H.R. 2687, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2013. "International Participation—The President should invite the United States partners in the International Space Station program and other nations, as appropriate, to participate in an international initiative under the leadership of the United States to achieve the goal of successfully conducting a crewed mission to the surface of Mars." This paper presents a concept for an international campaign to launch and assemble a crewed Mars Transfer Vehicle. NASA’s “Human Exploration of Mars: Design Reference Architecture 5.0” (DRA 5.0) was used as the point of departure for this concept. DRA 5.0 assumed that the launch and assembly campaign would be conducted using NASA launch vehicles. The concept presented utilizes a mixed fleet of NASA Space Launch System (SLS), U.S. commercial and international launch vehicles to accomplish the launch and assembly campaign. This concept has the benefit of potentially reducing the campaign duration. However, the additional complexity of the campaign must also be considered. The reliability of the launch and assembly campaign utilizing SLS launches augmented with commercial and international launch vehicles is analyzed and compared using discrete event simulation.

  1. HL-20 personnel launch system - A concept definition case study (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.


    For several years, the NASA Langley Research Center has been involved in defining options for future space transportation systems. As part of this effort, for the past 2 years, an analysis of a candidate Personnel Launch System to deliver and return people and small payloads to and from Space Station Freedom has been conducted. This effort has involved a government/industry/university team in conducting an indepth analysis of the HL-20 lifting body concept to provide a technically viable, affordable Personnel Launch System. This paper will use the HL-20 PLS definition activity to illustrate the process that is used by Langley to mature vehicle concepts to identify technical/development risks and costs for future transportation systems.

  2. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Edwards AFB Runway (United States)


    booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet. The heaviest load it has carried was the No. 2 X-15 aircraft at 53,100 pounds. Project manager for the aircraft is Roy Bryant.

  3. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight over Dryden (United States)


    parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet. The heaviest load it has carried was the No. 2 X-15 aircraft at 53,100 pounds. Project manager for the aircraft is Roy Bryant.

  4. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Dryden Ramp (United States)


    booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet. The heaviest load it has carried was the No. 2 X-15 aircraft at 53,100 pounds. Project manager for the aircraft is Roy Bryant.

  5. Biochemistry Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  6. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  7. Much Lower Launch Costs Make Resupply Cheaper than Recycling for Space Life Support (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.


    The development of commercial launch vehicles by SpaceX has greatly reduced the cost of launching mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Reusable launch vehicles may further reduce the launch cost per kilogram. The new low launch cost makes open loop life support much cheaper than before. Open loop systems resupply water and oxygen in tanks for crew use and provide disposable lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in canisters to remove carbon dioxide. Short human space missions such as Apollo and shuttle have used open loop life support, but the long duration International Space Station (ISS) recycles water and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide with a regenerative molecular sieve. These ISS regenerative and recycling life support systems have significantly reduced the total launch mass needed for life support. But, since the development cost of recycling systems is much higher than the cost of tanks and canisters, the relative cost savings have been much less than the launch mass savings. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes development, launch, and operations. If another space station was built in LEO, resupply life support would be much cheaper than the current recycling systems. The mission most favorable to recycling would be a long term lunar base, since the resupply mass would be large, the proximity to Earth would reduce the need for recycling reliability and spares, and the launch cost would be much higher than for LEO due to the need for lunar transit and descent propulsion systems. For a ten-year lunar base, the new low launch costs make resupply cheaper than recycling systems similar to ISS life support.

  8. Universal Test Facility (United States)

    Laughery, Mike

    A universal test facility (UTF) for Space Station Freedom is developed. In this context, universal means that the experimental rack design must be: automated, highly marketable, and able to perform diverse microgravity experiments according to NASA space station requirements. In order to fulfill these broad objectives, the facility's customers, and their respective requirements, are first defined. From these definitions, specific design goals and the scope of the first phase of this project are determined. An examination is first made into what types of research are most likely to make the UTF marketable. Based on our findings, the experiments for which the UTF would most likely be used included: protein crystal growth, hydroponics food growth, gas combustion, gallium arsenide crystal growth, microorganism development, and cell encapsulation. Therefore, the UTF is designed to fulfill all of the major requirements for the experiments listed above. The versatility of the design is achieved by taking advantage of the many overlapping requirements presented by these experiments.

  9. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Hannah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  10. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses need to...

  11. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses of small...

  12. The Titan IV launch vehicle (United States)

    Morrissey, Arthur C.; O'Neill, Stephen T.


    Titan launch vehicles have been contributing to the national space accomplishments for more than 20 years. As the U.S. space program has grown, the Titan family has expanded to meet the changing requirements. The dependability and versatility of Titan vehicles have been demonstrated by their selection for various missions, including strategic intercontinental ballistic missile weapon systems, manned Gemini space flights, NASA interplanetary missions, and critical national security programs. This article summarizes the Titan legacy and is an overview of the newest Titan family member - the Titan IV.

  13. Launch vehicle systems design analysis (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.


    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  14. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.


    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  15. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.


    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  16. Space Launch System, Core Stage, Structural Test Design and Implementation (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Ray


    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama are working to design, develop and implement the SLS Core Stage structural testing. The SLS will have the capability to return humans to the Moon and beyond and its first launch is scheduled for December of 2017. The SLS Core Stage consist of five major elements; Forward Skirt, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank, Intertank (IT), Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) tank and the Engine Section (ES). Structural Test Articles (STA) for each of these elements are being designed and produced by Boeing at Michoud Assembly Facility located in New Orleans, La. The structural test for the Core Stage STAs (LH2, LOX, IT and ES) are to be conducted by the MSFC Test Laboratory. Additionally, the MSFC Test Laboratory manages the Structural Test Equipment (STE) design and development to support the STAs. It was decided early (April 2012) in the project life that the LH2 and LOX tank STAs would require new test stands and the Engine Section and Intertank would be tested in existing facilities. This decision impacted schedules immediately because the new facilities would require Construction of Facilities (C of F) funds that require congressional approval and long lead times. The Engine Section and Intertank structural test are to be conducted in existing facilities which will limit lead times required to support the first launch of SLS. With a SLS launch date of December, 2017 Boeing had a need date for testing to be complete by September of 2017 to support flight certification requirements. The test facilities were required to be ready by October of 2016 to support test article delivery. The race was on to get the stands ready before Test Article delivery and meet the test complete date of September 2017. This paper documents the past and current design and development phases and the supporting processes, tools, and

  17. Water Level Station History (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  18. Fire Stations - 2009 (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  19. Hammond Bay Biological Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  20. Weather Radar Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  1. Fire Stations - 2007 (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  2. Streamflow Gaging Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  3. Big Game Reporting Stations (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  4. Reference Climatological Stations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  5. Conceptual planning for Space Station life sciences human research project (United States)

    Primeaux, Gary R.; Miller, Ladonna J.; Michaud, Roger B.


    The Life Sciences Research Facility dedicated laboratory is currently undergoing system definition within the NASA Space Station program. Attention is presently given to the Humam Research Project portion of the Facility, in view of representative experimentation requirement scenarios and with the intention of accommodating the Facility within the Initial Operational Capability configuration of the Space Station. Such basic engineering questions as orbital and ground logistics operations and hardware maintenance/servicing requirements are addressed. Biospherics, calcium homeostasis, endocrinology, exercise physiology, hematology, immunology, muscle physiology, neurosciences, radiation effects, and reproduction and development, are among the fields of inquiry encompassed by the Facility.

  6. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Launch (United States)


    Physics No known feasible concepts. --- •Save $ “Now”. Solar Thermal Upper Stage. •Build “Now”. NTP Upper Stage, Gun Launch. •Research Now. BEP ...Save $ “Now”. NONE. •Build “Now”. Gun Launch. •Research Now. BEP (Laser, Microwave), Launch Assist, Adv. Propellants. •Alternative Missions

  7. Drift wave launching in a linear quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessema, G.Y.; Elliott, J.A.; Rusbridge, M.G. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology)


    Drift waves have been successfully launched from flag probes in a steady-state magnetized plasma, and the launching mechanism has been identified. Non-linear interactions are observed between launched and intrinsic waves. A wide range of further experimental studies is thus made possible, of fundamental relevance to plasma confinement. (author).

  8. Spallation neutron source target station issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.N.; Charlton, L.A. [and others


    In many areas of physics, materials and nuclear engineering, it is extremely valuable to have a very intense source of neutrons so that the structure and function of materials can be studied. One facility proposed for this purpose is the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS). This facility will consist of two parts: (1) a high-energy ({approximately}1 GeV) and high powered ({approximately} 1 MW) proton accelerator, and (2) a target station which converts the protons to low-energy ({le} 2 eV) neutrons and delivers them to the neutron scattering instruments. This paper deals with the second part, i.e., the design and development of the NSNS target station and the scientifically challenging issues. Many scientific and technical disciplines are required to produce a successful target station. These include engineering, remote handling, neutronics, materials, thermal hydraulics, and instrumentation. Some of these areas will be discussed.

  9. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    Oceanographic upwelling studies required ground truth measurements of meteorological parameters and sea surface temperature to be made from a research vessel which did not have the necessary facilities. A ship-borne station was therefore designed...

  10. Educational Activities at the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station. (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry W.; Oetting, Ron


    Describes educational programs and events at the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station that are designed to develop partnerships with educators and businesses, make multiple use of research facilities, and incorporate K-16 teachers and students into research endeavors. (DDR)

  11. Integrated scheduling and resource management. [for Space Station Information System (United States)

    Ward, M. T.


    This paper examines the problem of integrated scheduling during the Space Station era. Scheduling for Space Station entails coordinating the support of many distributed users who are sharing common resources and pursuing individual and sometimes conflicting objectives. This paper compares the scheduling integration problems of current missions with those anticipated for the Space Station era. It examines the facilities and the proposed operations environment for Space Station. It concludes that the pattern of interdependecies among the users and facilities, which are the source of the integration problem is well structured, allowing a dividing of the larger problem into smaller problems. It proposes an architecture to support integrated scheduling by scheduling efficiently at local facilities as a function of dependencies with other facilities of the program. A prototype is described that is being developed to demonstrate this integration concept.

  12. Reusable Military Launch Systems (RMLS) (United States)


    hours used to maintain the Space Shuttle in the Orbiter Processing Facility ( OPF ). It can be seen here that TPS maintenance is a very large part of . Ot he r GS E Figure 1. Man Hours in the OPF Space Shuttle STS-85 Man-hours Courtesy of Edgar Zapata NASA KSC taging to a velocity where either

  13. Space Station Radiator Test Hosted by NASA Lewis at Plum Brook Station (United States)

    Speth, Randall C.


    In April of 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center hosted the testing of the photovoltaic thermal radiator that is to be launched in 1999 as part of flight 4A of the International Space Station. The tests were conducted by Lockheed Martin Vought Systems of Dallas, who built the radiator. This radiator, and three more like it, will be used to cool the electronic system and power storage batteries for the space station's solar power system. Three of the four units will also be used early on to cool the service module.

  14. The science capability of the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (United States)

    Larson, M.; Croonquist, A.; Dick, G. J.; Liu, Y.


    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is a multiple user and multiple-flight NASA facility that will provide a low temperature environment for about 4. 5 months on board the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. Maïdo observatory: a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Baray


    Full Text Available Since the nineties, atmospheric measurement systems have been deployed at Reunion Island, mainly for monitoring the atmospheric composition in the framework of NDSC/NDACC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change/Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. The location of Reunion Island presents a great interest because there are very few multi-instrumented stations in the tropics and particularly in the southern hemisphere. In 2012, a new observatory was commissioned in Maïdo at 2200 m above sea level: it hosts various instruments for atmospheric measurements, including lidar systems, spectro-radiometers and in situ gas and aerosol measurements. This new high-altitude Maïdo station provides an opportunity: 1. to improve the performance of the optical instruments above the marine boundary layer, and to open new perspectives on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere studies; 2. to develop in situ measurements of the atmospheric composition for climate change surveys, in a reference site in the tropical/subtropical region of the southern hemisphere; 3. to offer trans-national access to host experiments or measurement campaigns for focused process studies.

  16. CALET: High energy cosmic ray observatory on International Space Station (United States)

    Mori, Masaki; CALET Collaboration


    The CALorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a Japanese-led international mission being developed as part of the utilization plan for the International Space Station (ISS). CALET will be launched by an H-II B rocket utilizing the Japanese developed HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle) in 2014. The instrument will be robotically emplaced upon the Exposed Facility attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF). CALET is a calorimeter based instrument which will have superior energy resolution and excellent separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays in the GeV to trans-TeV energy range. CALET will address many questions in high energy astrophysics, including (1) the nature of the sources of high energy particles and photons, through the high energy electron spectrum, (2) signatures of dark matter, in either the high energy electron or gamma ray spectrum, (3) the details of particle propagation in the Galaxy, by a combination of energy spectrum measurements of electrons, protons and highercharged nuclei. In this paper the outline and current status of CALET are summarized.

  17. Conceptual Launch Vehicle and Spacecraft Design for Risk Assessment (United States)

    Motiwala, Samira A.; Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.


    One of the most challenging aspects of developing human space launch and exploration systems is minimizing and mitigating the many potential risk factors to ensure the safest possible design while also meeting the required cost, weight, and performance criteria. In order to accomplish this, effective risk analyses and trade studies are needed to identify key risk drivers, dependencies, and sensitivities as the design evolves. The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) develops advanced risk analysis approaches, models, and tools to provide such meaningful risk and reliability data throughout vehicle development. The goal of the project presented in this memorandum is to design a generic launch 7 vehicle and spacecraft architecture that can be used to develop and demonstrate these new risk analysis techniques without relying on other proprietary or sensitive vehicle designs. To accomplish this, initial spacecraft and launch vehicle (LV) designs were established using historical sizing relationships for a mission delivering four crewmembers and equipment to the International Space Station (ISS). Mass-estimating relationships (MERs) were used to size the crew capsule and launch vehicle, and a combination of optimization techniques and iterative design processes were employed to determine a possible two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch trajectory into a 350-kilometer orbit. Primary subsystems were also designed for the crewed capsule architecture, based on a 24-hour on-orbit mission with a 7-day contingency. Safety analysis was also performed to identify major risks to crew survivability and assess the system's overall reliability. These procedures and analyses validate that the architecture's basic design and performance are reasonable to be used for risk trade studies. While the vehicle designs presented are not intended to represent a viable architecture, they will provide a valuable initial platform for developing and demonstrating

  18. 77 FR 24556 - Waiver of Acceptable Risk Restriction for Launch and Reentry (United States)


    ... with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of NASA's Commercial Orbital..., and other safety critical subsystems. Once Dragon passes the health check and completes orbital..., the launch will follow a specific trajectory to reach the International Space Station. In order to...

  19. Problems and concepts of space station guidance, navigation, and control (United States)

    Guha, A. K.; Craig, M.

    The Space Station System is defined as a network of space and ground assets which work together to support a variety of missions including commercial missions, science and applications missions, and technology development missions. The elements of the Space Station System include a Space Station Base, Space Platforms, Free Flyers, a Teleoperator Manuevering System (TMS), Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV), Orbiter Berthing Equipment, and Ground Support Equipment and Facilities. Guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) subsystem requirements are considered along with configuration trades.

  20. International Utilization at the Threshold of "Assembly Complete"- Science Returns from the International Space Station (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.


    The European Columbus and Japanese Kibo laboratories are now fully operational on the International Space Station (ISS), bringing decades of international planning to fruition. NASA is now completing launch and activation of major research facilities that will be housed in the Destiny U.S. Laboratory, Columbus, and Kibo. These facilities include major physical sciences capabilities for combustion, fluid physics, and materials science, as well as additional multipurpose and supporting infrastructure. Expansion of the laboratory space and expansion to a 6-person crew (planned for May 2009), is already leading to significant increases in research throughput even before assembly is completed. International research on the ISS includes exchanges of results, sharing of facilities, collaboration on experiments, and joint publication and communication of accomplishments. Significant and ongoing increases in research activity on ISS have occurred over the past year. Although research results lag behind on-orbit operations by 2-5 years, the surge of early research activities following Space Shuttle return to flight in 2005 is now producing an accompanying surge in scientific publications. Evidence of scientific productivity from early utilization opportunities combined with the current pace of research activity in orbit are both important parts of the evidence base for evaluating the potential future achievements of a complete and active ISS.

  1. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 3: Technology advancement program plan (United States)


    Program plans are given for an integrating controller for space station autonomy as well as for controls and displays. The technical approach, facility requirements and candidate facilities, development schedules, and resource requirements estimates are given.

  2. CERN & Society launches donation portal

    CERN Multimedia

    Cian O'Luanaigh


    The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN.   "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...

  3. STS-92 Mission Specialist McArthur has his launch and entry suit adjusted (United States)


    During pre-pack and fit check in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-92 Mission Specialist William S. McArthur Jr. uses a laptop computer while garbed in his full launch and entry suit. McArthur and the rest of the crew are at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT provides emergency egress training, simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payload. This mission will be McArthur's third Shuttle flight. STS-92 is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:38 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A on the fifth flight to the International Space Station. It will carry two elements of the Space Station, the Integrated Truss Structure Z1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The mission is also the 100th flight in the Shuttle program.

