WorldWideScience

Sample records for station iss research

  1. The International Space Station (ISS) Education Accomplishments and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Blue, Regina; Mayo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers worldwide and thus stands as an invaluable learning platform for the advancement of proficiency in research and development and education. The presence of humans on board ISS for the past ten years has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines which will lead to an increase in quality of teachers, advancements in research and development, an increase in the global reputation for intellectual achievement, and an expanded ability to pursue unchartered avenues towards a brighter future. Over 41 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related activities since the year 2000. Projects such as the Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) and Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), among others, have allowed for global student, teacher, and public access to space through radio contacts with crewmembers and student image acquisition respectively. . With planned ISS operations at least until 2020, projects like the aforementioned and their accompanying educational materials will be available to enable increased STEM literacy around the world. Since the launch of the first ISS element, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed by each of the international partner agencies: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). Additionally, a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements, have also participated in Station-related activities. Many of these programs still continue while others are being developed and added to the station crewmembers tasks

  2. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  3. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  4. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a collection of summaries of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/issscience) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It reflects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a way that will impact humanity like no laboratory on Earth. The ISS Program Science Forum will continue to capture and report on these results in the form of journal publications, conference proceedings, and patents. We anticipate that successful ISS research will

  5. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Spearing, Scott F.; Jordan, Lee P.; McDaniel S. Greg

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas. The MSG is a very versatile and capable research facility on the ISS. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been used for a large body or research in material science, heat transfer, crystal growth, life sciences, smoke detection, combustion, plant growth, human health, and technology demonstration. MSG is an ideal platform for gravity-dependent phenomena related research. Moreover, the MSG provides engineers and scientists a platform for research in an environment similar to the one that spacecraft and crew members will actually experience during space travel and exploration. The MSG facility is ideally suited to provide quick, relatively inexpensive access to space for National Lab type investigations.

  6. Development and Certification of Ultrasonic Background Noise Test (UBNT) System for use on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    As a next step in the development and implementation of an on-board leak detection and localization system on the International Space Station (ISS), there is a documented need to obtain measurements of the ultrasonic background noise levels that exist within the ISS. This need is documented in the ISS Integrated Risk Management System (IRMA), Watch Item #4669. To address this, scientists and engineers from the Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Johnson Space Center (JSC), proposed to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and the ISS Vehicle Office a joint assessment to develop a flight package as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) that would perform ultrasonic background noise measurements within the United States (US) controlled ISS structure. This document contains the results of the assessment

  7. Report by the International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation (IMCE) Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. Thomas; Kellogg, Yvonne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation Task Force (IMCE) was chartered to conduct an independent external review and assessment of the ISS cost, budget, and management. In addition, the Task Force was asked to provide recommendations that could provide maximum benefit to the U.S. taxpayers and the International Partners within the President's budget request. The Task Force has made the following principal findings: (1) The ISS Program's technical achievements to date, as represented by on-orbit capability, are extraordinary; (2) The Existing ISS Program Plan for executing the FY 02-06 budget is not credible; (3) The existing deficiencies in management structure, institutional culture, cost estimating, and program control must be acknowledged and corrected for the Program to move forward in a credible fashion; (4) Additional budget flexibility, from within the Office of Space Flight (OSF) must be provided for a credible core complete program; (5) The research support program is proceeding assuming the budget that was in place before the FY02 budget runout reduction of $1B; (6) There are opportunities to maximize research on the core station program with modest cost impact; (7) The U.S. Core Complete configuration (three person crew) as an end-state will not achieve the unique research potential of the ISS; (8) The cost estimates for the U.S.-funded enhancement options (e.g., permanent seven person crew) are not sufficiently developed to assess credibility. After these findings, the Task Force has formulated several primary recommendations which are published here and include: (1) Major changes must be made in how the ISS program is managed; (2) Additional cost reductions are required within the baseline program; (3) Additional funds must be identified and applied from the Human Space Flight budget; (4) A clearly defined program with a credible end-state, agreed to by all stakeholders, must be developed and implemented.

  8. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - the First Operational Payload on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.; McFadin, L.; Steiner, M.; Conley, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found Amateur Radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a constant companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the FGB to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early in the development of ISS, an international organization called ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station) was formed to coordinate the construction and operation of amateur radio (ham radio) equipment on ISS. ARISS represents a melding of the volunteer teams that have pioneered the development and use of amateur radio equipment on human spaceflight vehicles. The Shuttle/Space Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) team enabled Owen Garriott to become the first astronaut ham to use amateur radio from space in 1983. Since then, amateur radio teams in the U.S. (SAREX), Germany, (SAFEX), and Russia (Mirex) have led the development and operation of amateur radio equipment on board NASA's Space Shuttle, Russia's Mir space station, and the International Space Station. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the Amateur Radio public, 3) scheduled contacts with the astronauts' friends and families and 4) ISS-based communications experimentation. To date, over 65 schools have been selected from around the world for scheduled contacts with the orbiting ISS crew. Ten or more students at each school ask the astronauts questions, and the nature of these contacts embodies the primary goal of the ARISS program, -- to excite student's interest in science, technology and amateur radio. The ARISS team has developed various hardware elements for the ISS amateur radio station. These hardware elements have flown to ISS

  9. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  10. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  12. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the...

  13. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  14. GEROS-ISS: GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Cardellach, Estel; Bandeiras, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    GEROS-ISS stands for GNSS REflectometry, radio occultation, and scatterometry onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is a scientific experiment, successfully proposed to the European Space Agency in 2011. The experiment as the name indicates will be conducted on the ISS. The main focus...... of GEROS-ISS is the dedicated use of signals from the currently available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in L-band for remote sensing of the Earth with a focus to study climate change. Prime mission objectives are the determination of the altimetric sea surface height of the oceans...

  15. Research on the International Space Station - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations November 1998 to November 2000 it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence. Since that time and simultaneous with the complicated task of ISS construction and overcoming impacts from the tragic Columbia accident science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. As of this writing, over 162 experiments have been operated on the ISS, supporting research for hundreds of ground-based investigators from the U.S. and international partners. This report summarizes the experimental results collected to date. Today, NASA's priorities for research aboard the ISS center on understanding human health during long-duration missions, researching effective countermeasures for long-duration crewmembers, and researching and testing new technologies that can be used for future exploration crews and spacecraft. Through the U.S. National Laboratory designation, the ISS is also a platform available to other government agencies. Research on ISS supports new understandings, methods or applications relevant to life on Earth, such as understanding effective protocols to protect against loss of bone density or better methods for producing stronger metal alloys. Experiment results have already been used in applications as diverse as the manufacture of solar cell and insulation materials for new spacecraft and the verification of complex numerical models for behavior of fluids in fuel tanks. A synoptic publication of these results will be forthcoming in 2009. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities were tripled with the addition of ESA's Columbus and JAXA's Kibo scientific modules joining NASA's Destiny Laboratory. All three

  16. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station - A New Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011 (Expeditions 0 through 30). International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results. From 2000-2011 is a collection of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/iss- science) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated by cooperation and linking with the results tracking activities of each partner. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. This content is obtained through extensive and regular journal and patent database searches, and input provided by the ISS international partners ISS scientists themselves. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It rejects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a

  17. ISS External Payload Platform - a new opportunity for research in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Christian; Pape, Uwe

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a widely accepted platform for research activities in low Earth orbit. To a wide extent these activities are conducted in the pressurised laboratories of the station and less in the outside environment. Suitable locations outside the ISS are rare, existing facilities fully booked for the coming years. To overcome this limitation, an external payload platform accessible for small size payloads on a commercial basis will be launched to the ISS and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module External Facility (JEM-EF) in the third quarter of 2014 and will be ready to be used by the scientific community on a fully commercial basis. The new External Payload Platform (EPP) and its opportunities and constraints assessed regarding future research activities on-board the ISS. The small size platform is realised in a cooperation between the companies NanoRacks, Astrium North America in the United States, and Airbus Defence and Space in Germany. The hardware allows the fully robotic installation and operation of payloads. In the nominal mission scenario payload items are installed not later than one year after the signature of the contract, stay in operation for 15 weeks, and can be returned to the scientist thereafter. Payload items are transported among the pressurised cargo usually delivered to the station with various supply vehicles. Due to the high frequency of flights and the flexibility of the vehicle manifests the risk of a delay in the payload readiness can be mitigated by delaying to the next flight opportunity which on average is available not more than two months later. The mission is extra-ordinarily fast and of low cost in comparison to traditional research conducted on-board the ISS and can fit into short-term funding cycles available on national and multi-national levels. The size of the payload items is limited by handling constraints on-board the ISS. Therefore, the standard experiment payload size is a multiple of a

  18. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Provisional Science Data Vp0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) datasets were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the distribution and...

  19. The International Space Station Research Opportunities and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the International Space Station (ISS) construction and assembly was completed to become a world-class scientific research laboratory. We are now in the era of utilization of this unique platform that facilitates ground-breaking research in the microgravity environment. There are opportunities for NASA-funded research; research funded under the auspice of the United States National Laboratory; and research funded by the International Partners - Japan, Europe, Russia and Canada. The ISS facilities offer an opportunity to conduct research in a multitude of disciplines such as biology and biotechnology, physical science, human research, technology demonstration and development; and earth and space science. The ISS is also a unique resource for educational activities that serve to motivate and inspire students to pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Even though we have just commenced full utilization of the ISS as a science laboratory, early investigations are yielding major results that are leading to such things as vaccine development, improved cancer drug delivery methods and treatment for debilitating diseases, such as Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy. This paper

  20. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to...

  1. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  2. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  3. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  4. ISS and Shuttle Payload Research Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Kyle A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's ISS and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (UB) is charged with the performance of payload development for research originating through NASA, ISS international partners, and the National Laboratory. The Payload Development sector of the Directorate takes biological research approved for on orbit experimentation from its infancy stage and finds a way to integrate and implement that research into a payload on either a Shuttle sortie or Space Station increment. From solicitation and selection, to definition, to verification, to integration and finally to operations and analysis, Payload Development is there every step of the way. My specific work as an intern this summer has consisted of investigating data received by separate flight and ground control Advanced Biological Research Systems (ABRS) units for Advanced Plant Experiments (APEX) and Cambium research. By correlation and analysis of this data and specific logbook information I have been working to explain changes in environmental conditions on both the flight and ground control unit. I have then, compiled all of that information into a form that can be presentable to the Principal Investigator (PI). This compilation allows that PI scientist to support their findings and add merit to their research. It also allows us, as the Payload Developers, to further inspect the ABRS unit and its performance

  5. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Provisional Science Data Vp0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) datasets were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the distribution and...

  6. International Space Station Research for the Next Decade: International Coordination and Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Sabbagh, Jean

    2011-01-01

    During 2011, the International Space Station reached an important milestone in the completion of assembly and the shift to the focus on a full and continuous utilization mission in space. The ISS partnership itself has also met a milestone in the coordination and cooperation of utilization activities including research, technology development and education. We plan and track all ISS utilization activities jointly and have structures in place to cooperate on common goals by sharing ISS assets and resources, and extend the impacts and efficiency of utilization activities. The basic utilization areas on the ISS include research, technology development and testing, and education/outreach. Research can be categorized as applied research for future exploration, basic research taking advantage of the microgravity and open space environment, and Industrial R&D / commercial research focused at industrial product development and improvement. Technology development activities range from testing of new spacecraft systems and materials to the use of ISS as an analogue for future exploration missions to destinations beyond Earth orbit. This presentation, made jointly by all ISS international partners, will highlight the ways that international cooperation in all of these areas is achieved, and the overall accomplishments that have come as well as future perspectives from the cooperation. Recently, the partnership has made special efforts to increase the coordination and impact of ISS utilization that has humanitarian benefits. In this context the paper will highlight tentative ISS utilization developments in the areas of Earth remote sensing, medical technology transfer, and education/outreach.

  7. International Space Station Research and Facilities for Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara M.

    2009-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station is nearing completion in fall of 2010. Although assembly has been the primary objective of its first 11 years of operation, early science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. Laboratory facilities outfitting has increased dramatically 2008-2009 with the European Space Agency s Columbus and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency s Kibo scientific laboratories joining NASA s Destiny laboratory in orbit. In May 2009, the ISS Program met a major milestone with an increase in crew size from 3 to 6 crewmembers, thus greatly increasing the time available to perform on-orbit research. NASA will launch its remaining research facilities to occupy all 3 laboratories in fall 2009 and winter 2010. To date, early utilization of the US Operating Segment of the ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting international and US partner research. With a specific focus on life sciences research, this paper will summarize the science accomplishments from early research aboard the ISS- both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. We will also look ahead to the full capabilities for life sciences research when assembly of ISS is complete in 2010.

  8. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for CubeSat Deployments to Minimize Collision Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe global precipitation, extending the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was launched by H-IIA from Tanegashima in Japan on February 28TH, 2014 directly into its 407km operational orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an international human research facility operated jointly by Russia and the USA from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston Texas. Mission priorities lowered the operating altitude of ISS from 415km to 400km in early 2105, effectively placing both vehicles into the same orbital regime. The ISS has begun a program of deployments of cost effective CubeSats from the ISS that allow testing and validation of new technologies. With a major new asset flying at the same effective altitude as the ISS, CubeSat deployments became a serious threat to GPM and therefore a significant indirect threat to the ISS. This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  9. Using the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) Is Not Feasible for Mars Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2016-01-01

    A review of two papers on improving the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) shows that it would not save substantial mass on a Mars transit. The ISS OGA requires redesign for satisfactory operation, even for the ISS. The planned improvements of the OGA for ISS would not be sufficient to make it suitable for Mars, because Mars transit life support has significantly different requirements than ISS. The OGA for Mars should have lower mass, better reliability and maintainability, greater safety, radiation hardening, and capability for quiescent operation. NASA's methodical, disciplined systems engineering process should be used to develop the appropriate system.

  10. Establishing a Distance Learning Plan for International Space Station (ISS) Interactive Video Education Events (IVEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Clint

    1999-01-01

    Educational outreach is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) mandate. In a few scant years, the International Space Station has already established a tradition of successful, general outreach activities. However, as the number of outreach events increased and began to reach school classrooms, those events came under greater scrutiny by the education community. Some of the ISS electronic field trips, while informative and helpful, did not meet the generally accepted criteria for education events, especially within the context of the classroom. To make classroom outreach events more acceptable to educators, the ISS outreach program must differentiate between communication events (meant to disseminate information to the general public) and education events (designed to facilitate student learning). In contrast to communication events, education events: are directed toward a relatively homogeneous audience who are gathered together for the purpose of learning, have specific performance objectives which the students are expected to master, include a method of assessing student performance, and include a series of structured activities that will help the students to master the desired skill(s). The core of the ISS education events is an interactive videoconference between students and ISS representatives. This interactive videoconference is to be preceded by and followed by classroom activities which help the students aftain the specified learning objectives. Using the interactive videoconference as the centerpiece of the education event lends a special excitement and allows students to ask questions about what they are learning and about the International Space Station and NASA. Whenever possible, the ISS outreach education events should be congruent with national guidelines for student achievement. ISS outreach staff should recognize that there are a number of different groups that will review the events, and that each group has different criteria

  11. An Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility and the Research Performed in the MSG on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lee P.

    2013-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for investigation handling. The MSG was built by the European Space Agency (ESA) which also provides sustaining engineering support for the facility. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, +/- 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. The MSG has been used for over 14500 hours of scientific payload operations. MSG investigations involve research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, plant growth, and life support technology. The MSG facility is operated by the Payloads Operations Integration Center at Marshall Space flight Center. Payloads may also operate remotely from different telescience centers located in the United States and Europe. The investigative Payload Integration Manager (iPIM) is the focal to assist organizations that have payloads operating in the MSG facility. NASA provides an MSG engineering unit for payload developers

  12. 76 FR 65752 - International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-0550, National Aeronautics and Space Administration... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-104)] International Space Station (ISS... National Laboratory Advisory Committee is in the public interest in connection with the performance of...

  13. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), Space Science's Past, Present and Future Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie; Spearing, Scott; Jordan, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which accommodates science and technology investigations in a "workbench' type environment. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 10,000 hours of scientific payload operations and plans to continue for the life of ISS. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume and allows researchers a controlled pristine environment for their needs. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, + 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. MSG investigations have involved research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, and plant growth technologies. Modifications to the MSG facility are currently under way to expand the capabilities and provide for investigations involving Life Science and Biological research. In addition, the MSG video system is being replaced with a state-of-the-art, digital video system with high definition/high speed capabilities, and with near real-time downlink capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, and an

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Cover, John

    2015-01-01

    Nov 2, 2014 marked the completion of the 14th year of continuous human presence in space on board the International Space Station (ISS). After 42 expedition crews, over 115 assembly & utilization flights, over 180 combined Shuttle/Station, US & Russian Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), the post-Assembly-Complete ISS continues to fly and the engineering teams continue to learn from operating its systems, particularly the life support equipment. Problems with initial launch, assembly and activation of ISS elements have given way to more long term system operating trends. New issues have emerged, some with gestation periods measured in years. Major events and challenges for each U.S. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) subsystem occurring during calendar years 2010 through 2014 are summarily discussed in this paper, along with look-aheads for what might be coming in the future for each U.S. ECLS subsystem.

  15. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Study of BSL-2 bacterial isolates from the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In an on-going Microbial Observatory experimental investigation on the International Space Station (ISS) multiple bacterial isolates of Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2)...

  17. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) - the First Educational Outreach Program on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, C. L.; Bauer, F. H.; Brown, D.; White, R.

    2002-01-01

    More than 40 missions over five years will be required to assemble the International Space Station in orbit. The astronauts and cosmonauts will work hard on these missions, but they plan to take some time off for educational activities with schools. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station represents the first Educational Outreach program that is flying on ISS. NASA's Division of Education is a major supporter and sponsor of this student outreach activity on the International Space Station. This meets NASA's educational mission objective: "To inspire the next generation of explorers...as only NASA can." As the International Space Station takes its place in the heavens, the amateur radio community is doing its part by helping to enrich the experience of those visiting and living on the station as well as the students on Earth. Through ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station), students on Earth have a once in a lifetime opportunity--to talk to the crew on-board ISS. Using amateur radio equipment set up in their classroom, students get a first-hand feel of what it is like to live and work in space. Each school gets a 10 minute question and answer interview with the on-orbit crew using a ground station located in their classroom or through a remote ground station. The ARISS opportunity has proven itself as a tremendous educational boon to teachers and students. Through ARISS, students learn about orbit dynamics, Doppler shift, radio communications, and working with the press. Since its first flight in 1983, amateur radio has flown on more than two-dozen space shuttle missions. Dozens of astronauts have used the predecessor program called SAREX (The Space Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment) to talk to thousands of kids in school and to their families on Earth while they were in orbit. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the amateur radio public, 3

  18. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  19. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and its Optical Transient Detector (OTD) predecessor that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) spanning a period from May 1995 through April 2015. As an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The STP-H5 payload containing LIS is scheduled launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center to the ISS in November 2016, aboard the SpaceX Cargo Resupply Services-10 (SpaceX-10) mission, installed in the unpressurized "trunk" of the Dragon spacecraft. After the Dragon is berth to ISS Node 2, the payload will be removed from the trunk and robotically installed in a nadir-viewing location on the external truss of the ISS. Following installation on the ISS, the LIS Operations Team will work with the STP-H5 and ISS Operations Teams to power-on LIS and begin instrument checkout and commissioning. Following successful activation, LIS orbital operations will commence, managed from the newly established LIS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the National Space Science Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. The well-established and robust processing, archival, and distribution infrastructure used for TRMM was easily adapted to the ISS mission, assuring that lightning

  20. International Space Station (ISS) Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) Utilization Plan Assessment Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Iannello, Christopher J.; Garrett, Henry B.; Ging, Andrew T.; Katz, Ira; Keith, R. Lloyd; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Schneider, Todd A.; Whittlesey, Edward J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) vehicle undergoes spacecraft charging as it interacts with Earth's ionosphere and magnetic field. The interaction can result in a large potential difference developing between the ISS metal chassis and the local ionosphere plasma environment. If an astronaut conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) is exposed to the potential difference, then a possible electrical shock hazard arises. The control of this hazard was addressed by a number of documents within the ISS Program (ISSP) including Catastrophic Safety Hazard for Astronauts on EVA (ISS-EVA-312-4A_revE). The safety hazard identified the risk for an astronaut to experience an electrical shock in the event an arc was generated on an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) surface. A catastrophic safety hazard, by the ISS requirements, necessitates mitigation by a two-fault tolerant system of hazard controls. Traditionally, the plasma contactor units (PCUs) on the ISS have been used to limit the charging and serve as a "ground strap" between the ISS structure and the surrounding ionospheric plasma. In 2009, a previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team evaluated the PCU utilization plan (NESC Request #07-054-E) with the objective to assess whether leaving PCUs off during non-EVA time periods presented risk to the ISS through assembly completion. For this study, in situ measurements of ISS charging, covering the installation of three of the four photovoltaic arrays, and laboratory testing results provided key data to underpin the assessment. The conclusion stated, "there appears to be no significant risk of damage to critical equipment nor excessive ISS thermal coating damage as a result of eliminating PCU operations during non- EVA times." In 2013, the ISSP was presented with recommendations from Boeing Space Environments for the "Conditional" Marginalization of Plasma Hazard. These recommendations include a plan that would keep the PCUs off during EVAs when the

  1. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, C.; Sgobba, T.; Larsen, A.; Rose, S.; Heimann, T.; Ciancone, M.; Mulhern, V.

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre- existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and ISS. The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be considered when establishing the ESA PSRP. The paper will expound upon the detailed franchising model, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The paper will then address the resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date. Additionally, the paper presents ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  2. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  3. Neutron production in a spherical phantom aboard ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasbaz, A.; Machrafi, R.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program on radiation monitoring on International Space Station (ISS) that was established to analyze the radiation exposure levels onboard the ISS using different radiation instruments and a spherical phantom to simulate human body. Monte Carlo transport code was used to simulate the interaction of high energy protons and neutrons with the spherical phantom currently onboard ISS. The phantom has been exposed to individual proton energies and to a spectrum of neutrons. The internal to external neutron flux ratio was calculated and compared to the experimental data, recently, measured on the ISS. (author)

  4. Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbiting laboratory whose goals include advancing science and technology research. Completion of ISS assembly ushered a new era focused on utilization, encompassing multiple disciplines such as Biology and Biotechnology, Physical Sciences, Technology Development and Demonstration, Human Research, Earth and Space Sciences, and Educational Activities. The research complement planned for upcoming ISS Expeditions 45&46 includes several investigations in the new field of omics, which aims to collectively characterize sets of biomolecules (e.g., genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic products) that translate into organismic structure and function. For example, Multi-Omics is a JAXA investigation that analyzes human microbial metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem by evaluating data from immune dysregulation biomarkers, metabolic profiles, and microbiota composition. The NASA OsteoOmics investigation studies gravitational regulation of osteoblast genomics and metabolism. Tissue Regeneration uses pan-omics approaches with cells cultured in bioreactors to characterize factors involved in mammalian bone tissue regeneration in microgravity. Rodent Research-3 includes an experiment that implements pan-omics to evaluate therapeutically significant molecular circuits, markers, and biomaterials associated with microgravity wound healing and tissue regeneration in bone defective rodents. The JAXA Mouse Epigenetics investigation examines molecular alterations in organ specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight. Lastly, Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), NASA's first foray into human omics research, applies integrated analyses to assess biomolecular responses to physical, physiological, and environmental stressors associated

  5. How Do Lessons Learned on the International Space Station (ISS) Help Plan Life Support for Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    How can our experience in developing and operating the International Space Station (ISS) guide the design, development, and operation of life support for the journey to Mars? The Mars deep space Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) must incorporate the knowledge and experience gained in developing ECLSS for low Earth orbit, but it must also meet the challenging new requirements of operation in deep space where there is no possibility of emergency resupply or quick crew return. The understanding gained by developing ISS flight hardware and successfully supporting a crew in orbit for many years is uniquely instructive. Different requirements for Mars life support suggest that different decisions may be made in design, testing, and operations planning, but the lessons learned developing the ECLSS for ISS provide valuable guidance.

  6. Cold Stowage: An ISS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Garen

    2018-01-01

    NASA's vision for humans pursuing deep space flight involves the collection of science in low earth orbit aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a service to the science community, Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed hardware and processes to preserve collected science on the ISS and transfer it safely back to the Principal Investigators. This hardware includes an array of freezers, refrigerators, and incubators. The Cold Stowage team is part of the International Space Station (ISS) program. JSC manages the operation, support and integration tasks provided by Jacobs Technology and the University of Alabama Birmingham (UAB). Cold Stowage provides controlled environments to meet temperature requirements during ascent, on-orbit operations and return, in relation to International Space Station Payload Science.

  7. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  8. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  9. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2012-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on ]orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials were changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle was redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  10. Space Radiation Peculiarities in the Extra Vehicular Environment of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Bankov, Nikolay; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen

    2013-12-01

    The space weather and the connected with it ionizing radiation were recognized as a one of the main health concern to the International Space Station (ISS) crew. Estimation the effects of radiation on humans in ISS requires at first order accurate knowledge of the accumulated by them absorbed dose rates, which depend of the global space radiation distribution and the local variations generated by the 3D surrounding shielding distribution. The R3DE (Radiation Risks Radiometer-Dosimeter (R3D) for the EXPOSE-E platform on the European Technological Exposure Facility (EuTEF) worked successfully outside of the European Columbus module between February 2008 and September 2009. Very similar instrument named R3DR for the EXPOSE-R platform worked outside Russian Zvezda module of ISS between March 2009 and August 2010. Both are Liulin type, Bulgarian build miniature spectrometers-dosimeters. They accumulated about 5 million measurements of the flux and absorbed dose rate with 10 seconds resolution behind less than 0.41 g cm-2 shielding, which is very similar to the Russian and American space suits [1-3] average shielding. That is why all obtained data can be interpreted as possible doses during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) of the cosmonauts and astronauts. The paper first analyses the obtained long-term results in the different radiation environments of: Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), inner radiation belt trapped protons in the region of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer radiation belt (ORB) relativistic electrons. The large data base was used for development of an empirical model for calculation of the absorbed dose rates in the extra vehicular environment of ISS at 359 km altitude. The model approximate the averaged in a grid empirical dose rate values to predict the values at required from the user geographical point, station orbit or area in geographic coordinate system. Further in the paper it is presented an intercomparison between predicted by the model dose

  11. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  12. International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During the Assembly Years: An Analysis of Results from 2000-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Crespo-Richey, Jessica; Baumann, David; Rhatigan, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes research accomplishments on the International Space Station (ISS) through the first 15 Expeditions. When research programs for early Expeditions were established, five administrative organizations were executing research on ISS: bioastronautics research, fundamental space biology, physical science, space product development, and space flight. The Vision for Space Exploration led to changes in NASA's administrative structures, so we have grouped experiments topically by scientific themes human research for exploration, physical and biological sciences, technology development, observing the Earth, and educating and inspiring the next generation even when these do not correspond to the administrative structure at the time at which they were completed. The research organizations at the time at which the experiments flew are preserved in the appendix of this document. These investigations on the ISS have laid the groundwork for research planning for Expeditions to come. Humans performing scientific investigations on ISS serve as a model for the goals of future Exploration missions. The success of a wide variety of investigations is an important hallmark of early research on ISS. Of the investigations summarized here, some are completed with results released, some are completed with preliminary results, and some remain ongoing.

  13. In-Flight Water Quality Monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS): Measuring Biocide Concentrations with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    The colorimetric water quality monitoring kit (CWQMK) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) on STS-128/17A and was initially deployed in September 2009. The kit was flown as a station development test objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the acceptability of colorimetric solid phase extraction (CSPE) technology for routine water quality monitoring on the ISS. During the SDTO experiment, water samples from the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA), the U.S. potable water dispenser (PWD), and the Russian system for dispensing ground-supplied water (SVO-ZV) were collected and analyzed with the CWQMK. Samples from the U.S. segment of the ISS were analyzed for molecular iodine, which is the biocide added to water in the WPA. Samples from the SVOZV system were analyzed for ionic silver, the biocide used on the Russian segment of the ISS. In all, thirteen in-flight analysis sessions were completed as part of the SDTO experiment. This paper provides an overview of the experiment and reports the results obtained with the CWQMK. The forward plan for certifying the CWQMK as operational hardware and expanding the capabilities of the kit are also discussed.

  14. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  15. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Wharton, N. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Ellett, W. T.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Over two decades, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) provided global observations of tropical lightning for an impressive 17 years before that mission came to a close in April 2015. Now a space-qualified LIS, built as the flight spare for TRMM, has been installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum two year mission following its SpaceX launch on February 19, 2017. The LIS, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission, was robotically installed in an Earth-viewing position on the outside of the ISS, providing a great opportunity to not only extend the 17-year TRMM LIS record of tropical lightning measurements but also to expand that coverage to higher latitudes missed by the TRMM mission. Since its activation, LIS has continuously observed the amount, rate, and radiant energy lightning within its field-of-view as it orbits the Earth. A major focus of this mission is to better understand the processes which cause lightning, as well as the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events. This understanding is a key to improving weather predictions and saving lives and property here in the United States and around the world. The LIS measurements will also help cross-validate observations from the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) operating on NOAA's newest weather satellite GOES-16. An especially unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational forecasting and warning applications over data sparse regions such

  16. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the International Space Station (ISS): Mission Description and Science Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners have developed and demonstrated space-based lightning observations as an effective remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) continues to acquire global observations of total (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning after 17 years on-orbit. However, TRMM is now low on fuel, so this mission will soon be completed. As a follow on to this mission, a space-qualified LIS built as the flight spare for TRMM has been selected for flight as a science mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS LIS will be flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) H5 mission, which has a January 2016 baseline launch date aboard a SpaceX launch vehicle for a 2-4 year or longer mission. The LIS measures the amount, rate, and radiant energy of total lightning over the Earth. More specifically, it measures lightning during both day and night, with storm scale resolution (approx. 4 km), millisecond timing, and high, uniform detection efficiency, without any land-ocean bias. Lightning is a direct and most impressive response to intense atmospheric convection. It has been found that lightning measured by LIS can be quantitatively related to thunderstorm and other geophysical processes. Therefore, the ISS LIS lightning observations will continue to provide important gap-filling inputs to pressing Earth system science issues across a broad range of disciplines, including weather, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and lightning physics. A unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational applications over data sparse regions such as the oceans. The ISS platform will also uniquely enable LIS to provide simultaneous and complementary observations

  17. Using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on the International Space Station (ISS), The Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) and MacroMolecular Biophysics (MMB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Sicker, Ronald; Abbott-Hearn, Amber; Chao, David; Chiaramonte, Fran; Atherton, Arthur; Beltram, Alexander; Bodzioney, Christopher M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2016, if all goes as planned, three experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Heated base-2 (ACE-H2) and [2] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Temperature control (ACE-T1). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al. and [2] from Chungnam National University, Daejeon, S. Korea: Chang-Soo Lee, et al.

  18. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  19. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  20. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Molecular characterization of Bacillus issensis sp. nov. isolated from various quarters of the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of an ongoing effort to catalogue microbial communities inhabiting the International Space Station (ISS) crew-associated environmental samples were collected...

  1. ISS National Laboratory Education Project: Enhancing and Innovating the ISS as an Educational Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Leland D.

    2011-01-01

    The vision is to develop the ISS National Laboratory Education Project (ISS NLE) as a national resource for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, utilizing the unique educational venue of the International Space Station per the NASA Congressional Authorization Act of 2005. The ISS NLE will serve as an educational resource which enables educational activities onboard the ISS and in the classroom. The ISS NLE will be accessible to educators and students from kindergarten to post-doctoral studies, at primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities. Additionally, the ISS NLE will provide ISS-related STEM education opportunities and resources for learners of all ages via informal educational institutions and venues Though U.S. Congressional direction emphasized the involvement of U.S. students, many ISS-based educational activities have international student and educator participation Over 31 million students around the world have participated in several ISS-related education activities.

  2. Assembling and supplying the ISS the space shuttle fulfills its mission

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation and utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is a milestone in space exploration. But without the Space Shuttle, it would have remained an impossible dream. Assembling and Supplying the ISS is the story of how, between 1998 and 2011, the Shuttle became the platform which enabled the construction and continued operation of the primary scientific research facility in Earth orbit. Fulfilling an objective it had been designed to complete decades before, 37 Shuttle missions carried the majority of the hardware needed to build the ISS and then acted as a ferry and supply train for early resident crews to the station. Building upon the decades of development and experience described in the companion volume Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations: Early Docking Technologies from Concept to Implementation, this book explores • a purpose-built hardware processing facility • challenging spacewalking objectives • extensive robotic operations • undocking a unmanned orbiter The experie...

  3. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  4. Reusable Rack Interface Controller Common Software for Various Science Research Racks on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, George C.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the EXPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station) rack project is to provide a set of predefined interfaces for scientific payloads which allow rapid integration into a payload rack on International Space Station (ISS). VxWorks' was selected as the operating system for the rack and payload resource controller, primarily based on the proliferation of VME (Versa Module Eurocard) products. These products provide needed flexibility for future hardware upgrades to meet everchanging science research rack configuration requirements. On the International Space Station, there are multiple science research rack configurations, including: 1) Human Research Facility (HRF); 2) EXPRESS ARIS (Active Rack Isolation System); 3) WORF (Window Observational Research Facility); and 4) HHR (Habitat Holding Rack). The RIC (Rack Interface Controller) connects payloads to the ISS bus architecture for data transfer between the payload and ground control. The RIC is a general purpose embedded computer which supports multiple communication protocols, including fiber optic communication buses, Ethernet buses, EIA-422, Mil-Std-1553 buses, SMPTE (Society Motion Picture Television Engineers)-170M video, and audio interfaces to payloads and the ISS. As a cost saving and software reliability strategy, the Boeing Payload Software Organization developed reusable common software where appropriate. These reusable modules included a set of low-level driver software interfaces to 1553B. RS232, RS422, Ethernet buses, HRDL (High Rate Data Link), video switch functionality, telemetry processing, and executive software hosted on the FUC computer. These drivers formed the basis for software development of the HRF, EXPRESS, EXPRESS ARIS, WORF, and HHR RIC executable modules. The reusable RIC common software has provided extensive benefits, including: 1) Significant reduction in development flow time; 2) Minimal rework and maintenance; 3) Improved reliability; and 4) Overall

  5. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, E; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Horneck, G

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system

  6. Epigenetics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a state-of-the orbiting laboratory focused on advancing science and technology research. Experiments being conducted on the ISS include investigations in the emerging field of Epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to stably heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype (the transcriptional potential of a cell) resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations to the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence (the genetic code), which are caused by external or environmental factors, such as spaceflight microgravity. Molecular mechanisms associated with epigenetic alterations regulating gene expression patterns include covalent chemical modifications of DNA (e.g., methylation) or histone proteins (e.g., acetylation, phorphorylation, or ubiquitination). For example, Epigenetics ("Epigenetics in Spaceflown C. elegans") is a recent JAXA investigation examining whether adaptations to microgravity transmit from one cell generation to another without changing the basic DNA of the organism. Mouse Epigenetics ("Transcriptome Analysis and Germ-Cell Development Analysis of Mice in Space") investigates molecular alterations in organ-specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight, as well as assessing changes in offspring DNA. NASA's first foray into human Omics research, the Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), includes investigations evaluating differential epigenetic effects via comprehensive whole genome analysis, the landscape of DNA and RNA methylation, and biomolecular changes by means of longitudinal integrated multi-omics research. And the inaugural Genes in Space student challenge experiment (Genes in Space-1) is aimed at understanding how epigenetics plays a role in immune system dysregulation by assaying DNA methylation in immune cells

  7. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  8. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  9. KSC ISS Logistics Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellado, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The presentation contains a status of KSC ISS Logistics Operations. It basically presents current top level ISS Logistics tasks being conducted at KSC, current International Partner activities, hardware processing flow focussing on late Stow operations, list of KSC Logistics POC's, and a backup list of Logistics launch site services. This presentation is being given at the annual International Space Station (ISS) Multi-lateral Logistics Maintenance Control Panel meeting to be held in Turin, Italy during the week of May 13-16. The presentatiuon content doesn't contain any potential lessons learned.

  10. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  11. Spheres: from Ground Development to ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2016-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES National Lab Facility aboard ISS is managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. SPHERES has served to mature the adaptability of control algorithms of future formation flight missions in microgravity (6 DOF (Degrees of Freedom) / long duration microgravity), demonstrate key close-proximity formation flight and rendezvous and docking maneuvers, understand fault diagnosis and recovery, improve the field of human telerobotic operation and control, and lessons learned on ISS have significant impact on ground robotics, mapping, localization, and sensing in three-dimensions - among several other areas of study.

  12. International Space Station (ISS) External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM) Jettison Options Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure of the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM). To minimize the number of extravehicular activities (EVA) required to replace the PM, jettisoning the faulty pump was evaluated. The objective of this study was to independently evaluate the jettison options considered by the ISS Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and to provide recommendations for safe jettison of the ETCS Loop A PM. The simulation selected to evaluate the TOPO options was the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) version of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) developed to support another NESC assessment. The objective of the jettison analysis was twofold: (1) to independently verify TOPO posigrade and retrograde jettison results, and (2) to determine jettison guidelines based on additional sensitivity, trade study, and Monte Carlo (MC) analysis that would prevent PM recontact. Recontact in this study designates a propagated PM trajectory that comes within 500 m of the ISS propagated trajectory. An additional simulation using Systems Tool Kit (STK) was run for independent verification of the POST2 simulation results. Ultimately, the ISS Program removed the PM jettison option from consideration. However, prior to the Program decision, the retrograde jettison option remained part of the EVA contingency plan. The jettison analysis presented showed that, in addition to separation velocity/direction and the atmosphere conditions, the key variables in determining the time to recontact the ISS is highly dependent on the ballistic number (BN) difference between the object being jettisoned and the ISS.