  4. NASA's Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.


    by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, which represents 12 of the world's space agencies. In addition, this paper will detail this new rocket's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS Program is currently building a global infrastructure asset that will provide robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

  5. NROL-41 Go for Launch (United States)


    facilities were needed. Power, helium , nitrogen, communications, and water commodities were just some of the larger resources that needed to be validated...moving down a road required portable nitrogen, helium , and oxygen systems in addition to sustainable vehicle power. The sensitivity of this operation...atmosphere as past missions have sent the Upper stage on a collision orbit with the moon or the sun, but due to the remaining fuel on board and the lack of

  6. Application of boost guidance to NASA sounding rocket launch operations at the White Sands Missile Range (United States)

    Montag, W. H.; Detwiler, D. F., Jr.; Hall, L.


    This paper addresses the unique problems associated with launching the Black Brant V, VIII, and IX sounding rocket vehicles at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and the significance of the introduction of the S19 to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility sounding rocket program in terms of launch flexibility, improved impact dispersion, higher flight reliability, and reduced program costs. This paper also discusses salient flight results from NASA 36.011UL (the first S19 guided Black Brant launched at WSMR) and the NASA Comet Halley missions (36.010DL and 36.017DL).

  7. Estimating waste transfer station delays using GPS. (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce Gordon; Vincent, Julie K


    This paper examines the use of on-board global positioning system (GPS) data recorders as a method to collect field data on the movements of solid waste collection vehicles at transfer stations. The movements of five waste collection vehicles using four different transfer facilities were compared over a period of 1 year. The spatial data were analyzed using geofences to determine the amount of time each truck spent on each of four activities: queuing for access to the weigh scale, sitting on the weigh scale, queuing for access to the tipping floor, and unloading waste. The study found that queuing delays can be identified and measured using GPS data. The average time at a facility for all trucks was 16.4 min per visit, with a standard deviation of 14.3 min. Time at the facility ranged between 2 and 111 min per visit and the distribution of time at the facility was positively skewed. Multi-compartment vehicles (co-collection and recycling trucks) spent significantly more time at unloading facilities. There were also significant differences in the length and the location of the queues at different facilities. At one facility, the longest delays were encountered while waiting for the weigh scale, at two facilities trucks experienced delays in obtaining access to the tipping floor, while at the fourth facility no significant delays developed.

  8. Illustration of Ares I Launch Vehicle With Call Outs (United States)


    Named for the Greek god associated with Mars, the NASA developed Ares launch vehicles will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. This is an illustration of the Ares I with call outs. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to the primary mission of carrying crews of four to six astronauts to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station, or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Ares I employs a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine derived from the J-2 engine used on the Apollo second stage will power the Ares I second stage. The Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. Ares I is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of January 2007.

  9. Waste Facilities (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  10. Fabrication Facilities (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: One Vehicle, Many Destinations (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will start its missions in 2017 with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. This paper will explore the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions. It will explain how the SLS Program is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and developing advanced technology based on heritage systems, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability. It will also detail the significant progress that has already been made toward its first launch in 2017. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they will need for extended trips to explore new frontiers. In addition, this paper will summarize the SLS rocket's capability to support science and robotic precursor missions to other worlds, or uniquely high-mass space facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global

  12. Wallops Low Elevation Link Analysis for the Constellation Launch/Ascent Links (United States)

    Cheung, Keith; Ho, C.; Kantak, A.; Lee, C.; Tye, R.; Richards, E.; Sham, C.; Schlesinger, A.; Barritt, B.


    To execute the President's Vision for Space Exploration, the Constellation Program (CxP) was formed to build the next generation spacecraft Orion and launch vehicles Ares, to transport human and cargo to International Space Station (ISS), moon, and Mars. This paper focuses on the detailed link analysis for Orion/Ares s launch and ascent links with Wallops 11.3m antenna (1) Orion's Dissimilar Voice link: 10.24 Kbps, 2-way (2) Ares Developmental Flight Instrument link, 20 Mbps, downlink. Three launch trajectories are considered: TD7-E, F (Feb), and G (Aug). In certain launch scenarios, the critical events of main engine cutoff (MECO) and Separation occur during the low elevation regime of WFF s downrange -- less than 5 degree elevation angle. The goal of the study is to access if there is enough link margins for WFF to track the DV and DFI links.

  13. Amtrak Rail Stations (National) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  14. Cooperative Station History Forms (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  15. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Reagan, S. E.; Lehman, J. R.; Frazier, N. C.


    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400degC. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  16. National Security Space Launch at a Crossroads (United States)


    Hawthorne , CA), the primary new entrant in the NSS launch community, is now certified to provide some NSS space launches. SpaceX plans to develop more...interface, support systems, mission integration (includes mission unique requirements), flight instrumentation and range interfaces, special studies ...5 In response, DOD recognized the need to again reorganize the way it acquired launch services. Additional studies and internal reviews evaluated

  17. Launch pad lightning protection effectiveness (United States)

    Stahmann, James R.


    Using the striking distance theory that lightning leaders will strike the nearest grounded point on their last jump to earth corresponding to the striking distance, the probability of striking a point on a structure in the presence of other points can be estimated. The lightning strokes are divided into deciles having an average peak current and striking distance. The striking distances are used as radii from the points to generate windows of approach through which the leader must pass to reach a designated point. The projections of the windows on a horizontal plane as they are rotated through all possible angles of approach define an area that can be multiplied by the decile stroke density to arrive at the probability of strokes with the window average striking distance. The sum of all decile probabilities gives the cumulative probability for all strokes. The techniques can be applied to NASA-Kennedy launch pad structures to estimate the lightning protection effectiveness for the crane, gaseous oxygen vent arm, and other points. Streamers from sharp points on the structure provide protection for surfaces having large radii of curvature. The effects of nearby structures can also be estimated.

  18. SIRIO small earth station operation in Beijing (United States)

    Berardi, V.; Fabiano, L.; Jing, Y.; Kuang, Z.; Wang, J.

    The main characteristics are described for the small earth station installed at Beijing to permit joint experimentation through the SIRIO satellite. The experimental facilities and data acquisition system are illustrated, including the transmitter/receiver, digitally controlled SCPC communication and thermal control sybsystem, from both the electrical and mechanical viewpoints. The measurement layout of the system includes a 1200 bps modem, two controllers (HP9845B and HP 85F), a DVM, relay actuator, chart recorder, and two counters. RS-232C and IEEE-488 links are used. Station environmental conditions, EIRP, G/T and other specifics are noted.

  19. Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator (United States)

    Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.


    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that

  20. The Launch Processing System for Space Shuttle. (United States)

    Springer, D. A.


    In order to reduce costs and accelerate vehicle turnaround, a single automated system will be developed to support shuttle launch site operations, replacing a multiplicity of systems used in previous programs. The Launch Processing System will provide real-time control, data analysis, and information display for the checkout, servicing, launch, landing, and refurbishment of the launch vehicles, payloads, and all ground support systems. It will also provide real-time and historical data retrieval for management and sustaining engineering (test records and procedures, logistics, configuration control, scheduling, etc.).

  1. STS-121: Discovery Launch Postponement MMT Briefing (United States)


    Bruce Buckingham from NASA Public Affairs introduces the panel who consist of: John Shannon, MMT chairman JSC; Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director; and 1st Lieutenant Kaleb Nordren, USAF 45th Weather Squadron. An opening statement is given from John Shannon on the postponement of the launch due to thunderstorms. Mike Leinbach also elaborates on the weather and talks about scrubbing two hours early, draining the vehicle, and reloading the hydrogen for the fuel cells for a possible launch attempt on Tuesday morning. Norden gives his weather forecast for Tuesday and Wednesday. Questions from the media on launch attempts, weather, and the cost of the scrub are addressed.

  2. Now calling at the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    On 31 July, an unmanned Russian Progress spacecraft was launched from the desert steppe of Kazakhstan. Its destination: the International Space Station (ISS). On board: five Timepix detectors developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration.   With the Timepix on board, Progress 48 was launched 31 July from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Source: RSC Energia. Timepix detectors are small, USB powered particle trackers based on Medipix2 technology. The Timepix chip, which was developed at CERN, is coupled to a silicon sensor and incorporated into a minature readout system - developed at IEAP, Prague - which is about the size of a USB pen drive. These systems have been used across a variety of disciplines: from the study of cosmic rays to biomedical imaging. Now on board the ISS, they are providing highly accurate measurements of space radiation for dosimetry purposes. “There’s nothing else in the world that has quite the capability of Timepix detectors to ...

  3. NASA Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.


    Exploration Coordination Group, which represents 14 of the world's space agencies. In addition, this paper will detail this new rocket's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS Program is currently building a global infrastructure asset that will provide robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

  4. Illustration of Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles (United States)


    Named for the Greek god associated with Mars, the NASA developed Ares launch vehicles will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. In this early illustration, the vehicle depicted on the left is the Ares I. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to its primary mission of carrying four to six member crews to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS), or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. The Ares I employs a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine derived from the J-2 engine used on the second stage of the Apollo vehicle will power the Ares V second stage. The Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. The vehicle illustrated on the right is the Ares V, a heavy lift launch vehicle that will use five RS-68 liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engines mounted below a larger version of the space shuttle external tank, and two five-segment solid propellant rocket boosters for the first stage. The upper stage will use the same J-2X engine as the Ares I. The Ares V can lift more than 286,000 pounds to low Earth orbit and stands approximately 360 feet tall. This versatile system will be used to carry cargo and the components into orbit needed to go to the moon and later to Mars. Both vehicles are subject to configuration changes before they are actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of September 2006.

  5. MISS- Mice on International Space Station (United States)

    Falcetti, G. C.; Schiller, P.


    The use of rodents for scientific research to bridge the gap between cellular biology and human physiology is a new challenge within the history of successful developments of biological facilities. The ESA funded MISS Phase A/B study is aimed at developing a design concept for an animal holding facility able to support experimentation with mice on board the International Space Station (ISS).The MISS facility is composed of two main parts:1. The MISS Rack to perform scientific experiments onboard the ISS.2. The MISS Animals Transport Container (ATC) totransport animals from ground to orbit and vice- versa.The MISS facility design takes into account guidelines and recommendations used for mice well-being in ground laboratories. A summary of the MISS Rack and MISS ATC design concept is hereafter provided.

  6. Fluid Physics Research on the International Space Station (United States)

    Corban, Robert


    This document is a presentation in viewgraph format which reviews the laboratory facilities and their construction for the International Space Station(ISS). Graphic displays of the ISS are included, with special interest in the facilities available on the US Destiny module and other modules which will be used in the study of fluid physics on the ISS. There are also pictures and descriptions of various components of the Fluids and Combustion Facility.

  7. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul


    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  8. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia (United States)


    274 MALAYSIA SINGAPORE APRT 486940 8505 (OCDS) ................................................... 278 NORTH KOREA CHANGJON/ONSEIRI 470610 6809 (CB...526 BURSA 171160 8709 (OCDS) ................................................... 528 CIGLI/IZMIR 172180...SUMMARY * STATION: SINGAPORE AIRPORT, MALAYSIA STATION #: 486940 ICAO ID: WSSS LOCATION: 01022N, 10400E ELEVATION (FEET): 21 LST - GMT +8 PREPARED BY

  9. "Inventive" Learning Stations (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga


    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  10. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  11. Benefits of International Collaboration on the International Space Station (United States)

    Hasbrook, Pete; Robinson, Julie A.; Brown Tate, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; De Parolis, Lina; Hatton, Jason; Umezawa, Kazuo; Shirakawa, Masaki; hide


    The International Space Station is a valuable platform for research in space, but the benefits are limited if research is only conducted by individual countries. Through the efforts of the ISS Program Science Forum, international science working groups, and interagency cooperation, international collaboration on the ISS has expanded as ISS utilization has matured. Members of science teams benefit from working with counterparts in other countries. Scientists and institutions bring years of experience and specialized expertise to collaborative investigations, leading to new perspectives and approaches to scientific challenges. Combining new ideas and historical results brings synergy and improved peer-reviewed scientific methods and results. World-class research facilities can be expensive and logistically complicated, jeopardizing their full utilization. Experiments that would be prohibitively expensive for a single country can be achieved through contributions of resources from two or more countries, such as crew time, up- and downmass, and experiment hardware. Cooperation also avoids duplication of experiments and hardware among agencies. Biomedical experiments can be completed earlier if astronauts or cosmonauts from multiple agencies participate. Countries responding to natural disasters benefit from ISS imagery assets, even if the country has no space agency of its own. Students around the world participate in ISS educational opportunities, and work with students in other countries, through open curriculum packages and through international competitions. Even experiments conducted by a single country can benefit scientists around the world, through specimen sharing programs and publicly accessible "open data" repositories. For ISS data, these repositories include GeneLab and the Physical Science Informatics System. Scientists can conduct new research using ISS data without having to launch and execute their own experiments. Multilateral collections of research

  12. Integrating Wind Profiling Radars and Radiosonde Observations with Model Point Data to Develop a Decision Support Tool to Assess Upper-Level Winds for Space Launch (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Flinn, Clay


    On the day-of-launch, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers to include NASA's Launch Services Program and NASA's Ground Systems Development and Operations Program. They currently do not have the capability to display and overlay profiles of upper-level observations and numerical weather prediction model forecasts. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool in the form of a graphical user interface (GUI) that will allow them to plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50 MHz tropospheric wind profiling radar, KSC Shuttle Landing Facility 915 MHz boundary layer wind profiling radar and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Automated Meteorological Processing System (AMPS) radiosondes, and then overlay forecast wind profiles from the model point data including the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model, Rapid Refresh (RAP) model and Global Forecast System (GFS) model to assess the performance of these models. The AMU developed an Excel-based tool that provides an objective method for the LWOs to compare the model-forecast upper-level winds to the KSC wind profiling radars and CCAFS AMPS observations to assess the model potential to accurately forecast changes in the upperlevel profile through the launch count. The AMU wrote Excel Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts to automatically retrieve model point data for CCAFS (XMR) from the Iowa State University Archive Data Server ( and the 50 MHz, 915 MHz and AMPS observations from the NASA/KSC Spaceport Weather Data Archive web site ( The AMU then developed code in Excel VBA to automatically ingest and format the observations and model point data in Excel to ready the data for generating Excel charts for the LWO's. The resulting charts allow the LWOs to independently initialize the three models 0

  13. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... penetration of wind power is present, is considered as special case. The distribution grid in Denmark is built using larger secondary distribution transformers (e.g. 630 kVA) which in general allows higher flexibility for the installation of Central Stations, compared to Bornholm’s distribution grid...... kWh battery-EV is not feasible in Bornholm at the 0.4 kV level, due to predominantly small size secondary distribution transformers, in the range of 100 - 200 kVA. This is possible at the 10kV level (MV level), if the Fast Charging station is equipped with its own dedicated transformer. With DC...

  14. [STEM on Station Education (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen


    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  15. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  16. A Geometric Analysis to Protect Manned Assets from Newly Launched Objects - COLA Gap Analysis (United States)

    Hametz, Mark E.; Beaver, Brian A.


    A safety risk was identified for the International Space Station (ISS) by The Aerospace Corporation following the launch of GPS IIR-20 (March 24, 2009), when the spent upper stage of the launch vehicle unexpectedly crossed inside the ISS notification box shortly after launch. This event highlighted a 56-hour vulnerability period following the end of the launch Collision Avoidance (COLA) process where the ISS would be unable to react to a conjunction with a newly launched object. Current launch COLA processes screen each launched object across the launch window to determine if an object's nominal trajectory is predicted to pass within 200 km of the ISS (or any other manned/mannable object), resulting in a launch time closure. These launch COLA screens are performed from launch through separation plus I 00 minutes. Once the objects are in orbit, they are cataloged and evaluated as part of routine on-orbit conjunction assessment processes. However, as the GPS IIR-20 scenario illustrated, there is a vulnerability period in the time line between the end of launch COLA coverage and the beginning of standard on-orbit COLA assessment activities. The gap between existing launch and on-orbit COLA processes is driven by the time it takes to track and catalog a launched object, identify a conjunction, and plan and execute a collision avoidance maneuver. For the ISS, the total time required to accomplish an of these steps is 56 hours. To protect human lives, NASA/JSC has requested that an US launches take additional steps to protect the ISS during this "COLA gap" period. The uncertainty in the state of a spent upper stage can be quite large after all bums are complete and all remaining propellants are expelled to safe the stage. Simply extending the launch COLA process an additional 56 hours is not a viable option as the 3-sigma position uncertainty will far exceed the 200 km miss-distance criterion. Additionally, performing a probability of collision (Pc) analysis over this

  17. Vented Launch Vehicle Adaptor for a Manned Spacecraft with "Pusher" Launch Abort System (United States)

    Vandervort, Robert E. (Inventor)


    A system, method, and apparatus for a vented launch vehicle adaptor (LVA) for a manned spacecraft with a "pusher" launch abort system are disclosed. The disclosed LVA provides a structural interface between a commercial crew vehicle (CCV) crew module/service module (CM/SM) spacecraft and an expendable launch vehicle. The LVA provides structural attachment of the module to the launch vehicle. It also provides a means to control the exhaust plume from a pusher-type launch abort system that is integrated into the module. In case of an on-pad or ascent abort, which requires the module to jettison away from the launch vehicle, the launch abort system exhaust plume must be safely directed away from critical and dangerous portions of the launch vehicle in order to achieve a safe and successful jettison.