  13. A Decision Support Framework for Feasibility Analysis of International Space Station (ISS) Research Capability Enhancing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott,Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the ISS has generated significant challenges that have ultimately impacted resources available to the program's primary mission: research. To address this, program personnel routinely perform trade-off studies on alternative options to enhance research. The approach, content level of analysis and resulting outputs of these studies vary due to many factors, however, complicating the Program Manager's job of selecting the best option. To address this, the program requested a framework be developed to evaluate multiple research-enhancing options in a thorough, disciplined and repeatable manner, and to identify the best option on the basis of cost, benefit and risk. The resulting framework consisted of a systematic methodology and a decision-support toolset. The framework provides quantifiable and repeatable means for ranking research-enhancing options for the complex and multiple-constraint domain of the space research laboratory. This paper describes the development, verification and validation of this framework and provides observations on its operational use.

  14. Using ISS to develop telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Future space telescope missions concepts have introduced new technologies such as precision formation flight, optical metrology, and segmented mirrors. These new technologies require demonstration and validation prior to deployment in final missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Darwin. Ground based demonstrations do not provide the precision necessary to obtain a high level of confidence in the technology; precursor free flyer space missions suffer from the same problems as the final missions. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of the International Space Station as an intermediate research environment where these technologies can be developed, demonstrated, and validated. The ISS provides special resources, such as human presence, communications, power, and a benign atmosphere which directly reduce the major challenges of space technology maturation: risk, complexity, cost, remote operations, and visibility. Successful design of experiments for use aboard the space station, by enabling iterative research and supporting multiple scientists, can further reduce the effects of these challenges of space technology maturation. This paper presents results of five previous MIT Space Systems Laboratory experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, MIR, and the ISS to illustrate successful technology maturation aboard these facilities.

  15. Evolution of International Space Station GN&C System Across ISS Assembly Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roscoe; Frank, K. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system for the International Space Station is initially implemented by the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) which was built by the Khrunichev Space Center under direct contract to Boeing. This element (Stage 1A/R) was launched on 20 November 1998 and is currently operating on-orbit. The components and capabilities of the FGB Motion Control System (MCS) are described. The next ISS element, which has GN&C functionality will be the Service Module (SM) built by Rocket Space Corporation-Energia. This module is scheduled for launch (Stage 1R) in early 2000. Following activation of the SM GN&C system, the FGB MCS is deactivated and no longer used. The components and capabilities of the SM GN&C system are described. When a Progress vehicle is attached to the ISS it can be used for reboost operations, based on commands provided by the Mission Control Center-Moscow. When a data connection is implemented between the SM and the Progress, the SM can command the Progress thrusters for attitude control and reboosts. On Stage 5A, the U.S. GN&C system will become activated when the U.S. Laboratory is de loyed and installed (launch schedule is currently TBD). The U.S. GN&C system provides non-propulsive control capabilities to support micro-gravity operations and minimize the use of propellant for attitude control, and an independent capability for determining the ISS state vector, attitude, attitude rate. and time.. The components and capabilities of the U.S. GN&C system are described and the interactions between the U.S. and Russian Segment GN&C systems are also described.

  16. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  17. Translational Cellular Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a

  18. CALET docked on the ISS

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 19 August, with a spectacular launch on board the Japanese H2-B rocket operated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) left the Tanegashima Space Center to reach the International Space Station five days later.   After berthing with the ISS, CALET was extracted by a robotic arm from the Japanese HTV-5 transfer vehicle and installed on the Japanese Exposure Facility (right) where it will start its first data-taking. (Image: NASA/JAXA.)   CALET is a space mission led by JAXA with the participation of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It is a CERN-recognised experiment and the second high-energy astroparticle experiment to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) after AMS-02, which has been taking data since 2011. Designed to be a space observatory for long-term observations of cosmic radiation aboard the external platform JEM-EF of the Japanese module (KIBO) on the ISS, CALET aims to identify elect...

  19. Nutrition Research: Basis for Station Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Shuttle program, all understanding of nutritional needs in space came from Skylab metabolic research. Because Shuttle flights were short, most less than 14 days, research focused on major nutritional issues: energy (calories), protein and amino acids, water and electrotypes, with some more general physiology studies that related to iron and calcium. Using stable isotope tracer studies and diet intake records, we found that astronauts typically did not consume adequate calories to meet energy expenditure. To monitor energy and nutrient intake status and provide feedback to the flight surgeon and the astronauts, the International Space Station (ISS) program implemented a weekly food frequency questionnaire and routine body mass measurements. Other Shuttle investigations found that protein turnover was higher during flight, suggesting there was increased protein degradation and probably concurrent increase in protein synthesis, and this occurred even in cases of adequate protein and caloric intake. These results may partially explain some of the loss of leg muscle mass. Fluid and electrolyte flight studies demonstrated that water intake, like energy intake, was lower than required. However, sodium intakes were elevated during flight and likely related to other concerns such as calcium turnover and other health-related issues. NASA is making efforts to have tasty foods with much lower salt levels to reduce sodium intake and to promote fluid intake on orbit. Red blood cell studies conducted on the Shuttle found decreased erythrogenesis and increased serum ferritin levels. Given that the diet is high in iron there may be iron storage health concerns, especially related to the role of iron in oxidative damage, complicated by the stress and radiation. The Shuttle nutrition research lead to new monitoring and research on ISS. These data will be valuable for future NASA and commercial crewed missions.

  20. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  1. Fundamental Space Biology-1: HHR and Incubator for ISS Space Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirven-Brooks, M.; Fahlen, T.; Sato, K.; Reiss-Bubenheim, D.

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is developing an Incubator and a Habitat Holding Rack (HHR) to support life science experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The HHR provides for cooling and power needs, and supports data transfer (including telemetry, commanding, video processing, Ethernet), video compression, and data and command storage). The Incubator is a habitat that provides for controlled temperature between +4 C and +45 C and air circulation. It has a set of connector ports for power, analog and digital sensors, and video pass-through to support experiment-unique hardware within the Incubator specimen chamber. The Incubator exchanges air with the ISS cabin. The Fundamental Space Biology-1 (FSB-1) Project will be delivering, the HHR and two Incubators to ISS. The two inaugural experiments to be conducted on ISS using this hardware will investigate the biological effects of the space environment on two model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae; yeast) and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans; nematode). The {M}odel {Y}east {C}ultures {o}n {S}tation (MYCOS) experiment will support examination of the effect of microgravity and cosmic radiation on yeast biology. In the second series of experiments during the same increment, the effects of microgravity and space environment radiation on C. elegans will be examined. The {F}undamental Space Biology {I}ncubator {E}xperiment {R}esearch using {C}. {e}legans (FIERCE) study is designed to support a long duration, multi-generational study of nematodes. FIERCE on-orbit science operations will include video monitoring, sub-culturing and periodic fixation and freezing of samples. For both experiments, investigators will be solicited via an International Space Life Sciences Research Announcement. In the near future, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module will be delivered to ISS, which will house the SSBRP 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor. The Incubator can be placed onto the Centrifuge

  2. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  3. Lessons Learned from ISS Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Forty years of human spaceflight activities are now culminating in the International Space Station program (ISS). The ISS involves fifteen nations, working together to create a permanently occupied orbital facility that will support scientific and potentially, commercial endeavours. The assembly of the ISS is scheduled to be completed later in this decade, after which it will be operated for at least ten years. At the strategic level, such a complex international project is highly dependent on the fifteen Partners' respective internal politics and foreign policies. On the operational level, Partners still have certain difficulties in issuing and agreeing to common technical procedures. As with almost all aspects of International Space Station cooperation, the Partners are going through a constant learning process, where they have to deal with complex political, legal and operational differences. Intergovernmental Agreement and the Memoranda of Understanding, the instruments forming the legal backbone of the International Space Station cooperation, are still lacking a fair number of arrangements that need to be created for completing and operating the Station. The whole endeavour is also a constant learning process at the operational level, as astronauts, cosmonauts, engineers and technicians on the ground with different cultural and educational backgrounds, learn to work together. One recent Space Shuttle mission to the Station showed the importance of standardising even trivial system components such as packaging labels, as it took the astronauts half a day more than planned to correctly unpack the equipment. This paper will provide a synthesis of some of the main lessons learned during the first few years of International Space Station's lifetime. Important political, legal and operational issues will be addressed and combined. This analysis will provide some guidelines and recommendations for future international space projects, such as an international human

  4. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  5. International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Mohammed K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) provides the following three primary functions for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA): volume for concentrating/filtering pretreated urine, filtration of product distillate, and filtration of the Pressure Control and Pump Assembly (PCPA) effluent. The RFTAs, under nominal operations, are to be replaced every 30 days. This poses a significant logistical resupply problem, as well as cost in upmass and new tanks purchase. In addition, it requires significant amount of crew time. To address and resolve these challenges, NASA required Boeing to develop a design which eliminated the logistics and upmass issues and minimize recurring costs. Boeing developed the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) that allowed the tanks to be emptied on-orbit into disposable tanks that eliminated the need for bringing the fully loaded tanks to earth for refurbishment and relaunch, thereby eliminating several hundred pounds of upmass and its associated costs. The ARFTA will replace the RFTA by providing the same functionality, but with reduced resupply requirements

  6. Life Sciences Research in the Centrifuge Accommodation Module of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Plaut, Karen; Meeker, Gabrielle B.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) will be the home of the fundamental biology research facilities on the International Space Station (ISS). These facilities are being built by the Biological Research Project (BRP), whose goal is to oversee development of a wide variety of habitats and host systems to support life sciences research on the ISS. The habitats and host systems are designed to provide life support for a variety of specimens including cells, bacteria, yeast, plants, fish, rodents, eggs (e.g., quail), and insects. Each habitat contains specimen chambers that allow for easy manipulation of specimens and alteration of sample numbers. All habitats are capable of sustaining life support for 90 days and have automated as well as full telescience capabilities for sending habitat parameters data to investigator homesite laboratories. The habitats provide all basic life support capabilities including temperature control, humidity monitoring and control, waste management, food, media and water delivery as well as adjustable lighting. All habitats will have either an internal centrifuge or are fitted to the 2.5-meter diameter centrifuge allowing for variable centrifugation up to 2 g. Specimen chambers are removable so that the specimens can be handled in the life sciences glovebox. Laboratory support equipment is provided for handling the specimens. This includes a compound and dissecting microscope with advanced video imaging, mass measuring devices, refrigerated centrifuge for processing biological samples, pH meter, fixation and complete cryogenic storage capabilities. The research capabilities provided by the fundamental biology facilities will allow for flexibility and efficiency for long term research on the International Space Station.

  7. Benefits of International Collaboration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrook, Pete; Robinson, Julie A.; Brown Tate, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; De Parolis, Lina; Hatton, Jason; Umezawa, Kazuo; Shirakawa, Masaki; hide

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a valuable platform for research in space, but the benefits are limited if research is only conducted by individual countries. Through the efforts of the ISS Program Science Forum, international science working groups, and interagency cooperation, international collaboration on the ISS has expanded as ISS utilization has matured. Members of science teams benefit from working with counterparts in other countries. Scientists and institutions bring years of experience and specialized expertise to collaborative investigations, leading to new perspectives and approaches to scientific challenges. Combining new ideas and historical results brings synergy and improved peer-reviewed scientific methods and results. World-class research facilities can be expensive and logistically complicated, jeopardizing their full utilization. Experiments that would be prohibitively expensive for a single country can be achieved through contributions of resources from two or more countries, such as crew time, up- and downmass, and experiment hardware. Cooperation also avoids duplication of experiments and hardware among agencies. Biomedical experiments can be completed earlier if astronauts or cosmonauts from multiple agencies participate. Countries responding to natural disasters benefit from ISS imagery assets, even if the country has no space agency of its own. Students around the world participate in ISS educational opportunities, and work with students in other countries, through open curriculum packages and through international competitions. Even experiments conducted by a single country can benefit scientists around the world, through specimen sharing programs and publicly accessible "open data" repositories. For ISS data, these repositories include GeneLab and the Physical Science Informatics System. Scientists can conduct new research using ISS data without having to launch and execute their own experiments. Multilateral collections of research

  8. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  9. Synchronized Position and Hold Reorient Experimental Satellites - International Space Station (SPHERES-ISS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory (MIT-SSL) propose an innovative research program entitled SPHERES-ISS that uses their satellite...

  10. Lightning Observations from the International Space Station (ISS) for Science Research and Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    There exist several core science applications of LIS lightning observations, that range from weather and climate to atmospheric chemistry and lightning physics due to strong quantitative connections that can be made between lightning and other geophysical processes of interest. The space-base vantage point, such as provided by ISS LIS, still remains an ideal location to obtain total lightning observations on a global basis.

  11. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  12. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  13. Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

  14. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Shawn; Frazier, Natalie; Lehman, John

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400?C. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  15. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  16. Habitability research priorities for the International Space Station and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M; Adolf, J A; Woolford, B J

    2000-09-01

    Advanced technology and the desire to explore space have resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on the ability of humans to adapt and function in microgravity environments. In addition, studies conducted in analogous environments, such as winter-over expeditions in Antarctica, have complemented the scientific understanding of human performance in LDSF. These findings indicate long duration missions may take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically, with potential impacts on performance. Significant factors in any manned LDSF are habitability, workload and performance. They are interrelated and influence one another, and therefore necessitate an integrated research approach. An integral part of this approach will be identifying and developing tools not only for assessment of habitability, workload, and performance, but also for prediction of these factors as well. In addition, these tools will be used to identify and provide countermeasures to minimize decrements and maximize mission success. The purpose of this paper is to identify research goals and methods for the International Space Station (ISS) in order to identify critical factors and level of impact on habitability, workload, and performance, and to develop and validate countermeasures. Overall, this approach will provide the groundwork for creating an optimal environment in which to live and work onboard ISS as well as preparing for longer planetary missions.

  17. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese 'Kibo' facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the 'Rad Gene' project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated P53 : gene (m P53 : ) and a parental wild-type P53 : gene (wt P53 : ) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation-induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type P53 : genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and

  18. Biomolecular Analysis Capability for Cellular and Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinart-Ramirez, Y.; Cooley, V. M.; Love, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) assembly complete ushered a new era focused on utilization of this state-of-the-art orbiting laboratory to advance science and technology research in a wide array of disciplines, with benefits to Earth and space exploration. ISS enabling capability for research in cellular and molecular biology includes equipment for in situ, on-orbit analysis of biomolecules. Applications of this growing capability range from biomedicine and biotechnology to the emerging field of Omics. For example, Biomolecule Sequencer is a space-based miniature DNA sequencer that provides nucleotide sequence data for entire samples, which may be used for purposes such as microorganism identification and astrobiology. It complements the use of WetLab-2 SmartCycler"TradeMark", which extracts RNA and provides real-time quantitative gene expression data analysis from biospecimens sampled or cultured onboard the ISS, for downlink to ground investigators, with applications ranging from clinical tissue evaluation to multigenerational assessment of organismal alterations. And the Genes in Space-1 investigation, aimed at examining epigenetic changes, employs polymerase chain reaction to detect immune system alterations. In addition, an increasing assortment of tools to visualize the subcellular distribution of tagged macromolecules is becoming available onboard the ISS. For instance, the NASA LMM (Light Microscopy Module) is a flexible light microscopy imaging facility that enables imaging of physical and biological microscopic phenomena in microgravity. Another light microscopy system modified for use in space to image life sciences payloads is initially used by the Heart Cells investigation ("Effects of Microgravity on Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Human Cardiovascular Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery"). Also, the JAXA Microscope system can perform remotely controllable light, phase-contrast, and fluorescent observations. And upcoming confocal microscopy

  19. Innovative Sea Surface Monitoring with GNSS-Reflectometry aboard ISS: Overview and Recent Results from GEROS-ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Bandeiras, J.

    GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) stands for GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station. It is a scientific experiment, proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA)in 2011 for installation aboard the ISS. The main focus of GEROS is the dedicated use o...... of signals from the currently available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for remote sensing of the System Earth with focus to Climate Change characterisation. The GEROS mission idea and the current status are briefly reviewed....

  20. Alternatives to the ISS Plasma Contacting Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2002-01-01

    A spacecraft in a high-density equatorial LEO plasma will float negative relative to the ambient plasma. Because of the electron collection of exposed conductors on its solar arrays, it may float negative by up to its array voltage. The floating potential depends on the relative areas of electron and ion collection of the spacecraft. Early estimates of the International Space Station (ISS) potential were about -140 V relative to the surrounding plasma, because of its 160 V solar array string voltage. Because of the possibility of arcing of ISS structures and astronaut EMUs (spacesuits) into the space plasma, Plasma Contacting Units (PCUs) were added to the ISS design, to reduce the highly negative floating potentials by emitting electrons (effectively increasing the ion collecting area). In addition to the now-operating ISS PCUs, safety rules require another independent arc-hazard control method. In this paper, I discuss alternatives to the ISS PCUs for keeping the ISS floating potential at values below the arc-thresholds of ISS and EMU surface materials. Advantages and disadvantages of all of the recline loss will be presented.

  1. Service on demand for ISS users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüser, Detlev; Berg, Marco; Körtge, Nicole; Mildner, Wolfgang; Salmen, Frank; Strauch, Karsten

    2002-07-01

    Since the ISS started its operational phase, the need of logistics scenarios and solutions, supporting the utilisation of the station and its facilities, becomes increasingly important. Our contribution to this challenge is a SERVICE On DEMAND for ISS users, which offers a business friendly engineering and logistics support for the resupply of the station. Especially the utilisation by commercial and industrial users is supported and simplified by this service. Our industrial team, consisting of OHB-System and BEOS, provides experience and development support for space dedicated hard- and software elements, their transportation and operation. Furthermore, we operate as the interface between customer and the envisaged space authorities. Due to a variety of tailored service elements and the ongoing servicing, customers can concentrate on their payload content or mission objectives and don't have to deal with space-specific techniques and regulations. The SERVICE On DEMAND includes the following elements: ITR is our in-orbit platform service. ITR is a transport rack, used in the SPACEHAB logistics double module, for active and passive payloads on subrack- and drawer level of different standards. Due to its unique late access and early retrieval capability, ITR increases the flexibility concerning transport capabilities to and from the ISS. RIST is our multi-functional test facility for ISPR-based experiment drawer and locker payloads. The test program concentrates on physical and functional interface and performance testing at the payload developers site prior to the shipment to the integration and launch. The RIST service program comprises consulting, planning and engineering as well. The RIST test suitcase is planned to be available for lease or rent to users, too. AMTSS is an advanced multimedia terminal consulting service for communication with the space station scientific facilities, as part of the user home-base. This unique ISS multimedia kit combines

  2. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  3. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  4. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Antimicrobial resistance genes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The environmental samples were collected with the polyester wipes from eight different locations in the International Space Station (ISS) during two consecutive...

  5. Lunar Station: The Next Logical Step in Space Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Robert Bruce; Harper, Lynn; Newfield, Mark; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the product of the efforts of sixteen nations over the course of several decades. It is now complete, operational, and has been continuously occupied since November of 20001. Since then the ISS has been carrying out a wide variety of research and technology development experiments, and starting to produce some pleasantly startling results. The ISS has a mass of 420 metric tons, supports a crew of six with a yearly resupply requirement of around 30 metric tons, within a pressurized volume of 916 cubic meters, and a habitable volume of 388 cubic meters. Its solar arrays produce up to 84 kilowatts of power. In the course of developing the ISS, many lessons were learned and much valuable expertise was gained. Where do we go from here? The ISS offers an existence proof of the feasibility of sustained human occupation and operations in space over decades. It also demonstrates the ability of many countries to work collaboratively on a very complex and expensive project in space over an extended period of time to achieve a common goal. By harvesting best practices and lessons learned, the ISS can also serve as a useful model for exploring architectures for beyond low-­- earth-­-orbit (LEO) space development. This paper will explore the concept and feasibility for a Lunar Station. The Station concept can be implemented by either putting the equivalent capability of the ISS down on the surface of the Moon, or by developing the required capabilities through a combination of delivered materials and equipment and in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Scenarios that leverage existing technologies and capabilities as well as capabilities that are under development and are expected to be available within the next 3-­5 years, will be examined. This paper will explore how best practices and expertise gained from developing and operating the ISS and other relevant programs can be applied to effectively developing Lunar Station.

  6. Passive Thermal Design Approach for the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed Experiment on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamidis, John; Yuko, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program Office at NASA Headquarters oversees all of NASAs space communications activities. SCaN manages and directs the ground-based facilities and services provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN), and the Space Network (SN). Through the SCaN Program Office, NASA GRC developed a Software Defined Radio (SDR) testbed experiment (SCaN testbed experiment) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). It is comprised of three different SDR radios, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radio, Harris Corporation radio, and the General Dynamics Corporation radio. The SCaN testbed experiment provides an on-orbit, adaptable, SDR Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) - based facility to conduct a suite of experiments to advance the Software Defined Radio, Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) standards, reduce risk (Technology Readiness Level (TRL) advancement) for candidate Constellation future space flight hardware software, and demonstrate space communication links critical to future NASA exploration missions. The SCaN testbed project provides NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop and field communications, navigation, and networking technologies in the laboratory and space environment based on reconfigurable, software defined radio platforms and the STRS Architecture.The SCaN testbed is resident on the P3 Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN testbed payload launched on the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and was installed on the ISS P3 ELC located on the inboard RAM P3 site. The daily operations and testing are managed out of NASA GRC in the Telescience Support Center (TSC).

  7. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using Crew Earth Observation Imagery from the International Space Station to Facilitate Student-Led Authentic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Student-led authentic research in the classroom helps motivate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related subjects. Classrooms benefit from activities that provide rigor, relevance, and a connection to the real world. Those real world connections are enhanced when they involve meaningful connections with NASA resources and scientists. Using the unique platform of the International Space Station (ISS) and Crew Earth Observation (CEO) imagery, the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program provides an exciting way to enable classrooms in grades 5-12 to be active participants in NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. EEAB was created by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This Earth and planetary science education program has created a framework enabling students to conduct authentic research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons using the captivating CEO images being taken by astronauts onboard the ISS. The CEO payload has been a science payload onboard the ISS since November 2000. ISS crews are trained in scientific observation of geological, oceanographic, environmental, and meteorological phenomena. Scientists on the ground select and periodically update a series of areas to be photographed as part of the CEO science payload.

  8. SPHERES: From Ground Development to Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2015-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES Facility on ISS is managed and operated by the SPHERES National Lab Facility at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. To help make science a reality on the ISS, the SPHERES ARC team supports a Guest Scientist Program (GSP). This program allows anyone with new science the possibility to interface with the SPHERES team and hardware. In addition to highlighting the available SPHERES hardware on ISS and on the ground, this presentation will also highlight ground support, facilities, and resources available to guest researchers. Investigations on the ISS evolve through four main phases: Strategic, Tactical, Operations, and Post Operations. The Strategic Phase encompasses early planning beginning with initial contact by the Principle Investigator (PI) and the SPHERES program who may work with the PI to assess what assistance the PI may need. Once the basic parameters are understood, the investigation moves to the Tactical Phase which involves more detailed planning, development, and testing. Depending on the nature of the investigation, the tactical phase may be split into the Lab Tactical Phase or the ISS Tactical Phase due to the difference in requirements for the two destinations. The Operations Phase is when the actual science is performed; this can be either in the lab, or on the ISS. The Post Operations Phase encompasses data analysis and distribution, and generation of summary status and reports. The SPHERES Operations and Engineering teams at ARC is composed of

  9. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS, a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009–2011 and the DOSIS 3D (2012–ongoing experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195–270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a the variation in solar activity and (b the changes in ISS altitude.

  10. Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

  11. Multi-User Hardware Solutions to Combustion Science ISS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Angel M.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the budget environment and to expand on the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), common hardware approach, the NASA Combustion Science Program shifted focus in 1999 from single investigator PI (Principal Investigator)-specific hardware to multi-user 'Minifacilities'. These mini-facilities would take the CIR common hardware philosophy to the next level. The approach that was developed re-arranged all the investigations in the program into sub-fields of research. Then common requirements within these subfields were used to develop a common system that would then be complemented by a few PI-specific components. The sub-fields of research selected were droplet combustion, solids and fire safety, and gaseous fuels. From these research areas three mini-facilities have sprung: the Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) for droplet research, Flow Enclosure for Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) for solids and fire safety, and the Multi-user Gaseous Fuels Apparatus (MGFA) for gaseous fuels. These mini-facilities will develop common Chamber Insert Assemblies (CIA) and diagnostics for the respective investigators complementing the capability provided by CIR. Presently there are four investigators for MDCA, six for FEANICS, and four for MGFA. The goal of these multi-user facilities is to drive the cost per PI down after the initial development investment is made. Each of these mini-facilities will become a fixture of future Combustion Science NASA Research Announcements (NRAs), enabling investigators to propose against an existing capability. Additionally, an investigation is provided the opportunity to enhance the existing capability to bridge the gap between the capability and their specific science requirements. This multi-user development approach will enable the Combustion Science Program to drive cost per investigation down while drastically reducing the time

  12. Interplanetary Transit Simulations Using the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J. B.; Arya, Maneesh

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the International Space Station (ISS) be utilized to simulate the transit portion of long-duration missions to Mars and near-Earth asteroids (NEA). The ISS offers a unique environment for such simulations, providing researchers with a high-fidelity platform to study, enhance, and validate technologies and countermeasures for these long-duration missions. From a space life sciences perspective, two major categories of human research activities have been identified that will harness the various capabilities of the ISS during the proposed simulations. The first category includes studies that require the use of the ISS, typically because of the need for prolonged weightlessness. The ISS is currently the only available platform capable of providing researchers with access to a weightless environment over an extended duration. In addition, the ISS offers high fidelity for other fundamental space environmental factors, such as isolation, distance, and accessibility. The second category includes studies that do not require use of the ISS in the strictest sense, but can exploit its use to maximize their scientific return more efficiently and productively than in ground-based simulations. In addition to conducting Mars and NEA simulations on the ISS, increasing the current increment duration on the ISS from 6 months to a longer duration will provide opportunities for enhanced and focused research relevant to long-duration Mars and NEA missions. Although it is currently believed that increasing the ISS crew increment duration to 9 or even 12 months will pose little additional risk to crewmembers, additional medical monitoring capabilities may be required beyond those currently used for the ISS operations. The use of the ISS to simulate aspects of Mars and NEA missions seems practical, and it is recommended that planning begin soon, in close consultation with all international partners.

  13. Early Communication System (ECOMM) for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylor, Kent; Tu, Kwei

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Early Communications System (ECOMM) was a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Avionic Systems Division (ASD) in-house developed communication system to provide early communications between the ISS and the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H). This system allows for low rate commands (link rate of 6 kbps) to be transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) from MCC-H to the ISS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Forward (SSA/) link service. This system also allows for low rate telemetry (link rate of 20.48 kbps) to be transmitted from ISS to MCC-H through the TDRSS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Return (SSAR) link service. In addition this system supports a JSC developed Onboard Communications Adapter (OCA) that allows for a two-way data exchange of 128 kbps between MCC-H and the ISS through TDRSS. This OCA data can be digital video/audio (two-way videoconference), and/or file transfers, and/or "white board". The key components of the system, the data formats used by the system to insure compatibility with the future ISS S-Band System, as well as how other vehicles may be able to use this system for their needs are discussed in this paper.

  14. Astrobee: A New Platform for Free-Flying Robotics on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trey; Barlow, Jonathan; Bualat, Maria; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Sanchez, Hugo; Smith, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The Astrobees are next-generation free-flying robots that will operate in the interior of the International Space Station (ISS). Their primary purpose is to provide a flexible platform for research on zero-g freeflying robotics, with the ability to carry a wide variety of future research payloads and guest science software. They will also serve utility functions: as free-flying cameras to record video of astronaut activities, and as mobile sensor platforms to conduct surveys of the ISS. The Astrobee system includes two robots, a docking station, and a ground data system (GDS). It is developed by the Human Exploration Telerobotics 2 (HET-2) Project, which began in Oct. 2014, and will deliver the Astrobees for launch to ISS in 2017. This paper covers selected aspects of the Astrobee design, focusing on capabilities relevant to potential users of the platform.

  15. Use of the International Space Station as an Exercise Physiology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is now in its prime utilization phase with great opportunity to use the ISS as a lab. With respect to exercise physiology there is considerable research opportunity. Crew members exercise for up to 2 hours per day using a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and advanced resistive exercise device (ARED). There are several ongoing exercise research studies by NASA, ESA and CSA. These include studies related to evaluation of new exercise prescriptions (SPRINT), evaluation of aerobic capacity (VO2max), biomechanics (Treadmill Kinematics), energy expenditure during spaceflight (Energy), evaluation of cartilage (Cartilage), and evaluation of cardiovascular health (Vascular). Examples of how ISS is used for exercise physiology research will be presented.

  16. Thermally-Constrained Fuel-Optimal ISS Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Sagar; Svecz, Andrew; Alaniz, Abran; Jang, Jiann-Woei; Nguyen, Louis; Spanos, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Propellant Maneuvers (OPMs) are now being used to rotate the International Space Station (ISS) and have saved hundreds of kilograms of propellant over the last two years. The savings are achieved by commanding the ISS to follow a pre-planned attitude trajectory optimized to take advantage of environmental torques. The trajectory is obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Prior to use on orbit, OPM trajectories are screened to ensure a static sun vector (SSV) does not occur during the maneuver. The SSV is an indicator that the ISS hardware temperatures may exceed thermal limits, causing damage to the components. In this paper, thermally-constrained fuel-optimal trajectories are presented that avoid an SSV and can be used throughout the year while still reducing propellant consumption significantly.

  17. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  18. Life Science on the International Space Station Using the Next Generation of Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. A.; Phillion, J. P.; Hart, A. T.; Comella, J.; Edeen, M.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.

  19. NASA ISS Portable Fan Assembly Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Andrew; Allen, Christopher S.; Hess, Linda F.

    2018-01-01

    The Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) is a variable speed fan that can be used to provide additional ventilation inside International Space Station (ISS) modules as needed for crew comfort or for enhanced mixing of the ISS atmosphere. This fan can also be configured with a Shuttle era lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister for CO2 removal in confined areas partially of fully isolated from the primary Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on ISS which is responsible for CO2 removal. This report documents noise emission levels of the PFA at various speed settings and configurations. It also documents the acoustic attenuation effects realized when circulating air through the PFA inlet and outlet mufflers and when operating in its CO2 removal configuration (CRK) with a LiOH canister (sorbent bed) installed over the fan outlet.

  20. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  1. Development and Certification of Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) Experiment # 15012-U, "Near RealTime Water Quality Monitoring Demonstration for ISS Biocides Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Shcultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D,; Lipert, Robert J.; Limardo, Jose G.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    Scientists and engineers from the Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group are working with researchers at the University of Utah and Iowa State University to develop and certify an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE). The kit will be launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment and evaluated on the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the acceptability of CSPE technology for routine inflight water quality monitoring. Iodine and silver, the biocides used in the US and Russian on-orbit water systems, will serve as test analytes for the technology evaluation. This manuscript provides an overview of the CSPE SDTO experiment and details the development and certification of the experimental water quality monitoring kit. Initial results from reagent and standard solution stability testing and environmental testing performed on the kit hardware are also reported.

  2. Photography of Coral Reefs from ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the uses of photography from the International Space Station (ISS) in studying Earth's coral reefs. The photographs include reefs in various oceans . The photographs have uses for science in assisting NASA mapping initiatives, distribution worldwide through ReefBase, and by biologist in the field.

  3. Expanded benefits for humanity from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amelia; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Buckley, Nicole; Zell, Martin; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig. 1) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity[1], a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on "Economic Development of Space" highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, "Innovative Technology," merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are

  4. Expanded Benefits for Humanity from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amelia; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Buckley, Nicole; Zell, Martin; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity, 2nd edition, a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on "Economic Development of Space" highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, Innovative Technology, merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are

  5. Using Distributed Operations to Enable Science Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathew, Ann S.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Lochmaier, Geoff D.; Rodriquez, Rick C.; Simpson, Donna

    2011-01-01

    In the early days of the International Space Station (ISS) program, and as the organization structure was being internationally agreed upon and documented, one of the principal tenets of the science program was to allow customer-friendly operations. One important aspect of this was to allow payload developers and principle investigators the flexibility to operate their experiments from either their home sites or distributed telescience centers. This telescience concept was developed such that investigators had several options for ISS utilization support. They could operate from their home site, the closest telescience center, or use the payload operations facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) processes and structures were put into place to allow these different options to its customers, while at the same time maintain its centralized authority over NASA payload operations and integration. For a long duration space program with many scientists, researchers, and universities expected to participate, it was imperative that the program structure be in place to successfully facilitate this concept of telescience support. From a payload control center perspective, payload science operations require two major elements in order to make telescience successful within the scope of the ISS program. The first element is decentralized control which allows the remote participants the freedom and flexibility to operate their payloads within their scope of authority. The second element is a strong ground infrastructure, which includes voice communications, video, telemetry, and commanding between the POIC and the payload remote site. Both of these elements are important to telescience success, and both must be balanced by the ISS program s documented requirements for POIC to maintain its authority as an integration and control center. This paper describes both elements of distributed payload

  6. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  7. Prospects for Interdisciplinary Science Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of the International Space Station was completed in early 2011, and is now embarking on its first year of the coming decade of use as a laboratory. Two key types of physical science research are enabled by ISS: studies of processes that are normally masked by gravity, and instruments that take advantage of its position as a powerful platform in orbit. The absence of buoyancy-driven convection enables experiments in diverse areas such as fluids near the critical point, Marangoni convection, combustion, and coarsening of metal alloys. The positioning of such a powerful platform in orbit with robotic transfer and instrument support also provides a unique alternative platform for astronomy and physics instruments. Some of the operating or planned instruments related to fundamental physics on the International Space Station include MAXI (Monitoring all-sky X-ray Instrument for ISS), the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope), and ACES (Atomic Clock Experiment in Space). The presentation will conclude with an overview of pathways for funding different types of experiments from NASA funding to the ISS National Laboratory, and highlights of the streamlining of services to help scientists implement their experiments on ISS.

  8. Conducting Research on the International Space Station using the EXPRESS Rack Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sean W.; Lake, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Eight "Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station" (EXPRESS) Rack facilities are located within the International Space Station (ISS) laboratories to provide standard resources and interfaces for the simultaneous and independent operation of multiple experiments within each rack. Each EXPRESS Rack provides eight Middeck Locker Equivalent locations and two drawer locations for powered experiment equipment, also referred to as sub-rack payloads. Payload developers may provide their own structure to occupy the equivalent volume of one, two, or four lockers as a single unit. Resources provided for each location include power (28 Vdc, 0-500 W), command and data handling (Ethernet, RS-422, 5 Vdc discrete, +/- 5 Vdc analog), video (NTSC/RS 170A), and air cooling (0-200 W). Each rack also provides water cooling for two locations (500W ea.), one vacuum exhaust interface, and one gaseous nitrogen interface. Standard interfacing cables and hoses are provided on-orbit. One laptop computer is provided with each rack to control the rack and to accommodate payload application software. Four of the racks are equipped with the Active Rack Isolation System to reduce vibration between the ISS and the rack. EXPRESS Racks are operated by the Payload Operations Integration Center at Marshall Space Flight Center and the sub-rack experiments are operated remotely by the investigating organization. Payload Integration Managers serve as a focal to assist organizations developing payloads for an EXPRESS Rack. NASA provides EXPRESS Rack simulator software for payload developers to checkout payload command and data handling at the development site before integrating the payload with the EXPRESS Functional Checkout Unit for an end-to-end test before flight. EXPRESS Racks began supporting investigations onboard ISS on April 24, 2001 and will continue through the life of the ISS.

  9. Realtime Knowledge Management (RKM): From an International Space Station (ISS) Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter I.; McDermott, William; Alena, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing automated methods to provide realtime access to spacecraft domain knowledge relevant a spacecraft's current operational state. The method is based upon analyzing state-transition signatures in the telemetry stream. A key insight is that documentation relevant to a specific failure mode or operational state is related to the structure and function of spacecraft systems. This means that diagnostic dependency and state models can provide a roadmap for effective documentation navigation and presentation. Diagnostic models consume the telemetry and derive a high-level state description of the spacecraft. Each potential spacecraft state description is matched against the predictions of models that were developed from information found in the pages and sections in the relevant International Space Station (ISS) documentation and reference materials. By annotating each model fragment with the domain knowledge sources from which it was derived we can develop a system that automatically selects those documents representing the domain knowledge encapsulated by the models that compute the current spacecraft state. In this manner, when the spacecraft state changes, the relevant documentation context and presentation will also change.