  18. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  19. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min


    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  20. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail systems... boardings exceed average station passenger boardings on the rail system by at least fifteen percent, unless...

  1. 78 FR 71675 - License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (United States)


    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, located in Windham County, VT... proposed amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station...

  2. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... Operations Inc. (the licensee), the operator of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). Renewed facility... Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station,'' dated July 2007 (ADAMS Accession Nos...

  3. Refinements in the Design of the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle for NASA's, Exploration Strategy (United States)

    Creech, Steve


    NASA is developing a new launch vehicle fleet to fulfill the national goals of replacing the shuttle fleet, completing the International Space Station (ISS), and exploring the Moon on the way to eventual exploration of Mars and beyond. Programmatic and technical decisions during early architecture studies and subsequent design activities were focused on safe, reliable operationally efficient vehicles that could support a sustainable exploration program. A pair of launch vehicles was selected to support those goals the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. They will be the first new human-rated launch vehicles developed by NASA in more than 30 years (Figure 1). Ares I will be the first to fly, beginning space station ferry operations no later than 2015. It will be able to carry up to six astronauts to ISS or support up to four astronauts for expeditions to the moon. Ares V is scheduled to be operational in the 2020 timeframe and will provide the propulsion systems and payload to truly extend human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. (LEO).

  4. International Launch Vehicle Selection for Interplanetary Travel (United States)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Nguyen, Lori T.


    In developing a mission strategy for interplanetary travel, the first step is to consider launch capabilities which provide the basis for fundamental parameters of the mission. This investigation focuses on the numerous launch vehicles of various characteristics available and in development internationally with respect to upmass, launch site, payload shroud size, fuel type, cost, and launch frequency. This presentation will describe launch vehicles available and in development worldwide, then carefully detail a selection process for choosing appropriate vehicles for interplanetary missions focusing on international collaboration, risk management, and minimization of cost. The vehicles that fit the established criteria will be discussed in detail with emphasis on the specifications and limitations related to interplanetary travel. The final menu of options will include recommendations for overall mission design and strategy.

  5. The US Space Station programme (United States)

    Hodge, J. D.


    The Manned Space Station (MSS) involves NASA, and other countries, in the operation, maintenance and expansion of a permanent space facility. The extensive use of automation and robotics will advance those fields, and experimentation will be carried out in scientific and potentially commercial projects. The MSS will provide a base for astronomical observations, spacecraft assembly, refurbishment and repair, transportation intersection, staging for interplanetary exploration, and storage. Finally, MSS operations will be performed semi-autonomously from ground control. Phase B analysis is nearing completion, and precedes hardware development. Studies are being performed on generic advanced technologies which can reliably and flexibly be incorporated into the MSS, such as attitude control and stabilization, power, thermal, environmental and life support control, auxiliary propulsion, data management, etc. Guidelines are also being formulated regarding the areas of participation by other nations.

  6. Launch Site Computer Simulation and its Application to Processes (United States)

    Sham, Michael D.


    This paper provides an overview of computer simulation, the Lockheed developed STS Processing Model, and the application of computer simulation to a wide range of processes. The STS Processing Model is an icon driven model that uses commercial off the shelf software and a Macintosh personal computer. While it usually takes one year to process and launch 8 space shuttles, with the STS Processing Model this process is computer simulated in about 5 minutes. Facilities, orbiters, or ground support equipment can be added or deleted and the impact on launch rate, facility utilization, or other factors measured as desired. This same computer simulation technology can be used to simulate manufacturing, engineering, commercial, or business processes. The technology does not require an 'army' of software engineers to develop and operate, but instead can be used by the layman with only a minimal amount of training. Instead of making changes to a process and realizing the results after the fact, with computer simulation, changes can be made and processes perfected before they are implemented.

  7. Artificial intelligence - NASA. [robotics for Space Station (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.


    Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents a vital common space support element needed to enable the civil space program and commercial space program to perform their missions successfully. It is pointed out that advances in AI stimulated by the Space Station Program could benefit the U.S. in many ways. A fundamental challenge for the civil space program is to meet the needs of the customers and users of space with facilities enabling maximum productivity and having low start-up costs, and low annual operating costs. An effective way to meet this challenge may involve a man-machine system in which artificial intelligence, robotics, and advanced automation are integrated into high reliability organizations. Attention is given to the benefits, NASA strategy for AI, candidate space station systems, the Space Station as a stepping stone, and the commercialization of space.

  8. The space station integrated refuse management system (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.


    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  9. SEDSAT-1 is attached to Delta II rocket launching Deep Space 1 (United States)


    Attached to the second stage of a Boeing Delta II at Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, is the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space Satellite-1 (SEDSat-1). An international project, SEDSat-1 is a secondary payload on the Deep Space 1 mission and will be deployed 88 minutes after launch over Hawaii. The satellite includes cameras for imaging Earth, a unique attitude determination system, and amateur radio communication capabilities. Deep Space 1, targeted for launch on Oct. 24, is the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program and is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century.

  10. Secondary Launch Services and Payload Hosting Aboard the Falcon and Dragon Product Lines


    Doud, Dustin; Bjelde, Brian; Melbostad, Christian; Dreyer, Lauren


    SpaceX is committed to revolutionizing access to space for the small-satellite community. With over 40 missions on our manifest, Falcon 9 is poised to become the industry workhorse for space launch services. The Dragon spacecraft, developed in part to resupply the International Space Station, is capable of hosting missions for up to 2 years on orbit. In short, SpaceX offers highly reliable, cost-effective launch services and payload hosting opportunities. This paper defines the company’s seco...

  11. Turbulence Effects on the High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics of a Vertically Launched Missile (United States)


    Knoche , 1.6., High Incidence Aerody-namics of M~issiles During Launch Phase, NMBB GMNBI-I Report UA-523 80, Januarv 1980. 3. Roane. Donald P., The Effect...Balance. Balance Calibration Laborator\\. NASA-Ames Research Facility, July 1987. 413. Aiello. Gennaro f. and Bateman. Michael C.. .1crod~womic Szabiiic

  12. 75 FR 73964 - Safety Zone; USS Fort Worth Launch, Marinette, WI (United States)


    ... determined that the launching of the USS Fort Worth does pose significant risks to public safety and property... Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room... rule, contact or e-mail BM1 Adam Kraft, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Lake Michigan, at 414-747-7154 or Adam...

  13. International Space Station technology demonstrations (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.


    The International Space Station (ISS) has the capability to test and demonstrate, and otherwise assist in the development and validation, of a wide range of advanced technologies. Technology tests and demonstrations for advanced communication systems, closed-loop environmental control systems, advanced power storage and generation systems, advanced electric and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and others are being assessed for inclusion in an ISS Pre-Planned Program Improvement (P3I), Technology/Improvement Roadmap. The P3I roadmap is an integrated set of technology and improvement requirements for: (1) ISS subsystem upgrades and improvements (addressing maintenance, logistics, sustainability, and enhancement functions), (2) payload hardware technology infusion, (3) ISS/Exploration technology development and tests (dual use/benefits), and (4) Engineering Research and Technology payloads. As examples of the International Space Station's technology testbed capabilities, implementation approaches for three types of propulsion technology demonstrations and research are described: (1) electric and electromagnetic propulsion technologies and systems (NASA Lewis Research Center), (2) technologies and sub-systems for a variable specific impulse (Isp), magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), (Advanced Propulsion Lab, Sonny Carter Training Facility, Houston, Tx), and (3) candidates for innovative, deep space propulsion technology research and demonstrations (projections based on NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, Propulsion Research and other R.&D activities.).

  14. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1 (United States)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo


    Orion Program has tested a number of the critical systems of the Orion spacecraft on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. A number of flight tests have been conducted and are planned to demonstrate the performance and enable certification of the Orion Spacecraft. Exploration Flight Test 1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. Orion's first flight was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety, such as heat shield performance, separation events, avionics and software performance, attitude control and guidance, parachute deployment and recovery operations. One of the key separation events tested during this flight was the nominal jettison of the LAS. Data from this flight will be used to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. The LAS nominal jettison event on Exploration Flight Test 1 occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff (See Fig. 3). The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. A suite of developmental flight instrumentation was included on the flight test to provide data on spacecraft subsystems and separation events. This paper will focus on the flight test objectives and performance of the LAS during ascent and nominal jettison. Selected LAS subsystem flight test data will be presented and discussed in the paper. Exploration Flight Test -1 will provide critical data that will enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test

  15. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian


    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  16. Air Data Boom System Development for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment (United States)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Cox, Jeff; Bondurant, Robert; Dupont, Ron; ODonnell, Louise; Vellines, Wesley, IV; Johnston, William M.; Cagle, Christopher M.; Schuster, David M.; Elliott, Kenny B.; hide


    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale and passively, aerodynamically stabilized MLAS launch abort demonstrator was successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility following nearly two years of development work on the launch abort concept: from a napkin sketch to a flight demonstration of the full-scale flight test vehicle. The MLAS flight test vehicle was instrumented with a suite of aerodynamic sensors. The purpose was to obtain sufficient data to demonstrate that the vehicle demonstrated the behavior predicted by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and wind tunnel testing. This paper describes development of the Air Data Boom (ADB) component of the aerodynamic sensor suite.

  17. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities (United States)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Hughes, Mark S.


    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition systems (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis development and deployment.

  18. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow


    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  19. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station. (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Schulte, Wolfgang; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Demets, René; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer


    On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR) experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center), according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status) or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data). In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  20. Characterizing Epistemic Uncertainty for Launch Vehicle Designs (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Rogers, Jim; Hark, Frank; Al Hassan, Mohammad


    NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has the task of estimating the aleatory (randomness) and epistemic (lack of knowledge) uncertainty of launch vehicle loss of mission and crew risk and communicating the results. Launch vehicles are complex engineered systems designed with sophisticated subsystems that are built to work together to accomplish mission success. Some of these systems or subsystems are in the form of heritage equipment, while some have never been previously launched. For these cases, characterizing the epistemic uncertainty is of foremost importance, and it is anticipated that the epistemic uncertainty of a modified launch vehicle design versus a design of well understood heritage equipment would be greater. For reasons that will be discussed, standard uncertainty propagation methods using Monte Carlo simulation produce counter intuitive results and significantly underestimate epistemic uncertainty for launch vehicle models. Furthermore, standard PRA methods such as Uncertainty-Importance analyses used to identify components that are significant contributors to uncertainty are rendered obsolete since sensitivity to uncertainty changes are not reflected in propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo methods.This paper provides a basis of the uncertainty underestimation for complex systems and especially, due to nuances of launch vehicle logic, for launch vehicles. It then suggests several alternative methods for estimating uncertainty and provides examples of estimation results. Lastly, the paper shows how to implement an Uncertainty-Importance analysis using one alternative approach, describes the results, and suggests ways to reduce epistemic uncertainty by focusing on additional data or testing of selected components.

  1. TV Analog Station Transmitters (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  2. ASOS Station Photos (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  3. Signal Station Inspection Reports (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  4. Active Marine Station Metadata (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  5. Master Station History Report (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  6. Materials Test Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  7. USRCRN Station Information (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  8. Station Management Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  9. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  10. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  11. Mukilteo Research Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  12. Maine Field Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  13. Routes and Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  14. Public Transit Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  15. FEMA DFIRM Station Start (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  16. Tabletop Experimental Track for Magnetic Launch Assist (United States)


    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  17. Space Station galley design (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.


    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  18. Enhanced Master Station History Report (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  19. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  20. Bagasse-fired steam boiler station for Kenana Sugar in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The equipment and operation of the bagasse fired steam boiler station of the Kenana Sugar factory in Sudan are described. The station consists of six bagasse-fired, steam boilers with individual capacities of 113 tonnes per hour which provide steam for a 40 MN power station. During the off-season it serves as a regional power station which also operates irrigation facilities to the cane fields. The bagasse handling and feeding system is also described.

  1. Hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.N.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.


    A technical and economic assessment is being conducted of a hydrogen fuel dispensing station to develop an understanding of the infrastructure requirements for supplying hydrogen fuel for mobile applications. The study includes a process design of a conceptual small-scale, stand-alone, grassroots fuel dispensing facility (similar to the present-day gasoline stations) producing hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas. Other hydrogen production processes (such as partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and water electrolysis) were reviewed to determine their suitability for manufacturing the hydrogen. The study includes an assessment of the environmental and other regulatory permitting requirements likely to be imposed on a hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles. The assessment concludes that a dispensing station designed to produce 0.75 million standard cubic feet of fuel grade (99.99%+ purity) hydrogen will meet the fuel needs of 300 light-duty vehicles per day. Preliminary economics place the total capital investment (in 1994 US dollars) for the dispensing station at $4.5 million and the annual operating costs at around $1 million. A discounted cash-flow analysis indicates that the fuel hydrogen product price (excluding taxes) to range between $1.37 to $2.31 per pound of hydrogen, depending upon the natural gas price, the plant financing scenario, and the rate of return on equity capital. A report on the assessment is due in June 1995. This paper presents a summary of the current status of the assessment.

  2. The Importance of the International Space Station for Life Sciences Research: Past and Future (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Evans, C. A.; Tate, Judy


    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations, it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence in November 2000. Since that time, science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. To date, early utilization of the U.S. Operating Segment of ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting U.S. and international partner research. This paper will summarize the life science accomplishments of early research aboard the ISS both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities (both pressurized and external) will be tripled, with multiple scientific modules that support a wide variety of research racks and science and technology experiments conducted by all of the International Partners. A milestone was reached in February 2008 with the launch and commissioning of ESA s Columbus module and in March of 2008 with the first of three components of the Japanese Kibo laboratory. Although challenges lie ahead, the realization of the international scientific partnership provides new opportunities for scientific collaboration and broadens the research disciplines engaged on ISS. As the ISS nears completion of assembly in 2010, we come to full international utilization of the facilities for research. Using the past as an indicator, we are now able to envision the multidisciplinary contributions to improving life on Earth that the ISS can make as a platform for life sciences research.

  3. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, S. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K.; ; Buccellato, S. A. [Fermilab; Crowley, C. F. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. D. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Kasper, P. [Fermilab; Krafczyk, G. E. [Fermilab; Lee, A. [Fermilab; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Reitzner, S. D. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stefanik, A. M. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab; Vaziri, K. [Fermilab; Williams, K. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Densham, C. [RAL, Didcot


    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-filled decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The target and horns are encased in actively cooled steel and concrete shielding in a chamber called the target chase. The reference design chase is filled with air, but nitrogen and helium are being evaluated as alternatives. A replaceable beam window separates the decay pipe from the target chase. The facility is designed for initial operation at 1.2 MW, with the ability to upgrade to 2.4 MW, and is taking advantage of the experience gained by operating Fermilab’s NuMI facility. We discuss here the design status, associated challenges, and ongoing R&D and physics-driven component optimization of the Target Station.

  4. Visits Service Launches New Seminar Series

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Visits Service is launching a new series of seminars for guides, and they are open to everyone. The series kicks off next week with a talk by Konrad Elsener on the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso, CNGS, project.

  5. Minimum Cost Nanosatellite Launch System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion...

  6. Metric Tracking of Launch Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs reliable, accurate navigation for launch vehicles and other missions. GPS is the best world-wide navigation system, but operates at low power making it...

  7. GPS Attitude Determination for Launch Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a family of compact, low-cost GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensors for launch vehicles. In order to obtain 3-D attitude...

  8. STS-104 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station (United States)


    This International Space Station (ISS) image was taken by the STS-104 crew during a fly-around inspection of the ISS after the installment of the Joint Airlock. The inspection occurred shortly after the orbiter Atlantis undocked from the ISS. The Canadarm2, or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), appears to be pointed toward the newly-installed airlock on the station's starboard side. The STS-104 mission marked the completion of the second phase of the station assembly. Since the begirning in July of 2000, 77 tons of hardware have been added to the complex, including the Russian Zvezda Module, the Z1 Truss Assembly, the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3, the P6 Truss and its 240-foot long solar arrays, the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, the Canadarm2, and finally the Quest Airlock. The launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-104 mission, occurred on July 21, 2001.