  10. Gaseous Non-Premixed Flame Research Planned for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Dennis P.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Hickman, J. Mark; Suttles, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, studies of gaseous diffusion flames on the International Space Station (ISS) have been limited to research conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in mid-2009 and early 2012. The research was performed with limited instrumentation, but novel techniques allowed for the determination of the soot temperature and volume fraction. Development is now underway for the next experiments of this type. The Advanced Combustion via Microgravity Experiments (ACME) project consists of five independent experiments that will be conducted with expanded instrumentation within the stations Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). ACMEs goals are to improve our understanding of flame stability and extinction limits, soot control and reduction, oxygen-enriched combustion which could enable practical carbon sequestration, combustion at fuel lean conditions where both optimum performance and low emissions can be achieved, the use of electric fields for combustion control, and materials flammability. The microgravity environment provides longer residence times and larger length scales, yielding a broad range of flame conditions which are beneficial for simplified analysis, e.g., of limit behaviour where chemical kinetics are important. The detailed design of the modular ACME hardware, e.g., with exchangeable burners, is nearing completion, and it is expected that on-orbit testing will begin in 2016.

  11. Role of the Space Station in Private Development of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is well underway in the assembly process and progressing toward completion. In February 2001, the United States laboratory "Destiny" was successfully deployed and the course of space utilization, for laboratory-based research and development (R&D) purposes, entered a new era - continuous on-orbit operations. By completion, the ISS complex will include pressurized laboratory elements from Europe, Japan, Russia and the U.S., as well as external platforms which can serve as observatories and technology development test beds serviced by a Canadian robotic manipulator. The international vision for a continuously operating, full service R&D complex in the unique environment of low-Earth orbit is becoming increasingly focused. This R&D complex will offer great opportunities for economic return as the basic research program proceeds on a global scale and the competitive advantages of the microgravity and ultravacuum environments are elucidated through empirical studies. In parallel, the ISS offers a new vantage point, both as a source for viewing of Earth and the Cosmos and as the subject of view for a global population that has grown during the dawning of the space age. In this regard, the ISS is both a working laboratory and a powerful symbol for human achievement in science and technology. Each of these aspects bears consideration as we seek to develop the beneficial attributes of space and pursue innovative approaches to expanding this space complex through private investment. Ultimately, the success of the ISS will be measured by the outcome at the end of its design lifetime. Will this incredible complex be de-orbited in a fiery finale, as have previous space platforms? Will another, perhaps still larger, space station be built through global government funding? Will the ISS ownership be transferred to a global, non-government organization for refurbishment and continuation of the mission on a privately financed basis? Steps taken

  12. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  13. Gravity-Dependent Combustion and Fluids Research - From Drop Towers to Aircraft to the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David L.; Singh, Bhim S.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the need for knowledge related to the low-gravity environment behavior of fluids in liquid fuels management, thermal control systems and fire safety for spacecraft, NASA embarked on a decades long research program to understand, accommodate and utilize the relevant phenomena. Beginning in the 1950s, and continuing through to today, drop towers and aircraft were used to conduct an ever broadening and increasingly sophisticated suite of experiments designed to elucidate the underlying gravity-dependent physics that drive these processes. But the drop towers and aircraft afford only short time periods of continuous low gravity. Some of the earliest rocket test flights and manned space missions hosted longer duration experiments. The relatively longer duration low-g times available on the space shuttle during the 1980s and 1990s enabled many specialized experiments that provided unique data for a wide range of science and engineering disciplines. Indeed, a number of STS-based Spacelab missions were dedicated solely to basic and applied microgravity research in the biological, life and physical sciences. Between 1980 and 2000, NASA implemented a vigorous Microgravity Science Program wherein combustion science and fluid physics were major components. The current era of space stations from the MIR to the International Space Station have opened up a broad range of opportunities and facilities that are now available to support both applied research for technologies that will help to enable the future exploration missions and for a continuation of the non-exploration basic research that began over fifty years ago. The ISS-based facilities of particular value to the fluid physics and combustion/fire safety communities are the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and the Fluids Integrated Rack.

  14. Rodent Research on the International Space Station - A Look Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, A. B.; Smithwick, M.; Wigley, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent Research on the International Space Station (ISS) is one of the highest priority science activities being supported by NASA and is planned for up to two flights per year. The first Rodent Research flight, Rodent Research-1 (RR-1) validates the hardware and basic science operations (dissections and tissue preservation). Subsequent flights will add new capabilities to support rodent research on the ISS. RR-1 will validate the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 30 days, video downlink to support animal health checks and scientific analysis, on-orbit dissections, sample preservation in RNA. Later and formalin, sample transfer from formalin to ethanol (hindlimbs), rapid cool-down and subsequent freezing at -80 of tissues and carcasses, sample return and recovery. RR-2, scheduled for SpX-6 (Winter 20142015) will add the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 60 days, RFID chip reader for individual animal identification, water refill and food replenishment, anesthesia and recovery, bone densitometry, blood collection (via cardiac puncture), blood separation via centrifugation, soft tissue fixation in formalin with transfer to ethanol, and delivery of injectable drugs that require frozen storage prior to use. Additional capabilities are also planned for future flights and these include but are not limited to male mice, live animal return, and the development of experiment unique equipment to support science requirements for principal investigators that are selected for flight. In addition to the hardware capabilities to support rodent research the Crew Office has implemented a training program in generic rodent skills for all USOS crew members during their pre-assignment training rotation. This class includes training in general animal handling, euthanasia, injections, and dissections. The dissection portion of this training focuses on the dissection of the spleen, liver, kidney with adrenals, brain, eyes, and hindlimbs. By achieving and

  15. Unusual ISS Rate Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    On November 23, 2011 International Space Station Guidance, Navigation, and Control reported unusual pitch rate disturbance. These disturbances were an order of magnitude greater than nominal rates. The Loads and Dynamics team was asked to review and analyze current accelerometer data to investigate this disturbance. This paper will cover the investigation process under taken by the Loads and Dynamics group. It will detail the accelerometers used and analysis performed. The analysis included performing Frequency Fourier Transform of the data to identify the mode of interest. This frequency data is then reviewed with modal analysis of the ISS system model. Once this analysis is complete and the disturbance quantified, a forcing function was produced to replicate the disturbance. This allows the Loads and Dynamics team to report the load limit values for the 100's of interfaces on the ISS.

  16. An overview of NASA ISS human engineering and habitability: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, D; Architecture, B

    2000-09-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the first major NASA project to provide human engineering an equal system engineering an equal system engineering status to other disciplines. The incorporation and verification of hundreds of human engineering requirements applied across-the-board to the ISS has provided for a notably more habitable environment to support long duration spaceflight missions than might otherwise have been the case. As the ISS begins to be inhabited and become operational, much work remains in monitoring the effectiveness of the Station's built environment in supporting the range of activities required of a long-duration vehicle. With international partner participation, NASA's ISS Operational Habitability Assessment intends to carry human engineering and habitability considerations into the next phase of the ISS Program with constant attention to opportunities for cost-effective improvements that need to be and can be made to the on-orbit facility. Too, during its operations the ISS must be effectively used as an on-orbit laboratory to promote and expand human engineering/habitability awareness and knowledge to support the international space faring community with the data needed to develop future space vehicles for long-duration missions. As future space mission duration increases, the rise in importance of habitation issues make it imperative that lessons are captured from the experience of human engineering's incorporation into the ISS Program and applied to future NASA programmatic processes.

  17. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microfluidics for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Lisa A.; Spearing, Scott

    2003-01-01

    At NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Iterative Biological Crystallization (IBC) project has begun development on scientific hardware for macromolecular crystallization on the International Space Station (ISS). Currently ISS crystallization research is limited to solution recipes that were prepared on the ground prior to launch. The proposed hardware will conduct solution mixing and dispensing on board the ISS, be fully automated, and have imaging functions via remote commanding from the ground. Utilizing microfluidic technology, IBC will allow for on orbit iterations. The microfluidics LabChip(R) devices that have been developed, along with Caliper Technologies, will greatly benefit researchers by allowing for precise fluid handling of nano/pico liter sized volumes. IBC will maximize the amount of science return by utilizing the microfluidic approach and be a valuable tool to structural biologists investigating medically relevant projects.

  18. Performance Characterization of Loctite (Registered Trademark) 242 and 271 Liquid Locking Compounds (LLCs) as a Secondary Locking Feature for International Space Station (ISS) Fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael J.; Gamwell, Wayne R.

    2011-01-01

    Several International Space Station (ISS) hardware components use Loctite (and other polymer based liquid locking compounds (LLCs)) as a means of meeting the secondary (redundant) locking feature requirement for fasteners. The primary locking method is the fastener preload, with the application of the Loctite compound which when cured is intended to resist preload reduction. The reliability of these compounds has been questioned due to a number of failures during ground testing. The ISS Program Manager requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to characterize and quantify sensitivities of Loctite being used as a secondary locking feature. The findings and recommendations provided in this investigation apply to the anaerobic LLCs Loctite 242 and 271. No other anaerobic LLCs were evaluated for this investigation. This document contains the findings and recommendations of the NESC investigation

  19. The international space station: An opportunity for industry-sponsored global education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Cathleen E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station provides an excellent opportunity for industry sponsorship of international space education. As a highly visible worldwide asset, the space station already commands our interest. It has captured the imagination of the world's researchers and connected the world's governments. Once operational, it can also be used to capture the dreams of the world's children and connect the world's industry through education. The space station's global heritage and ownership; its complex engineering, construction, and operation; its flexible research and technology demonstration capability; and its long duration make it the perfect educational platform. These things also make a space station education program attractive to industry. Such a program will give private industry the opportunity to sponsor space-related activities even though a particular industry may not have a research or technology-driven need for space utilization. Sponsors will benefit through public relations and goodwill, educational promotions and advertising, and the sale and marketing of related products. There is money to be made by supporting, fostering, and enabling education in space through the International Space Station. This paper will explore various ISS education program and sponsorship options and benefits, will examine early industry response to such an opportunity, and will make the case for moving forward with an ISS education program as a private sector initiative.

  20. Opals: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In April of 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System (FS) launched to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a planned 90-day baseline mission, the OPALS FS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) ground station in Wrightwood, California. Interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure have been established to facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes, such as pointing prediction and data processing, satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The ORTs have provided valuable insight into operational considerations for the instrument on the ISS.

  1. Leadership Challenges in ISS Operations: Lessons Learned from Junior and Senior Mission Control Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L.; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Saylor, Stephanie A.; Kanas, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is operated by a multi-national, multi-organizational team that is dispersed across multiple locations, time zones, and work schedules. At NASA, both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the leadership challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to examine the major leadership challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount them. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and to the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which responses are consistent across the junior and senior samples. Further, we compare the issues identified by our interview survey to those identified by a standardized questionnaire survey of mission control personnel and a contrasting group of space station crewmembers. We studied a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior ISS controllers. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of 13 American astronauts, 17 Russian cosmonauts, and 150 U.S. and 36 Russian mission control personnel supporting the ISS or Mir space stations. The interview data showed that the survey respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Interview data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. The questionnaire data showed that the US mission

  2. International Space Station Data Collection for Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Remotely sensed data acquired by orbital sensor systems has emerged as a vital tool to identify the extent of damage resulting from a natural disaster, as well as providing near-real time mapping support to response efforts on the ground and humanitarian aid efforts. The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for acquiring disaster response imagery. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to autonomous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. NASA remote sensing assets on the station began collecting International Disaster Charter (IDC) response data in May 2012. The initial NASA ISS sensor systems responding to IDC activations included the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), mounted in the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF); the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility, where the crew collects imagery using off-the-shelf handheld digital cameras; and the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), a visible to near-infrared system mounted externally on the Japan Experiment Module Exposed Facility. The ISSAC completed its primary mission in January 2013. It was replaced by the very high resolution ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) Pathfinder, a visible-wavelength digital camera, telescope, and pointing system. Since the start of IDC response in 2012 there have been 108 IDC activations; NASA sensor systems have collected data for thirty-two of these events. Of the successful data collections, eight involved two or more ISS sensor systems responding to the same event. Data has also been collected by International Partners in response to natural disasters, most notably JAXA and

  3. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert L. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130) contains all technical, safety, and crew health medical requirements that are mandatory for achieving a Crew Transportation System Certification that will allow for International Space Station delivery and return of NASA crew and limited cargo. Previously approved on TN23183.

  4. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  5. International Space Station Instmments Collect Imagery of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    A new focus for utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting basic and applied research that directly benefits Earth's citizenry. In the Earth Sciences, one such activity is collecting remotely sensed imagery of disaster areas and making those data immediately available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, especially in response to activations of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters (known informally as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC). The ISS, together with other NASA orbital sensor assets, responds to IDC activations following notification by the USGS. Most of the activations are due to natural hazard events, including large floods, impacts of tropical systems, major fires, and volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Through the ISS Program Science Office, we coordinate with ISS instrument teams for image acquisition using several imaging systems. As of 1 August 2013, we have successfully contributed imagery data in support of 14 Disaster Charter Activations, including regions in both Haiti and the east coast of the US impacted by Hurricane Sandy; flooding events in Russia, Mozambique, India, Germany and western Africa; and forest fires in Algeria and Ecuador. ISS-based sensors contributing data include the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), the ISERV (ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System) Pathfinder camera mounted in the US Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), formerly operating from the WORF, and high resolution handheld camera photography collected by crew members (Crew Earth Observations). When orbital parameters and operations support data collection, ISS-based imagery adds to the resources available to disaster response teams and contributes to the publicdomain record of these events for later analyses.

  6. On-Orbit Prospective Echocardiography on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon; Feiverson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    A number of echocardiographic research projects and experiments have been flown on almost every space vehicle since 1970, but validation of standard methods and the determination of Space Normal cardiac function has not been reported to date. Advanced Diagnostics in Microgravity (ADUM) -remote guided echocardiographic technique provides a novel and effective approach to on-board assessment of cardiac physiology and structure using a just-in-time training algorithm and real-time remote guidance aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The validation of remotely guided echocardiographic techniques provides the procedures and protocols to perform scientific and clinical echocardiography on the ISS and the Moon. The objectives of this study were: 1.To confirm the ability of non-physician astronaut/cosmonaut crewmembers to perform clinically relevant remotely guided echocardiography using the Human Research Facility on board the ISS. 2.To compare the preflight, postflight and in-flight echocardiographic parameters commonly used in clinical medicine.

  7. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  8. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  9. International Space Station End-of-Life Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) end-of-life (EOL) cycle is currently scheduled for 2020, although there are ongoing efforts to extend ISS life cycle through 2028. The EOL for the ISS will require deorbiting the ISS. This will be the largest manmade object ever to be de-orbited therefore safely deorbiting the station will be a very complex problem. This process is being planned by NASA and its international partners. Numerous factors will need to be considered to accomplish this such as target corridors, orbits, altitude, drag, maneuvering capabilities etc. The ISS EOL Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will play a part in this process by estimating the reliability of the hardware supplying the maneuvering capabilities. The PRA will model the probability of failure of the systems supplying and controlling the thrust needed to aid in the de-orbit maneuvering.

  10. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  11. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese ‘Kibo’ facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the ‘Rad Gene’ project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated p53 gene (mp53) and a parental wild-type p53 gene (wtp53) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation–induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing p53-dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing p53-dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type p53 genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  13. Expanding NASA and Roscosmos Scientific Collaboration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrook, Pete

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a world-class laboratory orbiting in space. NASA and Roscosmos have developed a strong relationship through the ISS Program Partnership, working together and with the other ISS Partners for more than twenty years. Since 2013, based on a framework agreement between the Program Managers, NASA and Roscosmos are building a joint program of collaborative research on ISS. This international collaboration is developed and implemented in phases. Initially, members of the ISS Program Science Forum from NASA and TsNIIMash (representing Roscosmos) identified the first set of NASA experiments that could be implemented in the "near term". The experiments represented the research categories of Technology Demonstration, Microbiology, and Education. Through these experiments, the teams from the "program" and "operations" communities learned to work together to identify collaboration opportunities, establish agreements, and jointly plan and execute the experiments. The first joint scientific activity on ISS occurred in January 2014, and implementation of these joint experiments continues through present ISS operations. NASA and TsNIIMash have proceeded to develop "medium term" collaborations, where scientists join together to improve already-proposed experiments. A major success is the joint One-Year Mission on ISS, with astronaut Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, who returned from ISS in March, 2016. The teams from the NASA Human Research Program and the RAS Institute for Biomedical Problems built on their considerable experience to design joint experiments, learn to work with each other's protocols and processes, and share medical and research data. New collaborations are being developed between American and Russian scientists in complex fluids, robotics, rodent research and space biology, and additional human research. Collaborations are also being developed in Earth Remote Sensing, where scientists will share data from imaging

  14. Advances in Rodent Research Missions on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Ronca, A.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Gong, C.; Stube, K.; Pletcher, D.; Wigley, C.; Beegle, J.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    A research platform for rodent experiment on the ISS is a valuable tool for advancing biomedical research in space. Capabilities offered by the Rodent Research project developed at NASA Ames Research Center can support experiments of much longer duration on the ISS than previous experiments performed on the Space Shuttle. NASAs Rodent Research (RR)-1 mission was completed successfully and achieved a number of objectives, including validation of flight hardware, on-orbit operations, and science capabilities as well as support of a CASIS-sponsored experiment (Novartis) on muscle atrophy. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on the Space-X (SpX) 4 Dragon vehicle, and thrived for up to 37 days in microgravity. Daily health checks of the mice were performed during the mission via downlinked video; all flight animals were healthy and displayed normal behavior, and higher levels of physical activity compared to ground controls. Behavioral analysis demonstrated that Flight and Ground Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions indicative of healthy animals. The animals were euthanized on-orbit and select tissues were collected from some of the mice on orbit to assess the long-term sample storage capabilities of the ISS. In general, the data obtained from the flight mice were comparable to those from the three groups of control mice (baseline, vivarium and ground controls, which were housed in flight hardware), showing that the ISS has adequate capability to support long-duration rodent experiments. The team recovered 35 tissues from 40 RR-1 frozen carcasses, yielding 3300 aliquots of tissues to distribute to the scientific community in the U.S., including NASAs GeneLab project and scientists via Space Biology's Biospecimen Sharing Program Ames Life Science Data Archive. Tissues also were distributed to Russian research colleagues at the Institute for

  15. Utilizing ISS Camera Systems for Scientific Analysis of Lightning Characteristics and comparison with ISS-LIS and GLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, C. J.; Lang, T. J.; Leake, S.; Runco, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Video and still frame images from cameras aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are used to inspire, educate, and provide a unique vantage point from low-Earth orbit that is second to none; however, these cameras have overlooked capabilities for contributing to scientific analysis of the Earth and near-space environment. The goal of this project is to study how georeferenced video/images from available ISS camera systems can be useful for scientific analysis, using lightning properties as a demonstration. Camera images from the crew cameras and high definition video from the Chiba University Meteor Camera were combined with lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), ISS-Lightning Imaging Sensor (ISS-LIS), the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and lightning mapping arrays. These cameras provide significant spatial resolution advantages ( 10 times or better) over ISS-LIS and GLM, but with lower temporal resolution. Therefore, they can serve as a complementarity analysis tool for studying lightning and thunderstorm processes from space. Lightning sensor data, Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) derived city light maps, and other geographic databases were combined with the ISS attitude and position data to reverse geolocate each image or frame. An open-source Python toolkit has been developed to assist with this effort. Next, the locations and sizes of all flashes in each frame or image were computed and compared with flash characteristics from all available lightning datasets. This allowed for characterization of cloud features that are below the 4-km and 8-km resolution of ISS-LIS and GLM which may reduce the light that reaches the ISS-LIS or GLM sensor. In the case of video, consecutive frames were overlaid to determine the rate of change of the light escaping cloud top. Characterization of the rate of change in geometry, more generally the radius, of light escaping cloud top was integrated with the NLDN, ISS-LIS and

  16. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  17. Structural Verification of the First Orbital Wonder of the World - The Structural Testing and Analysis of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipay, John J.; Bernstein, Karen S.; Bruno, Erica E.; Deloo, Phillipe; Patin, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) can be considered one of the structural engineering wonders of the world. On par with the World Trade Center, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Statue of Liberty, the Great Pyramids, the Petronas towers and the Burj Khalifa skyscraper of Dubai, the ambition and scope of the ISS structural design, verification and assembly effort is a truly global success story. With its on-orbit life projected to be from its beginning in 1998 to the year 2020 (and perhaps beyond), all of those who participated in its development can consider themselves part of an historic engineering achievement representing all of humanity. The structural design and verification of the ISS could be the subject of many scholarly papers. Several papers have been written on the structural dynamic characterization of the ISS once it was assembled on-orbit [1], but the ground-based activities required to assure structural integrity and structural life of the individual elements from delivery to orbit through assembly and planned on-orbit operations have never been totally summarized. This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of some of the key decisions made during the structural verification planning for the elements of the U.S. On-Orbit Segment (USOS) as well as to summarize the many structural tests and structural analyses that were performed on its major elements. An effort is made for this paper to be summarily comprehensive, but as with all knowledge capture efforts of this kind, there are bound to be errors of omission. Should the reader discover any of these, please feel free to contact the principal author. The ISS (Figure 1) is composed of pre-integrated truss segments and pressurized elements supplied by NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency (RSA), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Each of these elements was delivered to orbit by a launch vehicle and connected to one another either robotically or

  18. ISS Has an Attitude! Determining ISS Attitude at the ISS Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Using Landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, Susan K.; Pickard,Henry; Kowtha, Vijayanand; Jackson, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Universities and secondary schools can help solve a real issue for remote sensing from the ISS WORF through hands-on engineering and activities. Remote sensing technology is providing scientists with higher resolution, higher sensitivity sensors. Where is it pointing? - To take full advantage of these improved sensors, space platforms must provide commensurate improvements in attitude determination

  19. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  20. Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) for ISS Flight Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) intended for use by International Space Station (ISS) ground controllers to increase the...

  1. Analyzing Power Supply and Demand on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Pham, Tho; Halyard, Raymond; Conwell, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Station Power and Energy Evaluation Determiner (SPEED) is a Java application program for analyzing the supply and demand aspects of the electrical power system of the International Space Station (ISS). SPEED can be executed on any computer that supports version 1.4 or a subsequent version of the Java Runtime Environment. SPEED includes an analysis module, denoted the Simplified Battery Solar Array Model, which is a simplified engineering model of the ISS primary power system. This simplified model makes it possible to perform analyses quickly. SPEED also includes a user-friendly graphical-interface module, an input file system, a parameter-configuration module, an analysis-configuration-management subsystem, and an output subsystem. SPEED responds to input information on trajectory, shadowing, attitude, and pointing in either a state-of-charge mode or a power-availability mode. In the state-of-charge mode, SPEED calculates battery state-of-charge profiles, given a time-varying power-load profile. In the power-availability mode, SPEED determines the time-varying total available solar array and/or battery power output, given a minimum allowable battery state of charge.

  2. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  3. Solar panels for the International Space Station are uncrated and moved in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker (left) guides the lifting of solar panels for the International Space Station (ISS). The panels are the first set of U.S.-provided solar arrays and batteries for ISS, scheduled to be part of mission STS-97 in December 1999. The mission, fifth in the U.S. flights for construction of ISS, will build and enhance the capabilities of the Space Station. It will deliver the solar panels as well as radiators to provide cooling. The Shuttle will spend 5 days docked to the station, which at that time will be staffed by the first station crew. Two space walks will be conducted to complete assembly operations while the arrays are attached and unfurled. A communications system for voice and telemetry also will be installed.

  4. What it takes to Fly in Space...Training to be an Astronaut and Daily Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA requirements to become an astronaut, training astronauts must do to fly on the International Space Station (ISS), systems and other training, and day-to-day activities onboard ISS. Additionally, stowage, organization and methods of communication (email, video conferenceing, IP phone) are discussed.

  5. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  6. Shuttle and ISS Food Systems Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeris, Vickie

    2000-01-01

    Russia and the U.S. provide the current International Space Station (ISS) food system. Each country contributes half of the food supply in their respective flight food packaging. All of the packaged flight food is stowed in Russian provided containers, which interface with the Service Module galley. Each country accepts the other's flight worthiness inspections and qualifications. Some of the food for the first ISS crew was launched to ISS inside the Service Module in July of 2000, and STS-106 in September 2000 delivered more food to the ISS. All subsequent food deliveries will be made by Progress, the Russian re-supply vehicle. The U.S. will ship their portion of food to Moscow for loading onto the Progress. Delivery schedules vary, but the goal is to maintain at least a 45-day supply onboard ISS at all times. The shelf life for ISS food must be at least one year, in order to accommodate the long delivery cycle and onboard storage. Preservation techniques utilized in the US food system include dehydration, thermo stabilization, intermediate moisture, and irradiation. Additional fresh fruits and vegetables will be sent with each Progress and Shuttle flights as permitted by volume allotments. There is limited refrigeration available on the Service Module to store fresh fruits and vegetables. Astronauts and cosmonauts eat half U.S. and half Russian food. Menu planning begins 1 year before a planned launch. The flight crews taste food in the U.S. and in Russia and rate the acceptability. A preliminary menu is planned, based on these ratings and the nutritional requirements. The preliminary menu is then evaluated by the crews while training in Russia. Inputs from this evaluation are used to finalize the menu and flight packaging is initiated. Flight food is delivered 6 weeks before launch. The current challenge for the food system is meeting the nutritional requirements, especially no more than 10 mg iron, and 3500 mg sodium. Experience from Shuttle[Mir also indicated

  7. From CERN to the International Space Station and back

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In December I flew on the Space Shuttle Discovery to ISS, the International Space Station. The main objectives were to continue building ISS, deliver consumables, spare parts and experiments and for the exchange of one crew member on ISS. During the 8-day stay at ISS, I participated in three space-walks, but also got the opportunity to perform one experiment, ALTEA, related to radiation in space and light flashes seen by many people in space. I will give a quick personal history, from when I was a Fellow at Cern in 1990 and learned that I could apply to become an ESA astronaut, to when I finally boarded a space craft to launch on Dec. 9th 2006. A 17 minute video will tell the story about the flight itself. The second half of the talk will be about research related to radiation in space that I have been involved in since joining ESA in 1992. In particular, about light flashes that were first reported on Apollo-11 in 1969, and the SilEye detectors flown on Mir and ISS to investigate fluxes of charged particles ...

  8. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  9. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publication, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the Contingency

  10. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  11. ISS and Space Environment Interactions in Event of Plasma Contactor Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), illustrated in Figure 1, will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, and similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur.

  12. Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dick, Brandon; Cook, Tony; Leonard, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. Currently, supplies of N2/O2 are maintained by transfer from the Space Shuttle. Following Space Shuttle is retirement in 2010, an alternate means of resupplying N2/O2 to the ISS is needed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has determined that the optimal method of supplying the ISS with O2/N2 is using tanks of high pressure N2/O2 carried to the station by a cargo vehicle capable of docking with the ISS. This paper will outline the architecture of the system selected by NASA and will discuss some of the design challenges associated with this use of high pressure oxygen and nitrogen in the human spaceflight environment.

  13. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  14. Considerations for Conducting Plant Research in Open Atmosphere Chambers on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Graham, Thomas; Dixit, Anirudha; Massa, Gioia

    The access to spaceflight and now the International Space Station has provided plant researchers a laboratory that is in continuous freefall (near weightlessness). As veteran spaceflight investigators know too well, research in space is difficult to conduct and the experiments are often confounded by secondary events. An example of this is the distribution of water and gases in rooting systems in µ-gravity. Since the water does not settle to the ”bottom” of the rooting media in space, there can be poor distribution and movement of water and oxygen, which in turn can stress the plants. This also creates challenges for conducting ground controls where the logical approach is to use the same volume of water as in space. But under 1-g, the water does settle to the bottom of the root zone, which leaves less in the upper profile of the rooting medium. In addition, some chambers such as the Russian Svet (on Mir), Lada (ISS), and NASA’s Veggie chamber were or are open to the cabin air. This simplifies the hardware development and allows the use of cabin air for cooling and supplying CO2 to the plants. Yet it also exposes the plants to the cabin air, which could have very high CO2 levels (e.g., 3000 to 6000 ppm), low humidity, and trace contaminants that might be below the limits for human concerns but could still affect plants. A known effect of these “super-elevated” CO2 levels on many dicot species is increased transpiration due to elevated stomatal conductance, both during the light and the dark cycles. Examples of these secondary effects will be discussed, along with potential approaches for conducting adequate ground controls.

  15. Improving the Geolocation Algorithm for Sensors Onboard the ISS: Effect of Drift Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Dou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The drift angle caused by the Earth’s self-rotation may introduce rotational displacement artifact on the geolocation results of imagery acquired by an Earth observing sensor onboard the International Space Station (ISS. If uncorrected, it would cause a gradual degradation of positional accuracy from the center towards the edges of an image. One correction method to account for the drift angle effect was developed. The drift angle was calculated from the ISS state vectors and positional information of the ground nadir point of the imagery. Tests with images acquired by the International Space Station Agriculture Camera (ISSAC using Google EarthTM as a reference indicated that applying the drift angle correction can reduce the residual geolocation error for the corner points of the ISSAC images from over 1000 to less than 500 m. The improved geolocation accuracy is well within the inherent geolocation uncertainty of up to 800 m, mainly due to imprecise knowledge of the ISS attitude and state parameters required to perform the geolocation algorithm.

  16. Report on ISS Oxygen Production, Resupply, and Partial Pressure Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaezler, Ryan; Ghariani, Ahmed; Leonard, Daniel; Lehman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The majority of oxygen used on International Space Station (ISS) is for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Oxygen is supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to oxygen production capability on both the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) and Russian Segment (RS). To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen partial pressure is controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable oxygen partial pressure along with the increased ISS cabin volume is utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes amount of oxygen supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing oxygen partial pressure along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  17. ISS Interface Mechanisms and their Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John G.; Aksamentov, Valery; Hoffman, Thomas; Bruner, Wes

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station, by nurturing technological development of a variety of pressurized and unpressurized interface mechanisms fosters "competition at the technology level". Such redundancy and diversity allows for the development and testing of mechanisms that might be used for future exploration efforts. The International Space Station, as a test-bed for exploration, has 4 types of pressurized interfaces between elements and 6 unpressurized attachment mechanisms. Lessons learned from the design, test and operations of these mechanisms will help inform the design for a new international standard pressurized docking mechanism for the NASA Docking System. This paper will examine the attachment mechanisms on the ISS and their attributes. It will also look ahead at the new NASA docking system and trace its lineage to heritage mechanisms.

  18. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station Hardware and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly, logging more than 620 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) which accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample-Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400 C. Once an SCA is installed, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via

  19. Microstructure and Macrosegregation Study of Directionally Solidified Al-7Si Samples Processed Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Samuel; Erdman, R. G.; Poirier, David R.; Tewari, S.N.; Grugel, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    This talk reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). The DS-experiments have been carried out under 1-g at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under low-g on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially-processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. We have observed that the primary dendrite arm spacings of two samples grown in the low-g environment of the ISS show good agreement with a dendrite-growth model based on diffusion controlled growth. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosgregation. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, dendritic-seed crystals have to partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS is carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described.

  20. Dedicated Slosh Dynamics Experiment on ISS using SPHERES (Advanced Space Operations in CR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) the Launch Services Program is leading an effort to conduct an experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to validate...

  1. Enhanced science capability on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Ronald R.; Kienlen, Mike

    2002-12-01

    It is inevitable that the International Space Station (ISS) will play a significant role in the conduct of science in space. However, in order to provide this service to a wide and broad community and to perform it cost effectively, alternative concepts must be considered to complement NASA"s Institutional capability. Currently science payload forward and return data services must compete for higher priority ISS infrastructure support requirements. Furthermore, initial astronaut crews will be limited to a single shift. Much of their time and activities will be required to meet their physical needs (exercise, recreation, etc.), station maintenance, and station operations, leaving precious little time to actively conduct science payload operations. ISS construction plans include the provisioning of several truss mounted, space-hardened pallets, both zenith and nadir facing. The ISS pallets will provide a platform to conduct both earth and space sciences. Additionally, the same pallets can be used for life and material sciences, as astronauts could place and retrieve sealed canisters for long-term micro-gravity exposure. Thus the pallets provide great potential for enhancing ISS science return. This significant addition to ISS payload capacity has the potential to exacerbate priorities and service contention factors within the exiting institution. In order to have it all, i.e., more science and less contention, the pallets must be data smart and operate autonomously so that NASA institutional services are not additionally taxed. Specifically, the "Enhanced Science Capability on the International Space Station" concept involves placing data handling and spread spectrum X-band communications capabilities directly on ISS pallets. Spread spectrum techniques are considered as a means of discriminating between different pallets as well as to eliminate RFI. The data and RF systems, similar to that of "free flyers", include a fully functional command and data handling system

  2. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  3. Recent Pharmacology Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes a variety of potential stressors including the absence of Earth's gravity, elevated exposure to radiation, confined living and working quarters, a heavy workload, and high public visibility. The effects of this extreme environment on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and even on stored medication doses, are not yet understood. Dr. Wotring will discuss recent analyses of medication doses that experienced long duration storage on the ISS and a recent retrospective examination of medication use during long-duration spaceflights. She will also describe new pharmacology experiments that are scheduled for upcoming ISS missions. Dr. Virginia E. Wotring is a Senior Scientist in the Division of Space Life Sciences in the Universities Space Research Association, and Pharmacology Discipline Lead at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Human Heath and Countermeasures Division. She received her doctorate in Pharmacological and Physiological Science from Saint Louis University after earning a B.S. in Chemistry at Florida State University. She has published multiple studies on ligand gated ion channels in the brain and spinal cord. Her research experience includes drug mechanisms of action, drug receptor structure/function relationships and gene & protein expression. She joined USRA (and spaceflight research) in 2009. In 2012, her book reviewing pharmacology in spaceflight was published by Springer: Space Pharmacology, Space Development Series.

  4. IMP: Using microsat technology to support engineering research inside of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kieran A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an International Space Station (ISS) experiment-support facility being developed by Dynacon for the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), based on microsatellite technology. The facility is called the ``Intravehicular Maneuverable Platform,'' or IMP. The core of IMP is a small, free-floating platform (or ``bus'') deployed inside one of the pressurized crew modules of ISS. Exchangeable experimental payloads can then be mounted to the IMP bus, in order to carry out engineering development or demonstration tests, or microgravity science experiments: the bus provides these payloads with services typical of a standard satellite bus (power, attitude control, etc.). The IMP facility takes advantage of unique features of the ISS, such as the Shuttle-based logistics system and the continuous availability of crew members, to greatly reduce the expense of carrying out space engineering experiments. Further cost reduction has been made possible by incorporating technology that Dynacon has developed for use in a current microsatellite mission. Numerous potential payloads for IMP have been identified, and the first of these (a flexible satellite control experiment) is under development by Dynacon and the University of Toronto's Institute for Aerospace Studies, for the CSA. .

  5. Improving Safety on the International Space Station: Transitioning to Electronic Emergency Procedure Books on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Journet, Katrina; Clahoun, Jessica; Morrow, Jason; Duncan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) originally designed the International Space Station (ISS) to operate until 2015, but have extended operations until at least 2020. As part of this very dynamic Program, there is an effort underway to simplify the certification of Commercial ]of ]the ]Shelf (COTS) hardware. This change in paradigm allows the ISS Program to take advantage of technologically savvy and commercially available hardware, such as the iPad. The iPad, a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc., was chosen to support this endeavor. The iPad is functional, portable, and could be easily accessed in an emergency situation. The iPad Electronic Flight Bag (EFB), currently approved for use in flight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is a fraction of the cost of a traditional Class 2 EFB. In addition, the iPad fs ability to use electronic aeronautical data in lieu of paper in route charts and approach plates can cut the annual cost of paper data in half for commercial airlines. ISS may be able to benefit from this type of trade since one of the most important factors considered is information management. Emergency procedures onboard the ISS are currently available to the crew in paper form. Updates to the emergency books can either be launched on an upcoming visiting vehicle such as a Russian Soyuz flight or printed using the onboard ISS printer. In both cases, it is costly to update hardcopy procedures. A new operations concept was proposed to allow for the use of a tablet system that would provide a flexible platform to support space station crew operations. The purpose of the system would be to provide the crew the ability to view and maintain operational data, such as emergency procedures while also allowing Mission Control Houston to update the procedures. The ISS Program is currently evaluating the safety risks associated with the use of iPads versus paper. Paper products can contribute to the flammability

  6. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  7. Lessons learned from the STS-120/ISS 10A robotics operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sarmad

    2010-01-01

    The STS-120/ISS 10A assembly mission was an unprecedented period during the life of the International Space Stations (ISS). The successful completion of the mission laid the foundation for the launch of the European and Japanese laboratories and continued assembly of the station. Unlike previous missions that concluded when the Space Shuttle undocked from the ISS, the 10A mission required critical assembly operations to continue after the Shuttle's departure to relocate the Harmony module to its permanent location and activate its systems. The end-to-end mission lasted for almost a month and required the execution of seven space walks, over 20 major robotics operations, and countless hours of ground commanding. The Canadian built mobile servicing system (MSS) and its robotics space station remote manipulator system (SSRMS) played a key a role in the success of the assembly operations. The mission presented the ISS robotics flight control team (ROBO) with unique challenges during the pre-mission planning and real-time execution of complex assembly tasks. The mission included the relocation of the P6 truss segment from the Z1 Node to its permanent location on the P5 truss; a three day marathon of highly choreographed sequence of robotics operations and space walks, and the reconfiguration of ISS structure to attach Harmony (Node 2) to the US destiny laboratory module; a six day sequence of complex robotics operations the majority of which was executed after the departure of the shuttle and included an unprecedented amount of ground commanded robotics operations. Of all the robotics operations executed during the mission, none were more challenging than supporting the repair of a torn P6 solar array that was damaged during its deployment; a dramatic space walk that pushed the MSS and the robotics flight control team to new limits and required the real-time planning and execution of an intricate series of operations that spanned two days. This paper will present an

  8. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for Cubesat Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  10. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned fo...