  9. STS-111 Onboard Photo of the International Space Station (United States)


    Backdropped against the blackness of space is the International Space Station (ISS), as viewed from the approching Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission, in June 2002. Expedition Five replaced Expedition Four crew after remaining a record-setting 196 days in space. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish the delivery and installation of the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System (MBS), an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System that allows the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station, which is necessary for future construction tasks; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm, and the task of unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  10. NASA Manned Launch Vehicle Lightning Protection Development (United States)

    McCollum, Matthew B.; Jones, Steven R.; Mack, Jonathan D.


    Historically, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) relied heavily on lightning avoidance to protect launch vehicles and crew from lightning effects. As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle to the new Constellation family of launch vehicles and spacecraft, NASA engineers are imposing design and construction standards on the spacecraft and launch vehicles to withstand both the direct and indirect effects of lightning. A review of current Space Shuttle lightning constraints and protection methodology will be presented, as well as a historical review of Space Shuttle lightning requirements and design. The Space Shuttle lightning requirements document, NSTS 07636, Lightning Protection, Test and Analysis Requirements, (originally published as document number JSC 07636, Lightning Protection Criteria Document) was developed in response to the Apollo 12 lightning event and other experiences with NASA and the Department of Defense launch vehicles. This document defined the lightning environment, vehicle protection requirements, and design guidelines for meeting the requirements. The criteria developed in JSC 07636 were a precursor to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) lightning standards. These SAE standards, along with Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-160, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment, are the basis for the current Constellation lightning design requirements. The development and derivation of these requirements will be presented. As budget and schedule constraints hampered lightning protection design and verification efforts, the Space Shuttle elements waived the design requirements and relied on lightning avoidance in the form of launch commit criteria (LCC) constraints and a catenary wire system for lightning protection at the launch pads. A better understanding of the lightning environment has highlighted the vulnerability of the protection schemes and associated risk to the vehicle

  11. Apollo 15 Pre-Launch Chat (United States)


    During the Apollo 15 pre-launch activity in the launch control center's firing room 1 at Kennedy Space Center, the then recently appointed NASA Administrator, Dr. James C. Fletcher (right) speaks with (Left to right) William Anders, executive secretary of the National Aeronautics and Space Council; Lt. General Sam Phillips, former Apollo Program Director; and Dr. Wernher von Braun, NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for planning.

  12. Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.


    This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.

  13. Comparison of Two Recent Launch Abort Platforms (United States)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Harding, Adam


    The development of new and safer manned space vehicles is a top priority at NASA. Recently two different approaches of how to accomplish this mission of keeping astronauts safe was successfully demonstrated. With work already underway on an Apollo-like launch abort system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), an alternative design concept named the Max Launch Abort System, or MLAS, was developed as a parallel effort. The Orion system, managed by the Constellation office, is based on the design of a single solid launch abort motor in a tower positioned above the capsule. The MLAS design takes a different approach placing the solid launch abort motor underneath the capsule. This effort was led by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). Both escape systems were designed with the Ares I Rocket as the launch vehicle and had the same primary requirement to safely propel a crew module away from any emergency event either on the launch pad or during accent. Beyond these two parameters, there was little else in common between the two projects, except that they both concluded in successful launches that will further promote the development of crew launch abort systems. A comparison of these projects from the standpoint of technical requirements; program management and flight test objectives will be done to highlight the synergistic lessons learned by two engineers who worked on each program. This comparison will demonstrate how the scope of the project architecture and management involvement in innovation should be tailored to meet the specific needs of the system under development.

  14. Former astronaut Armstrong witnesses STS-83 launch (United States)


    Apollo l1 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  15. The RSS rolls back revealing STS-102 Discovery on Launch Pad 39B (United States)


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Workers watch the rollback of the Rotating Service Structure (left) from around Space Shuttle Discovery on Launch Pad 39B. Poised above the orange external tank is the Gaseous Oxygen Vent Arm with the '''beanie cap,''' a vent hood. The RSS provides protected access to the orbiter for changeout and servicing of payloads. It is supported by a rotating bridge that pivots about a vertical axis on the west side of the pad'''s flame trench. Space Shuttle Discovery is scheduled to launch March 8 at 6:42 a.m. EST on the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station. It carries the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo, the primary delivery system used to resupply and return Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Leonardo will deliver up to 10 tons of laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments and supplies for outfitting the newly installed U.S. Laboratory Destiny.

  16. Retrieval of surface heat and moisture fluxes from slow-launched radiosondes (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Cooper, Harry J.; Crosson, William L.; Delorey, Donald D.


    A feasibility experiment to determine whether the Bowden ratio (and indirectly moisture fluxes and surface heat) can be reasonably and accurately derived from thermodynamic measurements obtained from balloon-launched radiosondes is presented. This experiment was conducted during July 1988 in Tallahassee, Florida using an airsonde system and a surface radiation and energy budget station. The airsonde system consists of a balloon-launched airsonde, which measures vertical profiles of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, temperature, and an automatic data acquisition system, which receives and records sensor output from the airsonde package. Intercomparisons were made between Bowen ratios derived from the airsonde profiles and the Bowen ratios measured directly by the energy budget station and the surface radiation.

  17. Bio-Medical Factors and External Hazards in Space Station Design (United States)

    Olling, Edward H.


    The design of space-station configurations is influenced by many factors, Probably the most demanding and critical are the biomedical and external hazards requirements imposed to provide the proper environment and supporting facilities for the crew and the adequate protective measures necessary to provide a configuration in which the crew can live and work efficiently in relative comfort and safety. The major biomedical factors, such as physiology, psychology, nutrition, personal hygiene, waste management, and recreation, all impose their own peculiar requirements. The commonality and integration of these requirements demand the utmost ingenuity and inventiveness be exercised in order to achieve effective configuration compliance. The relationship of biomedical factors for the internal space-station environment will be explored with respect to internal atmospheric constituency, atmospheric pressure levels, oxygen positive pressure, temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, and atmospheric contamination. The range of these various parameters and the recommended levels for design use will be analyzed. Requirements and criteria for specific problem areas such as zero and artificial gravity and crew private quarters will be reviewed and the impact on the design of representative solutions will be presented. In the areas of external hazards, the impact of factors such as meteoroids, radiation, vacuum, temperature extremes, and cycling on station design will be evaluated. Considerations with respect to operational effectiveness and crew safety will be discussed. The impact of such factors on spacecraft design to achieve acceptable launch and reentry g levels, crew rotation intervals, etc., will be reviewed. Examples of configurations, subsystems, and internal a arrangement and installations to comply with such biomedical factor requirements will ber presented. The effects of solutions to certain biomedical factors on configuration weight, operational convenience, and

  18. The International Space Station as a Research Laboratory: A View to 2010 and Beyond (United States)

    Uri, John J.; Sotomayor, Jorge L.


    Assembly of International Space Station (ISS) is expected to be complete in 2010, with operations planned to continue through at least 2016. As we move nearer to assembly complete, replanning activities by NASA and ISS International Partners have been completed and the final complement of research facilities on ISS is becoming more certain. This paper will review pans for facilities in the US On-orbit Segment of ISS, including contributions from International Partners, to provide a vision of the research capabilities that will be available starting in 2010. At present, in addition to research capabilities in the Russian segment, the United States Destiny research module houses nine research facilities or racks. These facilities include five multi-purpose EXPRESS racks, two Human Research Facility (HRF) racks, the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), and the Minus Eighty-degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI), enabling a wide range of exploration-related applied as well as basic research. In the coming years, additional racks will be launched to augment this robust capability: Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), Window Observation Rack Facility (WORF), Microgravity Science Research Rack (MSRR), Muscle Atrophy Research Exercise System (MARES), additional EXPRESS racks and possibly a second MELFI. In addition, EXPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELC) will provide attach points for external payloads. The European Space Agency s Columbus module will contain five research racks and provide four external attach sites. The research racks are Biolab, European Physiology Module (EPM), Fluid Science Lab (FSL), European Drawer System (EDS) and European Transport Carrier (ETC). The Japanese Kibo elements will initially support three research racks, Ryutai for fluid science, Saibo for cell science, and Kobairo for materials research, as well as 10 attachment sites for external payloads. As we look ahead to assembly complete, these new facilities represent

  19. Scaling laws in sand launch process (United States)

    Min, Li; Yang, Zhang


    As the bond linking the micro research to the macro research in wind-sand flow, the scaling laws on sand mean launch velocity and mean launch angle can be used to calculate the mean velocity and the transport rate, and they also play an important role in understanding saltation. However, universal scaling laws are still absent. In analogy to the fluid flows, the wind-sand flow is divided into three periods based on the way of sand taking off from sand bed, and the hypothesis on the scaling laws in each period is proposed. Then according to the hypothesis we deduce the sand concentration piece-wise function for saltation layer and also the critical shields numbers dividing three periods. The comparisons between the predictions and the experimental observations show that under a lower shields number the vertical mean launch velocity and the mean launch angle scale with the wind shear velocity and the square root of shields number respectively. However, under a higher shields number the vertical mean launch velocity scale with the sand diameter and the mean launch angle is almost constant at 700 or so.

  20. Overview of GX launch services by GALEX (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Kondou, Yoshirou


    Galaxy Express Corporation (GALEX) is a launch service company in Japan to develop a medium size rocket, GX rocket and to provide commercial launch services for medium/small low Earth orbit (LEO) and Sun synchronous orbit (SSO) payloads with a future potential for small geo-stationary transfer orbit (GTO). It is GALEX's view that small/medium LEO/SSO payloads compose of medium scaled but stable launch market due to the nature of the missions. GX rocket is a two-stage rocket of well flight proven liquid oxygen (LOX)/kerosene booster and LOX/liquid natural gas (LNG) upper stage. This LOX/LNG propulsion under development by Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is robust with comparable performance as other propulsions and have future potential for wider application such as exploration programs. GX rocket is being developed through a joint work between the industries and GX rocket is applying a business oriented approach in order to realize competitive launch services for which well flight proven hardware and necessary new technology are to be introduced as much as possible. It is GALEX's goal to offer “Easy Access to Space”, a highly reliable and user-friendly launch services with a competitive price. GX commercial launch will start in Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 2007 2008.

  1. Mammography Facilities (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  2. Canyon Facilities (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  3. Health Facilities (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grechukhin


    Full Text Available Bridges are considered as the most complicated, labour-consuming and expensive components in roadway network of the Republic of Belarus. So their construction and operation are to be carried out at high technological level. One of the modern industrial methods is a cyclic longitudinal launching of large frameworks which provide the possibility to reject usage of expensive auxiliary facilities and reduce a construction period. There are several variants of longitudinal launching according to shipping conditions and span length: without launching girder, with launching girder, with top strut-framed beam in the form of cable-stayed system, with strut-framed beam located under span. While using method for the cyclic longitudinal launching manufacturing process of span is concentrated on the shore. The main task of the investigations is to select economic, quick and technologically simple type of the cyclic longitudinal launching with minimum resource- and labour inputs. Span launching has been comparatively analyzed with temporary supports being specially constructed within the span and according to capital supports with the help of launching girder. Conclusions made on the basis of calculations for constructive elements of span according to bearing ability of element sections during launching and also during the process of reinforced concrete plate grouting and at the stage of operation have shown that span assembly with application of temporary supports does not reduce steel spread in comparison with the variant excluding them. Results of the conducted investigations have been approbated in cooperation with state enterprise “Belgiprodor” while designing a bridge across river Sozh.

  5. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing (United States)

    Clements, Greg


    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  6. The Soyuz launch vehicle the two lives of an engineering triumph

    CERN Document Server

    Lardier, Christian


    The Soyuz launch vehicle has had a long and illustrious history. Built as the world's first intercontinental missile, it took the first man into space in April 1961, before becoming the workhorse of Russian spaceflight, launching satellites, interplanetary probes, every cosmonaut from Gagarin onwards, and, now, the multinational crews of the International Space Station. This remarkable book gives a complete and accurate description of the two lives of Soyuz, chronicling the cooperative space endeavor of Europe and Russia. First, it takes us back to the early days of astronautics, when technology served politics. From archives found in the Soviet Union the authors describe the difficulty of designing a rocket in the immediate post-war period. Then, in Soyuz's golden age, it launched numerous scientific missions and manned flights which were publicized worldwide while the many more numerous military missions were kept highly confidential! The second part of the book tells the contemporary story of the second li...

  7. At Launch Pad 17-A, CCAS, tower rollback reveals the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust (United States)


    At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, as tower rollback begins, a Boeing Delta II rocket undergoes final preparations for launch. The targeted launch time is 4:06 p.m. EST. The Delta II rocket is carrying the Stardust spacecraft, destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon- based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  8. Temporal Wind Pairs for Space Launch Vehicle Capability Assessment and Risk Mitigation (United States)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.


    Space launch vehicles incorporate upper-level wind assessments to determine wind effects on the vehicle and for a commit to launch decision. These assessments make use of wind profiles measured hours prior to launch and may not represent the actual wind the vehicle will fly through. Uncertainty in the winds over the time period between the assessment and launch introduces uncertainty in assessment of vehicle controllability and structural integrity that must be accounted for to ensure launch safety. Temporal wind pairs are used in engineering development of allowances to mitigate uncertainty. Five sets of temporal wind pairs at various times (0.75, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4-hrs) at the United States Air Force Eastern Range and Western Range, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Wallops Flight Facility are developed for use in upper-level wind assessments on vehicle performance. Historical databases are compiled from balloon-based and vertically pointing Doppler radar wind profiler systems. Various automated and manual quality control procedures are used to remove unacceptable profiles. Statistical analyses on the resultant wind pairs from each site are performed to determine if the observed extreme wind changes in the sample pairs are representative of extreme temporal wind change. Wind change samples in the Eastern Range and Western Range databases characterize extreme wind change. However, the small sample sizes in the Wallops Flight Facility databases yield low confidence that the sample population characterizes extreme wind change that could occur.

  9. International space Launch Services Today, ILS (United States)

    Rymarcsuk, James A.; Haase, Ethan E.


    In the last five years the international space launch industry has undergone substantial change. New entrants and existing players in this market have introduced new and upgraded vehicles with greater lift capability than was available five years ago. In addition, some of these vehicles offer reduced risk from their predecessors thanks to design improvements and reductions in the number of failure points. The entry of these vehicles have generated greater supply, increased choice, and improved capabilities to the benefit of satellite operators and manufacturers. Some launch service providers have also enhanced the products and services they offer due to the increased competitiveness in the market. Although the number of commercial satellites launched per year has remained within a fairly narrow range in the last five years, expectations for the future that were once very optimistic have fallen dramatically. The significant number of commercial NGSO satellites launched in the late 1990s helped raise these expectations, but today, the predicted continued growth in launches due to NGSO and broadband systems has not materialized. Despite the decline in expectations from the late 1990s, however, the satellite market that the launch industry supports remains robust. Satellite operators maintain generally favorable financial positions, but the number of satellites required to provide services worldwide is growing slowly, with the number of new and replacement satellites launched per year remaining essentially flat. Satellite operators are undergoing consolidation that is rendering them stronger than ever, and putting them in a position to demand better service from their launch service providers. The increase in supply in the marketplace and the corresponding lack of growth in demand has led to a highly competitive marketplace for launch services internationally. ILS is well positioned with products and services to meet customer needs. Key customer buying factors include

  10. Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-96 (United States)


    On its perfect launch today, Space Shuttle Discovery's brilliant flames illuminate the tower at left, with the lightning mast on top, and the billows of smoke and steam at right. Liftoff into a gossamer dawn sky for mission STS-96 occurred at 6:49:42 a.m. EDT. The crew of seven begin a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  11. Proposal of New Triggered Lightning Launch Commit Criteria for Japan's Safety Rocket Launch (United States)

    Saito, Yasuhiro; Saito, Toshiya; Okita, Koichi


    Triggered lightning for rocket launch can cause the failure.The current Japanese criteria to postpone the launch opportunity is the thickness of cloud 1.8km with 0 -20 degrees Celsius. Of all H2A launches during these ten years, slipping launches have occurred over half of its flights. So, we have initiated a research on Triggered Lightning Launch Commit Criteria, two years ago.We present the overall activities with the observation campaign (RAIJIN*) in Feb/2012 and Jan-Feb/2013, by means of air-born field mill with airplane, X-band dual polarization radar, ground based field mill and Videosonde. Also, the analytical results and proposal of the new criteria will be shown.*) Raijin is originally a name for Thunder god in Japanese and here it stands for Rocket launch Atmospheric electricity Investigation by Jaxa IN cooperation with academia.

  12. The Biological Flight Research Facility (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.


    NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately thirty years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. Included in the facility are a service unit for providing clean chambers for the specimens and a glovebox for manipulating the plant and animal specimens and for performing experimental protocols. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

  13. Telephony Earth Station (United States)

    Morris, Adrian J.; Kay, Stan

    The Telephony Earth Station (TES), a digital full-mesh SCPC (single channel per carrier) system designed for satellite voice and data transmission is described. As compared to companded FM, the advanced speech compression and forward error correction techniques used by TES better achieve the quality, power, and bandwidth ideal for each application. In addition, the TES offers a fully demand-assigned voice call setup, handles point-to-point data channels, supports a variety of signaling schemes, and does not require any separate pilot receivers at the station, while keeping costs low through innovative technology and packaging. The TES can be used for both C-band and Ku-band (domestic or international) applications, and is configurable either as an VSAT (very small aperture terminal) using an SSPA, or as a larger station depending on the capacity requirements. A centralized DAMA processor and network manager is implemented using a workstation.