  11. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  12. Orbital Hub: a concept for human spaceflight beyond ISS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Stephan S.; Maiwald, Volker; Philpot, Claudia; Quantius, Dominik; Romberg, Oliver; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Vrakking, Vincent; Zeidler, Conrad

    2018-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the greatest endeavour in low-Earth orbit since the beginning of the space age and the culmination of human outposts like Skylab and Mir. While a clear schedule has yet to be drafted, it is expected that ISS will cease operation in the 2020s. What could be the layout for a human outpost in LEO with lessons learnt from ISS? What are the use cases and applications of such an outpost in the future? The System Analysis Space Segment group of the German Aerospace Center investigated these and other questions and developed the Orbital Hub concept. In this paper an overview is presented of how the overall concept has been derived and its properties and layouts are described. Starting with a workshop involving the science community, the scientific requirements have been derived and Strawman payloads have been defined for use in further design activities. These design activities focused on Concurrent Engineering studies, where besides DLR employees participants from the industry and astronauts were involved. The result is an expandable concept that is composed of two main parts, the Base Platform, home for a permanent crew of up to three astronauts, and the Free Flyer, an uncrewed autonomous research platform. This modular approach provides one major advantage: the decoupling of the habitat and payload leading to increased quality of the micro-gravity environment. The former provides an environment for human physiology experiments, while the latter allows science without the perturbations caused by a crew, e.g. material experiments or Earth observation. The Free Flyer is designed to operate for up to 3 months on its own, but can dock with the space station for maintenance and experiment servicing. It also has a hybrid propulsion system, chemical and electrical, for different applications. The hub's design allows launch with just three launches, as the total mass of all the hub parts is about 60,000 kg. The main focus of the design is

  13. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  14. Comparison of Directionally Solidified Samples Solidified Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, S.; Lauer, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Grugel, R. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). Terrestrial DS-experiments have been carried out at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. As of this writing, two dendritic metrics was measured: primary dendrite arm spacings and primary dendrite trunk diameters. We have observed that these dendrite-metrics of two samples grown in the microgravity environment show good agreements with models based on diffusion controlled growth and diffusion controlled ripening, respectively. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosegregation. Dendrite trunk diameters also show differences between the earth- and space-grown samples. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, the dendritic seed crystals were partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS was carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described and have modeled.

  15. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  16. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  17. Light Microscopy Module: International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Meyer, William V.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Abbott-Hearn, Amber; Atherton, Arthur; Beltram, Alexander; Bodzioney, Christopher; Brinkman, John; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began hardware operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2016, if all goes as planned, three experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Heated base-2 (ACE-H2) and [2] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Temperature control (ACE-T1). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al. and [2] from Chungnam National University, Daejeon, S. Korea: Chang-Soo Lee, et al.

  18. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  19. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  20. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Turtle

    2008-01-01

    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  1. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  2. ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Skinner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia leaks are a significant concern for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has external transport lines that direct liquid ammonia to radiator panels where the ammonia is cooled and then brought back to thermal control units. These transport lines and radiator panels are subject to stress from micrometeorites and temperature variations, and have developed small leaks. The ISS can accommodate these leaks at their present rate, but if the rate increased by a factor of ten, it could potentially deplete the ammonia supply and impact the proper functioning of the ISS thermal control system, causing a serious safety risk. A proposed ISS astrophysics instrument, the Lobster X-Ray Monitor, can be used to detect and localize ISS ammonia leaks. Based on the optical design of the eye of its namesake crustacean, the Lobster detector gives simultaneously large field of view and good position resolution. The leak detection principle is that the nitrogen in the leaking ammonia will be ionized by X-rays from the Sun, and then emit its own characteristic Xray signal. The Lobster instrument, nominally facing zenith for its astrophysics observations, can be periodically pointed towards the ISS radiator panels and some sections of the transport lines to detect and localize the characteristic X-rays from the ammonia leaks. Another possibility is to use the ISS robot arm to grab the Lobster instrument and scan it across the transport lines and radiator panels. In this case the leak detection can be made more sensitive by including a focused 100-microampere electron beam to stimulate X-ray emission from the leaking nitrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that either approach can be used to locate ammonia leaks at the level of 0.1 kg/day, a threshold rate of concern for the ISS. The Lobster instrument uses two main components: (1) a microchannel plate optic (also known as a Lobster optic) that focuses the X-rays and directs them to the focal plane, and (2) a CCD (charge

  3. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews get a close look at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). At left are STS-96 Mission Specialist Daniel T. Barry and Pilot Rick Douglas Husband. At center, STS-96 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan gives her attention to a technician with DaimlerChrysler while STS-101 Mission Specialist Edward Tsang Lu looks on. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  4. Corporate sponsored education initiatives on board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ian T.; Durham, Alyson S.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Brod, Lawrence B.; Durham, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of a corporate sponsored ``Lecture from Space'' program on board the International Space Station (ISS) with funding coming from a host of new technology and marketing spin-offs. This program would meld existing education initiatives in NASA with new corporate marketing techniques. Astronauts in residence on board the ISS would conduct short ten to fifteen minute live presentations and/or conduct interactive discussions carried out by a teacher in the classroom. This concept is similar to a program already carried out during the Neurolab mission on Shuttle flight STS-90. Building on that concept, the interactive simulcasts would be broadcast over the Internet and linked directly to computers and televisions in classrooms worldwide. In addition to the live broadcasts, educational programs and demonstrations can be recorded in space, and marketed and sold for inclusion in television programs, computer software, and other forms of media. Programs can be distributed directly into classrooms as an additional presentation supplement, as well as over the Internet or through cable and broadcast television, similar to the Canadian Discovery Channel's broadcasts of the Neurolab mission. Successful marketing and advertisement can eventually lead to the creation of an entirely new, privately run cottage industry involving the distribution and sale of educationally related material associated with the ISS that would have the potential to become truly global in scope. By targeting areas of expertise and research interest in microgravity, a large curriculum could be developed using space exploration as a unifying theme. Expansion of this concept could enhance objectives already initiated through the International Space University to include elementary and secondary school students. The ultimate goal would be to stimulate interest in space and space related sciences in today's youth through creative educational marketing initiatives while at the

  5. Microbiomes of the Dust Particles Collected from the International Space Station and Spacecraft Assembly Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The safety of the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and maintenance of ISS hardware are the primary rationale for monitoring microorganisms in this...

  6. Free-Flyer Capture - New Robotic Challenges from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.; Seagram, J.

    The Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) will be the first free-flyer to visit the International Space Station (ISS) that will be captured by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). Experience gained from the free-flyer captures completed previously by the Remote Manipulator System of the Space Shuttle has helped provide a foundation for the operational concept of capturing free-flyers. However, additional complications arise in the concept of free-flyer capture when carried out by the SSRMS from the ISS. Such issues include: ISS manoeuvrability and the difficulty of the ISS to quickly react to collision avoidance; current hardware and architecture design constraints of the SSRMS on-orbit; and HTV retreat and system limitations. This paper will discuss these issues and the numerous challenges they generate in trying to ensure that the safety of the ISS is maintained while trying to also guarantee the successful capture of the HTV; a vehicle containing potentially critical equipment and supplies for the ISS and its crew. As well, this paper will highlight the SSRMS system enhancements and innovative operational solutions that have enhanced the probability of mission success, and have been necessary to meet the failure tolerance and recovery requirements.

  7. Microbial Challenge Testing of Single Liquid Cathode Feed Water Electrolysis Cells for the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Robert J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Diderich, Greg S.; Steele, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) operational performance may be adversely impacted by microbiological growth and biofilm formation over the electrolysis cell membranes. Biofilms could hinder the transport of water from the bulk fluid stream to the membranes and increase the cell concentration overpotential resulting in higher cell voltages and a shorter cell life. A microbial challenge test was performed on duplicate single liquid-cathode feed water electrolysis cells to evaluate operational performance with increasing levels of a mixture of five bacteria isolated from ISS and Space Shuttle potable water systems. Baseline performance of the single water electrolysis cells was determined for approximately one month with deionized water. Monthly performance was also determined following each inoculation of the feed tank with 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 cells/ml of the mixed suspension of test bacteria. Water samples from the feed tank and recirculating water loops for each cell were periodically analyzed for enumeration and speciation of bacteria and total organic carbon. While initially a concern, this test program has demonstrated that the performance of the electrolysis cell is not adversely impacted by feed water containing the five species of bacteria tested at a concentration measured as high as 1,000,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. This paper presents the methodologies used in the conduct of this test program along with the performance test results at each level of bacteria concentration.

  8. ISS Material Science Research Rack HWIL Interface Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Philip J.; Ballard, Gary H.; Crumbley, Robert T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the first Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) interface simulation is described. Dynamic Concepts developed this HWIL simulation system with funding and management provided by the Flight Software group (ED14) of NASA-MSFC's Avionics Department. The HWIL system has been used both as a flight software development environment and as a software qualification tool. To fulfill these roles, the HWIL simulator accurately models the system dynamics of many MSRR-1 subsystems and emulates most of the internal interface signals. The modeled subsystems include the Experiment Modules, the Thermal Environment Control System, the Vacuum Access System, the Solid State Power Controller Module, and the Active Rack Isolation Systems. The emulated signals reside on three separate MIL-STD-1553B digital communication buses, the ISS Medium Rate Data Link, and several analog controller and sensor signals. To enhance the range of testing, it was necessary to simulate several off-nominal conditions that may occur in the interfacing subsystems.

  9. The International Space Station: A Pathway to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.; Bartoe, John-David F.; Mustachio, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 16 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the longterm effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  10. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Service Life Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses high-efficiency particulate air filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as bacteria filter elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. segment in the flight 4R assembly level. The preflight service life prediction of 1 yr for the BFEs is based upon engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS program resources. Testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are provided.

  11. Independent Review of U.S. and Russian Probabilistic Risk Assessments for the International Space Station Mini Research Module #2 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Mini-Research Module-2 (MRM-2), a Russian module on the International Space Station, does not meet its requirements for micrometeoroid and orbital debris probability of no penetration (PNP). To document this condition, the primary Russian Federal Space Agency ISS contractor, S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation-Energia (RSC-E), submitted an ISS non-compliance report (NCR) which was presented at the 5R Stage Operations Readiness Review (SORR) in October 2009. In the NCR, RSC-E argued for waiving the PNP requirement based on several factors, one of which was the risk of catastrophic failure was acceptably low at 1 in 11,100. However, NASA independently performed an assessment of the catastrophic risk resulting in a value of 1 in 1380 and believed that the risk at that level was unacceptable. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to evaluate the two competing catastrophic risk values and determine which was more accurate. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  12. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  13. International Space Station Data Collection for Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A..

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters - including such events as tropical storms, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires -effect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and also cause billions of dollars (USD) in damage to the global economy. Remotely sensed data acquired by orbital sensor systems has emerged as a vital tool to identify the extent of damage resulting from a natural disaster, as well as providing near-real time mapping support to response efforts on the ground and humanitarian aid efforts. The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for acquiring disaster response imagery. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to free-flyer based, sun-synchronous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. While several nations have well-developed terrestrial remote sensing programs and assets for data collection, many developing nations do not have ready access to such resources. The International Charter, Space and Major Disasters (also known as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC; http://www.disasterscharter.org/home) addresses this disparity. It is an agreement between agencies of several countries to provide - on a best-effort basis - remotely sensed data of natural disasters to requesting countries in support of disaster response. The lead US agency for interaction with the IDC is the United States Geological Survey (USGS); when an IDC request or "activation" is received, the USGS notifies the science teams for NASA instruments with targeting information for data collection. In the case of the ISS, the Earth Sciences and Remote Sensing (ESRS) Unit, part of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science

  14. EAC training and medical support for International Space Station astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmid, E; Haignere, J P; Damian, K; Damann, V

    2000-11-01

    The operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be a global multilateral endeavour. Each International Partner will be responsible for the operation of its elements and for providing a crew complement proportional to its share of the overall resources. The preparations of the European Astronaut Centre to furnish training and medical support for the ISS astronauts are described.

  15. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealin...

  16. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealin...

  17. Viewing ISS Data in Real Time via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Gerry; Chamberlain, Jim

    2004-01-01

    EZStream is a computer program that enables authorized users at diverse terrestrial locations to view, in real time, data generated by scientific payloads aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The only computation/communication resource needed for use of EZStream is a computer equipped with standard Web-browser software and a connection to the Internet. EZStream runs in conjunction with the TReK software, described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article, that coordinates multiple streams of data for the ground communication system of the ISS. EZStream includes server components that interact with TReK within the ISS ground communication system and client components that reside in the users' remote computers. Once an authorized client has logged in, a server component of EZStream pulls the requested data from a TReK application-program interface and sends the data to the client. Future EZStream enhancements will include (1) extensions that enable the server to receive and process arbitrary data streams on its own and (2) a Web-based graphical-user-interface-building subprogram that enables a client who lacks programming expertise to create customized display Web pages.

  18. Radiation Measured with Different Dosimeters for ISS-Expedition 18-19/ULF2 on Board International Space Station during Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Gaza, R.; Roed, Y.; Semones, E.; Lee, K.; Steenburgh, R.; Johnson, S.; Flanders, J.; Zapp, N.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation field of particles in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly composed of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly). GCR are modulated by solar activity, at the period of solar minimum activity, GCR intensity is at maximum and the main contributor for space radiation is GCR. At present for space radiation measurements conducted by JSC (Johnson Space Center) SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group), the preferred active dosimeter sensitive to all LET (Linear Energy Transfer) is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC); the preferred passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) sensitive to low LET as well as CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) sensitive to high LET. For the method using passive dosimeters, radiation quantities for all LET can be obtained by combining radiation results measured with TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs. TEPC, TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 detectors were used to measure the radiation field for the ISS (International Space Station) - Expedition 18-19/ULF2 space mission which was conducted from 15 November 2008 to 31 July 2009 - near the period of the recent solar minimum activity. LET spectra (differential and integral fluence, absorbed dose and dose equivalent) and radiation quantities were measured for positions TEPC, TESS (Temporary Sleeping Station, inside the polyethylene lined sleep station), SM-P 327 and 442 (Service Module - Panel 327 and 442). This paper presents radiation LET spectra measured with TEPC and CR-39 PNTDs and radiation dose measured with TLDs/OSLDs as well as the radiation quantities combined from results measured with passive dosimeters.

  19. International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni; Cohen, Fred

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35 percent depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty-eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 (Port) Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will discuss the battery performance data after eighteen months of cycling.

  20. ISS Local Environment Spectrometers (ISLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the ISS and the ISS surface materials, we propose to use lowcost, high-TRL plasma sensors on the ISS robotic arm to probe the ISS space environment. During many years of ISS operation, we have been able to condut effective (but not perfect) extravehicular activities (both human and robotic) within the perturbed local ISS space environment. Because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the LEO space environment, there remain important questions, such as differential charging at solar panel junctions (the so-called "triple point" between conductor, dielectric, and space plasma), increased chemical contamination due to ISS surface charging and/or thruster activation, water dumps, etc, and "bootstrap" charging of insulating surfaces. Some compelling questions could synergistically draw upon a common sensor suite, which also leverages previous and current MSFC investments. Specific questions address ISS surface charging, plasma contactor plume expansion in a magnetized drifting plasma, and possible localized contamination effects across the ISS.

  1. Investigating the Response and Expansion of Plasma Plumes in a Mesosonic Plasma Using the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoegy, W. R.; Krause, L. Habash; Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the International Space Station (ISS) and the ISS space vehicle, we are exploring a specialized suite of plasma sensors, manipulated by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) to probe the near-ISS mesosonic plasma ionosphere moving past the ISS. It is proposed that SASSI consists of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Thermal Ion Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TICHS), Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS), Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), the Collimated PhotoElectron Gun (CPEG), and the University of Michigan Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). There are multiple expected applications for SASSI. Here, we will discuss the study of fundamental plasma physics questions associated with how an emitted plasma plume (such as from the ISS Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU)) responds and expands in a mesosonic magnetoplasma as well as emit and collect current. The ISS PCU Xe plasma plume drifts through the ionosphere and across the Earth's magnetic field, resulting in complex dynamics. This is of practical and theoretical interest pertaining to contamination concerns (e.g. energetic ion scattering) and the ability to collect and emit current between the spacecraft and the ambient plasma ionosphere. This impacts, for example, predictions of electrodynamic tether current performance using plasma contactors as well as decisions about placing high-energy electric propulsion thrusters on ISS. We will discuss the required measurements and connection to proposed instruments for this study.

  2. International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Start-Up and Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Dalton, Penni J.

    2001-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35% depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells, to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will describe the battery hardware configuration, operation, and role in providing power to the main power system of the ISS. We will also discuss initial battery start-up and performance data.

  3. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  4. Quantitative Risk Modeling of Fire on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has worked to prevent fire events and to mitigate their impacts should they occur. Hardware is designed to reduce sources of ignition, oxygen systems are designed to control leaking, flammable materials are prevented from flying to ISS whenever possible, the crew is trained in fire response, and fire response equipment improvements are sought out and funded. Fire prevention and mitigation are a top ISS Program priority - however, programmatic resources are limited; thus, risk trades are made to ensure an adequate level of safety is maintained onboard the ISS. In support of these risk trades, the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) team has modeled the likelihood of fire occurring in the ISS pressurized cabin, a phenomenological event that has never before been probabilistically modeled in a microgravity environment. This paper will discuss the genesis of the ISS PRA fire model, its enhancement in collaboration with fire experts, and the results which have informed ISS programmatic decisions and will continue to be used throughout the life of the program.

  5. ISS Expeditions 16 through 20: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2-year span from Expedition 16 through Expedition 20, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of archival water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principal sources of potable water for Expeditions 16 through 18. During Expedition 18 the U.S. water processor assembly was delivered, installed, and tested during a 90-day checkout period. Beginning with Expedition 19, U.S. potable water recovered from a combined waste stream of humidity condensate and pretreated urine was also available for ISS crew use. A total of 74 potable water samples were collected using U.S. sampling hardware during Expeditions 16 through 20 and returned on both Shuttle and Soyuz vehicles. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these ISS potable water samples are presented in this paper. Eight potable water samples collected in flight with Russian hardware were also received for analysis, as well as 5 preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 34. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed.

  6. Observation planning algorithm of a Japanese space-borne sensor: Hyperspectral Imager SUIte (HISUI) onboard International Space Station (ISS) as platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenta; Konno, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Komoda, Mako

    2017-09-01

    Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI) is a Japanese future space-borne hyperspectral instrument being developed by Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI). HISUI will be launched in 2019 or later onboard International Space Station (ISS) as platform. HISUI has 185 spectral band from 0.4 to 2.5 μm with 20 by 30 m spatial resolution with swath of 20 km. Swath is limited as such, however observations in continental scale area are requested in HISUI mission lifetime of three years. Therefore we are developing a scheduling algorithm to generate effective observation plans. HISUI scheduling algorithm is to generate observation plans automatically based on platform orbit, observation area maps (we say DAR; "Data Acquisition Request" in HISUI project), their priorities, and available resources and limitation of HISUI system such as instrument operation time per orbit and data transfer capability. Then next we need to set adequate DAR before start of HISUI observation, because years of observations are needed to cover continental scale wide area that is difficult to change after the mission started. To address these issues, we have developed observation simulator. The simulator's critical inputs are DAR and the ISS's orbit, HISUI limitations in observation minutes per orbit, data storage and past cloud coverage data for term of HISUI observations (3 years). Then the outputs of simulator are coverage map of each day. Areas with cloud free image are accumulated for the term of observation up to three years. We have successfully tested the simulator and tentative DAR and found that it is possible to estimate coverage for each of requests for the mission lifetime.

  7. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  8. Planning in the Continuous Operations Environment of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Theresa; Hagopian, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    The continuous operation planning approach developed for the operations planning of the International Space Station (ISS) is reported on. The approach was designed to be a robust and cost-effective method. It separates ISS planning into two planning functions: long-range planning for a fixed length planning horizon which continually moves forward as ISS operations progress, and short-range planning which takes a small segment of the long-range plan and develops a detailed operations schedule. The continuous approach is compared with the incremental approach, the short and long-range planning functions are described, and the benefits and challenges of implementing a continuous operations planning approach for the ISS are summarized.

  9. Maximizing Science Return from Future Rodent Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS): Tissue Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Lai, S.; Klotz, R.; Popova, Y.; Chakravarty, K.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how mammals adapt to long duration habitation in space, a system for performing rodent experiments on the ISS is under development; Rodent Research-1 is the first flight and will include validation of both on-orbit animal support and tissue preservation. To evaluate plans for on-orbit sample dissection and preservation, we simulated conditions for euthanasia, tissue dissection, and prolonged sample storage on the ISS, and we also developed methods for post-flight dissection and recovery of high quality RNA from multiple tissues following prolonged storage in situ for future science. Mouse livers and spleens were harvested under conditions that simulated nominal, on-orbit euthanasia and dissection operations including storage at -80 C for 4 months. The RNA recovered was of high quality (RNA Integrity Number, RIN(is) greater than 8) and quantity, and the liver enzyme contents and activities (catalase, glutathione reductase, GAPDH) were similar to positive controls, which were collected under standard laboratory conditions. We also assessed the impact of possible delayed on-orbit dissection scenarios (off-nominal) by dissecting and preserving the spleen (RNAlater) and liver (fast-freezing) at various time points post-euthanasia (from 5 min up to 105 min). The RNA recovered was of high quality (spleen, RIN (is) greater than 8; liver, RIN (is) greater than 6) and liver enzyme activities were similar to positive controls at all time points, although an apparent decline in select enzyme activities was evident at the latest time (105 min). Additionally, various tissues were harvested from either intact or partially dissected, frozen carcasses after storage for approximately 2 months; most of the tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, adrenal glands and muscle) were of acceptable RNA quality for science return, whereas some tissues (small intestine, bone marrow and bones) were not. These data demonstrate: 1) The protocols developed for future flight

  10. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  11. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo

    2009-01-01

    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  12. Paving the Way for Small Satellite Access to Orbit: Cyclops' Deployment of SpinSat, the Largest Satellite Ever Deployed from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Matthew P.; Newswander, Daniel R.; Smith, James P.; Lamb, Craig R.; Ballard, Perry G.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS), known as "Cyclops" to the International Space Station (ISS) community, successfully deployed the largest satellite ever (SpinSat) from the ISS on November 28, 2014. Cyclops, a collaboration between the NASA ISS Program, NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering, and Department of Defense Space Test Program (DoD STP) communities, is a dedicated 10-100 kg class ISS small satellite deployment system. This paper will showcase the successful deployment of SpinSat from the ISS. It will also outline the concept of operations, interfaces, requirements, and processes for satellites to utilize the Cyclops satellite deployment system.

  13. Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hummerick, M. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Whitmire, A. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. However, studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC, Purdue, and ORBITEC bring a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for ISS and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), and statistics. The Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS offers an opportunity to develop a pick-and-eat fresh vegetable component to the ISS food system as a first step to bioregenerative supplemental food production. We propose growing salad plants in the Veggie unit during spaceflight, focusing on the impact of light quality and fertilizer formulation on crop morphology, edible biomass yield, microbial food safety, organoleptic acceptability, nutritional value, and behavioral health benefits of the fresh produce. The first phase of the project will involve flight tests using leafy greens, with a small Chinese cabbage variety, Tokyo bekana, previously down selected through a series of research tests as a suitable candidate. The second phase will focus on dwarf tomato. Down selection of candidate varieties have been performed, and the dwarf cultivar Red Robin has been selected as the test crop. Four light treatments and three fertilizer treatments will be tested for each crop on the ground, to down select to two light

  14. Human interactions in space: ISS vs. Shuttle/Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares findings from two NASA-funded studies of international long-duration missions to the Mir space station (Shuttle/Mir) and to the International Space Station (ISS). American and Russian crewmembers and mission control personnel participated. Issues examined included changes in mood and group social climate over time, displacement of group tension to outside monitoring personnel, cultural differences, and leadership roles. Findings were based on the completion of a weekly questionnaire that included items from the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale. An examination of issues investigated in both studies revealed much similarity in findings. There was little support for the presence of changes in levels of mood and group climate over time, and no evidence for a "3rd quarter phenomenon". Both studies also provided evidence for the displacement of negative emotions to outside personnel in both crewmembers and mission control personnel. There were similar patterns of differences between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Finally, in both studies, the support role of the leader was related to group cohesion among crewmembers, and both the task and support roles of the leader were related to cohesion among mission control personnel. Thus, in these four areas, the ISS study substantially replicated the findings from the earlier Shuttle/Mir study, suggesting that common psychosocial issues affect people engaged in on-orbit space missions.

  15. Neutron dose study with bubble detectors aboard the International Space Station as part of the Matroshka-R experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machrafi, R.; Garrow, K.; Ing, H.; Smith, M. B.; Andrews, H. R.; Akatov, Yu; Arkhangelsky, V.; Chernykh, I.; Mitrikas, V.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Tomi, L.; Kartsev, I.; Lyagushin, V.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Matroshka-R experiments, a spherical phantom and space bubble detectors (SBDs) were used on board the International Space Station to characterise the neutron radiation field. Seven experimental sessions with SBDs were carried out during expeditions ISS-13, ISS-14 and ISS-15. The detectors were positioned at various places throughout the Space Station, in order to determine dose variations with location and on/in the phantom in order to establish the relationship between the neutron dose measured externally to the body and the dose received internally. Experimental data on/in the phantom and at different locations are presented. (authors)

  16. Geocam Space: Enhancing Handheld Digital Camera Imagery from the International Space Station for Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lee, Yeon Jin; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Handheld astronaut photography of the Earth has been collected from the International Space Station (ISS) since 2000, making it the most temporally extensive remotely sensed dataset from this unique Low Earth orbital platform. Exclusive use of digital handheld cameras to perform Earth observations from the ISS began in 2004. Nadir viewing imagery is constrained by the inclined equatorial orbit of the ISS to between 51.6 degrees North and South latitude, however numerous oblique images of land surfaces above these latitudes are included in the dataset. While unmodified commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras provide only visible wavelength, three-band spectral information of limited quality current cameras used with long (400+ mm) lenses can obtain high quality spatial information approaching 2 meters/ground pixel resolution. The dataset is freely available online at the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth site (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov), and now comprises over 2 million images. Despite this extensive image catalog, use of the data for scientific research, disaster response, commercial applications and visualizations is minimal in comparison to other data collected from free-flying satellite platforms such as Landsat, Worldview, etc. This is due primarily to the lack of fully-georeferenced data products - while current digital cameras typically have integrated GPS, this does not function in the Low Earth Orbit environment. The Earth Science and Remote Sensing (ESRS) Unit at NASA Johnson Space Center provides training in Earth Science topics to ISS crews, performs daily operations and Earth observation target delivery to crews through the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility on board ISS, and also catalogs digital handheld imagery acquired from orbit by manually adding descriptive metadata and determining an image geographic centerpoint using visual feature matching with other georeferenced data, e.g. Landsat, Google Earth, etc. The lack of full geolocation

  17. Inspiring the Next Generation: The International Space Station Education Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Hasbrook, Pete; Knowles, Carolyn; Chicoine, Ruth Ann; Miyagawa, Yayoi; Koyama, Masato; Savage, Nigel; Zell, Martin; Biryukova, Nataliya; Pinchuk, Vladimir; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has a unique ability to capture the imagination of both students and teachers worldwide. Since 2000, the presence of humans onboard ISS has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over 43 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related educational activities. Projects such as YouTube Space Lab, Sally Ride Earth Knowledge-based Acquired by Middle Schools (EarthKAM), SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) Zero-Robotics, Tomatosphere, and MAI-75 events among others have allowed for global student, teacher and public access to space through student classroom investigations and real-time audio and video contacts with crewmembers. Educational activities are not limited to STEM but encompass all aspects of the human condition. This is well illustrated in the Uchu Renshi project, a chain poem initiated by an astronaut while in space and continued and completed by people on Earth. With ISS operations now extended to 2024, projects like these and their accompanying educational materials are available to more students around the world. From very early on in the program's history, students have been provided with a unique opportunity to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects. Many of these projects support inquiry-based learning that allows students to ask questions, develop hypothesis-derived experiments, obtain supporting evidence and identify solutions or explanations. This approach to learning is well-published as one of the most effective ways to inspire students to pursue careers in scientific and technology fields. Ever since the first space station element was launched, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed, both individually and collaboratively, by all the

  18. ISS External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    (1) The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit, (2) Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives, (3) Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle, and (4)The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  19. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments Using the International Space Station (ISS) Light Microscopy Module (LMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurk, Michael A. (Andy)

    2015-01-01

    Techshot, Inc., has developed an observation platform for the LMM on the ISS that will enable biomedical and biotechnology experiments. The LMM Dynamic Stage consists of an electronics module and the first two of a planned suite of experiment modules. Specimens and reagent solutions can be injected into a small, hollow microscope slide-the heart of the innovation-via a combination of small reservoirs, pumps, and valves. A life science experiment module allows investigators to load up to two different fluids for on-orbit, real-time image cytometry. Fluids can be changed to initiate a process, fix biological samples, or retrieve suspended cells. A colloid science experiment module conducts microparticle and nanoparticle tests for investigation of colloid self-assembly phenomena. This module includes a hollow glass slide and heating elements for the creation of a thermal gradient from one end of the slide to the other. The electronics module supports both experiment modules and contains a unique illuminator/condenser for bright and dark field and phase contrast illumination, power supplies for two piezoelectric pumps, and controller boards for pumps and valves. This observation platform safely contains internal fluids and will greatly accelerate the research and development (R&D) cycle of numerous experiments, products, and services aboard the ISS.

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non -regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  1. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  2. Training astronauts using three-dimensional visualisations of the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, M; Houston, A; Barker, A; Dahlstron, E; Lewis, N; Maris, N; Nelles, D; Bagaoutdinov, R; Bodrikov, G; Borodin, Y; Cheburkov, M; Ivanov, D; Karpunin, P; Katargin, R; Kiselyev, A; Kotlayarevsky, Y; Schetinnikov, A; Tylerov, F

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in personal computer technology have led to the development of relatively low-cost software to generate high-resolution three-dimensional images. The capability both to rotate and zoom in on these images superposed on appropriate background images enables high-quality movies to be created. These developments have been used to produce realistic simulations of the International Space Station on CD-ROM. This product is described and its potentialities demonstrated. With successive launches, the ISS is gradually built up, and visualised over a rotating Earth against the star background. It is anticipated that this product's capability will be useful when training astronauts to carry out EVAs around the ISS. Simulations inside the ISS are also very realistic. These should prove invaluable when familiarising the ISS crew with their future workplace and home. Operating procedures can be taught and perfected. "What if" scenario models can be explored and this facility should be useful when training the crew to deal with emergency situations which might arise. This CD-ROM product will also be used to make the general public more aware of, and hence enthusiastic about, the International Space Station programme.

  3. A ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Sound and Noise Level Monitoring on the ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) needs to keep quiet to maintain a healthy and habitable environment in which crewmembers can perform long-term and...

  4. Preliminary Analysis of ISS Maintenance History and Implications for Supportability of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin J.; Robbins, William W.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) enables the study of supportability issues associated with long-duration human spaceflight. The ISS is a large, complex spacecraft that must be maintained by its crew. In contrast to the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle, but similar to spacecraft that will be component elements of future missions beyond low-Earth orbit, ISS does not return to the ground for servicing and provisioning of spares is severely constrained by transportation limits. Although significant technical support is provided by ground personnel, all hands-on maintenance tasks are performed by the crew. It is expected that future missions to distant destinations will be further limited by lack of resupply opportunities and will, eventually, become largely independent of ground support. ISS provides an opportunity to begin learning lessons that will enable future missions to be successful. Data accumulated over the first several years of ISS operations have been analyzed to gain a better understanding of maintenance-related workload. This analysis addresses both preventive and corrective maintenance and includes all U.S segment core systems. Systems and tasks that are major contributors to workload are identified. As further experience accrues, lessons will be learned that will influence future system designs so that they require less maintenance and, when maintenance is required, it can be performed more efficiently. By heeding the lessons of ISS it will be possible to identify system designs that should be more robust and point towards advances in both technology and design that will offer the greatest return on investment.

  5. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Anderson, Molly; Adams, Niklas; Vega, Leticia; Botkin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle Program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up-mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that a wide variability exists with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants; therefore, baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on the ISS.

  6. Update on International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni; Cohen, Fred

    2003-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35% depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty-eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells, to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 (Port) Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will discuss the battery performance data after two and a half years of cycling.

  7. International Space Station Model Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.; Fitzpatrick, Kristin; Hodge, Jennifer; Grygier, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit structural dynamic data and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the International Space Station (ISS) configuration ISS Stage ULF7, 2015 Dedicated Thruster Firing (DTF). The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate the analytical models used to calculate the ISS internal dynamic loads and compare the 2015 DTF with previous tests. During the ISS configurations under consideration, on-orbit dynamic measurements were collected using the three main ISS instrumentation systems; Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS) and the Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). The measurements were recorded during several nominal on-orbit DTF tests on August 18, 2015. Experimental modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Correlation and comparisons between test and analytical frequencies and mode shapes were performed to assess the accuracy of the analytical models for the configurations under consideration. These mode shapes were also compared to earlier tests. Based on the frequency comparisons, the accuracy of the mathematical models is assessed and model refinement recommendations are given. In particular, results of the first fundamental mode will be discussed, nonlinear results will be shown, and accelerometer placement will be assessed.

  8. DSMC Simulations of Disturbance Torque to ISS During Airlock Depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, F. E., III; Stewart, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    The primary attitude control system on the International Space Station (ISS) is part of the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and uses Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMG). The secondary system is part of the Russian On orbit Segment (RSOS) and uses a combination of gyroscopes and thrusters. Historically, events with significant disturbances such as the airlock depressurizations associated with extra-vehicular activity (EVA) have been performed using the RSOS attitude control system. This avoids excessive propulsive "de-saturations" of the CMGs. However, transfer of attitude control is labor intensive and requires significant propellant. Predictions employing NASA's DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) of the disturbance torque to the ISS for depressurization of the Pirs airlock on the RSOS will be presented [1]. These predictions were performed to assess the feasibility of using USOS control during these events. The ISS Pirs airlock is vented using a device known as a "T-vent" as shown in the inset in figure 1. By orienting two equal streams of gas in opposite directions, this device is intended to have no propulsive effect. However, disturbance force and torque to the ISS do occur due to plume impingement. The disturbance torque resulting from the Pirs depressurization during EVAs is estimated by using a loosely coupled CFD/DSMC technique [2]. CFD is used to simulate the flow field in the nozzle and the near field plume. DSMC is used to simulate the remaining flow field using the CFD results to create an in flow boundary to the DSMC simulation. Due to the highly continuum nature of flow field near the T-vent, two loosely coupled DSMC domains are employed. An 88.2 cubic meter inner domain contains the Pirs airlock and the T-vent. Inner domain results are used to create an in flow boundary for an outer domain containing the remaining portions of the ISS. Several orientations of the ISS solar arrays and radiators have been investigated to find cases that result in minimal

  9. The ISS flight of Richard Garriott: a template for medicine and science investigation on future spaceflight participant missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Richard T; Garriott, Owen K; Bogomolov, Valery V; Pochuev, Vladimir I; Morgun, Valery V; Garriott, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    A total of eight commercial spaceflight participants have launched to the International Space Station (ISS) on Soyuz vehicles. Based on an older mean age compared to career astronauts and an increased prevalence of medical conditions, spaceflight participants have provided the opportunity to learn about the effect of space travel on crewmembers with medical problems. The 12-d Soyuz TMA-13/12 ISS flight of spaceflight participant Richard Garriott included medical factors that required preflight intervention, risk mitigation strategies, and provided the opportunity for medical study on-orbit. Equally important, Mr. Garriott conducted extensive medical, scientific, and educational payload operations during the flight. These included 7 medical experiments and a total of 15 scientific projects such as protein crystal growth, Earth observations/photography, educational projects with schools, and amateur radio. The medical studies included the effect of microgravity on immune function, sleep, bone loss, corneal refractive surgery, low back pain, motion perception, and intraocular pressure. The overall mission success resulted from non-bureaucratic agility in mission planning, cooperation with investigators from NASA, ISS, International Partners, and the Korean Aerospace Research Institute, in-flight support and leadership from a team with spaceflight and Capcom experience, and overall mission support from the ISS program. This article focuses on science opportunities that suborbital and orbital spaceflight participant flights offer and suggests that the science program on Richard Garriott's flight be considered a model for future orbital and suborbital missions. The medical challenges are presented in a companion article.

  10. Gas monitoring onboard ISS using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisi, Michael; Stettner, Armin; Seurig, Roland; Honne, Atle; Witt, Johannes; Rebeyre, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    In the confined, enclosed environment of a spacecraft, the air quality must be monitored continuously in order to safeguard the crew's health. For this reason, OHB builds the ANITA2 (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) technology demonstrator for trace gas monitoring onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The measurement principle of ANITA2 is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technology with dedicated gas analysis software from the Norwegian partner SINTEF. This combination proved to provide high sensitivity, accuracy and precision for parallel measurements of 33 trace gases simultaneously onboard ISS by the precursor instrument ANITA1. The paper gives a technical overview about the opto-mechanical components of ANITA2, such as the interferometer, the reference Laser, the infrared source and the gas cell design and a quick overview about the gas analysis. ANITA2 is very well suited for measuring gas concentrations specifically but not limited to usage onboard spacecraft, as no consumables are required and measurements are performed autonomously. ANITA2 is a programme under the contract of the European Space Agency, and the air quality monitoring system is a stepping stone into the future, as a precursor system for manned exploration missions.

  11. International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Models A Comparison of the Euler-Lagrange and the Bond Graph Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Louis H.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Granda, Jose J.

    2006-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) require extensive testing and engineering analysis to verify that the Space Station system of systems would work together without any adverse interactions. Since the dynamic behavior of an entire Space Station cannot be tested on earth, math models of the Space Station structures and mechanical systems have to be built and integrated in computer simulations and analysis tools to analyze and predict what will happen in space. The ISS Centrifuge Rotor (CR) is one of many mechanical systems that need to be modeled and analyzed to verify the ISS integrated system performance on-orbit. This study investigates using Bond Graph modeling techniques as quick and simplified ways to generate models of the ISS Centrifuge Rotor. This paper outlines the steps used to generate simple and more complex models of the CR using Bond Graph Computer Aided Modeling Program with Graphical Input (CAMP-G). Comparisons of the Bond Graph CR models with those derived from Euler-Lagrange equations in MATLAB and those developed using multibody dynamic simulation at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the Bond Graph modeling approach for aeronautics and space applications.

  12. The Station Manipulator Arm Augmented Reality Trainer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most demanding and high-stakes crew tasks aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is the capture of a visiting spacecraft by manual operation of the...

  13. A commercial space technology testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a significant and growing commercial market for new, more capable communications and remote sensing satellites. Competition in this market strongly motivates satellite manufacturers and spacecraft component developers to test and demonstrate new space hardware in a realistic environment. External attach points on the International Space Station allow it to function uniquely as a space technology testbed to satisfy this market need. However, space industry officials have identified three critical barriers to their commercial use of the ISS: unpredictable access, cost risk, and schedule uncertainty. Appropriate NASA policy initiatives and business/technical assistance for industry from the Commercial Space Center for Engineering can overcome these barriers. .

  14. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  15. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  16. Equilibrium Kinetics Studies and Crystallization Aboard the International Space Station (ISS) Using the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achari, Aniruddha; Roeber, Dana F.; Barnes, Cindy L.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Protein Crystallization Apparatus in Microgravity (PCAM) trays have been used in Shuttle missions to crystallize proteins in a microgravity environment. The crystallization experiments are 'sitting drops' similar to that in Cryschem trays, but the reservoir solution is soaked in a wick. From early 2001, crystallization experiments are conducted on the International Space Station using mission durations of months rather than two weeks on previous shuttle missions. Experiments were set up in April 2001 on Flight 6A to characterize the time crystallization experiments will take to reach equilibrium in a microgravity environment using salts, polyethylene glycols and an organic solvent as precipitants. The experiments were set up to gather data for a series of days of activation with different droplet volumes and precipitants. The experimental set up on ISS and results of this study will be presented. These results will help future users of PCAM to choose precipitants to optimize crystallization conditions for their target macromolecules for a particular mission with known mission duration. Changes in crystal morphology and size between the ground and space grown crystals of a protein and a protein -DNA complex flown on the same mission will also be presented.

  17. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028. 1

  18. The International Space Station: A Unique Platform for Remote Sensing of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) was completed in 2012, and the station is now fully operational as a platform for remote sensing instruments tasked with collecting scientific data about the Earth system. Remote sensing systems are mounted inside the ISS, primarily in the U.S. Destiny Module's Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), or are located on the outside of the ISS on any of several attachment points. While NASA and other space agencies have had remote sensing systems orbiting Earth and collecting publicly available data since the early 1970s, these sensors are carried onboard free-flying, unmanned satellites. These satellites are traditionally placed into Sun-synchronous polar orbits that allow imaging of the entire surface of the Earth to be repeated with approximately the same Sun illumination (typically local solar noon) over specific areas, with set revisit times that allow uniform data to be taken over long time periods and enable straightforward analysis of change over time. In contrast, the ISS has an inclined, Sun-asynchronous orbit (the solar illumination for data collections over any location changes as the orbit precesses) that carries it over locations on the Earth between approximately 52degnorth and 52deg south latitudes (figure 1). The ISS is also unique among NASA orbital platforms in that it has a human crew. The presence of a crew provides options not available to robotic sensors and platforms, such as the ability to collect unscheduled data of an unfolding event using handheld digital cameras as part of the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) facility and on-the-fly assessment of environmental conditions, such as cloud cover, to determine whether conditions are favorable for data collection. The crew can also swap out internal sensor systems installed in the WORF as needed. The ISS orbit covers more than 90 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth, allowing the ISS to pass over the same ground locations at

  19. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  20. A ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Sound and Noise Level Monitoring on the ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acoustic survey is now performed using hand-held devices once every two months on the international space station (ISS). It takes quite a lot of precious crew time...

  1. The VASIMR[registered trademark] VF-200-1 ISS Experiment as a Laboratory for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover Tim W.; Squire, Jared P.; Longmier, Benjamin; Cassady, Leonard; Ilin, Andrew; Carter, Mark; Olsen, Chris S.; McCaskill, Greg; Diaz, Franklin Chang; Girimaji, Sharath; hide

    2010-01-01

    The VASIMR[R] Flight Experiment (VF-200-1) will be tested in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in about four years. It will consist of two 100 kW parallel plasma engines with opposite magnetic dipoles, resulting in a near zero-torque magnetic system. Electrical energy will come from ISS at low power level, be stored in batteries and used to fire the engine at 200 kW. The VF-200-1 project will provide a unique opportunity on the ISS National Laboratory for astrophysicists and space physicists to study the dynamic evolution of an expanding and reconnecting plasma loop. Here, we review the status of the project and discuss our current plans for computational modeling and in situ observation of a dynamic plasma loop on an experimental platform in low-Earth orbit. The VF-200-1 project is still in the early stages of development and we welcome new collaborators.

  2. Devices and Methods for Collection and Concentration of Air and Surface Samples for Improved Detection of Microbes onboard ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Protecting the International Space Station (ISS) crew from microbial contaminants is of great importance. Bacterial and fungal contamination of air, surfaces and...

  3. Lab-on-a-Chip: From Astrobiology to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Nor; Steele, Andrew; Gunter, Dan; Monaco, Lisa A.; Wells, Mark E.; Morris, Heather C.; Boudreaux, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    The continual and long-term habitation of enclosed environments, such as Antarctic stations, nuclear submarines and space stations, raises unique engineering, medical and operational challenges. There is no easy way out and no easy way to get supplies in. This situation elevates the importance of monitoring technology that can rapidly detect events within the habitat that affect crew safety such as fire, release of toxic chemicals and hazardous microorganisms. Traditional methods to monitor microorganisms on the International Space Station (ISS) have consisted of culturing samples for 3-5 days and eventual sample return to Earth. To augment these culture methods with new, rapid molecular techniques, we developed the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development - Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). The system consists of a hand-held spectrophotometer, a series of interchangeable cartridges and a surface sampling/dilution kit that enables crew to collect samples and detect a range of biological molecules, all within 15 minutes. LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in December 2006, where it was operated for the first time during March-May 2007. The surfaces of five separate sites in the US Lab and Node 1 of ISS were analyzed for endotoxin, using cartridges that employ the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay; results of these tests will be presented. LOCAD-PTS will remain permanently onboard ISS with new cartridges scheduled for launch in February and October of 2008 for the detection of fungi (Beta-glucan) and Gram-positive bacteria (lipoteichoic acid), respectively.

  4. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  5. Diagnostic instrumentation aboard ISS: just-in-time training for non-physician crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foale, C. Michael; Kaleri, Alexander Y.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Melton, Shannon; Martin, David; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed "just-in-time" training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This "just-in-time" concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete ultrasound examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). METHODS: An American and Russian ISS crewmember received 2 h of "hands on" ultrasound training 8 mo prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember 6 d prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. RESULTS: Results of the CD-ROM-based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35-min real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were adequate for clinical decision making. CONCLUSIONS: Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited preflight training and multimedia based in-flight review, despite a 2-s communication latency. In-flight application of multimedia proficiency enhancement software, coupled with real-time remote expert guidance, facilitates the successful performance of ultrasound examinations on orbit and may have additional terrestrial and space applications.

  6. The International Space Station: Operations and Assembly - Learning From Experiences - Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sean; Dillon, William F.

    2006-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle continues flight, construction and assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) carries on as the United States and our International Partners resume the building, and continue to carry on the daily operations, of this impressive and historical Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America s space program, President Bush ratified the United States commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. Since the launch and joining of the first two elements in 1998, the ISS and the partnership have experienced and overcome many challenges to assembly and operations, along with accomplishing many impressive achievements and historical firsts. These experiences and achievements over time have shaped our strategy, planning, and expectations. The continual operation and assembly of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of systems and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration and to generate the data and information that will enable our programs to return to the Moon and continue on to Mars. This paper will provide an overview of the complexity of the ISS Program, including a historical review of the major assembly events and operational milestones of the program, along with the upcoming assembly plans and scheduled missions of the space shuttle flights and ISS Assembly sequence.

  7. International Space Station Future Correlation Analysis Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.; Pinnamaneni, Murthy; Sugavanam, Sujatha; Grygier, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing modal analyses and model correlation are performed on different configurations of the International Space Station (ISS). These analyses utilize on-orbit dynamic measurements collected using four main ISS instrumentation systems: External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS), Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), and Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). Remote Sensor Units (RSUs) are network relay stations that acquire flight data from sensors. Measured data is stored in the Remote Sensor Unit (RSU) until it receives a command to download data via RF to the Network Control Unit (NCU). Since each RSU has its own clock, it is necessary to synchronize measurements before analysis. Imprecise synchronization impacts analysis results. A study was performed to evaluate three different synchronization techniques: (i) measurements visually aligned to analytical time-response data using model comparison, (ii) Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and (iii) lag from cross-correlation to align measurements. This paper presents the results of this study.

  8. Unique Capabilities of the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) Mission Concept to Study the Equatorial Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Minow, J. I.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hoegy, W. R.; Coffey, V. N.; Willis, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of a mission concept named Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) with a special focus here on low-latitude ionospheric plasma turbulence measurements relevant to equatorial spread-F. SASSI is a suite of sensors that improves Space Situational Awareness for the ISS local space environment, as well as unique ionospheric measurements and support active plasma experiments on the ISS. As such, the mission concept has both operational and basic research objectives. We will describe two compelling measurement techniques enabled by SASSI's unique mission architecture. That is, SASSI provides new abilities to 1) measure space plasma potentials in low Earth orbit over ~100 m relative to a common potential, and 2) to investigate multi-scale ionospheric plasma turbulence morphology simultaneously of both ~ 1 cm and ~ 10 m scale lengths. The first measurement technique will aid in the distinction of vertical drifts within equatorial plasma bubbles from the vertical motions of the bulk of the layer due to zonal electric fields. The second will aid in understanding ionospheric plasma turbulence cascading in scale sizes that affect over the horizon radar. During many years of ISS operation, we have conducted effective (but not perfect) human and robotic extravehicular activities within the space plasma environment surrounding the ISS structure. However, because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the space environment, there remain important sources of unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include EVA safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. SASSI is being designed to deploy and operate a suite of low-cost, medium/high-TRL plasma sensors on

  9. High energy radiation fluences in the ISS-USLab: Ion discrimination and particle abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaconte, Veronica; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; La Tessa, Chiara; Larosa, Marianna; Narici, Livio; Picozza, Piergiorgio

    2010-01-01

    The ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts) detector was used to characterize the radiation environment inside the USLab of the International Space Station (ISS), where it measured the abundances of ions from Be to Fe. We compare the ALTEA results with Alteino results obtained in the PIRS module of the Russian segment of the ISS, and normalize to the high energy Si abundances given by Simpson. These are the first particle spectral measurements, which include ions up to Fe, performed in the USLab. The small differences observed between those made inside the USLab and the Simpson abundances can be attributed to the transport through the spacecraft hull. However, the low abundance of Fe cannot be attributed to only this process.

  10. Leadership and Cultural Challenges in Operating the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.; Saylor, S. A.; Kanas, N.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. ISS flight controllers have had to find ways to maintain effective team performance in this challenging new context. The goal of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate the major leadership and cultural challenges faces by ISS flight controllers, and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We conducted a qualitative survey using a semi-structured interview. Subjects included 14 senior NASA flight controllers who were chosen on the basis of having had substantial experience working with international partners. Data were content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted some new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of Russian and American ISS mission control personnel. The interview data showed that respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership and cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Surprisingly few respondents offered strategies for addressing the challenge of working with team members whose native language is not American English. The questionnaire data showed that Americans think it is more important than Russians that mission control personnel speak the same dialect of one shared common language. Although specific to the ISS program, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future ISS flight controllers.

  11. Second Harmonic Imaging improves Echocardiograph Quality on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Hamilton, Douglas; Martin, David; Ebert, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) capabilities have been part of the Human Research Facility (HRF) on board the International Space Station (ISS) since 2001. The US equipment on board the ISS includes a first-generation Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) option. Harmonic imaging (HI) is the second harmonic response of the tissue to the ultrasound beam and produces robust tissue detail and signal. Since this is a first-generation THI, there are inherent limitations in tissue penetration. As a breakthrough technology, HI extensively advanced the field of ultrasound. In cardiac applications, it drastically improves endocardial border detection and has become a common imaging modality. U.S. images were captured and stored as JPEG stills from the ISS video downlink. US images with and without harmonic imaging option were randomized and provided to volunteers without medical education or US skills for identification of endocardial border. The results were processed and analyzed using applicable statistical calculations. The measurements in US images using HI improved measurement consistency and reproducibility among observers when compared to fundamental imaging. HI has been embraced by the imaging community at large as it improves the quality and data validity of US studies, especially in difficult-to-image cases. Even with the limitations of the first generation THI, HI improved the quality and measurability of many of the downlinked images from the ISS and should be an option utilized with cardiac imaging on board the ISS in all future space missions.

  12. Southern Research Station Global Change Research Strategy 2011-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Zoe Hoyle; Stevin Westcott; Emrys Treasure

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the goals of the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Southern Research Station (SRS) provides the information and technology needed to develop best management practices for the forest lands of the Southern United States, where science-guided actions are needed to sustain ecosystem health,...

  13. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Post-Flight Testing and Service Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; von Jouanne, R. G.; Turner, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station uses high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. Segment. The pre-flight service life prediction of 1 year for the BFEs is based upon performance engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS Program resources. Thus testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are discussed. Recommendations for realizing significant savings to the ISS Program are presented.

  14. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  15. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2010 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011 and the continued permanent presence of six crew members on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and extension of the ISS service life from 2015 to 2020 or beyond.

  16. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  17. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  18. ISS Payload Operations: The Need for and Benefit of Responsive Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahay, Ed; Boster, Mandee

    2000-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) payload operations are controlled through implementation of a payload operations plan. This plan, which represents the defined approach to payload operations in general, can vary in terms of level of definition. The detailed plan provides the specific sequence and timing of each component of a payload's operations. Such an approach to planning was implemented in the Spacelab program. The responsive plan provides a flexible approach to payload operations through generalization. A responsive approach to planning was implemented in the NASA/Mir Phase 1 program, and was identified as a need during the Skylab program. The current approach to ISS payload operations planning and control tends toward detailed planning, rather than responsive planning. The use of detailed plans provides for the efficient use of limited resources onboard the ISS. It restricts flexibility in payload operations, which is inconsistent with the dynamic nature of the ISS science program, and it restricts crew desires for flexibility and autonomy. Also, detailed planning is manpower intensive. The development and implementation of a responsive plan provides for a more dynamic, more accommodating, and less manpower intensive approach to planning. The science program becomes more dynamic and responsive as the plan provides flexibility to accommodate real-time science accomplishments. Communications limitations and the crew desire for flexibility and autonomy in plan implementation are readily accommodated with responsive planning. Manpower efficiencies are accomplished through a reduction in requirements collection and coordination, plan development, and maintenance. Through examples and assessments, this paper identifies the need to transition from detailed to responsive plans for ISS payload operations. Examples depict specific characteristics of the plans. Assessments identify the following: the means by which responsive plans accommodate the dynamic nature of

  19. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  20. CIB: An Improved Communication Architecture for Real-Time Monitoring of Aerospace Materials, Instruments, and Sensors on the ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Krasowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Communications Interface Board (CIB is an improved communications architecture that was demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS. ISS communication interfaces allowing for real-time telemetry and health monitoring require a significant amount of development. The CIB simplifies the communications interface to the ISS for real-time health monitoring, telemetry, and control of resident sensors or experiments. With a simpler interface available to the telemetry bus, more sensors or experiments may be flown. The CIB accomplishes this by acting as a bridge between the ISS MIL-STD-1553 low-rate telemetry (LRT bus and the sensors allowing for two-way command and telemetry data transfer. The CIB was designed to be highly reliable and radiation hard for an extended flight in low Earth orbit (LEO and has been proven with over 40 months of flight operation on the outside of ISS supporting two sets of flight experiments. Since the CIB is currently operating in flight on the ISS, recent results of operations will be provided. Additionally, as a vehicle health monitoring enabling technology, an overview and results from two experiments enabled by the CIB will be provided. Future applications for vehicle health monitoring utilizing the CIB architecture will also be discussed.

  1. Habitability Assessment of International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess habitability during the International Space Station 1-year mission, and subsequent 6-month missions, in order to better prepare for future long-duration spaceflights to destinations such as Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) and Mars, which will require crewmembers to live and work in a confined spacecraft environment for over a year. Data collected using Space Habitability Observation Reporting Tool (iSHORT), crew-collected videos, questionnaires, and PI conferences will help characterize the current state of habitability for the ISS. These naturalistic techniques provide crewmembers with the opportunity to self-report habitability and human factors observations in near real-time, which is not systematically done during ISS missions at present.

  2. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  3. 2008 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2009-01-01

    This report highlights significant research findings and accomplishments by scientists at the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station during fiscal year 2008. The mission of the PNW Research Station is to generate and communicate scientific knowledge that helps people understand and make informed choices about people, natural resources, and the environment. The work...

  4. Sampling Indoor Aerosols on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2016-01-01

    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  5. Impacts and societal benefits of research activities at Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. L.; Burkhart, J. F.; Courville, Z.; Dibb, J. E.; Koenig, L.; Vaughn, B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Summit Station began as the site for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core in 1989. Since then, it has hosted both summer campaign science, and since 1997, year-round observations of atmospheric and cryospheric processes. The station has been continuously occupied since 2003. While most of the science activities at the station are supported by the US NSF Office of Polar Programs, the station also hosts many interagency and international investigations in physical glaciology, atmospheric chemistry, satellite validation, astrophysics and other disciplines. Summit is the only high elevation observatory north of the Arctic circle that can provide clean air or snow sites. The station is part of the INTER-ACT consortium of Arctic research stations with the main objective to identify, understand, predict and respond to diverse environmental changes, and part of the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) that coordinates Arctic research activities and provides a networked, observations-based view of the Arctic. The Summit Station Science Summit, sponsored by NSF, assembled a multidisciplinary group of scientists to review Summit Station science, define the leading research questions for Summit, and make community-based recommendations for future science goals and governance for Summit. The impact of several on-going observation records was summarized in the report "Sustaining the Science Impact of Summit Station, Greenland," including the use of station data in weather forecasts and climate models. Observations made at the station as part of long-term, year-round research or during shorter summer-only campaign seasons contribute to several of the identified Social Benefit Areas (SBAs) outlined in the International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework published by the IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute and Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks as an outcome of the 2016 Arctic Science Ministerial. The SBAs supported by research

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  7. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  8. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Anthony J.

    2001-02-01

    The International Space Station will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines-it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally complete in April of 2006. Space logistics is a new concept that will have wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. What is it like to do something that no one has done before? What challenges do you face? What kind of organization do you put together to perform this type of task? How do you optimize your resources to procure what you need? How do you change a paradigm within a space agency? How do you coordinate and manage a one of a kind system with approximately 5,700 Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs)? How do you plan for preventive and corrective maintenance, when you need to procure spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors? How do you transport large sections of ISS hardware around the country? These are some of the topics discussed in this paper. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operation. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station and only time will tell if we did it right. This paper discusses some of the experiences of the author after working 12 years on the International Space Station's integrated logistics & maintenance program. From his early days as a contractor supportability engineer and manager, to the NASA manager responsible for the entire ISS Logistics and Maintenance program. .

  9. Orion Handling Qualities During ISS Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Stephens, J. P.; Spehar, P.; Bilimoria, K.; Foster, C.; Gonzalex, R.; Sullivan, K.; Jackson, B.; Brazzel, J.; Hart, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft was designed to rendezvous with multiple vehicles in low earth orbit (LEO) and beyond. To perform the required rendezvous and docking task, Orion must provide enough control authority to perform coarse translational maneuvers while maintaining precision to perform the delicate docking corrections. While Orion has autonomous docking capabilities, it is expected that final approach and docking operations with the International Space Station (ISS) will initially be performed in a manual mode. A series of evaluations was conducted by NASA and Lockheed Martin at the Johnson Space Center to determine the handling qualities (HQ) of the Orion spacecraft during different docking and rendezvous conditions using the Cooper-Harper scale. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities methodology, vehicle configuration, scenarios flown, data collection tools, and subject ratings and comments. The initial Orion HQ assessment examined Orion docking to the ISS. This scenario demonstrates the Translational Hand Controller (THC) handling qualities of Orion. During this initial assessment, two different scenarios were evaluated. The first was a nominal docking approach to a stable ISS, with Orion initializing with relative position dispersions and a closing rate of approximately 0.1 ft/sec. The second docking scenario was identical to the first, except the attitude motion of the ISS was modeled to simulate a stress case ( 1 degree deadband per axis and 0.01 deg/sec rate deadband per axis). For both scenarios, subjects started each run on final approach at a docking port-to-port range of 20 ft. Subjects used the THC in pulse mode with cues from the docking camera image, window views, and range and range rate data displayed on the Orion display units. As in the actual design, the attitude of the Orion vehicle was held by the automated flight control system at 0.5 degree deadband per axis. Several error sources were modeled including Reaction

  10. i-LOVE: ISS-JEM lidar for observation of vegetation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Haruo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Mizutani, Kohei; Ishii, Shoken; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimoda, Haruhisa; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Takao, Gen; Hirata, Yasumasa; Saigusa, Nobuko; Hayashi, Masatomo; Oguma, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hideki; Awaya, Yoshio; Endo, Takahiro; Imai, Tadashi; Murooka, Jumpei; Kobatashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Keiko; Sato, Ryota

    2012-11-01

    It is very important to watch the spatial distribution of vegetation biomass and changes in biomass over time, representing invaluable information to improve present assessments and future projections of the terrestrial carbon cycle. A space lidar is well known as a powerful remote sensing technology for measuring the canopy height accurately. This paper describes the ISS(International Space Station)-JEM(Japanese Experimental Module)-EF(Exposed Facility) borne vegetation lidar using a two dimensional array detector in order to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of tree height due to sloped surface.

  11. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  12. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  13. STS-102 Astronaut Thomas Views International Space Station Through Shuttle Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  14. NASA's Plans for Materials Science on ISS: Cooperative Utilization of the MSRR-MSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis; Szofran, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The ISS Research Project draws Life (non-human) and Physical Sciences investigations on the ISS, free flyer and ground-based into one coordinated project. The project has two categories: I. Exploration Research Program: a) Utilizes the ISS as a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) test bed for technology development, demonstration and problem resolution in the areas of life support, fire safety, power, propulsion, thermal management, materials technology, habitat design, etc.; b) Will include endorsement letters from other ETDP projects to show relevancy. II. Non-Exploration Research Program; a) Not directly related to supporting the human exploration program. Research conducted in the life (non-human) and physical sciences; b) The program will sustain, to the maximum extent practicable, the United States scientific expertise and research capability in fundamental microgravity research. Physical Sciences has about 44 grants, and Life Sciences has approximately 32 grants, mostly with universities, to conduct low TRL research; this includes grants to be awarded from the 2008 Fluid Physics and Life Science NRA's.

  15. New Development in NASA's Rodent Research Hardware for Conducting Long Duration Biomedical and Basic Research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Choi, S.; Harris, C.; Gong, C.; Beegle, J. E.; Stube, K. C.; Martin, K. J.; Nevitt, R. G.; Globus, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models, particularly rodents, are the foundation of pre-clinical research to understand human diseases and evaluate new therapeutics, and play a key role in advancing biomedical discoveries both on Earth and in space. The National Research Councils Decadal survey emphasized the importance of expanding NASAs life sciences research to perform long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities were developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to enhance science return for both commercial (CASIS) and government-sponsored rodent research. The Rodent Research program at NASA ARC has pioneered a new research capability on the International Space Station and has progressed toward translating research to the ISS utilizing commercial rockets, collaborating with academia and science industry, while training crewmembers to assist in performing research on orbit. Throughout phases of these missions, our practices, hardware and operations have evolved from tested to developed standards, and we are able to modify and customize our procedure and operations for mission specific requirements. The Rodent Research Habitat is capable of providing a living environment for animals on ISS according to standard animal welfare requirements. Using the cameras in the Habitat, the Rodent Research team has the ability to perform daily health checks on animals, and further analyze the collected videos for behavioral studies. A recent development of the Rodent Research hardware is inclusion of enrichment, to provide the animals the ability to rest and huddle. The Enrichment Hut is designed carefully for adult mice (up to 35 week old) within animal welfare, engineering, and operations constraints. The Hut is made out of the same stainless steel mesh as the cage interior, it has an ingress and an egress to allow animals move freely, and a hinge door to allow crewmembers remove the

  16. Numerical Study of Ammonia Leak and Dispersion in the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.

    2012-01-01

    Release of ammonia into the International Space Station (ISS) cabin atmosphere can occur if the water/ammonia barrier breach of the active thermal control system (ATCS) interface heat exchanger (IFHX) happens. After IFHX breach liquid ammonia is introduced into the water-filled internal thermal control system (ITCS) and then to the cabin environment through a ruptured gas trap. Once the liquid water/ammonia mixture exits ITCS, it instantly vaporizes and mixes with the U.S. Laboratory cabin air that results in rapid deterioration of the cabin conditions. The goal of the study is to assess ammonia propagation in the Station after IFHX breach to plan the operation procedure. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for accurate prediction of airflow and ammonia transport within each of the modules in the ISS cabin was developed. CFD data on ammonia content in the cabin aisle way of the ISS and, in particular, in the Russian On- Orbit Segment during the period of 15 minutes after gas trap rupture are presented for four scenarios of rupture response. Localized effects of ammonia dispersion and risk mitigation are discussed.

  17. In the footsteps of Columbus European missions to the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, John

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency has a long history of cooperating with NASA in human spaceflight, having developed the Spacelab module for carrying in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. This book tells of the development of ESA’s Columbus microgravity science laboratory of the International Space Station and the European astronauts who work in it. From the beginning, ESA has been in close collaboration on the ISS, making a significant contribution to the station hardware. Special focus is given to Columbus and Copula as well as station resupply using the ATV. Each mission is also examined individually, creating a comprehensive picture of ESA's crucial involvement over the years. Extensive use of color photographs from NASA and ESA to depict the experiments carried out, the phases of the ISS construction, and the personal stories of the astronauts in space highlights the crucial European work on human spaceflight.

  18. ISS & Nordea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    on the core business of banking. In Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, some services had been outsourced to one of the leaders in the facility management (FM) market, the global service provider ISS. The relationship between Nordea and ISS on the delivery of facility services had a long history, but a new contract......Nordea Bank had emerged as the largest financial group in the Nordic region. As part of its consolidated approach, Nordea’s top management had made the strategic decision to outsource a number of the company’s peripheral activities, such as catering, security, and cleaning, in order to focus...

  19. International Research on ISS - The Benefits of Working Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uri, John J.; Thomas, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    International Space Station is the most complex multinational cooperative space endeavor in history. Interagency agreements define utilization accommodations and resources available to each partner. Based on these arrangements, the partners select and implement research to meet agency goals and objectives. But to optimize the limited resources available to utilization, cooperation among the partners is essential. This paper describes various avenues available for partner cooperation and provides specific examples to demonstrate the value of such cooperation to accelerate and enhance science return.

  20. Visual assessment of the radiation distribution in the ISS Lab module: visualization in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, P. B.; Zapp, E. N.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The US Lab module of the International Space Station (ISS) is a primary working area where the crewmembers are expected to spend majority of their time. Because of the directionality of radiation fields caused by the Earth shadow, trapped radiation pitch angle distribution, and inherent variations in the ISS shielding, a model is needed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. We present the calculated radiation dose (rem/yr) values for over 3,000 different points in the working area of the Lab module and estimated radiation dose values for over 25,000 different points in the human body for a given ambient radiation environment. These estimated radiation dose values are presented in a three dimensional animated interactive visualization format. Such interactive animated visualization of the radiation distribution can be generated in near real-time to track changes in the radiation environment during the orbit precession of the ISS.

  1. 2010 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, station researchers provided land managers and policymakers with critical information related to ecological processes, environmental threats, forest management, and use of natural resources. The station also capitalized on opportunities to expand its research in these arenas. The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was one such opportunity that has...

  2. Software Defined GPS Receiver for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Courtney B.; Robison, David E.; Koelewyn, Cynthia Lee

    2011-01-01

    JPL is providing a software defined radio (SDR) that will fly on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the CoNNeCT project under NASA's SCaN program. The SDR consists of several modules including a Baseband Processor Module (BPM) and a GPS Module (GPSM). The BPM executes applications (waveforms) consisting of software components for the embedded SPARC processor and logic for two Virtex II Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that operate on data received from the GPSM. GPS waveforms on the SDR are enabled by an L-Band antenna, low noise amplifier (LNA), and the GPSM that performs quadrature downconversion at L1, L2, and L5. The GPS waveform for the JPL SDR will acquire and track L1 C/A, L2C, and L5 GPS signals from a CoNNeCT platform on ISS, providing the best GPS-based positioning of ISS achieved to date, the first use of multiple frequency GPS on ISS, and potentially the first L5 signal tracking from space. The system will also enable various radiometric investigations on ISS such as local multipath or ISS dynamic behavior characterization. In following the software-defined model, this work will create a highly portable GPS software and firmware package that can be adapted to another platform with the necessary processor and FPGA capability. This paper also describes ISS applications for the JPL CoNNeCT SDR GPS waveform, possibilities for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) tracking development, and the applicability of the waveform components to other space navigation applications.

  3. Dusty Plasma Physics Facility for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goree, John; Hahn, Inseob

    2015-09-01

    The Dusty Plasma Physics Facility (DPPF) is an instrument planned for the International Space Station (ISS). If approved by NASA, JPL will build and operate the facility, and NASA will issue calls for proposals allowing investigators outside JPL to carry out research, public education, and outreach. Microgravity conditions on the ISS will be useful for eliminating two unwanted effects of gravity: sedimentation of dust particles to the bottom of a plasma chamber, and masking weak forces such as the ion drag force that act on dust particles. The DPPF facility is expected to support multiple scientific users. It will have a modular design, with a scientific locker, or insert, that can be exchanged without removing the entire facility. The first insert will use a parallel-plate radio-frequency discharge, polymer microspheres, and high-speed video cameras. This first insert will be designed for fundamental physics experiments. Possible future inserts could be designed for other purposes, such as engineering applications, and experimental simulations of astrophysical or geophysical conditions. The design of the facility will allow remote operation from ground-based laboratories, using telescience.

  4. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  5. 3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mallory M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.; Cooper, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Michael P.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/ objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up specialized manufacturing hardware to perform the entire range of function traditionally machining requires. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  7. Assessment and Control of Spacecraft Charging Risks on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve; Valentine, Mark; Keeping, Thomas; Edeen, Marybeth; Spetch, William; Dalton, Penni

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere, orbiting at altitudes ranging from 350 to 450 km at an inclination of 51.6 degrees. The relatively dense, cool F2 ionospheric plasma suppresses surface charging processes much of the time, and the flux of relativistic electrons is low enough to preclude deep dielectric charging processes. The most important spacecraft charging processes in the ISS orbital environment are: 1) ISS electrical power system interactions with the F2 plasma, 2) magnetic induction processes resulting from flight through the geomagnetic field and, 3) charging processes that result from interaction with auroral electrons at high latitude. Recently, the continuing review and evaluation of putative ISS charging hazards required by the ISS Program Office revealed that ISS charging could produce an electrical shock hazard to the ISS crew during extravehicular activity (EVA). ISS charging risks are being evaluated in an ongoing measurement and analysis campaign. The results of ISS charging measurements are combined with a recently developed model of ISS charging (the Plasma Interaction Model) and an exhaustive analysis of historical ionospheric variability data (ISS Ionospheric Specification) to evaluate ISS charging risks using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methods. The PRA combines estimates of the frequency of occurrence and severity of the charging hazards with estimates of the reliability of various hazard controls systems, as required by NASA s safety and risk management programs, to enable design and selection of a hazard control approach that minimizes overall programmatic and personnel risk. The PRA provides a quantitative methodology for incorporating the results of the ISS charging measurement and analysis campaigns into the necessary hazard reports, EVA procedures, and ISS flight rules required for operating ISS in a safe and productive manner.

  8. Ionizing radiation effects on ISS ePTFE jacketed cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, S. L.; Golden, J. L.; Lorenz, M. J.; Pedley, M. D.

    2003-09-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), which is susceptible to embrittlement by ionizing radiation, is used as a primary material in the Mobile Transporter's (MT) Trailing Umbilical System (TUS) cable on the International Space Station (ISS). The TUS cable provides power and data service between the ISS truss and the MT. The TUS cable is normally stowed in an uptake reel and is fed out to follow the MT as it moves along rails on the ISS truss structure. For reliable electrical and mechanical performance, TUS cable polymeric materials must be capable of >3.5% elongation without cracking or breaking. The MT TUS cable operating temperature on ISS is expected to range between -100°C and +130°C. The on-orbit functional life requirement for the MT TUS cable is 10 years. Analysis and testing were performed to verify that the MT TUS cable would be able to meet full-life mechanical and electrical performance requirements, despite progressive embrittlement by the natural ionizing radiation environment. Energetic radiation belt electrons (trapped electrons) are the principal contributor to TUS cable radiation dose. TUS cable specimens were irradiated, in vacuum, with both energetic electrons and gamma rays. Electron beam energy was chosen to minimize charging effects on the non-conductive ePTFE (expanded PTFE) targets. Tensile testing was then performed, over the expected range of operating temperatures, as a function of radiation dose. When compared to the expected in-flight radiation dose/depth profile, atomic oxygen (AO) erosion of the radiation damaged TUS cable jacket surfaces is more rapid than the development of radiation induced embrittlement of the same surfaces. Additionally, the layered construction of the jacket prevents crack growth propagation, leaving the inner layer material compliant with the design elongation requirements. As a result, the TUS cable insulation design was verified to meet performance life requirements.

  9. Preparation and Launch of the JEM ISS Elements - A NASA Mission Manager's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The pre-flight launch site preparations and launch of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) elements of the International Space Station required an intense multi-year, international collaborative effort between US and Japanese personnel at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This presentation will provide a brief overview of KSC, a brief overview of the ISS, and a summary of authors experience managing the NASA team responsible that supported and conducted the JEM element operations.

  10. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Processes and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matt R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station Program at NASA is constantly seeking to improve the processes and systems that support safe space operations. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with 3 goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data; and increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes. These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based structured data system that includes strong process support and supports integration with other information systems. Along with the data systems, ISS is evolving its submission requirements and safety process requirements to support the improved model. In contrast to existing operations (where paper processes and electronic file repositories are used for safety data management) the web-based solution provides the program with dramatically faster access to records, the ability to search for and reference specific data within records, reduced workload for hazard updates and approval, and process support including digital signatures and controlled record workflow. In addition, integration with other key data systems provides assistance with assessments of flight readiness, more efficient review and approval of operational controls and better tracking of international safety certifications. This approach will also provide new opportunities to streamline the sharing of data with ISS international partners while maintaining compliance with applicable laws and respecting restrictions on proprietary data. One goal of this paper is to outline the approach taken by the ISS Progrm to determine requirements for the new system and to devise a practical and efficient implementation strategy. From conception through implementation, ISS and NASA partners utilized a user-centered software development approach focused on user research and iterative design methods. The user-centered approach used on

  11. Operations Data Files, driving force behind International Space Station operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Ferra, Lionel; Markus, Michael; Wolff, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Almost all tasks performed by the astronauts on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and by ground controllers in Mission Control Centre, from operation and maintenance of station systems to the execution of scientific experiments or high risk visiting vehicles docking manoeuvres, would not be possible without Operations Data Files (ODF). ODFs are the User Manuals of the Space Station and have multiple faces, going from traditional step-by-step procedures, scripts, cue cards, over displays, to software which guides the crew through the execution of certain tasks. Those key operational documents are standardized as they are used on-board the Space Station by an international crew constantly changing every 3 months. Furthermore this harmonization effort is paramount for consistency as the crew moves from one element to another in a matter of seconds, and from one activity to another. On ground, a significant large group of experts from all International Partners drafts, prepares reviews and approves on a daily basis all Operations Data Files, ensuring their timely availability on-board the ISS for all activities. Unavailability of these operational documents will halt the conduct of experiments or cancel milestone events. This paper will give an insight in the ground preparation work for the ODFs (with a focus on ESA ODF processes) and will present an overview on ODF formats and their usage within the ISS environment today and show how vital they are. Furthermore the focus will be on the recently implemented ODF features, which significantly ease the use of this documentation and improve the efficiency of the astronauts performing the tasks. Examples are short video demonstrations, interactive 3D animations, Execute Tailored Procedures (XTP-versions), tablet products, etc.