  14. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  15. NASA'S Space Launch System: Progress Toward the Proving Ground (United States)

    Jackman, Angie; Johnson, Les


    1 and 1B vehicles with more powerful boosters, and will be capable of delivering at least 130 metric tons to LEO. The Block 2 vehicle will be capable of launching even larger 10-meter diameter fairings, which will enable human mission of Mars. With these fairings, the Block 1B and 2 configurations of SLS will also be enabling for a wide variety of other payloads. For robotic science probes to the outer solar system, for example, SLS can cut transit times to less than half that of currently available vehicles, producing earlier data return, enhancing iterative exploration, and reducing mission cost and risk. In the field of astrophysics, SLS’ high payload volume, in the form of payload fairings with a diameter of up to 10 meters, creates the opportunity for launch of large-aperture telescopes providing an unprecedented look at our universe, and offers the ability to conduct crewed servicing missions to observatories stationed at locations beyond low Earth orbit. This paper will provide a description of the SLS vehicle, and an overview of the vehicle’s capabilities and utilization potential.

  16. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  17. Strategy of Khrunichev's Launch Vehicles Further Evolution (United States)

    Medvedev, A. A.; Kuzin, A. I.; Karrask, V. K.


    vehicles and it is concerned with a further evolution of its launcher fleet in order to meet arising demands of their services customers. Continuing to provide an operation of current "Proton" heavy launch vehicle and "Rockot" small launch vehicle, Khrunichev is carrying out a permanent improvement of these launchers as well as is developing new advanced launch systems. Thus, the `Proton' just has the improved "Proton-M" version, which was successfully tested in a flight, while an improvement of the "Rockot" is provided by a permanent modernization of its "Breeze-KM" upper stage and a payload fairing. Enhancing of the "Proton/Proton-M's" lift capabilities and flexibility of operation is being provided by introduction of advanced upper stages, the "Breeze- M", which was just put into service, and KVRB being in the development. "Angara-1.1" small launcher is scheduled to a launch in 2003. A creation of this family foresees not only a range of small, medium and heavy launch vehicles based on a modular principle of design but also a construction of high-automated launch site at the Russian Plesetsk spaceport. An operation of the "Angara" family's launchers will allow to inject payloads of actually all classes from Russian national territory into all range of applicable orbits with high technical and economic indices. ecological safety of drop zones, Khrunichev is developing the "Baikal" fly-back reusable booster. This booster would replace expendable first stages of small "Angaras" and strap-ons of medium/heavy launchers, which exert a most influence on the Earth's environment. intercontinental ballistic missiles to current and advanced space launch vehicles of various classes. A succession of the gained experience and found technological solutions are shown.

  18. The organized Space Station (United States)

    Lew, Leong W.

    Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

  19. 76 FR 52694 - National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch Vehicles (United States)


    ... associated with NASA routine payloads could not be accomplished without launching orbital and interplanetary... range of payload masses, would provide the needed trajectory capabilities, and would provide highly...

  20. Project Planning Resulted in Outstanding Building Deficiencies and Decreased Functionality of the Main Fire Station at Naval Station Great Lakes (United States)


    UFC for Fire Stations exacerbated health and safety risks to the firefighters related to storage for PPE, laundry facilities, wash and disinfection ...dryers should be in a laundry room that meets the requirements of the UFC for Fire Stations. Lack of a Wash and Disinfection Room Created Potential...Renovation Did Not Mitigate All Potential Health and Safety Risks 6 Personal Protective Equipment Storage Was Inadequate 7 Laundry Room 8 Lack of a Wash

  1. Judy Collins and First Lady Hillary Clinton await the launch of STS-93 (United States)


    Singer Judy Collins (left) and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton await the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93 in the Apollo/Saturn V Facility. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. Judy Collins has honored the commander with a song, 'Beyond the Sky,' which was commissioned by NASA through the NASA Art Program.

  2. Considerations Affecting Satellite and Space Probe Research with Emphasis on the "Scout" as a Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Posner, Jack (Editor)


    This report reviews a number of the factors which influence space flight experiments. Included are discussions of payload considerations, payload design and packaging, environmental tests, launch facilities, tracking and telemetry requirements, data acquisition, processing and analysis procedures, communication of information, and project management. Particular emphasis is placed on the "Scout" as a launching vehicle. The document includes a description of the geometry of the "Scout" as well as its flight capabilities and limitations. Although oriented toward the "Scout" vehicle and its payload capabilities, the information presented is sufficiently general to be equally applicable to most space vehicle systems.

  3. Eclipse of the Floating Orbs: Controlling Robots on the International Space Station (United States)

    Wheeler, D. W.


    I will describe the Control Station for a free-flying robot called Astrobee. Astrobee will serve as a mobile camera, sensor platform, and research testbed when it is launched to the International Space Station (ISS)in 2017. Astronauts on the ISS as well as ground-based users will control Astrobee using the Eclipse-based Astrobee Control Station. Designing theControl Station for use in space presented unique challenges, such as allowing the intuitive input of 3D information without a mouse or trackpad. Come to this talk to learn how Eclipse is used in an environment few humans have the chance to visit.

  4. Venus Express set for launch to the cryptic planet (United States)


    heading east. This injection is done by the first burn of the Fregat engine, due to take place at 06:52 CEST (04:52 GMT). At 08:03 CEST, about one hour and twenty minutes after lift-off and after an almost full circle around Earth, the third phase starts. While flying over Africa, Fregat will ignite for a second time to escape Earth orbit and head into the hyperbolic trajectory that will bring the spacecraft to Venus. After this burn, Fregat will gently release Venus Express, by firing a separation mechanism. With this last step, the launcher will have concluded its task. Plenty of ground activities for a successful trip Once separated from Fregat at 08:21 CEST, Venus Express will be awoken from its dormant status by a series of automatic on-board commands, such as the activation of its propulsion and thermal control systems, the deployment of solar arrays and manoeuvres to ‘orient’ itself in space. From this moment the spacecraft comes under the control of ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) for the full duration of the mission. The flight control team co-ordinate and manage a network of ESA ground stations and antennas around the globe, to regularly communicate with the spacecraft. The New Norcia station in Australia and the Kourou station in French Guiana will in turn communicate with Venus Express in the initial phase of the mission. The first opportunity to receive a signal and confirm that the spacecraft is in good health will be the privilege of the New Norcia station about two hours after launch. In this early phase of the mission, once ESOC has taken full control of the satellite, the spacecraft will be fully activated. Operations will also include two burns of the Venus Express thrusters, to correct any possible error in the trajectory after separation from Fregat. On 28 October, the newly inaugurated Cebreros station in Spain, with its 35-metre antenna, will start to take an active part in ground network operations to relay information between

  5. Cost and Economics for Advanced Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Whitfield, Jeff


    Market sensitivity and weight-based cost estimating relationships are key drivers in determining the financial viability of advanced space launch vehicle designs. Due to decreasing space transportation budgets and increasing foreign competition, it has become essential for financial assessments of prospective launch vehicles to be performed during the conceptual design phase. As part of this financial assessment, it is imperative to understand the relationship between market volatility, the uncertainty of weight estimates, and the economic viability of an advanced space launch vehicle program. This paper reports the results of a study that evaluated the economic risk inherent in market variability and the uncertainty of developing weight estimates for an advanced space launch vehicle program. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a business case for advanced space flight design with respect to the changing nature of market conditions and the complexity of determining accurate weight estimations during the conceptual design phase. The expected uncertainty associated with these two factors drives the economic risk of the overall program. The study incorporates Monte Carlo simulation techniques to determine the probability of attaining specific levels of economic performance when the market and weight parameters are allowed to vary. This structured approach toward uncertainties allows for the assessment of risks associated with a launch vehicle program's economic performance. This results in the determination of the value of the additional risk placed on the project by these two factors.

  6. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (United States)

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.


    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  7. Launch Vehicle Production and Operations Cost Metrics (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Neeley, James R.; Blackburn, Ruby F.


    Traditionally, launch vehicle cost has been evaluated based on $/Kg to orbit. This metric is calculated based on assumptions not typically met by a specific mission. These assumptions include the specified orbit whether Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), or both. The metric also assumes the payload utilizes the full lift mass of the launch vehicle, which is rarely true even with secondary payloads.1,2,3 Other approaches for cost metrics have been evaluated including unit cost of the launch vehicle and an approach to consider the full program production and operations costs.4 Unit cost considers the variable cost of the vehicle and the definition of variable costs are discussed. The full program production and operation costs include both the variable costs and the manufacturing base. This metric also distinguishes operations costs from production costs, including pre-flight operational testing. Operations costs also consider the costs of flight operations, including control center operation and maintenance. Each of these 3 cost metrics show different sensitivities to various aspects of launch vehicle cost drivers. The comparison of these metrics provides the strengths and weaknesses of each yielding an assessment useful for cost metric selection for launch vehicle programs.

  8. Facility Location Using Cross Decomposition


    Jackson, Leroy A.


    The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Determining the best base stationing for military units can be modeled as a capacitated facility location problem with sole sourcing and multiple resource categories. Computational experience suggests that cross decomposition, a unification of Benders Decomposition and Lagrangean relaxation, is superior to other contempo...

  9. Flight Testing of Wireless Networking for Nanosat Launch Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here addresses the testing and evaluation of wireless networking technologies for small launch vehicles by leveraging existing nanosat launch...

  10. Space Station Water Quality (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)


    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  11. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Summit Station Skiway Review (United States)


    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  13. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  14. Designing a Weather Station (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  15. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.


    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried within the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate the systems and technologies associated with the efficient management of cryogens in space. Cryogenic fluid management consists of the systems and technologies for: (1) liquid storage and supply, including capillary acquisition/expulsion systems which provide single-phase liquid to the user system, (2) both passive and active thermal control systems, and (3) fluid transfer/resupply systems, including transfer lines and receiver tanks. The facility contains a storage and supply tank, a transfer line and a receiver tank, configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage and transfer processes. The facility will provide design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer system applications, such as Space Station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, and ground-based and space-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV).

  16. International Space Station: Expedition 2000 (United States)


    Live footage of the International Space Station (ISS) presents an inside look at the groundwork and assembly of the ISS. Footage includes both animation and live shots of a Space Shuttle liftoff. Phil West, Engineer; Dr. Catherine Clark, Chief Scientist ISS; and Joe Edwards, Astronaut, narrate the video. The first topic of discussion is People and Communications. Good communication is a key component in our ISS endeavor. Dr. Catherine Clark uses two soup cans attached by a string to demonstrate communication. Bill Nye the Science Guy talks briefly about science aboard the ISS. Charlie Spencer, Manager of Space Station Simulators, talks about communication aboard the ISS. The second topic of discussion is Engineering. Bonnie Dunbar, Astronaut at Johnson Space Flight Center, gives a tour of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). She takes us inside Node 2 and the U.S. Lab Destiny. She also shows where protein crystal growth experiments are performed. Audio terminal units are used for communication in the JEM. A demonstration of solar arrays and how they are tested is shown. Alan Bell, Project Manager MRMDF (Mobile Remote Manipulator Development Facility), describes the robot arm that is used on the ISS and how it maneuvers the Space Station. The third topic of discussion is Science and Technology. Dr. Catherine Clark, using a balloon attached to a weight, drops the apparatus to the ground to demonstrate Microgravity. The bursting of the balloon is observed. Sherri Dunnette, Imaging Technologist, describes the various cameras that are used in space. The types of still cameras used are: 1) 35 mm, 2) medium format cameras, 3) large format cameras, 4) video cameras, and 5) the DV camera. Kumar Krishen, Chief Technologist ISS, explains inframetrics, infrared vision cameras and how they perform. The Short Arm Centrifuge is shown by Dr. Millard Reske, Senior Life Scientist, to subject astronauts to forces greater than 1-g. Reske is interested in the physiological effects of

  17. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment (United States)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan


    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  18. Wireless Instrumentation Use on Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Sherman, Aaron


    This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.

  19. Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide (United States)

    Smith, David Alan


    The purpose of this Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide (MPG) is to provide future payload developers/users with sufficient insight to support preliminary SLS mission planning. Consequently, this SLS MPG is not intended to be a payload requirements document; rather, it organizes and details SLS interfaces/accommodations in a manner similar to that of current Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) user guides to support early feasibility assessment. Like ELV Programs, once approved to fly on SLS, specific payload requirements will be defined in unique documentation.

  20. Launch window definition for sky target experiments. (United States)

    Michaud, N. H.


    This paper is a brief report on the computer program developed for the Extraterrestrial Physics Barium Ion Cloud (BIC) Project. The mathematical analysis developed for the program along with its programing characteristics are pointed out to show that this program is adaptable to similar sky target projects. Definite viewing constraints are specified so that the chosen ground tracking stations can photograph the behavior of the sky target after its release. Viewing factors include the illumination of the target by the sun, the relative elevation look angle to the target from each tracking station, the solar and lunar depression angles at each tracking station, and the total sky background brightness of the target relative to each tracking station. Numeric values are assigned to each factor through program input. The program output is flexible so that the results of the window calculations can be studied to the depth required.

  1. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian


    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  2. A probe station for testing silicon sensors

    CERN Multimedia

    Ulysse, Fichet


    A probe station for testing silicon sensors. The probe station is located inside a dark box that can keep away light during the measurement. The set-up is located in the DSF (Department Silicon Facility). The golden plate is the "chuck" where the sensor is usually placed on. With the help of "manipulators", thin needles can be precisely positioned that can contact the sensor surface. Using these needles and the golden chuck, a high voltage can be applied to the sensor to test its behaviour under high voltage. We will use the silicon sensors that we test here for building prototypes of a highly granular sandwich calorimeter, the CMS HGC (Highly granular Calorimeter) upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC.

  3. Planning Facilities. (United States)

    Flynn, Richard B., Ed.; And Others


    Nine articles give information to help make professionals in health, physical education, recreation, dance, and athletics more knowledgeable about planning facilities. Design of natatoriums, physical fitness laboratories, fitness trails, gymnasium lighting, homemade play equipment, indoor soccer arenas, and dance floors is considered. A…

  4. Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies (United States)


    Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

  5. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities - A General Overview (United States)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Marshall, PeggL.; Duncan, Michael E.; Morris, Jon A.; Franzl, Richard W.


    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition system (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis' development and deployment.

  6. NASA's Space Launch Transitions: From Design to Production (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly


    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing

  7. Maglev Launch: Ultra-low Cost, Ultra-high Volume Access to Space for Cargo and Humans (United States)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John


    Despite decades of efforts to reduce rocket launch costs, improvements are marginal. Launch cost to LEO for cargo is ~$10,000 per kg of payload, and to higher orbit and beyond much greater. Human access to the ISS costs $20 million for a single passenger. Unless launch costs are greatly reduced, large scale commercial use and human exploration of the solar system will not occur. A new approach for ultra low cost access to space-Maglev Launch-magnetically accelerates levitated spacecraft to orbital speeds, 8 km/sec or more, in evacuated tunnels on the surface, using Maglev technology like that operating in Japan for high speed passenger transport. The cost of electric energy to reach orbital speed is less than $1 per kilogram of payload. Two Maglev launch systems are described, the Gen-1System for unmanned cargo craft to orbit and Gen-2, for large-scale access of human to space. Magnetically levitated and propelled Gen-1 cargo craft accelerate in a 100 kilometer long evacuated tunnel, entering the atmosphere at the tunnel exit, which is located in high altitude terrain (~5000 meters) through an electrically powered ``MHD Window'' that prevents outside air from flowing into the tunnel. The Gen-1 cargo craft then coasts upwards to space where a small rocket burn, ~0.5 km/sec establishes, the final orbit. The Gen-1 reference design launches a 40 ton, 2 meter diameter spacecraft with 35 tons of payload. At 12 launches per day, a single Gen-1 facility could launch 150,000 tons annually. Using present costs for tunneling, superconductors, cryogenic equipment, materials, etc., the projected construction cost for the Gen-1 facility is 20 billion dollars. Amortization cost, plus Spacecraft and O&M costs, total $43 per kg of payload. For polar orbit launches, sites exist in Alaska, Russia, and China. For equatorial orbit launches, sites exist in the Andes and Africa. With funding, the Gen-1 system could operate by 2020 AD. The Gen-2 system requires more advanced technology

  8. Evaluation of Dual-Launch Lunar Architectures Using the Mission Assessment Post Processor (United States)

    Stewart, Shaun M.; Senent, Juan; Williams, Jacob; Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Constellation Program is currently designing a new transportation system to replace the Space Shuttle, support human missions to both the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon, and enable the eventual establishment of an outpost on the lunar surface. The present Constellation architecture is designed to meet nominal capability requirements and provide flexibility sufficient for handling a host of contingency scenarios including (but not limited to) launch delays at the Earth. This report summarizes a body of work performed in support of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Committee. It analyzes three lunar orbit rendezvous dual-launch architecture options which incorporate differing methodologies for mitigating the effects of launch delays at the Earth. NASA employed the recently-developed Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) tool to quickly evaluate vehicle performance requirements for several candidate approaches for conducting human missions to the Moon. The MAPP tool enabled analysis of Earth perturbation effects and Earth-Moon geometry effects on the integrated vehicle performance as it varies over the 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle. Results are provided summarizing best-case and worst-case vehicle propellant requirements for each architecture option. Additionally, the associated vehicle payload mass requirements at launch are compared between each architecture and against those of the Constellation Program. The current Constellation Program architecture assumes that the Altair lunar lander and Earth Departure Stage (EDS) vehicles are launched on a heavy lift launch vehicle. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is separately launched on a smaller man-rated vehicle. This strategy relaxes man-rating requirements for the heavy lift launch vehicle and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of the overall architecture over the operational lifetime of the program. The crew launch

  9. Landsat Data Continuity Mission - Launch Fever (United States)

    Irons, James R.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Markham, Brian L.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cook, Bruce; Dwyer, John L.


    The year 2013 will be an exciting period for those that study the Earth land surface from space, particularly those that observe and characterize land cover, land use, and the change of cover and use over time. Two new satellite observatories will be launched next year that will enhance capabilities for observing the global land surface. The United States plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in January. That event will be followed later in the year by the European Space Agency (ESA) launch of the first Sentinel 2 satellite. Considered together, the two satellites will increase the frequency of opportunities for viewing the land surface at a scale where human impact and influence can be differentiated from natural change. Data from the two satellites will provide images for similar spectral bands and for comparable spatial resolutions with rigorous attention to calibration that will facilitate cross comparisons. This presentation will provide an overview of the LDCM satellite system and report its readiness for the January launch.

  10. Air loads on solar panels during launch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, W.M.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Spiering, R.M.E.J.; Tijdeman, H.


    The dynamical behaviour of solar panels during launch is significantly affected by the thin layers of air trapped between the panels. For narrow gaps the air manifests itself not only as a considerable added mass, but its viscosity can result in a substantial amount of damping. A model has been

  11. SMAP Post-launch Field Campaign Planning (United States)

    The SMAP post-launch Cal/Val activities are intended both to assess the quality of the mission products and to support analyses that lead to their improvement. A suite of complementary methodologies will be employed that will result in a robust global assessment. Much of the work will occur in the C...

  12. CHDS Launches Army National Guard Certificate Program


    Center for Homeland Defense and Security


    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES The Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS) has launched a certificate program in Homeland Defense and Security (HD/S) specifically for the National Guard (NG). The...

  13. Illustration of Launching Samples Home from Mars (United States)


    One crucial step in a Mars sample return mission would be to launch the collected sample away from the surface of Mars. This artist's concept depicts a Mars ascent vehicle for starting a sample of Mars rocks on their trip to Earth.

  14. Pressure And Thermal Modeling Of Rocket Launches (United States)

    Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.; Farmer, Richard C.; Freeman, Jon A.


    Report presents mathematical model for use in designing rocket-launching stand. Predicts pressure and thermal environment, as well as thermal responses of structures to impinging rocket-exhaust plumes. Enables relatively inexperienced analyst to determine time-varying distributions and absolute levels of pressure and heat loads on structures.

  15. Control of NASA's Space Launch System (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.


    The flight control system for the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) employs a control architecture that evolved from Saturn, Shuttle & Ares I-X while also incorporating modern enhancements. This control system, baselined for the first unmanned launch, has been verified and successfully flight-tested on the Ares I-X rocket and an F/A-18 aircraft. The development of the launch vehicle itself came on the heels of the Space Shuttle retirement in 2011, and will deliver more payload to orbit and produce more thrust than any other vehicle, past or present, opening the way to new frontiers of space exploration as it carries the Orion crew vehicle, equipment, and experiments into new territories. The initial 70 metric ton vehicle consists of four RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory, two 5- segment solid rocket boosters which are advanced versions of the Space Shuttle boosters, and a core stage that resembles the External Tank and carries the liquid propellant while also serving as the vehicle's structural backbone. Just above SLS' core stage is the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), based upon the payload motor used by the Delta IV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

  16. Commercial launch systems: A risky investment? (United States)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John


    A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

  17. Towards Performance Prognostics of a Launch Valve (United States)


    Towards Performance Prognostics of a Launch Valve Glenn Shevach1, Mark Blair2, James Hing3, Larry Venetsky4, Everard Martin5, John Wheelock6...focuses on robotics and machine learning for ALRE & SE applications. Everard Martin is a Mechanical Engineer in the Steam Catapult Launcher In-Service

  18. Chapter 7: Materials for Launch Vehicle Structures (United States)

    Henson, Grant; Jone, Clyde S. III


    This chapter concerns materials for expendable and reusable launch vehicle (LV) structures. An emphasis is placed on applications and design requirements, and how these requirements are met by the optimum choice of materials. Structural analysis and qualification strategies, which cannot be separated from the materials selection process, are described.

  19. International Space Station -- Fluid Physics Rack (United States)


    The optical bench for the Fluids Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  20. International Space Station Video Progress Report (United States)


    A narrated overview of the construction and assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is given through a collection of clips ranging from the launch of the Russian Proton rocket containing the Zvezda module to computerized animations showing the installation of the Zarya and Unity connecting modules. Footage from some of the space missions that assembled the ISS in space (i.e., STS-106 and STS-92) are seen. The Z1 truss (including the deployment of the solar arrays), Destiny Laboratory Module, Leonardo Module, the Japanese Kibo Experiment Module, Columbus Pressurized Module, and the ISS's robotic arm are seen. Animations show the assembly and evolution of the ISS as new components are added.

  1. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station Hardware and Operations (United States)

    Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie


    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly, logging more than 620 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) which accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample-Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400 C. Once an SCA is installed, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via

  2. Launching a world-class joint venture. (United States)

    Bamford, James; Ernst, David; Fubini, David G


    More than 5,000 joint ventures, and many more contractual alliances, have been launched worldwide in the past five years. Companies are realizing that JVs and alliances can be lucrative vehicles for developing new products, moving into new markets, and increasing revenues. The problem is, the success rate for JVs and alliances is on a par with that for mergers and acquisitions--which is to say not very good. The authors, all McKinsey consultants, argue that JV success remains elusive for most companies because they don't pay enough attention to launch planning and execution. Most companies are highly disciplined about integrating the companies they target through M&A, but they rarely commit sufficient resources to launching similarly sized joint ventures or alliances. As a result, the parent companies experience strategic conflicts, governance gridlock, and missed operational synergies. Often, they walk away from the deal. The launch phase begins with the parent companies' signing of a memorandum of understanding and continues through the first 100 days of the JV or alliance's operation. During this period, it's critical for the parents to convene a team dedicated to exposing inherent tensions early. Specifically, the launch team must tackle four basic challenges. First, build and maintain strategic alignment across the separate corporate entities, each of which has its own goals, market pressures, and shareholders. Second, create a shared governance system for the two parent companies. Third, manage the economic interdependencies between the corporate parents and the JV. And fourth, build a cohesive, high-performing organization (the JV or alliance)--not a simple task, since most managers come from, will want to return to, and may even hold simultaneous positions in the parent companies. Using real-world examples, the authors offer their suggestions for meeting these challenges.

  3. The Launch Systems Operations Cost Model (United States)

    Prince, Frank A.; Hamaker, Joseph W. (Technical Monitor)


    One of NASA's primary missions is to reduce the cost of access to space while simultaneously increasing safety. A key component, and one of the least understood, is the recurring operations and support cost for reusable launch systems. In order to predict these costs, NASA, under the leadership of the Independent Program Assessment Office (IPAO), has commissioned the development of a Launch Systems Operations Cost Model (LSOCM). LSOCM is a tool to predict the operations & support (O&S) cost of new and modified reusable (and partially reusable) launch systems. The requirements are to predict the non-recurring cost for the ground infrastructure and the recurring cost of maintaining that infrastructure, performing vehicle logistics, and performing the O&S actions to return the vehicle to flight. In addition, the model must estimate the time required to cycle the vehicle through all of the ground processing activities. The current version of LSOCM is an amalgamation of existing tools, leveraging our understanding of shuttle operations cost with a means of predicting how the maintenance burden will change as the vehicle becomes more aircraft like. The use of the Conceptual Operations Manpower Estimating Tool/Operations Cost Model (COMET/OCM) provides a solid point of departure based on shuttle and expendable launch vehicle (ELV) experience. The incorporation of the Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) as expressed by a set of response surface model equations gives a method for estimating how changing launch system characteristics affects cost and cycle time as compared to today's shuttle system. Plans are being made to improve the model. The development team will be spending the next few months devising a structured methodology that will enable verified and validated algorithms to give accurate cost estimates. To assist in this endeavor the LSOCM team is part of an Agency wide effort to combine resources with other cost and operations professionals to

  4. Energy efficiency and reliability solutions for rail operations and facilities. (United States)


    The objectives of the study included examining energy consumption of : the facilities comprising the three major rail yards on the New Haven Rail Line as : well as platform stations and identifying energy efficiency and cost savings : opportunities f...

  5. Weigh-in-Motion Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  6. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  7. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  8. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  9. Use of international space station for fundamental physics research (United States)

    Israelsson, U.; Lee, M. C.


    NASA's research plans aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed. Experiments in low temperature physics and atomic physics are planned to commence in late 2005. Experiments in gravitational physics are planned to begin in 2007. A low temperature microgravity physics facility is under development for the low temperature and gravitation experiments.

  10. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.


    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  11. Status of the SXFEL Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentang Zhao


    Full Text Available The Shanghai soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser facility (SXFEL is being developed in two steps; the SXFEL test facility (SXFEL-TF, and the SXFEL user facility (SXFEL-UF. The SXFEL-TF is a critical development step towards the construction a soft X-ray FEL user facility in China, and is under commissioning at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF campus. The test facility is going to generate 8.8 nm FEL radiation using an 840 MeV electron linac passing through the two-stage cascaded HGHG-HGHG or EEHG-HGHG (high-gain harmonic generation, echo-enabled harmonic generation scheme. The construction of the SXFEL-TF started at the end of 2014. Its accelerator tunnel and klystron gallery were ready for equipment installation in April 2016, and the installation of the SXFEL-TF linac and radiator undulators were completed by the end of 2016. In the meantime, the SXFEL-UF, with a designated wavelength in the water window region, began construction in November 2016. This was based on upgrading the linac energy to 1.5 GeV, and the building of a second undulator line and five experimental end-stations. Construction status and the future plans of the SXFEL are reported in this paper.

  12. Plasma contactor technology for Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy; Soulas, George C.; Parkes, James; Ohlinger, Wayne L.; Schaffner, Michael S.; Nelson, Amy


    Hollow cathode plasma contactors have been baselined for Space Station Freedom to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and in particular the technology development effort on ion thruster systems. Specific efforts include optimizing the design and configuration of the contactor, validating its required lifetime, and characterizing the contactor plume and electromagnetic interference. The plasma contactor subsystems include the plasma contactor unit, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under this program these will all be brought to breadboard and engineering model development status. New test facilities have been developed, and existing facilities have been augmented, to support characterizations and life testing of contactor components and systems. This paper discusses the magnitude, scope, and status of the plasma contactor hardware development program now under way and preliminary test results on system components.

  13. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) for the International Space Station (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Kharangate, Chirag; O'Neill, Lucas; Konishi, Chris; Nahra, Henry; Hall, Nancy; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mackey, Jeffrey


    The proposed research aims to develop an integrated two-phase flow boiling/condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS) to serve as primary platform for obtaining two-phase flow and heat transfer data in microgravity.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NOAA Surface Meteorological Station MC3E dataset was collected at the NOAA Southern Great Plains Facility for the Midlatitude Continental...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Surface Meteorological station collected at the NOAA Southern Great Plains Facility for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) and...

  16. NPDES Permit for Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000094, the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station is authorized to discharge from from a facility to receiving waters named Anacostia River.

  17. Design of ground station receiver for Kongsberg Satellite Services based on Software Defined Radio


    Løfaldli, André


    As the space industry keeps growing, the need for low cost solutions increases. This applies not only to the launch vehicles and space segments, but also to the ground station systems. In this report, a software defined radio (SDR) ground station receiver implemented. It features an Ettus Research USRP SDR which converts an analog signal to a digital baseband representation. The baseband signal, is sent to a host computer, which runs an application that demodulates and decodes the...

  18. Technology forecast and applications for autonomous, intelligent systems. [for space station, shuttle, and interplanetary missions (United States)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.; Heer, Ewald


    Significant research products which have emerged from the core program of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) are discussed. The Space Station Thermal Control System, the Space Shuttle Integrated Communications Officer Station, the Launch Processing System, the Expert Scheduling System for Pioneer Venus Spacecraft, a Bayesian classification system, and a spaceborne multiprocessor system are included. The technology trends which led to these results are discussed and future developments in technology are forecasted.

  19. Build Your Own Space Station (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison


    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  20. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia



    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  1. A Characterization of the Terrestrial Environment of Kodiak Island, Alaska for the Design, Development and Operation of Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Rawlins, Michael A.; Johnson, Dale L.; Batts, Glen W.


    A quantitative characterization of the terrestrial environment is an important component in the success of a launch vehicle program. Environmental factors such as winds, atmospheric thermodynamics, precipitation, fog, and cloud characteristics are among many parameters that must be accurately defined for flight success. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently coordinating weather support and performing analysis for the launch of a NASA payload from a new facility located at Kodiak Island, Alaska in late 2001 (NASA, 1999). Following the first launch from the Kodiak Launch Complex, an Air Force intercontinental ballistic missile on November 5, 1999, the site's developer, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation (AADC), is hoping to acquire a sizable share of the many launches that will occur over the next decade. One such customer is NASA, which is planning to launch the Vegetation Canopy Lidar satellite aboard an Athena I rocket, the first planned mission to low earth orbit from the new facility. To support this launch, a statistical model of the atmospheric and surface environment for Kodiak Island, AK has been produced from rawinsonde and surface-based meteorological observations for use as an input to future launch vehicle design and/or operations. In this study, the creation of a "reference atmosphere" from rawinsonde observations is described along with comparisons between the reference atmosphere and existing model representations for Kodiak. Meteorological conditions that might result in a delay on launch day (cloud cover, visibility, precipitation, etc.) are also explored and described through probabilities of launch by month and hour of day. This atmospheric "mission analysis" is also useful during the early stages of a vehicle program, when consideration of the climatic characteristics of a location can be factored into vehicle designs. To be most beneficial, terrestrial environment definitions should a) be available at

  2. NTR-Enhanced Lunar-Base Supply using Existing Launch Fleet Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Emily Colvin; Paul G. Cummings


    During the summer of 2006, students at the Center for Space Nuclear Research sought to augment the current NASA lunar exploration architecture with a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). An additional study investigated the possible use of an NTR with existing launch vehicles to provide 21 metric tons of supplies to the lunar surface in support of a lunar outpost. Current cost estimates show that the complete mission cost for an NTR-enhanced assembly of Delta-IV and Atlas V vehicles may cost 47-86% more than the estimated Ares V launch cost of $1.5B; however, development costs for the current NASA architecture have not been assessed. The additional cost of coordinating the rendezvous of four to six launch vehicles with an in-orbit assembly facility also needs more thorough analysis and review. Future trends in launch vehicle use will also significantly impact the results from this comparison. The utility of multiple launch vehicles allows for the development of a more robust and lower risk exploration architecture.

  3. Southeast Regional Experiment Station (United States)


    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  4. Soyuz-TM-based interim Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) for the Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Semenov, Yu. P.; Babkov, Oleg I.; Timchenko, Vladimir A.; Craig, Jerry W.


    The concept of using the available Soyuz-TM Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) spacecraft for the assurance of the safety of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) crew after the departure of the Space Shuttle from SSF was proposed by the NPO Energia and was accepted by NASA in 1992. The ACRV will provide the crew with the capability to evacuate a seriously injured/ill crewmember from the SSF to a ground-based care facility under medically tolerable conditions and with the capability for a safe evacuation from SSF in the events SSF becomes uninhabitable or the Space Shuttle flights are interrupted for a time that exceeds SSF ability for crew support and/or safe operations. This paper presents the main results of studies on Phase A (including studies on the service life of ACRV; spacecraft design and operations; prelaunch processing; mission support; safety, reliability, maintenance and quality and assurance; landing, and search/rescue operations; interfaces with the SSF and with Space Shuttle; crew accommodation; motion of orbital an service modules; and ACRV injection by the Expendable Launch Vehicles), along with the objectives of further work on the Phase B.