  12. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  13. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  14. On-Orbit Propulsion and Methods of Momentum Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Spencer, Victor; Metrocavage, Kevin; Swanson, Robert A.; Krajchovich, Mark; Beisner, Matthew; Kamath, Ulhas P.

    2010-01-01

    Since the first documented design of a space station in 1929, it has been a dream of many to sustain a permanent presence in space. Russia and the US spent several decades competing for a sustained human presence in low Earth orbit. In the 1980 s, Russia and the US began to openly collaborate to achieve this goal. This collaboration lead to the current design of the ISS. Continuous improvement of procedures for controlling the ISS have lead to more efficient propellant management over the years. Improved efficiency combined with the steady use of cargo vehicles has kept ISS propellant levels well above their defined thresholds in all categories. The continuing evolution of propellant and momentum management operational strategies demonstrates the capability and flexibility of the ISS propulsion system. The hard work and cooperation of the international partners and the evolving operational strategies have made the ISS safe and successful. The ISS s proven success is the foundation for the future of international cooperation for sustaining life in space.

  15. CO2 on the International Space Station: An Operations Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Alexander, David

    2016-01-01

    PROBLEM STATEMENT: We describe CO2 symptoms that have been reported recently by crewmembers on the International Space Station and our continuing efforts to control CO2 to lower levels than historically accepted. BACKGROUND: Throughout the International Space Station (ISS) program, anecdotal reports have suggested that crewmembers develop CO2-related symptoms at lower CO2 levels than would be expected terrestrially. Since 2010, operational limits have controlled the 24-hour average CO2 to 4.0 mm Hg, or below as driven by crew symptomatology. In recent years, largely due to increasing awareness by crew and ground team, there have been increased reports of crew symptoms. The aim of this presentation is to discuss recent observations and operational impacts to lower CO2 levels on the ISS. CASE PRESENTATION: Crewmembers are routinely asked about CO2 symptoms in their weekly private medical conferences with their crew surgeons. In recent ISS expeditions, crewmembers have noted symptoms attributable to CO2 starting at 2.3 mmHg. Between 2.3 - 2.7 mm Hg, fatigue and full-headedness have been reported. Between 2.7 - 3.0 mm Hg, there have been self-reports of procedure missed steps or procedures going long. Above 3.0 - 3.4 mm Hg, headaches have been reported. A wide range of inter- and intra-individual variability in sensitivity to CO2 have been noted. OPERATIONAL / CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These preliminary data provide semi-quantitative ranges that have been used to inform a new operational limit of 3.0 mmHg as a compromise between systems capabilities and the recognition that there are human health and performance impacts at recent ISS CO2 levels. Current evidence would suggest that an operational limit between 0.5 and 2.0 mm Hg may maintain health and performance. Future work is needed to establish long-term ISS and future vehicle operational limits.

  16. Ionospheric Remote Sensing using GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry aboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzien, S. A.; Powell, S. P.; O'Hanlon, B.; Humphreys, T.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.; Gross, J.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2017-12-01

    The GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometer Co-located (GROUP-C) experiment launched to the International Space Station (ISS) on February 19, 2017 as part of the Space Test Program Houston #5 payload (STP-H5). After early orbit testing, GROUP-C began routine science operations in late April. GROUP-C includes a high-sensitivity far-ultraviolet photometer measuring horizontal nighttime ionospheric gradients and an advanced software-defined GPS receiver providing ionospheric electron density profiles, scintillation measurements, and lower atmosphere profiles. GROUP-C and a companion experiment, the Limb-Imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES), offer a unique capability to study spatial and temporal variability of the thermosphere and ionosphere using multi-sensor approaches, including ionospheric tomography. Data are collected continuously across low- and mid-latitudes as the ISS orbit precesses through all local times every 60 days. The GROUP-C GPS sensor routinely collects dual-frequency GPS occultations, makes targeted raw signal captures of GPS and Galileo occultations, and includes multiple antennas to characterize multipath in the ISS environment. The UV photometer measures the 135.6 nm ionospheric recombination airglow emision along the nightside orbital track. We present the first analysis of ionospheric observations, discuss the challenges and opportunities of remote sensing from the ISS platform, and explore how these new data help address questions regarding the complex and dynamic features of the low and middle latitude ionosphere-thermosphere relevant to the upcoming GOLD and ICON missions.

  17. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  18. Gene expression variations during Drosophila metamorphosis in space: The GENE experiment in the Spanish cervantes missions to the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Raul; Benguria, Alberto; Medina, Javier; Gasset, Gilbert; van Loon, Jack J.; Zaballos, Angel; Marco, Roberto

    2005-08-01

    The ISS expedition 8, a Soyuz Mission, flew to the International Space Station (ISS) to replace the two- member ISS crew during October 2003. During this crew exchanging flight, the Spanish Cervantes Scientific Mission took place. In it some biological experiments were performed among them three proposed by our Team. The third member of the expedition, the Spanish born ESA astronaut Pedro Duque, returned within the Soyuz 7 capsule carrying the experiment containing transport box after almost 11 days in microgravity. In one of the three experiments, the GENE experiment, we intended to determine how microgravity affects the gene expression pattern of Drosophila with one of the current more powerful technologies , a complete Drosophila melanogaster genome microarray (AffymetrixTM, version 1.0). Due to the constrains in the current ISS experiments, we decided to limit our experiment to the organism rebuilding processes that occurs during Drosophila metamorphosis. In addition to the ISS samples, several control experiments have been performed including a 1g Ground control parallel to the ISS flight samples, a Random Position Machine microgravity simulated control and a parallel Hypergravity (10g) experiment. Extracted RNA from the samples was used to test the differences in gene expression during Drosophila development. A preliminary analysis of the results indicates that around five hundred genes change their expression profiles, many of them belonging to particular ontology classification groups.

  19. A contribution towards establishing more comfortable space weather to cope with increased human space passengers for ISS shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A.

    Space Weather is a specialized scienctific descipline in Meteorology which has recently emerged from man's continued research efforts to create a familiar spacecraft environment which is physiologically stable and life sustaining for astronauts and human passengers in distant space travels. As the population of human passengers in space shuttles rapidly increases, corresponding research on sustained micro-climate of spacecrafts is considered necessary and timely. This is because existing information is not meant for a large population in spacecrafts. The paper therefore discusses the role of meteorology (specifically micrometeorology) in relation to internal communication, spacecraft instrumentation and physiologic comfort of astronauts and space passengers (the later may not necessarily be trained astronauts, but merely business men or tourist space travellers for business transactions in the International Space Station (ISS)). It is recognized that me eorology which is a fundamental science amongt multidiscplinary sciences has been found to be vital in space travels and communication. Space weather therefore appears in slightly different format where temperature and humidity changes and variability within the spacecraft exert very significant influences on the efficiency of astronauts and the effectiveness of the various delicate instrument gadgets aimed at reducing the frequency of computer failures and malfunction of other instruments on which safety of the spacecraft depends. Apart from the engineering and technological problems which space scientists must have to overcome when human population in space shuttles increases as we now expect, based on evidence from successful missions to ISS, the maint enace of physiologic comfort state of astronauts, which, as far as scientifically possible, should be as near as possible to their Earth-Atmosphere condition. This is one of the most important and also most difficult conditions to attain. It demands a mor e

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  1. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  2. International Space Station as a Base Camp for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael; Hoffman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The idea for using the International Space Station (ISS) as platform for exploration has matured in the past year and the concept continues to gain momentum. ISS provides a robust infrastructure which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. A small part of ISS called an Exploration Platform (ISS-EP) can be placed at Earth-Moon Libration point 1 (EML1) providing immediate benefits and flexibility for future exploration missions. We will show how ISS and the ISS-EP can be used to reduce risk and improve the operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit. Life support systems and other technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the ISS-EP and other exploration spacecraft. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Commercial companies who are introducing transportation and other services will benefit with opportunities to contribute to the mission since ISS will serve as a focal point for the commercialization of low earth orbit services. Finally, we will show how use of ISS provides immediate benefits to the scientific community because its capabilities are available today and certain critical aspects of exploration missions can be simulated.

  3. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2012-2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass Cairns

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the...

  4. Large Plant Growth Chambers: Flying Soon on a Space Station near You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species, and those capabilities continue to grow. The Veggie vegetable production system will be deployed to the ISS in Spring of 2014 to act as an applied research platform with goals of studying food production in space, providing the crew with a source of fresh food, allowing behavioral health and plant microbiology experimentation, and being a source of recreation and enjoyment for the crew. Veggie was conceived, designed, and constructed by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC, Madison, WI). Veggie is the largest plant growth chamber that NASA has flown to date, and is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low energy usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) light emitting diodes. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows baseplate secured to the light cap via magnetic closures and stabilized with extensible flexible arms. The baseplate contains vents allowing air from the ISS cabin to be pulled through the plant growth area by a fan in the light cap. The baseplate holds a Veggie root mat reservoir that will supply water to plant pillows attached via elastic cords. Plant pillows are packages of growth media and seeds that will be sent to ISS dry and installed and hydrated on orbit. Pillows can be constructed in various sizes for different plant types. Watering will be via passive wicking from the root mat to the pillows. Science procedures will include photography or videography, plant thinning, pollination, harvesting, microbial sampling, water sampling, etcetera. Veggie is one of the ISS flight options currently available for research investigations on plants. The Plant Habitat (PH) is being designed and constructed through a NASA

  5. Benchmark studies of the effectiveness of structural and internal materials as radiation shielding for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Heilbronn, L.; Stephens, D.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Accelerator-based measurements and model calculations have been used to study the heavy-ion radiation transport properties of materials in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Samples of the ISS aluminum outer hull were augmented with various configurations of internal wall material and polyethylene. The materials were bombarded with high-energy iron ions characteristic of a significant part of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) heavy-ion spectrum. Transmitted primary ions and charged fragments produced in nuclear collisions in the materials were measured near the beam axis, and a model was used to extrapolate from the data to lower beam energies and to a lighter ion. For the materials and ions studied, at incident particle energies from 1037 MeV/nucleon down to at least 600 MeV/nucleon, nuclear fragmentation reduces the average dose and dose equivalent per incident ion. At energies below 400 MeV/nucleon, the calculation predicts that as material is added, increased ionization energy loss produces increases in some dosimetric quantities. These limited results suggest that the addition of modest amounts of polyethylene or similar material to the interior of the ISS will reduce the dose to ISS crews from space radiation; however, the radiation transport properties of ISS materials should be evaluated with a realistic space radiation field. Copyright 2003 by Radiation Research Society.

  6. Diagram of the Water Recovery and Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the flow of water recovery and management in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection/ suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  7. A planetary telescope at the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, O.; Moroz, V.; Avanesov, G.; Rodin, V.; Bellucci, G.; Vid Machenko, A.; Tejfel, V.

    We present the development of a 40-cm telescope to be deployed at the Russian segment of International Space Station (ISS) dedicated to the observations of planets of Solar system, which primary goal will be tracking climate-related changes and other variable phenomena on planets. The most effective will be the observations of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and comets, while other interesting targets will be certainly considered. This space-based observatory will perform monitoring of Solar System objects on regular basis The observatory includes the 40-cm narrow-field (f:20) telescope at a pointing platform with guidance system assuring pointing accuracy of ~10", and an internal tracking system with an accuracy inferior to 1" during tens of minutes. Four focal plane instruments, a camera, two spectrometers and a spectropolarimeter, will perform imaging and spectral observations in the range from ~200 nm to ~3 μm.

  8. Cosmic ray studies on the ISS using SSNTD, BRADOS projects, 2001–2003

    CERN Document Server

    Pálfalvia, J K; Akatov, Y; Sajó-Bohus, L; Eördögh, I

    2005-01-01

    The BRADOS 1–3 projects were organised by the Russian Space Agency (RZA) between 2001 and 2003. The aim was to study the contribution of the primary galactic cosmic rays and of the secondary particles to the dose received by the crew of the International Space Station (ISS). Several laboratories participated in these experiments. Two different stacks (constructed by the team of the Atomic Energy Research Institute, AERI, Budapest, Hungary) composed of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were exposed inside the Service Module at different locations. The calibrations were made at the CERN high-energy neutron reference field named CERF (Geneva, Swiss). Applying a multiple track etching technique (2–20 h etching time) and a sophisticated image analyser, the secondary neutron dose was deduced. The composition of stacks, the evaluation methods and the results will be presented here or referenced to previous papers.

  9. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystem Productivity from ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, K. F.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Gao, B. C.; Flanagan, L. B.; Goulden, M.

    2017-12-01

    Data from the Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean (HICO), mounted on the International Space Station (ISS), were used to develop and test algorithms for remotely retrieving ecosystem productivity. The ISS orbit introduces both limitations and opportunities for observing ecosystem dynamics. Twenty six HICO images were used from four study sites representing different vegetation types: grasslands, shrubland, and forest. Gross ecosystem production (GEP) data from eddy covariance were matched with HICO-derived spectra. Multiple algorithms were successful relating spectral reflectance with GEP, including: Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI), SVI in a light use efficiency model framework, spectral shape characteristics through spectral derivatives and absorption feature analysis, and statistical models leading to Multiband Hyperspectral Indices (MHI) from stepwise regressions and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Algorithms were able to achieve r2 better than 0.7 for both GEP at the overpass time and daily GEP. These algorithms were successful using a diverse set of observations combining data from multiple years, multiple times during growing season, different times of day, with different view angles, and different vegetation types. The demonstrated robustness of the algorithms presented in this study over these conditions provides some confidence in mapping spatial patterns of GEP, describing variability within fields as well as the regional patterns based only on spectral reflectance information. The ISS orbit provides periods with multiple observations collected at different times of the day within a period of a few days. Diurnal GEP patterns were estimated comparing the half-hourly average GEP from the flux tower against HICO estimates of GEP (r2=0.87) if morning, midday, and afternoon observations were available for average fluxes in the time period.

  10. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  11. Cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in peripheral lymphocytes of ISS crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra; Obe, Günter; Horstmann, Markus

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). The effect of the increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required.The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second sample was drawn within 3 days after return from their flights. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Metaphases were Giemsa stained or hybridised using multicolour FISH probes. All types of chromosome changes were scored in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to cosmic radiation exposure. Overall significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed in long-term crew members. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short-term stays on-board the ISS.

  12. STS-110/Atlantic/ISS 8A Pre-Launch On Orbit-Landing-Crew Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The crew of STS-110, which consists of Commander Michael Bloomfield, Pilot Stephen Frick, and Mission Specialists Rex Walheim, Ellen Ochoa, Lee Morin, Jerry Ross, and Steven Smith is introduced at the customary pre-flight meal. The narrator provides background information on the astronauts during suit-up. Each crew member is shown in the White Room before boarding Space Shuttle Atlantis, and some display signs to loved ones. Launch footage includes the following replays: Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad B, Tower 1, DLTR-3, Grandstand, Cocoa Beach DOAMS, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, SLF Convoy, OTV-154, OTV-163, OTV-170 (mislabeled), and OTV-171 (mislabeled). After the launch, NASA administrator Sean O'Keefe gives a speech to the Launch Control Center, with political dignitaries present. While on-orbit, Atlantis docks with the International Space Station (ISS), and Canadarm 2 on the ISS lifts the S0 Truss out of the orbiter's payload bay. The video includes highlights of three extravehicular activities (EVAs). In the first, the S0 Truss is fastened to the Destiny Laboratory Module on the ISS. During the third EVA, Walheim and Smith assist in the checkout of the handcart on the S0 Truss. The Atlantis crew is shown gathered together with the Expedition 4 crew of the ISS, and again by itself after undocking. Replays of the landing include: VAB, Tower 1, Mid-field, Runway South End, Runway North End, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, Cocoa Beach DOAMS, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV). After landing, Commander Bloomfield lets each of his crew members give a short speech.

  13. State Estimation of International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor With Incomplete Knowledge of Disturbance Inputs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis develops a state estimation algorithm for the Centrifuge Rotor (CR) system where only relative measurements are available with limited knowledge of both rotor imbalance disturbances and International Space Station (ISS...

  14. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Earth Science Capability for ISS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Scott, S.; Kupchock, A.; Selmer, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a lidar remote sensing instrument developed for deployment to the International Space Station (ISS). The CATS lidar will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud distributions and properties. The CATS instrument uses a high repetition rate laser operating at three wavelengths (1064, 532, and 355 nm) to derive properties of cloud/aerosol layers including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The CATS mission was designed to capitalize on the Space Station's unique orbit and facilities to continue existing Earth Science data records, to provide observational data for use in forecast models, and to demonstrate new technologies for use in future missions. The CATS payload will be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). The payload is designed to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. The payload is completed and currently scheduled for a mid-2014 launch. The ISS and, in particular, the JEM-EF, is an exciting new platform for spaceborne Earth observations. The ability to leverage existing aircraft instrument designs coupled with the lower cost possible for ISS external attached payloads permits rapid and cost effective development of spaceborne sensors. The CATS payload is based on existing instrumentation built and operated on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The payload is housed in a 1.5 m x 1 m x 0.8 m volume that attaches to the JEM-EF. The allowed volume limits the maximum size for the collecting telescope to 60 cm diameter. Figure 1 shows a schematic layout of the CATS payload, with the primary instrument components identified. Figure 2 is a photo of the completed payload. CATS payload cut-away view. Completed CATS payload assembly.

  15. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those

  16. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  17. The Mini-EUSO telescope on the ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Valentina, E-mail: scottiv@na.infn.it; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2017-02-11

    The Mini-EUSO project aims to perform observations of the UV-light night emission from Earth. The UV background produced in atmosphere is a key measurement for any experiment aiming at the observation of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECR) from space, the most energetic component of the cosmic radiation. The Mini-EUSO instrument will be placed within the International Space Station (ISS) in the Russian Module and measures through a UV transparent window. The instrument comprises a compact telescope with a large field of view, based on an optical system employing two Fresnel lenses for increased light collection. The light is focused onto an array of photo-multipliers and the resulting signal is converted into digital, processed and stored via the electronics subsystems on-board. The instrument is designed and built by the members of the JEM-EUSO collaboration. JEM-EUSO is a wide-angle refractive UV telescope being proposed for attachment to the ISS, which has been designed to address basic problems of fundamental physics and high-energy astrophysics investigating the nature of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 20} eV. Mini-EUSO will be able to study beside EECRs a wide range of scientific phenomena including atmospheric physics, strange quark matter and bioluminescence. The mission is approved by the Italian Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency. Scientific, technical and programmatic aspects of this project will be described.

  18. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  19. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  20. Sustaining a Mature Risk Management Process: Ensuring the International Space Station for a Vibrant Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael; Carter-Journet, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) risk management methodology is an example of a mature and sustainable process. Risk management is a systematic approach used to proactively identify, analyze, plan, track, control, communicate, and document risks to help management make risk-informed decisions that increase the likelihood of achieving program objectives. The ISS has been operating in space for over 14 years and permanently crewed for over 12 years. It is the longest surviving habitable vehicle in low Earth orbit history. Without a mature and proven risk management plan, it would be increasingly difficult to achieve mission success throughout the life of the ISS Program. A successful risk management process must be able to adapt to a dynamic program. As ISS program-level decision processes have evolved, so too has the ISS risk management process continued to innovate, improve, and adapt. Constant adaptation of risk management tools and an ever-improving process is essential to the continued success of the ISS Program. Above all, sustained support from program management is vital to risk management continued effectiveness. Risk management is valued and stressed as an important process by the ISS Program.

  1. Development of the ISS EMU Dashboard Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    The EMU (Extra-Vehicular Mobility Unit) Dashboard was developed at NASA s Johnson Space Center to aid in real-time mission support for the ISS (International Space Station) and Shuttle EMU space suit by time synchronizing down-linked video, space suit data and audio from the mission control audio loops. Once the input streams are synchronized and recorded, the data can be replayed almost instantly and has proven invaluable in understanding in-flight hardware anomalies and playing back information conveyed by the crew to missions control and the back room support. This paper will walk through the development from an engineer s idea brought to life by an intern to real time mission support and how this tool is evolving today and its challenges to support EVAs (Extra-Vehicular Activities) and human exploration in the 21st century.

  2. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Space Biology program funded two multi-year studies to catalogue International Space Station (ISS) environmental microbiome. The first Microbial Observatory (MO) experiment will generate a microbial census of the ISS surfaces and atmosphere using advanced molecular microbial community analysis "omics" techniques, supported by traditional culture-based methods and state-of-the art molecular techniques. The second MO experiment will measure presence of viral and select bacterial and fungal pathogens on ISS surfaces and correlate their presence on crew. The "omics" methodologies of the MO experiments will serve as the foundation for an extensive microbial census, offering significant insight into spaceflight-induced changes in the populations of beneficial and potentially harmful microbes. The safety of crewmembers and the maintenance of hardware are the primary goals for monitoring microorganisms in this closed habitat. The statistical analysis of the ISS microbiomes showed that three bacterial phyla dominated both in ISS and Earth cleanrooms, but varied in their abundances. While members of Actinobacteria were predominant on ISS, Proteobacteria dominated the Earth cleanrooms. Alpha diversity estimators indicated a significant drop in viable microbial diversity. To better characterize the shared community composition among samples, beta-diversity metrics analysis were conducted. At the bacterial species level characterization, the microbial community composition is strongly associated with sampling site. Results of the study indicate significant differences between ISS and Earth cleanroom microbiomes in terms of community structure and composition. Bacterial strains isolated from ISS surfaces were also tested for their resistance to nine antibiotics using conventional disc method and Vitek 2 system. Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to penicillin. Five strains were specifically resistant to erythromycin and the ermA gene was also

  3. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  4. Design and Development of a CPCI-Based Electronics Package for Space Station Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, John S.; Clapper, Randy S.; Wade, Raymond P.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing a Compact-PCI (CPCI) based electronics package for controlling space experiment hardware on the International Space Station. Goals of this effort include an easily modified, modular design that allows for changes in experiment requirements. Unique aspects of the experiment package include a flexible circuit used for internal interconnections and a separate enclosure (box in a box) for controlling 1 kW of power for experiment fuel heating requirements. This electronics package was developed as part of the FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) mini-facility which is part of the Fluids and Combustion Facility s Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments and will reside on the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FEANICS mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA s future space missions. A description of the electronics package and the results of functional testing are the subjects of this report. The report concludes that the use of innovative packaging methods combined with readily available COTS hardware can provide a modular electronics package which is easily modified for changing experiment requirements.

  5. Observation of radiation environment in the International Space Station in 2012–March 2013 by Liulin-5 particle telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkova Jordanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since June 2007 the Liulin-5 charged particle telescope, located in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom of the MATROSHKA-R project onboard the International Space Station (ISS, has been making measurements of the local energetic particle radiation environment. From 27 December 2011 to 09 March 2013 measurements were conducted in and outside the phantom located in the MIM1 module of the ISS. In this paper Liulin-5 dose rates, due to galactic cosmic rays and South Atlantic Anomaly trapped protons, measured during that period are presented. Particularly, dose rates and particle fluxes for the radiation characteristics in the phantom during solar energetic particle (SEP events occurring in March and May 2012 are discussed. Liulin-5 SEP observations are compared with other ISS data, GOES proton fluxes as well as with solar energetic particle measurements obtained onboard the Mir space station during previous solar cycles.

  6. Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

  7. The Logistic Path from the International Space Station to the Moon and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. K.; Dempsey, C. A.; Butina, A. J., Sr.

    2005-01-01

    The period from the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia in February 2003 to resumption of Space Shuttle flights, planned for May 2005, has presented significant challenges to International Space Station (ISS) maintenance operations. Sharply curtailed upmass capability has forced NASA to revise its support strategy and to undertake maintenance activities that have significantly expanded the envelope of the ISS maintenance concept. This experience has enhanced confidence in the ability to continue to support ISS in the period following the permanent retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010. Even greater challenges face NASA with the implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration that will introduce extended missions to the Moon beginning in the period of 2015 - 2020 and ultimately see human missions to more distant destinations such as Mars. The experience and capabilities acquired through meeting the maintenance challenges of ISS will serve as the foundation for the maintenance strategy that will be employed in support of these future missions.

  8. Report on terrestrial biology research and logistics at Baia Terra Nova Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Imura

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available From December 4,1998 to January 15,1999,the author stayed at Baia Terra Nova Station (Italy in Antarctica, as an exchange scientist. To compare the biodiversity between Syowa Station and the Baia Terra Nova Station area, many samples of mosses, lichens, algae and micro animals in the soil were collected, and the structure of moss vegetation was studied in various fields around the station. Some characteristic features of logistics at the station were also researched.

  9. Simpler ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.; Cowart, Hugh; Stevens, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The heart of flight operations control involves a) communicating effectively in real time with other controllers in the room and/or in remote locations and b) tracking significant events, decisions, and rationale to support the next set of decisions, provide a thorough shift handover, and troubleshoot/improve operations. International Space Station (ISS) flight controllers speak with each other via multiple voice circuits or loops, each with a particular purpose and constituency. Controllers monitor and/or respond to several loops concurrently. The primary tracking tools are console logs, typically kept by a single operator and not visible to others in real-time. Information from telemetry, commanding, and planning systems also plays into decision-making. Email is very secondary/tertiary due to timing and archival considerations. Voice communications and log entries supporting ISS operations have increased by orders of magnitude because the number of control centers, flight crew, and payload operations have grown. This paper explores three developmental ground system concepts under development at Johnson Space Center s (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) and Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC). These concepts could reduce ISS control center voice traffic and console logging yet increase the efficiency and effectiveness of both. The goal of this paper is to kindle further discussion, exploration, and tool development.

  10. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  11. The GEOFLOW experiment missions in the Fluid Science Laboratory on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, Gerold; Carpy, Rodrigo; Fabritius, Gerd; Dettmann, Jan; Minster, Olivier; Winter, Josef; Ranebo, Hans; Dewandre, Thierry; Castiglione, Luigi; Mazzoni, Stefano; Egbers, Christoph; Futterer, Birgit

    The GEOFLOW I experiment has been successfully performed on the International Space Sta-tion (ISS) in 2008 in the Columbus module in order to study the stability, pattern formation and transition to turbulence in a viscous incompressible fluid layer enclosed in two concentric co-rotating spheres subject to a radial temperature gradient and a radial volumetric force field. The objective of the study is the experimental investigation of large scale astrophysical and geophysical phenomena in spherical geometry stipulated by rotation, thermal convections and radial gravity fields. These systems include earth outer core or mantle convection, differen-tial rotation effects in the sun, atmosphere of gas planets as well as a variety of engineering applications. The GEOFLOW I experimental instrument consists of an experiment insert for operation in the Fluid Science Laboratory, which is part of the Columbus Module of the ISS. It was first launched in February 2008 together with Columbus Module on STS 122, operated periodically for 9 month and returned to ground after 14 month on orbit with STS 119. The primary objective was the experimental modelling of outer earth core convection flow. In order to allow for variations of the characteristic scaling for different physical phenomena, the experiment was designed and qualified for a total of nine flights to the ISS, with ground refurbishment and geometrical or fluid modification after each mission. The second mission of GEOFLOW (II) is currently under preparation in terms of hardware refurbishment and modification, as well as science parameter development in order to allow use of a new experimental model fluid with a strongly temperature dependent viscosity, a adaptation of the experimental thermal parameter range in order to provide a representative model for earth mantle convection. The GEOFLOW II instrument is foreseen to be launched with the second mission of the Eu-ropean Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). The flight to ISS

  12. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  13. Filter Efficiency and Leak Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements After 2.5 Years of Continuous Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere revitalization equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provides the vital functions of maintaining a habitable environment for the crew as well as protecting the hardware from fouling by suspended particulate matter. Providing these functions are challenging in pressurized spacecraft cabins because no outside air ventilation is possible and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation in reduced gravity conditions. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each module. These filters are referred to as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs). As more experience has been gained with ISS operations, the BFE service life, which was initially one year, has been extended to two to five years, dependent on the location in the U.S. Segment. In previous work we developed a test facility and test protocol for leak testing the ISS BFEs. For this work, we present results of leak testing a sample set of returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years, along with particulate removal efficiency and pressure drop measurements. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS to 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  14. Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS) - Cyclops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P.; Lamb, Craig R.; Ballard, Perry G.

    2013-01-01

    Access to space for satellites in the 50-100 kg class is a challenge for the small satellite community. Rideshare opportunities are limited and costly, and the small sat must adhere to the primary payloads schedule and launch needs. Launching as an auxiliary payload on an Expendable Launch Vehicle presents many technical, environmental, and logistical challenges to the small satellite community. To assist the community in mitigating these challenges and in order to provide the community with greater access to space for 50-100 kg satellites, the NASA International Space Station (ISS) and Engineering communities in collaboration with the Department of Defense (DOD) Space Test Program (STP) is developing a dedicated 50-100 kg class ISS small satellite deployment system. The system, known as Cyclops, will utilize NASA's ISS resupply vehicles to launch small sats to the ISS in a controlled pressurized environment in soft stow bags. The satellites will then be processed through the ISS pressurized environment by the astronaut crew allowing satellite system diagnostics prior to orbit insertion. Orbit insertion is achieved through use of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Experiment Module Robotic Airlock (JEM Airlock) and one of the ISS Robotic Arms. Cyclops' initial satellite deployment demonstration of DOD STP's SpinSat and UT/TAMU's Lonestar satellites will be toward the end of 2013 or beginning of 2014. Cyclops will be housed on-board the ISS and used throughout its lifetime. The anatomy of Cyclops, its concept of operations for satellite deployment, and its satellite interfaces and requirements will be addressed further in this paper.

  15. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  16. Maintenance, reliability and policies for orbital space station life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, James F.; Klaus, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of productive work on space missions is critical to sustaining a human presence on orbital space stations (OSS), the Moon, or Mars. Available time for productive work has potentially been impacted on past OSS missions by underestimating the crew time needed to maintain systems, such as the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). To determine the cause of this apparent disconnect between the design and operation of an OSS, documented crew time for maintenance was collected from the three Skylab missions and Increments 4-8 on the International Space Station (ISS), and the data was contrasted to terrestrial facility maintenance norms. The results of the ISS analysis showed that for four operational and seven functional categories, the largest deviation of 60.4% over the design time was caused by three of the four operational categories not being quantitatively included in the design documents. In a cross category analysis, 35.3% of the crew time was found to have been used to repair air and waste handling systems. The air system required additional crew time for maintenance due to a greater than expected failure rate and resultant increased time needed for repairs. Therefore, it appears that the disconnect between the design time and actual operations for ECLSS maintenance on ISS was caused by excluding non-repair activities from the estimates and experiencing greater than expected technology maintenance requirements. Based on these ISS and Skylab analyses, future OSS designs (and possibly lunar and Martian missions as well) should consider 3.0-3.3 h/day for crews of 2 to 3 as a baseline of crew time needed for ECLSS maintenance

  17. Space Station life science research facility - The vivarium/laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Arno, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research opportunities possible with the Space Station are discussed. The objective of the research program will be study gravity relationships for animal and plant species. The equipment necessary for space experiments including vivarium facilities are described. The cost of the development of research facilities such as the vivarium/laboratory and a bioresearch centrifuge is examined.

  18. Analysis of High-order Social Interaction of Female Mice on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, M.; Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Cadena, S.; Stodieck, L.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions are adaptive responses to environmental pressures that have evolved to facilitate the success of individual animals and their progeny. Quantifying social behavior in social animals is therefore one method of evaluating an animal's health, wellbeing and their adjustment to changes in their environment. The interaction between environment and animal can influence numerous other physiological and psychological responses that may enhance, deter or shift an animals social paradigm. For this study, we utilized flight video from the Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation mission (Rodent Research-1; RR1) on the International Space Station (ISS). Female mice spent 37 days in microgravity on the ISS and video was captured during the final 33 days. In a previous analysis of individual behavior, we also reported an observed spontaneous ambulatory behavior which we termed circling or 'race tracking,' and we anecdotally observed an increase in group organization around this behavior. In this analysis we further examined this behavior, and other social interactions, to determine if (1) animals joining in on this behavior were induced by other cohort members already participating in this circling behavior, (2) rates of joining varied by number already participating.

  19. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  20. Space station astronauts discuss life in space during AGU interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Just one day after China's Shenzhou-9 capsule, carrying three Chinese astronauts, docked with the Tiangong-1 space lab on 18 June, Donald Pettit, a NASA astronaut on the International Space Station (ISS), said it is “a step in the right direction” that more people are in space. “Before they launched, there were six people in space,” he said, referring to those on ISS, “and there are 7 billion people on Earth.” The astronauts were “like one in a billion. Now there are nine people in space,” Pettit said during a 19 June interview that he and two other astronauts onboard ISS had with AGU. Pettit continued, “So the gradient of human beings going into space is moving in the right direction. We need to change these numbers so that more and more human beings can call space their home so we can expand off of planet Earth and move out into our solar system.”

  1. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  2. Microbiology and Crew Medical Events on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Kadwa, Biniafer; Taiym, Wafa; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane; Baalen, Mary Van

    2014-01-01

    The closed environment of the International Space Station (ISS) creates an ideal environment for microbial growth. Previous studies have identified the ubiquitous nature of microorganisms throughout the space station environment. To ensure safety of the crew, microbial monitoring of air and surface within ISS began in December 2000 and continues to be monitored on a quarterly basis. Water monitoring began in 2009 when the potable water dispenser was installed on ISS. However, it is unknown if high microbial counts are associated with inflight medical events. The microbial counts are determined for the air, surface, and water samples collected during flight operations and samples are returned to the Microbiology laboratory at the Johnson Space Center for identification. Instances of microbial counts above the established microbial limit requirements were noted and compared inflight medical events (any non-injury event such as illness, rashes, etc.) that were reported during the same calendar-quarter. Data were analyzed using repeated measures logistic regression for the forty-one US astronauts flew on ISS between 2000 and 2012. In that time frame, instances of microbial counts being above established limits were found for 10 times for air samples, 22 times for surface samples and twice for water. Seventy-eight inflight medical events were reported among the astronauts. A three times greater risk of a medical event was found when microbial samples were found to be high (OR = 3.01; p =.007). Engineering controls, crew training, and strict microbial limits have been established to mitigate the crew medical events and environmental risks. Due to the timing issues of sampling and the samples return to earth, identification of particular microorganisms causing a particular inflight medical event is difficult. Further analyses are underway.

  3. Productivity of Mizuna Cultivated in the Space Greenhouse Onboard the Russian Module of the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    As stipulated by the science program of research into the processes of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction of higher plants in microgravity in view of their potential use in advanced life support systems, five experiments on Mizuna plants (Brassica rapa var. nipponisica) were performed using the Lada space greenhouse onboard the ISS Russian Module (RM) during Expeditions ISS-5, 17 and 20-22. One of the goals of the experiments was to evaluate the productivity of Mizuna plants grown at different levels of ISS RM air contamination. Mizuna plants were cultivated for 31 - 36 days when exposed to continuous illumination. The root growing medium was made of Turface enriched with a controlled release fertilizer Osmocote. In the course of the flight experiments major parameters of plant cultivation, total level of ISS RM air contamination and plant microbiological status were measured. The grown plants were returned to Earth as fresh or frozen samples. After the three last vegetation cycles the plants were harvested, packed and frozen at -80 0C in the MELFI freezer on the ISS U.S. Module and later returned to Earth onboard Space Shuttle. It was found that the productivity and morphometric (e.g., plant height and mass, number of leaves) parameters of the plants grown in space did not differ from those seen in ground controls. The T coefficient, which represents the total contamination level of ISS air), was 4 (ISS-5), 22 (ISS-17), 55 (ISS-20), 22 (ISS-21) and 28 (ISS-22) versus the norm of no more than 5. In summary, a significant increase in the total contamination level of the ISS RM air did not reduce the productivity of the leaf vegetable plant used in the flight experiments.

  4. Live Ultra-High Definition from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney; George, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    The first ever live downlink of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) video from the International Space Station (ISS) was the highlight of a 'Super Session' at the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in April 2017. The Ultra-High Definition video downlink from the ISS all the way to the Las Vegas Convention Center required considerable planning, pushed the limits of conventional video distribution from a space-craft, and was the first use of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) from a space-craft. The live event at NAB will serve as a pathfinder for more routine downlinks of UHD as well as use of HEVC for conventional HD downlinks to save bandwidth. HEVC may also enable live Virtual Reality video downlinks from the ISS. This paper will describe the overall work flow and routing of the UHD video, how audio was synchronized even though the video and audio were received many seconds apart from each other, and how the demonstration paves the way for not only more efficient video distribution from the ISS, but also serves as a pathfinder for more complex video distribution from deep space. The paper will also describe how a 'live' event was staged when the UHD coming from the ISS had a latency of 10+ seconds. Finally, the paper will discuss how NASA is leveraging commercial technologies for use on-orbit vs. creating technology as was required during the Apollo Moon Program and early space age.

  5. Cultural factors and the international space station

    OpenAIRE

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2005-01-01

    The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the ...

  6. X-ray crystallography facility for the international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McdDonald, William T.; Lewis, Johanna L.; Smith, Craig D.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1997-01-01

    Directed by NASA's Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) recently completed a Design Feasibility Study for the X-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF) for the International Space Station (ISS). The XCF is a facility for growing macromolecular protein crystals; harvesting, selecting, and mounting sample crystals, and snap-freezing the samples, if necessary; performing x-ray diffraction; and downlinking the diffraction data to the ground. Knowledge of the structure of protein molecules is essential for the development of pharmaceuticals by structure-based drug design techniques. Currently, x-ray diffraction of high quality protein crystals is the only method of determining the structure of these macromolecules. High quality protein crystals have been grown in microgravity onboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter for more than 10 years, but these crystals always have been returned to Earth for x-ray diffraction. The XCF will allow crystal growth, harvesting, mounting, and x-ray diffraction onboard the ISS, maximizing diffraction data quality and timeliness. This paper presents the XCF design concept, describing key feasibility issues for the ISS application and advanced technologies and operational features which resolve those issues. The conclusion is that the XCF design is feasible and can be operational onboard the ISS by early in 2002

  7. Protection from Induced Space Environments Effects on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Stegall, Courtney; Schmidl, Danny; Huang, Alvin; Olsen, Randy; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is one of the largest, most complex multinational scientific projects in history and protection from induced space environments effects is critical to its long duration mission as well as to the health of the vehicle and safety of on-orbit operations. This paper discusses some of the unique challenges that were encountered during the design, assembly and operation of the ISS and how they were resolved. Examples are provided to illustrate the issues and the risk mitigation strategies that were developed to resolve these issues. Of particular importance are issues related with the interaction of multiple spacecraft as in the case of ISS and Visiting Vehicles transporting crew, hardware elements, cargo and scientific payloads. These strategies are applicable to the development of future long duration space systems, not only during design, but also during assembly and operation of these systems.

  8. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  9. NREL Research Takes Off for International Space Station | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    hydrogen. Research has proven that nitrate starvation triggers C. vulgaris to go into lipid production mode NREL Research Takes Off for International Space Station NREL Research Takes Off for International the other, Chlorella vulgaris, will make lipids. NREL research dating back to the late 1970s opened

  10. International Space Station Medical Projects - Full Services to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, R. A.; Primeaux, L. L.; Wood, S. J.; Vessay, W. B.; Platts, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    The International Space Station Medical Projects (ISSMP) Element provides planning, integration, and implementation services for HRP research studies for both spaceflight and flight analog research. Through the implementation of these two efforts, ISSMP offers an innovative way of guiding research decisions to meet the unique challenges of understanding the human risks to space exploration. Flight services provided by ISSMP include leading informed consent briefings, developing and validating in-flight crew procedures, providing ISS crew and ground-controller training, real-time experiment monitoring, on-orbit experiment and hardware operations and facilitating data transfer to investigators. For analog studies at the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), the ISSMP team provides subject recruitment and screening, science requirements integration, data collection schedules, data sharing agreements, mission scenarios and facilities to support investigators. The ISSMP also serves as the HRP interface to external analog providers including the :envihab bed rest facility (Cologne, Germany), NEK isolation chamber (Moscow, Russia) and the Antarctica research stations. Investigators working in either spaceflight or analog environments requires a coordinated effort between NASA and the investigators. The interdisciplinary nature of both flight and analog research requires investigators to be aware of concurrent research studies and take into account potential confounding factors that may impact their research objectives. Investigators must define clear research requirements, participate in Investigator Working Group meetings, obtain human use approvals, and provide study-specific training, sample and data collection and procedures all while adhering to schedule deadlines. These science requirements define the technical, functional and performance operations to meet the research objectives. The ISSMP maintains an expert team of professionals with the knowledge and

  11. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent

    2015-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  12. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  13. MSRR Rack Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRR is managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The MSRR facility subsystems were manufactured by Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE) and integrated with the ESA/EADS-Astrium developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) at the MSFC Space Station Integration and Test Facility (SSITF) as part of the Systems Development Operations Support (SDOS) contract. MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U. S. Destiny Laboratory Module on the ISS. Materials science is an integral part of developing new, safer, stronger, more durable materials for use throughout everyday life. The goal of studying materials processing in space is to develop a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved, and how they differ in the microgravity environment of space. To that end, the MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment of the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials

  14. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  15. NASA Alternate Access to Station Service Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michelle D.; Crumbly, Chris

    2001-01-01

    The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for commercial and government services. The "service" concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the "service" is not only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research - and enable industry to develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is implementing NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply

  16. NASA Alternate Access to Station Service Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. D.; Crumbly, C.

    2002-01-01

    The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for commercial and government services. The "service" concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the "service" is not only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research and enable industry to develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is implementing NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply

  17. Converting the ISS to an Earth-Moon Transport System Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, John; Maise, George; Powell, James

    2008-01-01

    Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), the International Space Station (ISS) can be placed into a cyclic orbit between the Earth and the Moon for 2-way transport of personnel and supplies to a permanent Moon Base. The ISS cycler orbit apogees 470,000 km from Earth, with a period of 13.66 days. Once a month, the ISS would pass close to the Moon, enabling 2-way transport between it and the surface using a lunar shuttle craft. The lunar shuttle craft would land at a desired location on the surface during a flyby and return to the ISS during a later flyby. At Earth perigee 7 days later at 500 km altitude, there would be 2-way transport between it and Earth's surface using an Earth shuttle craft. The docking Earth shuttle would remain attached to the ISS as it traveled towards the Moon, while personnel and supplies transferred to a lunar shuttle spacecraft that would detach and land at the lunar base when the ISS swung around the Moon. The reverse process would be carried out to return personnel and materials from the Moon to the Earth. The orbital mechanics for the ISS cycle are described in detail. Based on the full-up mass of 400 metric tons for the ISS, an ISP of 900 seconds, and a delta V burn of 3.3 km/sec to establish the orbit, 200 metric tons of liquid H-2 propellant would be required. The 200 metric tons could be stored in 3 tanks, each 8 meters in diameter and 20 meters in length. An assembly of 3 MITEE NTP engines would be used, providing redundancy if an engine were to fail. Two different MITEE design options are described. Option 1 is an 18,000 Newton, 100 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 6.6/1; Option 2 is a 180,000 Newton, 1000 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 23/1. Burn times to establish the orbit are ∼1 hour for the large 3 engine assembly, and 10 hours for the small 3 engine assembly. Both engines would use W-UO2 cermet fuel at ∼2750 K which has demonstrated the capability to operate for at least 50 hours in 2750 K hydrogen

  18. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  19. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  20. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring system. 4 figs

  1. Using ISS Telescopes for Electromagnetic Follow-up of Gravitational Wave Detections of NS-NS and NS-BH Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Blackburn, L.; Carpenter, K. G.; Gehrels, N.; Kanner, J.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Sakamoto, T.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station offers a unique platform for rapid and inexpensive deployment of space telescopes. A scientific opportunity of great potential later this decade is the use of telescopes for the electromagnetic follow-up of ground-based gravitational wave detections of neutron star and black hole mergers. We describe this possibility for OpTIIX, an ISS technology demonstration of a 1.5 m diffraction limited optical telescope assembled in space, and ISS-Lobster, a wide-field imaging X-ray telescope now under study as a potential NASA mission. Both telescopes will be mounted on pointing platforms, allowing rapid positioning to the source of a gravitational wave event. Electromagnetic follow-up rates of several per year appear likely, offering a wealth of complementary science on the mergers of black holes and neutron stars.

  2. Computational Prediction of Muscle Moments During ARED Squat Exercise on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregly, Benjamin J; Fregly, Christopher D; Kim, Brandon T

    2015-12-01

    Prevention of muscle atrophy caused by reduced mechanical loading in microgravity conditions remains a challenge for long-duration spaceflight. To combat leg muscle atrophy, astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) often perform squat exercise using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). While the ARED is effective at building muscle strength and volume on Earth, NASA researchers do not know how closely ARED squat exercise on the ISS replicates Earth-level squat muscle moments, or how small variations in exercise form affect muscle loading. This study used dynamic simulations of ARED squat exercise on the ISS to address these two questions. A multibody dynamic model of the complete astronaut-ARED system was constructed in OpenSim. With the ARED base locked to ground and gravity set to 9.81 m/s², we validated the model by reproducing muscle moments, ground reaction forces, and foot center of pressure (CoP) positions for ARED squat exercise on Earth. With the ARED base free to move relative to the ISS and gravity set to zero, we then used the validated model to simulate ARED squat exercise on the ISS for a reference squat motion and eight altered squat motions involving changes in anterior-posterior (AP) foot or CoP position on the ARED footplate. The reference squat motion closely reproduced Earth-level muscle moments for all joints except the ankle. For the altered squat motions, changing the foot position was more effective at altering muscle moments than was changing the CoP position. All CoP adjustments introduced an undesirable shear foot reaction force that could cause the feet to slip on the ARED footplate, while some foot and CoP adjustments introduced an undesirable sagittal plane foot reaction moment that would cause the astronaut to rotate off the ARED footplate without the use of some type of foot fixation. Our results provide potentially useful information for achieving desired increases or decreases in specific muscle moments

  3. Integration Assessment of Visiting Vehicle Induced Electrical Charging of the International Space Station Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Galofaro, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) undergoes electrical charging in low Earth orbit (LEO) due to positively biased, exposed conductors on solar arrays that collect electrical charges from the space plasma. Exposed solar array conductors predominately collect negatively charged electrons and thus drive the metal ISS structure electrical ground to a negative floating potential (FP) relative to plasma. This FP is variable in location and time as a result of local ionospheric conditions. ISS motion through Earth s magnetic field creates an addition inductive voltage up to 20 positive and negative volts across ISS structure depending on its attitude and location in orbit. ISS Visiting Vehicles (VVs), such as the planned Orion crew exploration vehicle, contribute to the ISS plasma charging processes. Upon physical contact with ISS, the current collection properties of VVs combine with ISS. This is an ISS integration concern as FP must be controlled to minimize arcing of ISS surfaces and ensure proper management of extra vehicular activity crewman shock hazards. This report is an assessment of ISS induced charging from docked Orion vehicles employing negatively grounded, 130 volt class, UltraFlex (ATK Space Systems) solar arrays. To assess plasma electron current collection characteristics, Orion solar cell test coupons were constructed and subjected to plasma chamber current collection measurements. During these tests, coupon solar cells were biased between 0 and 120 V while immersed in a simulated LEO plasma. Tests were performed using several different simulated LEO plasma densities and temperatures. These data and associated theoretical scaling of plasma properties, were combined in a numerical model which was integrated into the Boeing Plasma Interaction Model. It was found that the solar array design for Orion will not affect the ISS FP by more than about 2 V during worst case charging conditions. This assessment also motivated a trade study to determine

  4. Dose Calibration of the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ISS-RAD instrument has been fabricated by Southwest Research Institute and delivered to NASA for flight to the ISS in late 2015 or early 2016. ISS-RAD is essentially two instruments that share a common interface to ISS. The two instruments are the Charged Particle Detector (CPD), which is very similar to the MSL-RAD detector on Mars, and the Fast Neutron Detector (FND), which is a boron-loaded plastic scintillator with readout optimized for the 0.5 to 10 MeV energy range. As the FND is completely new, it has been necessary to develop methodology to allow it to be used to measure the neutron dose and dose equivalent. This talk will focus on the methods developed and their implementation using calibration data obtained in quasi-monoenergetic (QMN) neutron fields at the PTB facility in Braunschweig, Germany. The QMN data allow us to determine an approximate response function, from which we estimate dose and dose equivalent contributions per detected neutron as a function of the pulse height. We refer to these as the "pSv per count" curves for dose equivalent and the "pGy per count" curves for dose. The FND is required to provide a dose equivalent measurement with an accuracy of ?10% of the known value in a calibrated AmBe field. Four variants of the analysis method were developed, corresponding to two different approximations of the pSv per count curve, and two different implementations, one for real-time analysis onboard ISS and one for ground analysis. We will show that the preferred method, when applied in either real-time or ground analysis, yields good accuracy for the AmBe field. We find that the real-time algorithm is more susceptible to chance-coincidence background than is the algorithm used in ground analysis, so that the best estimates will come from the latter.

  5. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  6. Requirements, Resource Planning and Management for Decrewing/Recrewing Scenarios of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, David A.; Brand, Susan N.; Hasbrook, Peter V.

    2013-09-01

    Following the failure of 44 Progress (44P) on launch in August 2011, and the subsequent grounding of all Russian Soyuz rocket based launches, the International Space Station (ISS) ground teams engaged in an effort to determine how long the ISS could remain crewed, what would be required to safely configure the ISS for decrewing, and what would be required to recrew the ISS upon resumption of Soyuz rocket launches if decrewing became necessary. This White Paper was written to capture the processes and lessons learned from real-time time events and to provide a reference and training document for ISS Program teams in the event decrewing of the ISS is needed.Through coordination meetings and assessments, teams identified six decrewing priorities for ground and crew operations. These priorities were integrated along with preflight priorities through the Increment re-planning process. Additionally, the teams reviewed, updated, and implemented changes to the governing documentation for the configuration of the ISS for a contingency decrewing event. Steps were taken to identify critical items for disposal prior to decrewing, as well as identifying the required items to be strategically staged or flown with the astronauts and cosmonauts who would eventually recrew the ISS.After the successful launches and dockings of both 45P and 28 Soyuz (28S), the decrewing team transitioned to finalizing and publishing the documentation for standardizing the decrewing flight rules. With the continued launching of crews and cargo to the ISS, utilization and science is again a high priority; both Increment pairs 29 and 30, and Increment 31 and 32 reaching the milestone of at least 35 hours per week average utilization.

  7. Requirements, Resource Planning, and Management for Decrewing/Recrewing Scenarios of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, David A.; Brand, Susan N.; Hasbrook, Peter V.

    2013-01-01

    Following the failure of 44 Progress (44P) on launch in August 2011, and the subsequent grounding of all Russian Soyuz rocket based launches, the International Space Station (ISS) ground teams engaged in an effort to determine how long the ISS could remain crewed, what would be required to safely configure the ISS for decrewing, and what would be required to recrew the ISS upon resumption of Soyuz rocket launches if decrewing became necessary. This White Paper was written to capture the processes and lessons learned from real-time time events and to provide a reference and training document for ISS Program teams in the event decrewing of the ISS is needed. Through coordination meetings and assessments, teams identified six decrewing priorities for ground and crew operations. These priorities were integrated along with preflight priorities through the Increment re-planning process. Additionally, the teams reviewed, updated, and implemented changes to the governing documentation for the configuration of the ISS for a contingency decrewing event. Steps were taken to identify critical items for disposal prior to decrewing, as well as identifying the required items to be strategically staged or flown with the astronauts and cosmonauts who would eventually recrew the ISS. After the successful launches and dockings of both 45P and 28 Soyuz (28S), the decrewing team transitioned to finalizing and publishing the documentation for standardizing the decrewing flight rules. With the continued launching of crews and cargo to the ISS, utilization and science is again a high priority; both Increment pairs 29 and 30, and Increment 31 and 32 reaching the milestone of at least 35 hours per week average utilization.

  8. Student Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Chemist Arna Holmes, left, from the University of Alabama in Huntsville, teaches NaLonda Moorer, center, and Maricar Bana, right, both from Terry Parker High School in Jacksonville, Fl, procedures for preparing protein crystal growth samples for flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, is a sponsor for this educational activity. The proteins are placed in plastic tubing that is heat-sealed at the ends, then flash-frozen and preserved in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aborad the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be analyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  9. Microgravity Science Glovebox Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is seen working at the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). He is working with the PROMISS experiment, which will investigate the growth processes of proteins during weightless conditions. The PROMISS is one of the Cervantes program of tests (consisting of 20 commercial experiments). The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. Environmental Effects on ISS Materials Aging (1998 to 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alred, John; Dasgupta, Rajib; Koontz, Steve; Soares, Carlos; Golden, John

    2009-01-01

    The performance of ISS spacecraft materials and systems on prolonged exposure to the low- Earth orbit (LEO) space flight are reported in this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are described. The space flight environments definitions (both natural and induced) used for ISS design, material selection, and verification testing are shown, in most cases, to be more severe than the actual flight environment accounting, in part, for the outstanding performance of ISS as a long mission duration spacecraft. No significant ISS material or system failures have been attributed to spacecraft-environments interactions. Nonetheless, ISS materials and systems performance data is contributing to our understanding of spacecraft material interactions with the spaceflight environment so as to reduce cost and risk for future spaceflight projects and programs. Orbital inclination (51.6 deg) and altitude (nominally near 360 km) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and systems on ISS. ISS operates in an electrically conducting environment (the F2 region of Earth s ionosphere) with well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other charged and neutral ionospheric plasma species, solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays. The LEO micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an especially important determinant of spacecraft design and operations. The magnitude of several environmental factors varies dramatically with latitude and longitude as ISS orbits the Earth. The high latitude orbital environment also exposes ISS to higher fluences of trapped energetic electrons, auroral electrons, solar cosmic rays, and galactic cosmic rays than would be the case in lower inclination orbits, largely as a result of the overall shape and magnitude of the

  11. Engineering a Live UHD Program from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney; George, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    The first-ever live downlink of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) video from the International Space Station (ISS) was the highlight of a “Super Session” at the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) Show in April 2017. Ultra-High Definition is four times the resolution of “full HD” or “1080P” video. Also referred to as “4K”, the Ultra-High Definition video downlink from the ISS all the way to the Las Vegas Convention Center required considerable planning, pushed the limits of conventional video distribution from a space-craft, and was the first use of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) from a space-craft. The live event at NAB will serve as a pathfinder for more routine downlinks of UHD as well as use of HEVC for conventional HD downlinks to save bandwidth. A similar demonstration was conducted in 2006 with the Discovery Channel to demonstrate the ability to stream HDTV from the ISS. This paper will describe the overall work flow and routing of the UHD video, how audio was synchronized even though the video and audio were received many seconds apart from each other, and how the demonstration paves the way for not only more efficient video distribution from the ISS, but also serves as a pathfinder for more complex video distribution from deep space. The paper will also describe how a “live” event was staged when the UHD video coming from the ISS had a latency of 10+ seconds. In addition, the paper will touch on the unique collaboration between the inherently governmental aspects of the ISS, commercial partners Amazon and Elemental, and the National Association of Broadcasters.

  12. Simulation of Martian EVA at the Mars Society Arctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, V.; Zubrin, R.; Quinn, K.

    The Mars Society has established a Mars Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.) on Devon Island, North of Canada, in the middle of the Haughton crater formed by the impact of a large meteorite several million years ago. The site was selected for its similarities with the surface of the Mars planet. During the Summer 2001, the MARS Flashline Research Station supported an extended international simulation campaign of human Mars exploration operations. Six rotations of six person crews spent up to ten days each at the MARS Flashline Research Station. International crews, of mixed gender and professional qualifications, conducted various tasks as a Martian crew would do and performed scientific experiments in several fields (Geophysics, Biology, Psychology). One of the goals of this simulation campaign was to assess the operational and technical feasibility of sustaining a crew in an autonomous habitat, conducting a field scientific research program. Operations were conducted as they would be during a Martian mission, including Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) with specially designed unpressurized suits. The second rotation crew conducted seven simulated EVAs for a total of 17 hours, including motorized EVAs with All Terrain Vehicles, to perform field scientific experiments in Biology and Geophysics. Some EVAs were highly successful. For some others, several problems were encountered related to hardware technical failures and to bad weather conditions. The paper will present the experiment programme conducted at the Mars Flashline Research Station, the problems encountered and the lessons learned from an EVA operational point of view. Suggestions to improve foreseen Martian EVA operations will be discussed.

  13. A Human Centred Interior Design of a Habitat Module for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, C.

    Since the very beginning of Space exploration, the interiors of a space habitat had to meet technological and functional requirements. Space habitats have now to meet completely different requirements related to comfort or at least to liveable environments. In order to reduce psychological drawbacks afflicting the crew during long periods of isolation in an extreme environment, one of the most important criteria is to assure high habitability levels. As a result of the Transhab project cancellation, the International Space Station (ISS) is actually made up of several research laboratories, but it has only one module for housing. This is suitable for short-term missions; middle ­ long stays require new solutions in terms of public and private spaces, as well as personal compartments. A design concept of a module appositely fit for living during middle-long stays aims to provide ISS with a place capable to satisfy habitability requirements. This paper reviews existing Space habitats and crew needs in a confined and extreme environment. The paper then describes the design of a new and human centred approach to habitation module typologies.

  14. Why Deep Space Habitats Should Be Different from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Brown, MacAulay

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to view the International Space Station (ISS) as a model for deep space habitats. This is not a good idea for many reasons. The ISS does not have a habitation module; instead the individual crew quarters are dispersed across several modules, the galley is in the US Laboratory and the waste hygiene compartment is in a Node. This distributed arrangement may be inconvenient but more important differences distinguish a deep space habitat from the ISS. First, the Space Shuttle launch system that shaped, sized, and delivered most ISS elements has been retired. Its replacement, the Space Launch System (SLS), is specifically designed for human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit and is capable of transporting more efficient, large diameter, heavy-lift payloads. Next, because of the Earth's protective geomagnetic field, ISS crews are naturally shielded from lethal radiation. Deep space habitat designs must include either a storm shelter or strategically positioned equipment and stowage for radiation protection. Another important difference is the increased transit time with no opportunity for an ISS-type emergency return. It takes 7 to 10 days to go between Earth and cis-lunar locations and 1000 days for the Mars habitat transit. This long commute calls for greater crew autonomy with habitats designed for the crew to fix their own problems. The ISS rack-enclosed, densely packaged subsystems are a product of the Shuttle era and not maintenance friendly. A solution better suited for deep space habitats spreads systems out allowing direct access to single-layer packaging and providing crew access to each component without having to remove another. Operational readiness is another important discriminator. The ISS required over 100 flights to build, resupply, and transport the crew, whereas SLS offers the capability to launch a fully provisioned habitat that is operational without additional outfitting or resupply flights.

  15. Two-Phase Flow Research on the ISS for Thermal Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    With the era of full utilization of the ISS now upon us, this presentation will discuss some of the highest-priority areas for two-phase flow systems with thermal control applications. These priorities are guided by recommendations of a 2011 NRC Decadal Survey report, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration, Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era as well as an internal NASA exercise in response to the NRC report conducted in early 2012. Many of these proposals are already in various stages of development, while others are still conceptual.

  16. Things That Scientists Don't Understand About NASA Spaceflight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, S. H.; Bauer, Terri; Rogers, Shanna

    2017-01-01

    So you want to conduct human spaceflight research aboard the International Space Station (ISS)? Once your spaceflight research aboard the ISS is proposal is funded.... the real work begins. Because resources are so limited for ISS research, it is necessary to maximize the work being done, while at the same time, minimizing the resources spent. Astronauts may be presented with over 30 human research experiments and select, on average approximately 15 in which to participate. In order to conduct this many studies, ISSMP uses the study requirements provided by the principle investigator to integrate all of this work into the astronauts' complement. The most important thing for investigators to convey to the ISSMP team is their RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS. Requirements are captured in the Experiment document. This document is the official record of how, what, where and when data will be collected. One common mistake that investigators make is not taking this document seriously, but when push comes to shove, if a research requirement is not in this document....it will not get done. The research requirements are then integrated to form a complement of research for each astronaut. What do we mean by integration? Many experiments have overlapping requirements; blood draws, behavioral surveys, heart rate measurement. Where possible, these measures are combined to reduce redundancy and save crew time. Investigators can access these data via data sharing agreements. More examples of how ISS research is integrated will be presented. There are additional limitations commonly associated with human spaceflight research that will also be discussed. Large/heavy hardware, invasive procedures, and toxic reagents are extremely difficult to implement on the ISS. There are strict limits placed on the amount of blood that can be drawn from crew members during (and immediately after) spaceflight. These limits are based on 30-day rolling accumulations. We have recently had to start restricting

  17. Development and Deployment of Robonaut 2 to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Robonaut 2 (R2) system was a joint endeavor with NASA and General Motors, producing robots strong enough to do work, yet safe enough to be trusted to work near humans. To date two R2 units have been produced, designated as R2A and R2B. This follows more than a decade of work on the Robonaut 1 units that produced advances in dexterity, tele-presence, remote supervision across time delay, combining mobility with manipulation, human-robot interaction, force control and autonomous grasping. Design challenges for the R2 included higher speed, smaller packaging, more dexterous fingers, more sensitive perception, soft drivetrain design, and the overall implementation of a system software approach for human safety, At the time of this writing the R2B unit was poised for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard STS-133. R2 will be the first humanoid robot in space, and is arguably the most sophisticated robot in the world, bringing NASA into the 21st century as the world's leader in this field. Joining the other robots already on ISS, the station is now an exciting lab for robot experiments and utilization. A particular challenge for this project has been the design and certification of the robot and its software for work near humans. The 3 layer software systems will be described, and the path to ISS certification will be reviewed. R2 will go through a series of ISS checkout tests during 2011. A taskboard was shipped with the robot that will be used to compare R2B's dexterous manipulation in zero gravity with the ground robot s ability to handle similar objects in Earth s gravity. R2's taskboard has panels with increasingly difficult tasks, starting with switches, progressing to connectors and eventually handling softgoods. The taskboard is modular, and new interfaces and experiments will be built up using equipment already on ISS. Since the objective is to test R2 performing tasks with human interfaces, hardware abounds on ISS and the

  18. Commercial opportunities utilizing the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael E.; Mongan, Phil; Overmyer, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique capability of providing a low-g environment for both short- and long-duration experimentation. This environment can provide a unique and competitive research capability to industry; but until recently, utilization of this environment by the private sector has been limited if not totally unavailable. NASA has recently expressed an interest in the commercial development of space and this is now an integral part of the Agency's enabling legislation through the Space Act. NASA's objective is to foster the use of the space environment for the development of commercial products and processes. Through alliances and agreements with several commercial companies and universities, SPACEHAB, Inc., has built a comprehensive package of services designed to provide low-cost reliable access to space for experimenters. These services provide opportunities to support engineering test beds for materials exposure analysis, to mitigate structural failures as observed on the Hubble Space Telescope; materials processing, remote sensing; space environment definition; and electronic experiments. The intent of this paper is to identify commercial opportunities for utilizing the International Space Station and provide examples of several facilities currently being designed and manufactured by commercial companies with the purpose of providing access to the space environment for commercial users.

  19. BEOS-A new approach to promote and organize industrial ISS utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttmann, Helmut; Buchholz, Henning; Bratke, Burkhard; Hueser, Detlev; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop and to market innovative services and products for the operation of the ISS and its utilization, three players have teamed up together and established an entity called BEOS (Bremen Engineering Operations Science). The team is made up of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, OHB-System and ZARM, the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity at the University of Bremen. It is the aim of BEOS to represent a competent industrial interface to potential ISS users from the space and non-space industries. In this effort BEOS is supporting and supplementing the activities of the space agencies, especially in the field of industrial and/or commercial ISS utilization. With this approach BEOS is creating new business opportunities not only for its team members but also for its customers from industry. Besides the fostering of industrial research in space, nontechnical fields of space utilization like entertainment, advertisement, education and space travel represent further key sectors for the marketing efforts of BEOS. .

  20. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent times long-term stay has become a common occurrence in the International Space Station (ISS). However adaptation to the space environment can sometimes...

  1. Service Life Extension of the Propulsion System of Long-Term Manned Orbital Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    One of the critical non-replaceable systems of a long-term manned orbital station is the propulsion system. Since the propulsion system operates beginning with the launch of station elements into orbit, its service life determines the service life of the station overall. Weighing almost a million pounds, the International Space Station (ISS) is about four times as large as the Russian space station Mir and about five times as large as the U.S. Skylab. Constructed over a span of more than a decade with the help of over 100 space flights, elements and modules of the ISS provide more research space than any spacecraft ever built. Originally envisaged for a service life of fifteen years, this Earth orbiting laboratory has been in orbit since 1998. Some elements that have been launched later in the assembly sequence were not yet built when the first elements were placed in orbit. Hence, some of the early modules that were launched at the inception of the program were already nearing the end of their design life when the ISS was finally ready and operational. To maximize the return on global investments on ISS, it is essential for the valuable research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. This paper describes the work performed to extend the service life of the ISS propulsion system. A system comprises of many components with varying failure rates. Reliability of a system is the probability that it will perform its intended function under encountered operating conditions, for a specified period of time. As we are interested in finding out how reliable a system would be in the future, reliability expressed as a function of time provides valuable insight. In a hypothetical bathtub shaped failure rate curve, the failure rate, defined as the number of failures per unit time that a currently healthy component will suffer in a given future time interval, decreases during infant-mortality period, stays nearly constant during the service

  2. Now calling at the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 31 July, an unmanned Russian Progress spacecraft was launched from the desert steppe of Kazakhstan. Its destination: the International Space Station (ISS). On board: five Timepix detectors developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration.   With the Timepix on board, Progress 48 was launched 31 July from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Source: RSC Energia. Timepix detectors are small, USB powered particle trackers based on Medipix2 technology. The Timepix chip, which was developed at CERN, is coupled to a silicon sensor and incorporated into a minature readout system - developed at IEAP, Prague - which is about the size of a USB pen drive. These systems have been used across a variety of disciplines: from the study of cosmic rays to biomedical imaging. Now on board the ISS, they are providing highly accurate measurements of space radiation for dosimetry purposes. “There’s nothing else in the world that has quite the capability of Timepix detectors to ...

  3. Material Usage in High Pressure Oxygen Systems for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Michael; Sievers, D. Elliott

    2014-01-01

    The Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) for the International Space Station (ISS) Program was required as part of the Space Shuttle retirement efforts to sustain the ISS life support systems. The system is designed around a 7000 psia Oxygen or Nitrogen Recharge Tank Assembly which is able to be utilized both internally and externally to the ISS. Material selection and usage were critical to ensure oxygen compatibility for the design, while taking into consideration toxicity, weldability, brazability and general fabrication and assembly techniques. The system uses unique hardware items such a composite overwrap pressure vessel (COPV), high pressure mechanical gauges, compact regulators and valves, quick disconnects, metal tubing and flexhoses. Numerous challenges and anomalies were encountered due to the exotic nature of this project which will be discussed in detail. The knowledge gained from these anomalies and failure resolutions can be applied to more than space applications, but can also be applicable to industry pressurized systems.

  4. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  5. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Reitz, G. [DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Linder Hohe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 {mu}Gy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment

  6. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V.; Reitz, G.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 μGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment were

  7. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for an International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the systems dynamics was created using an Excel Spreadsheet. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  8. Vitamin D: Findings from Antarctic, Bed Rest, Houston, and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Locke, J.; Pierson, D.; Mehta, S.; Bourbeau, Y.; Parsons, H.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining vitamin D is critical for space travelers because they lack ultraviolet light exposure and have an insufficient dietary supply of vitamin D. Despite the provision of 400 IU vitamin D supplements to International Space Station (ISS) early crewmembers, vitamin D status was consistently lower after flight than before flight, and in several crewmembers has decreased to levels considered clinically significant. Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in calcium metabolism, and more recently its non-calcitropic functions have been recognized. According to the results of several recent studies, functionally relevant measures indicate that the lower limit of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (a marker of vitamin D status) should be raised from the current 23 nmol/L to 80 nmol/L. The mean preflight serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vit D) for U.S. ISS crewmembers to date is 63 +/- 16 nmol/L, and after a 4- to 6-mo space flight it typically decreases 25-30% despite supplementation (400 IU/d). The sub-optimal pre- and postflight vitamin D status is an issue that needs to be addressed, to allow NASA to better define the appropriate amount of supplemental vitamin D to serve as a countermeasure against vitamin D deficiency in astronaut crews. A series of ground-based and flight studies in multiple models have been conducted, including Antarctica in winter months when UV-B radiation levels are essentially zero, bed rest where subjects are not exposed to UV-B radiation for 60-90 days, in free-living individuals in Houston, and in International Space Station crewmembers. In these studies, we looked at dose regimen and efficacy, compliance issues, as well as toxicity. Preliminary results from these studies will be presented. Together, the data from these studies will enable us to provide space crews with evidence-based recommendations for vitamin D supplementation. The findings also have implications for other persons with limited UV light exposure, including polar workers and

  9. Development and Implementation of Efficiency-Improving Analysis Methods for the SAGE III on ISS Thermal Model Originating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; Scola, Salvatore; Tobin, Steven; McLeod, Shawn; Mannu, Sergio; Guglielmo, Corrado; Moeller, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2015. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Several novel methods have been implemented to facilitate efficient payload-level thermal analysis, including the use of a design of experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the worst-case orbits for SAGE III while on ISS, use of TD assemblies to move payloads from the Dragon trunk to the Enhanced Operational Transfer Platform (EOTP) to its final home on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC)-4, incorporation of older models in varying unit sets, ability to change units easily (including hardcoded logic blocks), case-based logic to facilitate activating heaters and active elements for varying scenarios within a single model, incorporation of several coordinate frames to easily map to structural models with differing geometries and locations, and streamlined results processing using an Excel-based text file plotter developed in-house at LaRC. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal model and describes the development and implementation of these efficiency-improving analysis methods.

  10. ISS-NIH Collaborative Programme: final report of the projects; Programma di collaborazione ISS-NIH: relazioni conclusive dei progetti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In July 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States of America and the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) of Italy signed an agreement aimed at strengthening the ongoing research cooperation between USA and Italy. Over the years, the programme was able to create new partnerships and to foster the establishment of innovative synergies, the exchange of young researcher, and the merging of the best available skills, talents and know-how in different fields of biomedical sciences. This book contains the final report of the projects of the scientific cooperation between the two Countries. The report consists of two parts (in Italian and English) divided into four sections: Cancer, Neuroscience, Cardiovascular diseases, Infectious diseases. [Italian] Nel luglio 2003, i National Institutes of Health (NIH) americani e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) hanno firmato un accordo mirato a rafforzare la cooperazione scientifica tra Italia e USA. Nel corso degli anni il programma ha permesso di ampliare le collaborazioni e di promuovere nuove sinergie attraverso lo scambio di giovani ricercatori e la condivisione delle migliori competenze, conoscenze e capacita in diversi campi delle scienze biomediche. Questo volume contiene le relazioni finali dei progetti del programma di cooperazione scientifica tra i due Paesi. Il rapporto e articolato in due parti (in italiano e inglese) divise in quattro sezioni: Tumori, Neuroscienze, Malattie cardiovascolari, Malattie infettive.

  11. Control of the Onboard Microgravity Environment and Extension of the Service Life of the Long-Term Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of control of the on-board microgravity environment in order to extend the service life of the long-term space station has been discussed. Software developed for the ISS and the results of identifying dynamic models and external impacts based on telemetry data have been presented. Proposals for controlling the onboard microgravity environment for future long-term space stations have been formulated.

  12. High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard, Lorenz; Frerker, Hap; Fitch, Robert Alan

    High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment for monitoring global climate changes uses ISS internal and external resources (eg. data storage). The optical experiment will consist of an infrared camera for monitoring global climate changes from the ISS. This technology was evaluated by the German small satellite mission BIRD and further developed in different ESA projects. Compared to BIRD the presended instrument uses proven sensor advanced technologies (ISS external) and ISS on board processing and storage capabili-ties (internal). The instrument will be equipped with a serial interfaces for TM/TC and several relay commands for the power supply. For data processing and storage a mass memory is re-quired. The access to actual attitude data is highly desired to produce geo referenced maps-if possible by an on board processing.

  13. Acoustic Noise Prediction of the Amine Swingbed ISS ExPRESS Rack Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David; Smith, Holly; Wang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Acoustics plays a vital role in maintaining the health, safety, and comfort of crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In order to maintain this livable and workable environment, acoustic requirements have been established to ensure that ISS hardware and payload developers account for the acoustic emissions of their equipment and develop acoustic mitigations as necessary. These requirements are verified by an acoustic emissions test of the integrated hardware. The Amine Swingbed ExPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of ExperimentS to Space) rack payload creates a unique challenge to the developers in that the payload hardware is transported to the ISS in phases, making an acoustic emissions test on the integrated flight hardware impossible. In addition, the payload incorporates a high back pressure fan and a diaphragm vacuum pump, which are recognized as significant and complex noise sources. In order to accurately predict the acoustic emissions of the integrated payload, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are first characterized. These characterizations are conducted though a series of acoustic emissions tests on the individual payload components. Secondly, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are incorporated into a virtual model of the integrated hardware. The virtual model is constructed with the use of hybrid method utilizing the Finite Element Acoustic (FEA) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques, which predict the overall acoustic emissions. Finally, the acoustic model is validated though an acoustic characterization test performed on an acoustically similar mock-up of the flight unit. The results of the validated acoustic model are then used to assess the acoustic emissions of the flight unit and define further acoustic mitigation efforts.

  14. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station's Logistics and Maintenance program has had to develop new technologies and a management approach for both space and ground operations. The ISS will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines - it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally completed in 2006. It has over 6,000 orbital replaceable units (ORU), and spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operations. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station for both space and ground operations. It started with the basic support concept developed for Department of Defense systems, and then it was tailored for the unique requirements of a manned space vehicle. Space logistics is a new concept that has wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. This paper discusses what type of organization has been put into place to support both space and ground operations and discusses each element of that organization. In addition, some of the unique operations approaches this organization has had to develop is discussed.