  5. Status and performance of the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O. [University of Florence, IFAC (CNR) and INFN (Italy); Akaike, Y. [ICRR, University of Tokyo (Japan); Asaoka, Y. [Waseda University (Japan); Asano, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Bagliesi, M.G.; Bigongiari, G. [University of Siena and INFN (Italy); Binns, W.R. [Washington University-St. Louis (United States); Bongi, M. [University of Florence, IFAC (CNR) and INFN (Italy); Buckley, J.H. [Washington University-St. Louis (United States); Cassese, A.; Castellini, G. [University of Florence, IFAC (CNR) and INFN (Italy); Cherry, M.L. [Louisiana State University (United States); Collazuol, G. [University of Padova and INFN (Italy); Ebisawa, K. [JAXA/ISAS (Japan); Di Felice, V. [University of Rome Tor Vergata and INFN (Italy); Fuke, H. [JAXA/ISAS (Japan); Guzik, T.G. [Louisiana State University (United States); Hams, T. [CRESST/NASA/GSFC and University of Maryland (United States); Hasebe, N. [Waseda University (Japan); Hareyama, M. [St. Marianna University School of Medicine (Japan); and others


    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (including positrons) to 20 TeV, gamma rays to 10 TeV and nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to 1,000 TeV during a two-year mission on the International Space Station (ISS), extendable to five years. These measurements are essential to search for dark matter signatures, investigate the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy and discover possible astrophysical sources of high-energy electrons nearby the Earth. The instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 radiation length thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). CALET has sufficient depth, imaging capabilities and excellent energy resolution to allow for a clear separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays. The instrument will be launched to the ISS within 2014 Japanese Fiscal Year (by the end of March 2015) and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). In this paper, we will review the status and main science goals of the mission and describe the instrument configuration and performance.

  6. First Experiences with the Trimble SX10 Scanning Total Station for Building Facade Survey (United States)

    Lachat, E.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.


    The use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) tends to become a solution in many research areas related to large scale surveying. Meanwhile, the technological advances combined with the investigation of user needs have brought to the design of innovative devices known as scanning total stations. Such instruments merge in a unique hardware both scanning and surveying facilities. Even if their scanning rate is often reduced compared to conventional TLS, they make it possible to directly georeference laser scanning projects and to complete them with measurements of individual points of interest. The recent Trimble SX10 which was launched on the market in early October 2016 has been tested and some experiences carried out with it are reported in this paper. The analyses mainly focus on the survey of a building facade. Next to laser scanning survey, a photogrammetry campaign using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been carried out. These different datasets are used to assess the Trimble SX10 issued point clouds through a set of comparisons. Since georeferencing is possible either directly or indirectly using this device, data processed both ways are also compared to conclude about the more reliable method.

  7. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani O.


    Full Text Available The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015 to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF.

  8. Submerged AUV Charging Station (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas


    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  9. Korea Geodetic VLBI Station Sejong (United States)

    Yi, S.; Moon, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Joo, H. e.; Oh, H.


    The Sejong VLBI station has been constructed by the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII) in the Republic of Korea. It took approximately four years from 2008 to the end of 2011. In February 2012, we successfully carried out a fringe-test with the Kashima 11-m antenna of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan. In March, the Sejong station was accepted as an IVS network station by acceptance of the IVS Directing Board which was held at the 7th IVS General Meeting in Spain. This report summarizes activities of the Sejong station as a new IVS Network Station.

  10. Performance Efficient Launch Vehicle Recovery and Reuse (United States)

    Reed, John G.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dinonno, J.; Bodkin, R.; Lowry, Allen; Brierly, Gregory T.; Kelly, John W.


    For decades, economic reuse of launch vehicles has been an elusive goal. Recent attempts at demonstrating elements of launch vehicle recovery for reuse have invigorated a debate over the merits of different approaches. The parameter most often used to assess the cost of access to space is dollars-per-kilogram to orbit. When comparing reusable vs. expendable launch vehicles, that ratio has been shown to be most sensitive to the performance lost as a result of enabling the reusability. This paper will briefly review the historical background and results of recent attempts to recover launch vehicle assets for reuse. The business case for reuse will be reviewed, with emphasis on the performance expended to recover those assets, and the practicality of the most ambitious reuse concept, namely propulsive return to the launch site. In 2015, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced its Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) reuse plan for recovery of the booster module for its new Vulcan launch vehicle. That plan employs a non-propulsive approach where atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) technologies are utilized. Elements of such a system have a wide variety of applications, from recovery of launch vehicle elements in suborbital trajectories all the way to human space exploration. This paper will include an update on ULA's booster module recovery approach, which relies on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and Mid-Air Retrieval (MAR) technologies, including its concept of operations (ConOps). The HIAD design, as well as parafoil staging and MAR concepts, will be discussed. Recent HIAD development activities and near term plans including scalability, next generation materials for the inflatable structure and heat shield, and gas generator inflation systems will be provided. MAR topics will include the ConOps for recovery, helicopter selection and staging, and the state of the art of parachute recovery systems using large parafoils

  11. NASA's Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Roadmap (United States)

    McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.


    Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.

  12. SPHERES National Lab Facility (United States)

    Benavides, Jose


    SPHERES is a facility of the ISS National Laboratory with three IVA nano-satellites designed and delivered by MIT to research estimation, control, and autonomy algorithms. Since Fall 2010, The SPHERES system is now operationally supported and managed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). A SPHERES Program Office was established and is located at NASA Ames Research Center. The SPHERES Program Office coordinates all SPHERES related research and STEM activities on-board the International Space Station (ISS), as well as, current and future payload development. By working aboard ISS under crew supervision, it provides a risk tolerant Test-bed Environment for Distributed Satellite Free-flying Control Algorithms. If anything goes wrong, reset and try again! NASA has made the capability available to other U.S. government agencies, schools, commercial companies and students to expand the pool of ideas for how to test and use these bowling ball-sized droids. For many of the researchers, SPHERES offers the only opportunity to do affordable on-orbit characterization of their technology in the microgravity environment. Future utilization of SPHERES as a facility will grow its capabilities as a platform for science, technology development, and education.

  13. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swihart, A


    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility`s chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility`s site boundary.

  14. Evolution of the Florida Launch Site Architecture: Embracing Multiple Customers, Enhancing Launch Opportunities (United States)

    Colloredo, Scott; Gray, James A.


    The impending conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program cancellation unveiled in the FY2011 President's budget created a large void for human spaceflight capability and specifically launch activity from the Florida launch Site (FlS). This void created an opportunity to re-architect the launch site to be more accommodating to the future NASA heavy lift and commercial space industry. The goal is to evolve the heritage capabilities into a more affordable and flexible launch complex. This case study will discuss the FlS architecture evolution from the trade studies to select primary launch site locations for future customers, to improving infrastructure; promoting environmental remediation/compliance; improving offline processing, manufacturing, & recovery; developing range interface and control services with the US Air Force, and developing modernization efforts for the launch Pad, Vehicle Assembly Building, Mobile launcher, and supporting infrastructure. The architecture studies will steer how to best invest limited modernization funding from initiatives like the 21 st elSe and other potential funding.

  15. Launch and Recovery System Literature Review (United States)


    conjunction with cages or other intermediate devices. The launch process using a crane typically involves the attachment of the crane’s hook to the...vehicle or intermediate device after which it is hoisted up via winch and moved slowly over the side of the surface platform, lowered to the water...of traits for an optimal LARS. Of special concern is the need for a fast, safe winch, a latch/ hook mechanism, and controlling vehicle pendulation

  16. Iranian rocket launch alarms the West (United States)

    Jeandron, Michelle


    Iran came a step closer to becoming a space-faring nation last month, with the successful test of a rocket capable of carrying a satellite into orbit and the opening of a new space centre. Western commentators, however, have expressed scepticism about whether Iran really does have the technology to successfully launch a satellite, suggesting instead that the country is more interested in developing intercontinental ballistic missiles, which require similarly powerful rockets.

  17. Modal survey of the Brazilian launch vehicle (United States)

    Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.

  18. Launching Nuoc Phan Lan brand in Vietnam


    Pham, Huydong


    Environmental issues are emerging as another side of economic development in Vietnam. From Finland, through its strong network in South East Asia, Finnish Water Forum recognised the opportunity and the need of having a Finnish brand promoting Finnish water expertise in the environmental sector, especially water treatment in Vietnam. The research objective is to launch the brand successfully in Vietnam within 2014. In order to achieve that, this paper describes carefully the process of bu...

  19. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.


    This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.

  20. GIS-Based Locational Analysis of Petrol Filling Stations in Kaduna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogara Sanda Tah

    independent marketers, 18% owned by Major Marketers and 8% owned by the NNPC. There is significant correlation between the number of filling stations and the road hierarchy. However, 86% of the filling stations did not meet the minimum distance of 100 meter from the health care facilities. 84% did not meet the criteria.

  1. 75 FR 15749 - Entergy Operations, Inc., Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Exemption (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Operations, Inc., Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), is the holder of Facility Operating License No. NPF-29 which authorizes operation of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (GGNS). The license provides, among other...

  2. 78 FR 28000 - Entergy Louisiana, LLC and Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Stream Electric Station, Unit No... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Louisiana, LLC and Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Stream Electric Station, Unit No. 3... Operations, Inc. (EOI) (the licensees), are co-holders of Facility Operating License No. NPF- 38. The ELL is the owner and EOI is authorized to possess, use, and operate Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No...

  3. 75 FR 9955 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Operations, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding... protection of plants and materials,'' for Facility Operating License No. DPR-46, issued to Entergy Operations, Inc. (Entergy, the licensee), for operation of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (GGNS), located...

  4. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 5: Software assembly (United States)

    Gerber, C. R.


    The development of uniform computer program standards and conventions for the modular space station is discussed. The accomplishments analyzed are: (1) development of computer program specification hierarchy, (2) definition of computer program development plan, and (3) recommendations for utilization of all operating on-board space station related data processing facilities.

  5. 49 CFR 37.47 - Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. 37... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.47 Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. (a) Each public entity that provides designated public transportation by means of a light or...

  6. Risk Estimation Methodology for Launch Accidents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Daniel James; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bechtel, Ryan D.


    As compact and light weight power sources with reliable, long lives, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) have made space missions to explore the solar system possible. Due to the hazardous material that can be released during a launch accident, the potential health risk of an accident must be quantified, so that appropriate launch approval decisions can be made. One part of the risk estimation involves modeling the response of the RPS to potential accident environments. Due to the complexity of modeling the full RPS response deterministically on dynamic variables, the evaluation is performed in a stochastic manner with a Monte Carlo simulation. The potential consequences can be determined by modeling the transport of the hazardous material in the environment and in human biological pathways. The consequence analysis results are summed and weighted by appropriate likelihood values to give a collection of probabilistic results for the estimation of the potential health risk. This information is used to guide RPS designs, spacecraft designs, mission architecture, or launch procedures to potentially reduce the risk, as well as to inform decision makers of the potential health risks resulting from the use of RPSs for space missions.

  7. Polarization-Directed Surface Plasmon Polariton Launching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.


    The relative intensities of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) simultaneously launched from opposing edges of a symmetric trench structure etched into a silver thin film may be controllably varied by tuning the linear polarization of the driving field. This is demonstrated through transient multiphoton photoemission electron microscopy measurements performed using a pair of spatially separated phase-locked femtosecond pulses. Our measurements are rationalized using finite-difference time domain simulations, which reveal that the coupling efficiency into the PSP modes is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the localized surface plasmon fields excited at the trench edges. Additional experiments on single step edges also show asymmetric PSP launching with respect to polarization, analogous to the trench results. Our combined experimental and computational results allude to the interplay between localized and propagating surface plasmon modes in the trench; strong coupling to the localized modes at the edges correlates to weak coupling to the PSP modes. Simultaneous excitation of the electric fields localized at both edges of the trench results in complex interactions between the right- and left-side PSP modes with Fabry-Perot and cylindrical modes. This results in a trench width-dependent PSP intensity ratio using otherwise identical driving fields. A systematic exploration of polarization directed PSP launching from a series of trench structures reveals an optimal PSP contrast ratio of 4.2 using a 500 nm-wide trench.

  8. Drug Launch Timing and International Reference Pricing. (United States)

    Houy, Nicolas; Jelovac, Izabela


    This paper analyzes the timing decisions of pharmaceutical firms to launch a new drug in countries involved in international reference pricing. We show three important features of launch timing when all countries refer to the prices in all other countries and in all previous periods of time. First, there is no withdrawal of drugs in any country and in any period. Second, whenever the drug is sold in a country, it is also sold in all countries with larger willingness to pay. Third, there is no strict incentive to delay the launch of a drug in any country. We then show that the first and third results continue to hold when the countries only refer to the prices of a subset of all countries in a transitive way and in any period. We also show that the second result continues to hold when the reference is on the last period prices only. Last, we show that the seller's profits increase as the sets of reference countries decrease with respect to inclusion. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Globe hosts launch of new processor

    CERN Multimedia


    Launch of the quadecore processor chip at the Globe. On 14 November, in a series of major media events around the world, the chip-maker Intel launched its new 'quadcore' processor. For the regions of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, the day-long launch event took place in CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation, with over 30 journalists in attendance, coming from as far away as Johannesburg and Dubai. CERN was a significant choice for the event: the first tests of this new generation of processor in Europe had been made at CERN over the preceding months, as part of CERN openlab, a research partnership with leading IT companies such as Intel, HP and Oracle. The event also provided the opportunity for the journalists to visit ATLAS and the CERN Computer Centre. The strategy of putting multiple processor cores on the same chip, which has been pursued by Intel and other chip-makers in the last few years, represents an important departure from the more traditional improvements in the sheer speed of such chips. ...

  10. Aerogel Insulation Systems for Space Launch Applications (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.


    New developments in materials science in the areas of solution gelation processes and nanotechnology have led to the recent commercial production of aerogels. Concurrent with these advancements has been the development of new approaches to cryogenic thermal insulation systems. For example, thermal and physical characterizations of aerogel beads under cryogenic-vacuum conditions have been performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of the NASA Kennedy Space Center. Aerogel-based insulation system demonstrations have also been conducted to improve performance for space launch applications. Subscale cryopumping experiments show the thermal insulating ability of these fully breathable nanoporous materials. For a properly executed thermal insulation system, these breathable aerogel systems are shown to not cryopump beyond the initial cooldown and thermal stabilization phase. New applications are being developed to augment the thermal protection systems of space launch vehicles, including the Space Shuttle External Tank. These applications include a cold-boundary temperature of 90 K with an ambient air environment in which both weather and flight aerodynamics are important considerations. Another application is a nitrogen-purged environment with a cold-boundary temperature of 20 K where both initial cooldown and launch ascent profiles must be considered. Experimental results and considerations for these flight system applications are discussed.

  11. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  12. Draper Station Analysis Tool (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip


    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  13. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Facility Interests Dataset (United States)

    This web feature service consists of location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for all sites that are available in the FRS individual feature layers. The layers comprise the FRS major program databases, including:Assessment Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) : brownfields sites ; Air Facility System (AFS) : stationary sources of air pollution ; Air Quality System (AQS) : ambient air pollution data from monitoring stations; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) : schools data on Indian land; Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) facilities; Clean Air Markets Division Business System (CAMDBS) : market-based air pollution control programs; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) : hazardous waste sites; Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) : integrated enforcement and compliance information; National Compliance Database (NCDB) : Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of ICIS : NPDES surface water permits; Radiation Information Database (RADINFO) : radiation and radioactivity facilities; RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse (RBLC) : best available air pollution technology requirements; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information System (RCRAInfo) : tracks generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers of haz

  14. Forces associated with launch into space do not impact bone fracture healing (United States)

    Childress, Paul; Brinker, Alexander; Gong, Cynthia-May S.; Harris, Jonathan; Olivos, David J.; Rytlewski, Jeffrey D.; Scofield, David C.; Choi, Sungshin Y.; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; McKinley, Todd O.; Chu, Tien-Min G.; Conley, Carolynn L.; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Hammamieh, Rasha; Kacena, Melissa A.


    Segmental bone defects (SBDs) secondary to trauma invariably result in a prolonged recovery with an extended period of limited weight bearing on the affected limb. Soldiers sustaining blast injuries and civilians sustaining high energy trauma typify such a clinical scenario. These patients frequently sustain composite injuries with SBDs in concert with extensive soft tissue damage. For soft tissue injury resolution and skeletal reconstruction a patient may experience limited weight bearing for upwards of 6 months. Many small animal investigations have evaluated interventions for SBDs. While providing foundational information regarding the treatment of bone defects, these models do not simulate limited weight bearing conditions after injury. For example, mice ambulate immediately following anesthetic recovery, and in most cases are normally ambulating within 1-3 days post-surgery. Thus, investigations that combine disuse with bone healing may better test novel bone healing strategies. To remove weight bearing, we have designed a SBD rodent healing study in microgravity (μG) on the International Space Station (ISS) for the Rodent Research-4 (RR-4) Mission, which launched February 19, 2017 on SpaceX CRS-10 (Commercial Resupply Services). In preparation for this mission, we conducted an end-to-end mission simulation consisting of surgical infliction of SBD followed by launch simulation and hindlimb unloading (HLU) studies. In brief, a 2 mm defect was created in the femur of 10 week-old C57BL6/J male mice (n = 9-10/group). Three days after surgery, 6 groups of mice were treated as follows: 1) Vivarium Control (maintained continuously in standard cages); 2) Launch Negative Control (placed in the same spaceflight-like hardware as the Launch Positive Control group but were not subjected to launch simulation conditions); 3) Launch Positive Control (placed in spaceflight-like hardware and also subjected to vibration followed by centrifugation); 4) Launch Positive

  15. CryoSat: ready to launch (again) (United States)

    Francis, R.; Wingham, D.; Cullen, R.