  15. Research and Diplomacy 350 Kilometers above the Earth

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a tour de force, not simply in engineering and R&D, but in the unprecedented collaboration, synergy, and entente the partners have displayed through its planning, construction, and, now, utilisation phase. Orbiting 350 km above the surface of the Earth, the ISS is the only weightless research laboratory currently in operation and has been inhabited by multi-national crew since November 2001. Ms. Payette takes us on a space journey where science merges with diplomacy.

  16. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  17. Validation of Ultrasound Imaging to Rule-out Thoracic Trauma on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Melton, Shannon; Martin, David; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Aboard the International Space Station (ISS) an intra-thoracic injury may be disastrous to the crew member if the diagnosis is missed or even delayed. Pneumothorax and hemothorax commonly seen in trauma patients; the diagnosis is usually confirmed by chest X-ray or computed tomography. In this study, the ability of ultrasound to rule out pneumothorax by the presence "lung sliding" and hemothorax by the absence of pleural fluid was validated. Methods: The research activities were approved by the NASA Johnson Space Center Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects, and the participating crewmembers signed informed consent prior to the activity. ISS crewmembers received 2-hours of "hands on" ultrasound training 8 months prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. Baseline ultrasound images of the thorax were acquired on the crewmebers of Increment 8 and 9 prior to launch from Bakonur, Russia. Ultrasound examination of the thorax were performed on crewmembers at 30 day intervals (n=??) throughout their flight. Post flight images were acquired on or about landing day 10. Ultrasound images were acquired using the ISS Health Research Facility ultrasound system and examined by experts on the ground to rule out the presence of pneumothorax and hemothorax. Results: The presence of "lung sliding" which excludes pneumothorax, was seen in all subjects. The absence of pleural fluid, which excludes hemothorax was seen in all subjects. The optimal position between sonographer and patient under microgravity conditions and the amount and type of training for a non-physician crew medical officer for these procedures was also established for this procedure. Conclusion: Ultrasound can be performed on orbit under microgravity condition to rule thoracic trauma, such as pneumothorax and hemothorax.

  18. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the

  19. SOLAR-ISS: A new reference spectrum based on SOLAR/SOLSPEC observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pereira, N.; Sluse, D.; Cessateur, G.; Irbah, A.; Bureau, J.; Weber, M.; Bramstedt, K.; Hilbig, T.; Thiéblemont, R.; Marchand, M.; Lefèvre, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Bekki, S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Since April 5, 2008 and up to February 15, 2017, the SOLar SPECtrometer (SOLSPEC) instrument of the SOLAR payload on board the International Space Station (ISS) has performed accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) from the middle ultraviolet to the infrared (165 to 3088 nm). These measurements are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and the impact of solar variability on climate. In particular, a new reference solar spectrum (SOLAR-ISS) is established in April 2008 during the solar minima of cycles 23-24 thanks to revised engineering corrections, improved calibrations, and advanced procedures to account for thermal and aging corrections of the SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument. Aims: The main objective of this article is to present a new high-resolution solar spectrum with a mean absolute uncertainty of 1.26% at 1σ from 165 to 3000 nm. This solar spectrum is based on solar observations of the SOLAR/SOLSPEC space-based instrument. Methods: The SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument consists of three separate double monochromators that use concave holographic gratings to cover the middle ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) domains. Our best ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectra are merged into a single absolute solar spectrum covering the 165-3000 nm domain. The resulting solar spectrum has a spectral resolution varying between 0.6 and 9.5 nm in the 165-3000 nm wavelength range. We build a new solar reference spectrum (SOLAR-ISS) by constraining existing high-resolution spectra to SOLAR/SOLSPEC observed spectrum. For that purpose, we account for the difference of resolution between the two spectra using the SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrumental slit functions. Results: Using SOLAR/SOLSPEC data, a new solar spectrum covering the 165-3000 nm wavelength range is built and is representative of the 2008 solar minimum. It has a resolution better than 0.1 nm below 1000 nm and 1 nm in the 1000-3000 nm wavelength range. The new

  20. Simulations of MATROSHKA experiments at ISS using PHITS

    CERN Document Server

    Sihver, L; Puchalska, M; Reitz, G

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about the biological effects of space radiation are increasing rapidly due to the perspective of long-duration manned missions, both in relation to the International Space Station (ISS) and to manned interplanetary missions to Moon and Mars in the future. As a preparation for these long duration space missions it is important to ensure an excellent capability to evaluate the impact of space radiation on human health in order to secure the safety of the astronauts/cosmonauts and minimize their risks. It is therefore necessary to measure the radiation load on the personnel both inside and outside the space vehicles and certify that organ and tissue equivalent doses can be simulated as accurate as possible. In this paper we will present simulations using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) of long term dose measurements performed with the ESA supported experiment MATROSHKA (MTR), which is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detecto...

  1. ISS Regenerative Life Support: Challenges and Success in the Quest for Long-Term Habitability in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, Jesse A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the International Space Station s (ISS) Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) operations with discussion of the on-orbit lessons learned, specifically regarding the challenges that have been faced as the system has expanded with a growing ISS crew. Over the 10 year history of the ISS, there have been numerous challenges, failures, and triumphs in the quest to keep the crew alive and comfortable. Successful operation of the ECLSS not only requires maintenance of the hardware, but also management of the station resources in case of hardware failure or missed re-supply. This involves effective communication between the primary International Partners (NASA and Roskosmos) and the secondary partners (JAXA and ESA) in order to keep a reserve of the contingency consumables and allow for re-supply of failed hardware. The ISS ECLSS utilizes consumables storage for contingency usage as well as longer-term regenerative systems, which allow for conservation of the expensive resources brought up by re-supply vehicles. This long-term hardware, and the interactions with software, was a challenge for Systems Engineers when they were designed and require multiple operational workarounds in order to function continuously. On a day-to-day basis, the ECLSS provides big challenges to the on console controllers. Main challenges involve the utilization of the resources that have been brought up by the visiting vehicles prior to undocking, balance of contributions between the International Partners for both systems and resources, and maintaining balance between the many interdependent systems, which includes providing the resources they need when they need it. The current biggest challenge for ECLSS is the Regenerative ECLSS system, which continuously recycles urine and condensate water into drinking water and oxygen. These systems were brought to full functionality on STS-126 (ULF-2) mission. Through system failures and recovery

  2. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Takada, Kevin; Gazda, Daniel; Brown, Christopher; Bazley, Jesse; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2017-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2017 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  3. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  4. Rocky Mountain Research Station 2008-2012 National Fire Plan Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Gallegos

    2013-01-01

    This report highlights selected accomplishments by the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station's Wildland Fire and Fuels Research & Development projects in support of the National Fire Plan from 2008 through 2012. These projects are examples of the broad range of knowledge and tools developed by National Fire Plan funding beginning in 2008.

  5. The space station window observational research facility; a high altitude imaging laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runco, Susan K.; Eppler, Dean B.; Scott, Karen P.

    1999-01-01

    Earth Science will be one of the major research areas to be conducted on the International Space Station. The facilities from which this research will be accomplished are currently being constructed and will be described in this paper. By April 1999, the International Space Station nadir viewing research window fabrication will be completed and ready for installation. The window will provide a 20 inch (51 cm) diameter clear aperture. The three fused silica panes, which make up the window are fabricated such that the total peak-to-valley wavefront error in transmission through the three panes over any six inch diameter aperture does not exceed λ/7 where the reference wavelength is 632.8 nm. The window will have over 90% transmission between about 400 and 750, above 50% transmission between about 310 nm and 1375 nm and 40% transmission between 1386 nm and 2000 nm. The Window Operational Research Facility (WORF) is designed to accommodate payloads using this research window. The WORF will provide access to the International Space Station utilities such as data links, temperature cooling loops and power. Emphasis has been placed on the factors which will make this facility an optimum platform for conducting Earth science research

  6. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels, Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C.; Coble, C.; Mason, S.; Young, M.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Patel, N.; Gibson, C.; Alexander, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on board the International Space Station (ISS) have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3 mmHg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), a factor leading to visual disturbances, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve and optical coherence tomography (OCT) provide surrogate measurements of ICP; in-flight measurements of both were implemented as enhanced screening tools for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS, ultrasound and OCT measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may possibly be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of in-flight VIIP data.

  7. STS-105/Discovery/ISS 7A.1: Pre-Launch Activities, Launch, Orbit Activities and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-105 is introduced at their pre-launch meal and at suit-up. The crew members include Commander Scott Horowitz, Pilot Rick Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Patrick Forrester and Daniel Barry, together with the Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition 3 crew includes Commander Frank Culbertson, Soyuz Commander Vladimir Dezhurov, and Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin. When the astronauts depart for the launch pad in the Astrovan, their convoy is shown from above. Upon reaching the launch pad, they conduct a walk around of the shuttle, display signs for family members while being inspected in the White Room, and are strapped into their seats onboard Disciovery. The video includes footage of Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility, and some of the pre-launch procedures at the Launch Control Center are shown. The angles of launch replays include: TV-1, Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad A, Tower 1, UCS-15, Grandstand, OTV-70, Onboard, IGOR, and UCS-23. The moment of docking between Discovery and the ISS is shown from inside Discovery's cabin. While in orbit, the crew conducted extravehicular activities (EVAs) to attach an experiments container, and install handrails on the Destiny module of the ISS. The video shows the docking and unloading of the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) onto the ISS. The deployment of a satellite from Discovery with the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the background is shown. Cape Canaveral is also shown from space. Landing replays include VAB, Tower 1, mid-field, South End SLF, North End SLF, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV). NASA Administrator Dan Goldin meets the crew upon landing and participates in their walk around of Discovery. The video concludes with a short speech by commander Horowitz.

  8. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS provides an excellent opportunity for pioneering artificial intelligence software to meet the challenges of real-time communications (comm) link management. This opportunity empowers the ISS Program to forge a testbed for developing cognitive communications systems for the benefit of the ISS mission, manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) science programs and future planetary exploration programs. In November, 1998, the Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) started the ISS Antenna Manager (IAM) project to develop a single processor supporting multiple comm satellite tracking for two different antenna systems. Further, the processor was developed to be highly adaptable as it supported the ISS mission through all assembly stages. The ISS mission mandated communications specialists with complete knowledge of when the ISS was about to lose or gain comm link service. The current specialty mandated cognizance of large sun-tracking solar arrays and thermal management panels in addition to the highly-dynamic satellite service schedules and rise/set tables. This mission requirement makes the ISS the ideal communications management analogue for future LEO space station and long-duration planetary exploration missions. Future missions, with their precision-pointed, dynamic, laser-based comm links, require complete autonomy for managing high-data rate communications systems. Development of cognitive communications management systems that permit any crew member or payload science specialist, regardless of experience level, to control communications is one of the greater benefits the ISS can offer new space exploration programs. The IAM project met a new mission requirement never previously levied against US space-born communications systems management: process and display the orientation of large solar arrays and thermal control panels based on real-time joint angle telemetry. However, IAM leaves the actual communications availability assessment to human judgement, which introduces

  9. Suspending in School Suspension?: Is ISS a Valid Means of Disciplinary Action to Reduce Negative Student Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahynes, Leron M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explored whether or not In School Suspensions (ISS) is effective in reducing student behavioral problems. Research was conducted with 6-8th grade students in a rural middle school in the upstate of South Carolina for the purposes of determining if ISS, in its current design a viable and effective method to reduce negative student…

  10. Evaluation of a Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (TVIS) for Use on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Jean L.; Lemmon, David R.; Sommer, H. Joseph; Prout, Brian; Smith, Damon; Korth, Deborah W.; Lucero, Javier; Greenisen, Michael; Moore, Jim

    1999-01-01

    A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5 deg, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions.

  11. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for a Regenerative Heat Exchanger in the International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the system dynamics was created using Excel. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  12. Research on application of knowledge engineering to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Takeo; Kiyohashi, Satoshi

    1990-01-01

    Recently, the research on the software and hardware regarding knowledge engineering has been advanced eagerly. Especially the applicability of expert systems is high. When expert systems are introduced into nuclear power stations, it is necessary to make the plan for introduction based on the detailed knowledge on the works in nuclear power stations, and to improve the system repeatedly by adopting the opinion and request of those in charge upon the trial use. Tohoku Electric Power Co. was able to develop the expert system of practically usable scale 'Supporting system for deciding fuel movement procedure'. The survey and analysis of the works in nuclear power stations, the selection of the system to be developed and so on are reported. In No. 1 plant of Onagawa Nuclear Power Station of BWR type, up to 1/3 of the fuel is replaced at the time of the regular inspection. Some fuel must be taken to outside for ensuring the working space. The works of deciding fuel movement procedure, the development of the system and its evaluation are described. (K.I.)

  13. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6° inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (C nH n) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry.

  14. Physiological and Growth Characteristics of Brassica rapa 'Tokyo Bekana' Grown within the International Space Station Crop Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgner, Samuel Edward

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as well as many other space research organizations across the globe have advanced the idea of using plants as a method of bioregenerative life support for decades. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) houses a small vegetable-production system named "Veggie." Veggie is equipped with a light-emitting diode (LED) cap, a reservoir that provides water to the root zone through capillary action, and adjustable bellows that enclose the growing environment allowing for controlled air circulation. However, Veggie draws air from the cabin space and ISS environmental conditions are controlled for human comfort and function as opposed to optimal plant growth conditions. During the first experiment within Veggie aboard the ISS, temperature averaged 22 ºC (+/- 0.25), relative humidity was 43.9% (+/- 3.7), and CO2 fluctuated around 2,800 ppm (+/- 678). Preliminary trials selected Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa 'Tokyo Bekana') as the most suitable cultivar for production within Veggie based on its horticultural, organoleptic, and nutritional characteristics. Introducing this cultivar into ISS conditions (mimicked in a growth chamber) led to extensive chlorosis, necrosis, and growth inhibition. Attempts to ameliorate this observed stress by changing light spectrum, slow-release fertilizer composition, and growth substrate were unsuccessful suggesting that this issue could be attributed to environmental conditions. Analyzing effects of CO2 at 450, 900 and 1350 ppm on growth, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance in this cultivar revealed a poor ability to acclimate to this environmental variable. In order to develop an efficient system of plant production aboard the ISS or other potential spacecraft, a more efficient CO2 regulation system must be implemented within the cabin space or within a defined plant production area and species should be screened based on their ability to thrive in such an environment.

  15. Differences in Pre and Post Vascular Patterning of Retinas from ISS Crew Members and HDT Subjects by VESGEN Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M. C.; Vizzeri, G.; Taibbi, G.; Mason, S. S.; Young, M. H.; Zanello, S. B.; Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.

    2018-01-01

    Accelerated research by NASA [1] has investigated the significant risks for visual and ocular impairments Spaceflight Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome /Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (SANS/VIIP) incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions. Our study investigates the role of blood vessels in the incidence and etiology of SANS/VIIP within the retinas of Astronaut crewmembers pre-and post-flight to the International Space Station (ISS) by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN). The response of retinal vessels in crewmembers to microgravity was compared to that of retinal vessels to Head-Down Tilt (HDT) in subjects undergoing 70-Day Bed Rest. The study tests the proposed hypothesis that cephalad fluid shifts missions, resulting in ocular and visual impairments, are necessarily mediated in part by retinal blood vessels, and are therefore accompanied by significant remodeling of retinal vasculature.Vascular patterns in the retinas of crew members and HDTBR subjects extracted from 30° infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis® images collected pre/postflight and pre/post HDTBR, respectively, were analyzed by VESGEN (patent pending). a mature, automated software developed as a research discovery tool for progressive vascular diseases in the retina and other tissues [2]. The weighted, multi-parametric VESGEN analysis generates maps of branching arterial and venous trees and quantification by parameters such as the fractal dimension (Df, a modern measure of vascular space-filling capacity), vessel diameters, and densities of vessel length and number classified into specific branching generations by vascular physiological branching rules [2,3]. The retrospective study approved by NASA’s Institutional Review Board included six HDT subjects (NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit [FARU] Campaign 11; for example, [4]) and eight ISS crewmembers monitored by routine occupational surveillance who provided their study consents to NASA’s Lifetime

  16. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring

  17. A NeISS collaboration to develop and use e-infrastructure for large-scale social simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Thomas; Skipsey, Samuel; Turner, Andy; Watt, John

    2011-01-01

    The National e-Infrastructure for Social Simulation (NeISS) project is focused on\\ud developing e-Infrastructure to support social simulation research. Part of NeISS aims to\\ud provide an interface for running contemporary dynamic demographic social simulation\\ud models as developed in the GENESIS project. These GENESIS models operate at the\\ud individual person level and are stochastic. This paper focuses on support for a simplistic\\ud demographic change model that has a daily time steps, an...

  18. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2016-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the

  19. Separation of the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Inner Earth Radiation Belt Contributions to the Daily Dose Onboard the International Space Station in 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The DB-8 detectors of the ISS radiation monitoring system (RMS) have operated almost continuously onboard the ISS service module since August 2001 till December 2014. The RMS data obtained were used for the daily monitoring of the radiation environment aboard the station. This paper considers the technique of RMS data analysis that allows one to distinguish the contributions of galactic cosmic rays and the Earth's inner radiation belt to the daily dose based on the dosimetry data obtained as a result of the station's passage in areas of the highest geomagnetic latitudes. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the dosimetry data based on this technique for 2005-2011, as well as a comparison with similar results the authors obtained previously using the technique based on an analysis of the dosimetry data obtained during station passages in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  20. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Лейбович

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  1. Spaceflight of HUVEC: An Integrated eXperiment- SPHINX Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, S.; Maier, J. A. M.; Norfini, A.; Zolesi, V.; Bradamante, S.

    2013-02-01

    The spaceflight orthostatic challenge can promote in astronauts inadequate cardiovascular responses defined as cardiovascular deconditioning. In particular, disturbance of endothelial functions are known to lead to altered vascular performances, being the endothelial cells crucial in the maintenance of the functional integrity of the vascular wall. In order to evaluate whether weightlessness affects endothelial functions, we designed, developed, and performed the experiment SPHINX - SPaceflight of HUVEC: an INtegrated eXperiment - where HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) were selected as a macrovascular cell model system. SPHINX arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) onboard Progress 40P, and was processed inside Kubik 6 incubator for 7 days. At the end, all of the samples were suitably fixed and preserved at 6°C until return on Earth on Soyuz 23S.

  2. Impacts of an Ammonia Leak on the Cabin Atmosphere of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Son, Chang H.; Perry Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemical release into the cabin atmosphere is one of the three major emergency scenarios identified on the International Space Station (ISS). The release of anhydrous ammonia, the coolant used in the U.S. On-orbit Segment (USOS) External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS), into the ISS cabin atmosphere is one of the most serious toxic chemical release cases identified on board ISS. The USOS Thermal Control System (TCS) includes an Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (ITCS) water loop and an EATCS ammonia loop that transfer heat at the interface heat exchanger (IFHX). Failure modes exist that could cause a breach within the IFHX. This breach would result in high pressure ammonia from the EATCS flowing into the lower pressure ITCS water loop. As the pressure builds in the ITCS loop, it is likely that the gas trap, which has the lowest maximum design pressure within the ITCS, would burst and cause ammonia to enter the ISS atmosphere. It is crucial to first characterize the release of ammonia into the ISS atmosphere in order to develop methods to properly mitigate the environmental risk. This paper will document the methods used to characterize an ammonia leak into the ISS cabin atmosphere. A mathematical model of the leak was first developed in order to define the flow of ammonia into the ISS cabin atmosphere based on a series of IFHX rupture cases. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were then used to model the dispersion of the ammonia throughout the ISS cabin and determine localized effects and ventilation effects on the dispersion of ammonia. Lastly, the capabilities of the current on-orbit systems to remove ammonia were reviewed and scrubbing rates of the ISS systems were defined based on the ammonia release models. With this full characterization of the release of ammonia from the USOS TCS, an appropriate mitigation strategy that includes crew and system emergency response procedures, personal protection equipment use, and atmosphere monitoring

  3. The Strata-1 Regolith Dynamics Experiment: Class 1E Science on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Graham, Lee; John, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The Strata-1 experiment studies the evolution of small body regolith through long-duration exposure of simulant materials to the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). This study will record segregation and mechanical dynamics of regolith simulants in a microgravity and vibration environment similar to that experienced by regolith on small Solar System bodies. Strata-1 will help us understand regolith dynamics and will inform design and procedures for landing and setting anchors, safely sampling and moving material on asteroidal surfaces, processing large volumes of material for in situ resource utilization (ISRU) purposes, and, in general, predicting the behavior of large and small particles on disturbed asteroid surfaces. This experiment is providing new insights into small body surface evolution.

  4. Development and Characterization of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter for Radiation Monitoring in International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Won Nam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC can measure the Linear Energy Transfer (LET spectrum and calculate the equivalent dose for the complicated radiation field in space. In this paper, we developed and characterized a TEPC for radiation monitoring in International Space Station (ISS. The prototype TEPC which can simulate a 2 μm of the site diameter for micro-dosimetry has been tested with a standard alpha source (241Am, 5.5 MeV. Also, the calibration of the TEPC was performed by the 252Cf neutron standard source in Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS. The determined calibration factor was kf = 3.59×10-7 mSv/R.

  5. Research on comprehensive decision-making of PV power station connecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Erxiong; Xin, Chaoshan; Ma, Botao; Cheng, Kai

    2018-04-01

    In allusion to the incomplete indexes system and not making decision on the subjectivity and objectivity of PV power station connecting system, based on the combination of improved Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation (CRITIC) as well as grey correlation degree analysis (GCDA) is comprehensively proposed to select the appropriate system connecting scheme of PV power station. Firstly, indexes of PV power station connecting system are divided the recursion order hierarchy and calculated subjective weight by the improved AHP. Then, CRITIC is adopted to determine the objective weight of each index through the comparison intensity and conflict between indexes. The last the improved GCDA is applied to screen the optimal scheme, so as to, from the subjective and objective angle, select the connecting system. Comprehensive decision of Xinjiang PV power station is conducted and reasonable analysis results are attained. The research results might provide scientific basis for investment decision.

  6. Public Participation in Earth Science from the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth (GAPE) is an online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov) of terrestrial astronaut photography that enables the public to experience the astronaut’s view from orbit. This database of imagery includes all NASA human-directed missions from the Mercury program of the early 1960’s to the current International Space Station (ISS). To date, the total number of images taken by astronauts is 1,025,333. Of the total, 621,316 images have been “cataloged” (image geographic center points determined and descriptive metadata added). The remaining imagery provides an opportunity for the citizen-scientist to become directly involved with NASA through cataloging of astronaut photography, while simultaneously experiencing the wonder and majesty of our home planet as seen by astronauts on board the ISS every day. We are currently developing a public cataloging interface for the GAPE website. When complete, the citizen-scientist will be able to access a selected subset of astronaut imagery. Each candidate will be required to pass a training tutorial in order to receive certification as a cataloger. The cataloger can then choose from a selection of images with basic metadata that is sorted by difficulty levels. Some guidance will be provided (template/pull down menus) for generation of geographic metadata required from the cataloger for each photograph. Each cataloger will also be able to view other contributions and further edit that metadata if they so choose. After the public inputs their metadata the images will be posted to an internal screening site. Images with similar geographic metadata and centerpoint coordinates from multiple catalogers will be reviewed by NASA JSC Crew Earth Observations (CEO) staff. Once reviewed and verified, the metadata will be entered into the GAPE database with the contributors identified by their chosen usernames as having cataloged the frame.

  7. Validation of a self-reported HIV symptoms list: the ISS-HIV symptoms scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.

  8. Seven Years of Permanent Running of MELFI-1 on Board the ISS and Utilisation of the Three MELFI Units Refrigeration Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegancas, Jean; Stephan, Hubertus; Jimenez, Jesus; Campana, Sharon; Hutchison, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The pool of three Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI) units continues providing the scientific community with robust and permanent freezer and refrigeration capabilities for life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched in 2006, the first unit will complete, by summer 2013, seven years of continuous operations without intervention on the internal Nitrogen gas cycle, while all necessary hardware and operations were initially planned for preventive maintenance every two years. This unit has demonstrated outstanding performance on orbit and proved the technical decisions made during the development program. Current utilization of MELFI units in the ISS is taking full benefit of the initial specifications, which allows for wide adaptations to cope with the mission scenario imposed by the life extension in orbit. The two other MELFI units, launched respectively in 2008 and 2009, are supporting the first unit providing additional conditioned volume necessary for the science on board, and also for preparing thermal mass used to protect the samples on their way down to earth. The MELFI pool is outfitted with all supporting hardware to allow for extended operation on orbit including preventive and corrective maintenance. The internal components were designed to allow for easy on board maintenance. Spare equipment was installed in the MELFI rack on ISS and specific maintenance means were developed which required crew training before the cold gas cycle could be accessed. The paper will present first how the design choices made for the initial missions are identifying features necessary for extended duration missions, and will then give highlights on the utilization of the MELFI refrigeration pool during the recent years in ISS.

  9. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  10. EXPRESS Service to the International Space Station: EXPRESS Pallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Lowell; Bergmann, Alan

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the ultimate scientific accomplishment in the history of NASA, with its primary objective of providing unique scientific investigation opportunities. This objective is the basis for the creation of the EXPRESS Pallet System (ExPs). The EXPRESS Pallet will provide extremal/unpressurized accommodations for a wide variety of external users. The payload developers represent many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, long-term exposure, and many others. The EXPRESS Pallet will provide a mechanism to maximum utilization of the limited ISS unpressurized payload volume, standard physical payload interfaces for users, a standard integration template for users and the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit. The EXPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Starboard, Port, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for exposure and viewing. 'Me ExPs consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, and a subsystem assembly which includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics/Extra-Vehicular Activity systems.

  11. Multipurpose epithermal neutron beam on new research station at MARIA research reactor in Swierk-Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryzinski, M.A.; Maciak, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    planned to create fully equipped complex facility possible to perform various experiments on the intensive neutron beam. Epithermal neutron beam enables development across the full spectrum of materials research for example shielding concrete tests or electronic devices construction improvement. Due to recent reports on the construction of the accelerator for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) it has the opportunity to become useful and successful method in the fight against brain and other types of cancers not treated with well known medical methods. In Europe there is no such epithermal neutron source which could be used throughout the year for training and research for scientist working on BNCT what makes the stand unique in Europe. Also our research group which specializes in mixed radiation dosimetry around nuclear and medical facilities would be able to carry out research on new detectors and methods of measurements for radiological protection and in-beam (therapeutic) dosimetry. Another group of scientists from National Centre for Nuclear Research, where MARIA research reactor is located, is involved in research of gamma detector systems. There is an idea to develop Prompt-gamma Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (Pg- SPECT). This method could be used as imaging system for compounds emitting gamma rays after nuclear reaction with thermal neutrons e.g. for boron concentration in BNCT. Inside the room, where H2 channel is located, there is another horizontal channel - H1 which is also unused. Simultaneously with the construction of the H2 stand it will be possible to create special pneumatic horizontal mail inside the H1 channel for irradiation material samples in the vicinity of the core i.e. in the distal part of the H1 channel. It might expand the scope of research at the planned neutron station. Secondly it is planned to equip both stands with moveable positioning system, video system and facilities to perform animal experiments (anaesthesia, vital

  12. The Need and Opportunity for an Integrated Research, Development and Testing Station in the Alaskan High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, J. O.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Cahill, C. F.; Bendure, A.; Lucero, D. A.; Roesler, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation will make the case for development of a permanent integrated research and testing station at Oliktok Point, Alaska; taking advantage of existing assets and infrastructure, controlled airspace, an active UAS program and local partnerships. Arctic research stations provide critical monitoring and research on climate change for conditions and trends in the Arctic. The US Chair of the Arctic Council has increased awareness of gaps in our understanding of Artic systems, scarce monitoring, lack of infrastructure and readiness for emergency response. Less sea ice brings competition for commercial shipping and resource extraction. Search and rescue, pollution mitigation and safe navigation need real-time, wide-area monitoring to respond to events. Multi-national responses for international traffic will drive a greater security presence to protect citizens and sovereign interests. To address research and technology gaps, there is a national need for a High Arctic Station with an approach that partners stakeholders from science, safety and security to develop comprehensive solutions. The Station should offer year-round use, logistic support and access to varied ecological settings; phased adaptation to changing needs; and support testing of technologies such as multiple autonomous platforms, renewable energies and microgrids, and sensors in Arctic settings. We propose an Arctic Station at Oliktok Point, Alaska. Combined with the Toolik Field Station and Barrow Environmental Observatory, they form a US network of Arctic Stations. An Oliktok Point Station can provide complementary and unique assets that include: ocean access, and coastal and terrestrial systems; road access; controlled airspaces on land and ocean; nearby air facilities, medical and logistic support; atmospheric observations from an adjacent ARM facility; connections to Barrow and Toolik; fiber-optic communications; University of Alaska Fairbanks UAS Test Facility partnership; and an airstrip

  13. Growth of In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductor at the International Space Station (ISS) and comparison with terrestrial experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Y; Sakata, K; Arivanandhan, M; Rajesh, G; Nirmal Kumar, V; Koyama, T; Momose, Y; Ozawa, T; Okano, Y; Hayakawa, Y

    2015-01-01

    In x Ga 1- x Sb is an important material that has tunable properties in the infrared (IR) region and is suitable for IR-device applications. Since the quality of crystals relies on growth conditions, the growth process of alloy semiconductors can be examined better under microgravity (μG) conditions where convection is suppressed. To investigate the dissolution and growth process of In x Ga 1- x Sb alloy semiconductors via a sandwiched structure of GaSb(seed)/InSb/GaSb(feed) under normal and μG conditions. In x Ga 1- x Sb crystals were grown at the International Space Station (ISS) under μG conditions, and a similar experiment was conducted under terrestrial conditions (1G) using the vertical gradient freezing (VGF) method. The grown crystals were cut along the growth direction and its growth properties were studied. The indium composition and growth rate of grown crystals were calculated. The shape of the growth interface was nearly flat under μG, whereas under 1G, it was highly concave with the initial seed interface being nearly flat and having facets at the peripheries. The quality of the μG crystals was better than that of the 1G samples, as the etch pit density was low in the μG sample. The growth rate was higher under μG compared with 1G. Moreover, the growth started at the peripheries under 1G, whereas it started throughout the seed interface under μG. Kinetics played a dominant role under 1G. The suppressed convection under μG affected the dissolution and growth process of the In x Ga 1- x Sb alloy semiconductor.

  14. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  15. The New Hyperspectral Sensor Desis on the Multi-Payload Platform Muses Installed on the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.; Avbelj, J.; Carmona, E.; Eckardt, A.; Gerasch, B.; Graham, L.; Günther, B.; Heiden, U.; Ickes, J.; Kerr, G.; Knodt, U.; Krutz, D.; Krawczyk, H.; Makarau, A.; Miller, R.; Perkins, R.; Walter, I.

    2016-06-01

    The new hyperspectral instrument DLR Earth Sensing Imaging Spectrometer (DESIS) will be developed and integrated in the Multi-User-System for Earth Sensing (MUSES) platform installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The DESIS instrument will be launched to the ISS mid of 2017 and robotically installed in one of the four slots of the MUSES platform. After a four month commissioning phase the operational phase will last at least until 2020. The MUSES / DESIS system will be commanded and operated by the publically traded company TBE (Teledyne Brown Engineering), which initiated the whole program. TBE provides the MUSES platform and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops the instrument DESIS and establishes a Ground Segment for processing, archiving, delivering and calibration of the image data mainly used for scientific and humanitarian applications. Well calibrated and harmonized products will be generated together with the Ground Segment established at Teledyne. The article describes the Space Segment consisting of the MUSES platform and the instrument DESIS as well as the activities at the two (synchronized) Ground Segments consisting of the processing methods, product generation, data calibration and product validation. Finally comments to the data policy are given.

  16. DRAGONS-A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Hamilton, J.; Liolios, S.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Burchell, M.

    2015-01-01

    by the NASA Science Mission Directorate and the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, then by the NASA JSC Innovative Research and Development Program and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office leads the effort with collaboration from the U.S. Naval Academy, Naval Research Laboratory, University of Kent at Canterbury in Great Britain, and Virginia Tech. The project recently reached a major milestone when DRAGONS was approved for a technology demonstration mission by the International Space Station (ISS) Program in October 2014. The plan is to deploy a 1 sq m DRAGONS on the ISS with the detection surface facing the ram-direction for 2 to 3 years. The tentative launch schedule is in early 2017. This mission will collect data on orbital debris in the sub-millimeter size regime to better define the small orbital debris environment at the ISS altitude. The mission will also advance the DRAGONS Technology Readiness Level to 9 and greatly enhance the opportunities to deploy DRAGONS on other spacecraft to high LEO orbits in the future.

  17. International Space Station Active Thermal Control Sub-System On-Orbit Pump Performance and Reliability Using Liquid Ammonia as a Coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Richard D.; Jurick, Matthew; Roman, Ruben; Adamson, Gary; Bui, Chinh T.; Laliberte, Yvon J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) contains two Active Thermal Control Sub-systems (ATCS) that function by using a liquid ammonia cooling system collecting waste heat and rejecting it using radiators. These subsystems consist of a number of heat exchangers, cold plates, radiators, the Pump and Flow Control Subassembly (PFCS), and the Pump Module (PM), all of which are Orbital Replaceable Units (ORU's). The PFCS provides the motive force to circulate the ammonia coolant in the Photovoltaic Thermal Control Subsystem (PVTCS) and has been in operation since December, 2000. The Pump Module (PM) circulates liquid ammonia coolant within the External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS) cooling the ISS internal coolant (water) loops collecting waste heat and rejecting it through the ISS radiators. These PM loops have been in operation since December, 2006. This paper will discuss the original reliability analysis approach of the PFCS and Pump Module, comparing them against the current operational performance data for the ISS External Thermal Control Loops.

  18. Results of a Long-Term Demonstration of an Optical Multi-Gas Monitor on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Previously at SAMAP we reported on the development of tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based instruments for measuring small gas molecules in real time. TDLS technology has matured rapidly over the last 5 years as a result of advances in low power diode lasers as well as better detection schemes. In collaboration with two small businesses Vista Photonics, Inc. and Nanoracks LLC, NASA developed a 4 gas TDLS based monitor for an experimental demonstration of the technology on the International Space Station (ISS). Vista invented and constructed the core TDLS sensor. Nanoracks designed and built the enclosure, and certified the integrated monitor as a payload. The device, which measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor, is called the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM). MGM measures the 4 gases every few seconds and records a 30 second moving average of the concentrations. The relatively small unit draws only 2.5W. MGM was calibrated at NASA-Johnson Space Center in July 2013 and launched to ISS on a Soyuz vehicle in November 2013. Installation and activation of MGM occurred in February 2014, and the unit has been operating nearly continuously ever since in the Japanese Experiment Module. Data is downlinked from ISS about once per week. Oxygen and carbon dioxide data is compared with that from the central Major Constituents Analyzer. Water vapor data is compared with dew point measurements made by sensors in the Columbus module. The ammonia channel was tested by the crew using a commercial ammonia inhalant. MGM is remarkably stable to date. Results of 18 months of operation are presented and future applications including combustion product monitoring are discussed.

  19. Close Range Photogrammetry in Space - Measuring the On-Orbit Clearance between Hardware on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2017-01-01

    When photogrammetrists read an article entitled "Photogrammetry in Space" they immediately think of terrestrial mapping using satellite imagery. However in the last 19 years the roll of close range photogrammetry in support of the manned space flight program has grown exponentially. Management and engineers have repeatedly entrusted the safety of the vehicles and their crews to the results of photogrammetric analysis. In February 2010, the Node 3 module was attached to the port side Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Since this was not the location at which the module was originally designed to be located on the ISS, coolant lines containing liquid ammonia, were installed externally from the US Lab to Node 3 during a spacewalk. During mission preparation I had developed a plan and a set of procedures to have the astronauts acquire stereo imagery of these coolant lines at the conclusion of the spacewalk to enable us to map their as-installed location relative to the rest of the space station. Unfortunately, the actual installation of the coolant lines took longer than expected and in an effort to wrap up the spacewalk on time, the mission director made a real-time call to drop the photography. My efforts to reschedule the photography on a later spacewalk never materialized, so rather than having an as-installed model for the location of coolant lines, the master ISS CAD database continued to display an as-designed model of the coolant lines. Fast forward to the summer of 2015, the ISS program planned to berth a Japanese cargo module to the nadir Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), immediately adjacent to the Node 3 module. A CAD based clearance analysis revealed a negative four inch clearance between the ammonia lines and a thruster nozzle on the port side of the cargo vehicle. Recognizing that the model of the ammonia line used in the clearance analysis was "as-designed" rather than "as-installed", I was asked to determine the

  20. The ISS as a platform for a fully simulated mars voyage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Reitz, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    The ISS can mimic the impact of microgravity, radiation, living and psychological conditions that astronauts will face during a deep space cruise, for example to Mars. This suggests the ISS as the most valuable "analogue" for deep space exploration. NASA has indeed suggested a 'full-up deep space simulation on last available ISS Mission: 6/7 crew for one year duration; full simulation of time delays & autonomous operations'. This idea should be pushed further. It is indeed conceivable to use the ISS as the final "analogue", performing a real 'dry-run' of a deep space mission (such as a mission to Mars), as close as reasonably possible to what will be the real voyage. This Mars ISS dry run (