    Over the last ten years the relationship between climate change and the cryosphere has become increasingly important. Evidence of change in the polar regions is widespread, and the subject of public discussion. During this same ten years ESA has been preparing its CryoSat mission, specifically designed to provide measurements to determine the overall change in the mass balance of all of the ice caps and of change in the volume of sea-ice (rather than simply its extent). In fact the mission was ready for launch in October 2005, but a failure in the launch vehicle led to a loss of the satellite some 6 minutes after launch. The determination to rebuild the satellite and complete the mission was widespread in the relevant scientific, industrial and political entities, and the decision to redirect financial resources to the rebuild was sealed with a scientific report confirming that the mission was even more important in 2005 than at its original selection in 1999. The evolution of the cryosphere since then has emphasised that conclusion. In order to make a meaningful measurement of the secular change of the surface legation of ice caps and the thickness of sea-ice, the accuracy required has been specified as about half of the variation expected due to natural variability, over reasonable scales for the surfaces concerned. The selected technique is radar altimetry. Previous altimeter missions have pioneered the method: the CryoSat instrument has been modified to provide the enhanced capabilities needed to significantly extend the spatial coverage of these earlier missions. Thus the radar includes a synthetic aperture mode which enables the along-track resolution to be improved to about 250 m. This will will allow detection of leads in sea-ice which are narrower than those detected hitherto, so that operation deeper into pack-ice can be achieved with a consequent reduction in errors due to omission. Altimetry over the steep edges of ice caps is hampered by the irregular

  16. Passive millimetre wave imaging for ballistic missile launch detection (United States)

    Higgins, Christopher J.; Salmon, Neil A.


    QinetiQ has used a suite of modelling tools to predict the millimetric plume signatures from a range of ballistic missile types, based on the accepted theory that Bremsstrahlung emission, generated by the collision of free electrons with neutral species in a rocket motor plume, is the dominant signature mechanism. Plume signatures in terms of radiation temperatures varied from a few hundred Kelvin to over one thousand Kelvin, and were predicted to be dependent on emission frequency, propellant type and missile thrust. Two types of platform were considered for the passive mmw imager launch detection system; a High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) and a satellite based platform in low, mid and geosynchronous earth orbits. It was concluded that the optimum operating frequency for a HAPS based imager would be 35GHz with a 4.5m aperture and a sensitivity of 20mK providing visibility through 500 vertical feet of cloud. For a satellite based platform with a nadir view, the optimum frequency is 220 GHz. With such a system, in a low earth orbit at an altitude of 320km, with a sensitivity of 20mK, a 29cm aperture would be desirable.

  17. Ares V: Game Changer for National Security Launch (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Morris, Bruce


    NASA is designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to vastly expand exploration of the Moon begun in the Apollo program and enable the exploration of Mars and beyond. As the largest launcher in history, Ares V also represents a national asset offering unprecedented opportunities for new science, national security, and commercial missions of unmatched size and scope. The Ares V is the heavy-lift component of NASA's dual-launch architecture that will replace the current space shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and establish a permanent human presence on the Moon as a stepping-stone to destinations beyond. During extensive independent and internal architecture and vehicle trade studies as part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V to support future exploration. The smaller Ares I will launch the Orion crew exploration vehicle with four to six astronauts into orbit. The Ares V is designed to carry the Altair lunar lander into orbit, rendezvous with Orion, and send the mated spacecraft toward lunar orbit. The Ares V will be the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in history, providing unprecedented payload mass and volume to establish a permanent lunar outpost and explore significantly more of the lunar surface than was done during the Apollo missions. The Ares V consists of a Core Stage, two Reusable Solid Rocket Boosters (RSRBs), Earth Departure Stage (EDS), and a payload shroud. For lunar missions, the shroud would cover the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The Ares V Core Stage is 33 feet in diameter and 212 feet in length, making it the largest rocket stage ever built. It is the same diameter as the Saturn V first stage, the S-IC. However, its length is about the same as the combined length of the Saturn V first and second stages. The Core Stage uses a cluster of five Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne RS-68B rocket engines, each supplying about 700,000 pounds of thrust

  18. The MISSE-9 Polymers and Composites Experiment Being Flown on the MISSE-Flight Facility (United States)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.


    Materials on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subject to extremely harsh environmental conditions, including various forms of radiation (cosmic rays, ultraviolet, x-ray, and charged particle radiation), micrometeoroids and orbital debris, temperature extremes, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen (AO). These environmental exposures can result in erosion, embrittlement and optical property degradation of susceptible materials, threatening spacecraft performance and durability. To increase our understanding of space environmental effects such as AO erosion and radiation induced embrittlement of spacecraft materials, NASA Glenn has developed a series of experiments flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) missions on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments have provided critical LEO space environment durability data such as AO erosion yield values for many materials and mechanical properties changes after long term space exposure. In continuing these studies, a new Glenn experiment has been proposed, and accepted, for flight on the new MISSE-Flight Facility (MISSE-FF). This experiment is called the Polymers and Composites Experiment and it will be flown as part of the MISSE-9 mission, the inaugural mission of MISSE-FF. Figure 1 provides an artist rendition of MISSE-FF ISS external platform. The MISSE-FF is manifested for launch on SpaceX-13.

  19. Real-Time Simulation of Ares I Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Tobbe, Patrick; Matras, Alex; Wilson, Heath; Alday, Nathan; Walker, David; Betts, Kevin; Hughes, Ryan; Turbe, Michael


    The Ares Real-Time Environment for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation (ARTEMIS) has been developed for use by the Ares I launch vehicle System Integration Laboratory (SIL) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The primary purpose of the Ares SIL is to test the vehicle avionics hardware and software in a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) environment to certify that the integrated system is prepared for flight. ARTEMIS has been designed to be the real-time software backbone to stimulate all required Ares components through high-fidelity simulation. ARTEMIS has been designed to take full advantage of the advances in underlying computational power now available to support HWIL testing. A modular real-time design relying on a fully distributed computing architecture has been achieved. Two fundamental requirements drove ARTEMIS to pursue the use of high-fidelity simulation models in a real-time environment. First, ARTEMIS must be used to test a man-rated integrated avionics hardware and software system, thus requiring a wide variety of nominal and off-nominal simulation capabilities to certify system robustness. The second driving requirement - derived from a nationwide review of current state-of-the-art HWIL facilities - was that preserving digital model fidelity significantly reduced overall vehicle lifecycle cost by reducing testing time for certification runs and increasing flight tempo through an expanded operational envelope. These two driving requirements necessitated the use of high-fidelity models throughout the ARTEMIS simulation. The nature of the Ares mission profile imposed a variety of additional requirements on the ARTEMIS simulation. The Ares I vehicle is composed of multiple elements, including the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), the Upper Stage powered by the J- 2X engine, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) which houses the crew, the Launch Abort System (LAS), and various secondary elements that separate from the vehicle. At launch, the

  20. The FUSE satellite is encased in a canister before being moved to the Launch Pad. (United States)


    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), workers get ready to finish erecting the canister around NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite at left. At right is the last segment which will be placed on the top. The satellite will next be moved to Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, for its scheduled launch June 23 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  1. Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket (United States)


    At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Stardust spacecraft, attached to the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket, is lifted up the launch tower. The second and third stages of the rocket will be mated next as preparations continue for liftoff on Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  2. STS-96 Onboard Photo: Departing From the International Space Station (ISS) (United States)


    This STS-96 onboard photo of the International Space Station (ISS) was taken from Orbiter Discovery during a fly-around following separation of the two spacecraft. STS-96, the second Space Station assembly and resupply flight, launched on May 27, 1999 for an almost 10 day mission. The Shuttle's SPACEHAB double module carried internal and resupply cargo for station outfitting. Evident in the photo is the newly mounted Russian cargo crane, known as STRELA, which was carried aboard the shuttle in the integrated Cargo Carrir (ICC).

  3. Innovative Railway Stations (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel


    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  4. Air Quality Facilities (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research FacilityFacilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  5. 47 CFR 73.24 - Broadcast facilities; showing required. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast facilities; showing required. 73.24 Section 73.24 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.24 Broadcast facilities; showing required. An...

  6. Texture Modification of the Shuttle Landing Facility Runway at Kennedy Space Center (United States)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Yager, Thomas J.


    This paper describes the test procedures and the criteria used in selecting an effective runway-surface-texture modification at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to reduce Orbiter tire wear. The new runway surface may ultimately result in an increase of allowable crosswinds for launch and landing operations. The modification allows launch and landing operations in 20-knot crosswinds, if desired. This 5-knot increase over the previous 15-knot limit drastically increases landing safety and the ability to make on-time launches to support missions in which Space Station rendezvous are planned. The paper presents the results of an initial (1988) texture modification to reduce tire spin-up wear and then describes a series of tests that use an instrumented ground-test vehicle to compare tire friction and wear characteristics, at small scale, of proposed texture modifications placed into the SLF runway surface itself. Based on these tests, three candidate surfaces were chosen to be tested at full-scale by using a highly modified and instrumented transport aircraft capable of duplicating full Orbiter landing profiles. The full-scale Orbiter tire testing revealed that tire wear could be reduced approximately by half with either of two candidates. The texture-modification technique using a Humble Equipment Company Skidabrader(trademark) shotpeening machine proved to be highly effective, and the entire SLF runway surface was modified in September 1994. The extensive testing and evaluation effort that preceded the selection of this particular surface-texture-modification technique is described herein.

  7. Constellation Ground Systems Launch Availability Analysis: Enhancing Highly Reliable Launch Systems Design (United States)

    Gernand, Jeffrey L.; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Cummings, Nicholas H.


    Success of the Constellation Program's lunar architecture requires successfully launching two vehicles, Ares I/Orion and Ares V/Altair, in a very limited time period. The reliability and maintainability of flight vehicles and ground systems must deliver a high probability of successfully launching the second vehicle in order to avoid wasting the on-orbit asset launched by the first vehicle. The Ground Operations Project determined which ground subsystems had the potential to affect the probability of the second launch and allocated quantitative availability requirements to these subsystems. The Ground Operations Project also developed a methodology to estimate subsystem reliability, availability and maintainability to ensure that ground subsystems complied with allocated launch availability and maintainability requirements. The verification analysis developed quantitative estimates of subsystem availability based on design documentation; testing results, and other information. Where appropriate, actual performance history was used for legacy subsystems or comparative components that will support Constellation. The results of the verification analysis will be used to verify compliance with requirements and to highlight design or performance shortcomings for further decision-making. This case study will discuss the subsystem requirements allocation process, describe the ground systems methodology for completing quantitative reliability, availability and maintainability analysis, and present findings and observation based on analysis leading to the Ground Systems Preliminary Design Review milestone.

  8. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions (United States)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  9. Structural Weight Estimation for Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Cerro, Jeff; Martinovic, Zoran; Su, Philip; Eldred, Lloyd


    This paper describes some of the work in progress to develop automated structural weight estimation procedures within the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of the NASA Langley Research Center. One task of the VAB is to perform system studies at the conceptual and early preliminary design stages on launch vehicles and in-space transportation systems. Some examples of these studies for Earth to Orbit (ETO) systems are the Future Space Transportation System [1], Orbit On Demand Vehicle [2], Venture Star [3], and the Personnel Rescue Vehicle[4]. Structural weight calculation for launch vehicle studies can exist on several levels of fidelity. Typically historically based weight equations are used in a vehicle sizing program. Many of the studies in the vehicle analysis branch have been enhanced in terms of structural weight fraction prediction by utilizing some level of off-line structural analysis to incorporate material property, load intensity, and configuration effects which may not be captured by the historical weight equations. Modification of Mass Estimating Relationships (MER's) to assess design and technology impacts on vehicle performance are necessary to prioritize design and technology development decisions. Modern CAD/CAE software, ever increasing computational power and platform independent computer programming languages such as JAVA provide new means to create greater depth of analysis tools which can be included into the conceptual design phase of launch vehicle development. Commercial framework computing environments provide easy to program techniques which coordinate and implement the flow of data in a distributed heterogeneous computing environment. It is the intent of this paper to present a process in development at NASA LaRC for enhanced structural weight estimation using this state of the art computational power.

  10. NASA Orders Second Commercial Crew Launch from Boeing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greg Watry


      After ordering a commercial crew launch from SpaceX in November, NASA ordered an additional launch last week from Boeing Space Exploration in Houston, marking the company's second order from the space agency...

  11. Assessment of Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) Launch Systems Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Gregory W; Borraccini, Joseph P; Fitzpatrick, Brian K; Lynch, William A; McGinnis, Patrick J


    The Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) concept proposes the use of ship launched, unmanned gliders to re-supply shore based ground forces and requires a launch system capable of delivering unpowered UAVs to a range of 50 miles...

  12. Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine (United States)

    ... Issues Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. Among those attending the NIH MedlinePlus magazine launch on Capitol Hill were (l-r) NIH ...

  13. Large space reflector technology on the Space Station (United States)

    Mankins, J. C.; Dickinson, R. M.; Freeland, R. E.; Marzwell, N. I.


    This paper discusses the role of the Space Station in the evolutionary development of large space reflector technology and the accommodation of mission systems which will apply large space reflectors during the late 1990s and the early part of the next century. Reflectors which range from 10 to 100 meters in size and which span the electromagnetic spectrum for applications that include earth communications, earth observations, astrophysics and solar physics, and deep space communications are discussed. The role of the Space Station in large space reflector technology development and system performance demonstration is found to be critical; that role involves the accommodation of a wide variety of technology demonstrations and operational activities on the Station, including reflector deployment and/or assembly, mechanical performance verification and configuration refinement, systematic diagnostics of reflector surfaces, structural dynamics and controls research, overall system performance characterization and modification (including both radio frequency field pattern measurements and required end-to-end system demonstrations), and reflector-to-spacecraft integration and staging. A unique facility for Space Station-based, large space reflector research and development is proposed. A preliminary concept for such a Space Station-based Large Space Reflector Facility (LSRF) is described.

  14. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.


    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  15. Infrared measurements of launch vehicle exhaust plumes (United States)

    Schweitzer, Caroline; Ohmer, Phillip; Wendelstein, Norbert; Stein, Karin


    In the fields of early warning, one is depending on reliable analytical models for the prediction of the infrared threat signature: By having this as a basis, the warning sensors can be specified as suitable as possible to give timely threat approach alerts. In this paper, we will present preliminary results of measurement trials that have been carried out in 2015, where the exhaust plume of launch vehicles has been measured under various atmospheric conditions. The gathered data will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of the plume signature.

  16. Grenade-launched imaging projectile system (GLIMPS) (United States)

    Nunan, Scott C.; Coakley, Peter G.; Niederhaus, Gregory A.; Lum, Chris


    A system has been developed for delivering and attaching a sensor payload to a target using a standard 40-mm grenade launcher. The projectile incorporates an attachment mechanism, a shock mitigation system, a power source, and a video-bandwidth transmitter. Impact and launch g-loads have been limited to less than 10,000 g's, enabling sensor payloads to be assembled using Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The GLIMPS projectile is intended to be a general-purpose delivery system for a variety of sensor payloads under the Unattended Ground Sensors program. Test results and development issues are presented.

  17. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit (United States)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.


    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  18. Lightning Protection System to the Indian Satellite Launch Pad


    Nagabushana, GR; Thomas, Joy; Kumar, Udaya; Rao, Venkateshwara D; Rao, Panduranga PV


    Any satellite launch mission forms a complex and expensive process. Intensive care and precautions are to be taken for a safe and successful launch. Also, the satellite launch system forms a tall structure standing on a plane terrain. As a result, a lightning strike rate to it becomes more probable. Therefore, extensive care needs to be taken in shielding the launch system against natural lightning. Lightning protection systems built with differing principles have been in use at different lau...

  19. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  20. EPM - The European Facility for human physiology research on ISS. (United States)

    Rieschel, Mats; Nasca, Rosario; Junk, Peter; Gerhard, Ingo


    The European Physiology Modules (EPM) Facility is one of the four major Space Station facilities being developed within the framework of ESA's Microgravity Facilities for Columbus (MFC) programme. In order to allow a wide spectrum of physiological studies in weightlessness conditions, the facility provides the infrastructure to accommodate a variable set of scientific equipment. The initial EPM configuration supports experiments in the fields of neuroscience, bone & muscle research, cardiovascular research and metabolism. The International Space Life Science Working Group (ISLSWG) has recommended co-locating EPM with the 2 NASA Human Research Facility racks.