WorldWideScience

Sample records for station environmental control

  1. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  2. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  3. Environmental emissions control programs at Lambton TGS [Thermal Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's air emissions control programs at Lambton thermal generating station, both committed and planned, are reviewed, and their potential impacts on emissions, effluents and wastes are discussed. Control technologies examined include flue gas conditioning, wet limestone scrubbing, combustion process modifications, urea injection, and selective catalytic reduction. The implementation of these technologies has the potential to create new solid and liquid waste disposal problems, the full extent of which is often not realized at the process selection stage. For example, selective noncatalytic reduction using urea injection can lead to increased CO emissions, escape of unreacted ammonia from the stack at levels of 5-50 ppM, increase in N 2 O emissions, contamination of fly ash, gypsum and waste water with ammonia, and an increase in CO 2 emissions of less than 0.4% due to increased power consumption. Optimum performance of the air emissions control systems, with minimum negative impact on the environment, requires consideration of the impact of these systems on all waste streams. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  5. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  6. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems technology options for Space Station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.; Sage, K. H.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous assessments regarding the suitability of candidate technologies for manned Space Stations will be needed over the next several years to obtain a basis for recommending the optimum system for an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which is to be launched in the early 1990's. This paper has the objective to present analysis programs, the candidate recommendations, and the recommended approach for integration these candidates into the NASA Space Station reference configuration. Attention is given to ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) technology assessment program, an analysis approach for candidate technology recommendations, mission model variables, a candidate integration program, metabolic oxygen recovery, urine/flush water and all waste water recovery, wash water and condensate water recovery, and an integration analysis.

  7. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  8. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  9. Space station environmental control and life support systems test bed program - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Albert F.

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins to intensify activities for development of the Space Station, decisions must be made concerning the technical state of the art that will be baselined for the initial Space Station system. These decisions are important because significant potential exists for enhancing system performance and for reducing life-cycle costs. However, intelligent decisions cannot be made without an adequate assessment of new and ready technologies, i.e., technologies which are sufficiently mature to allow predevelopment demonstrations to prove their application feasibility and to quantify the risk associated with their development. Therefore, the NASA has implemented a technology development program which includes the establishment of generic test bed capabilities in which these new technologies and approaches can be tested at the prototype level. One major Space Station subsystem discipline in which this program has been implemented is the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Previous manned space programs such as Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle have relied heavily on consumables to provide environmental control and life support services. However, with the advent of a long-duration Space Station, consumables must be reduced within technological limits to minimize Space Station resupply penalties and operational costs. The use of advanced environmental control and life support approaches involving regenerative processes offers the best solution for significant consumables reduction while also providing system evolutionary growth capability. Consequently, the demonstration of these "new technologies" as viable options for inclusion in the baseline that will be available to support a Space Station initial operational capability in the early 1990's becomes of paramount importance. The mechanism by which the maturity of these new regenerative life support technologies will be demonstrated is the Space

  10. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  11. Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system phase 3 simplified integrated test detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. C.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Dubiel, M. Y.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Whitley, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) in 1989 is presented. This was the first test in the phase 3 series integrated environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) tests. The basic goal of the SIT was to achieve full integration of the baseline air revitalization (AR) subsystems for Space Station Freedom. Included is a description of the SIT configuration, a performance analysis of each subsystem, results from air and water sampling, and a discussion of lessons learned from the test. Also included is a full description of the preprototype ECLSS hardware used in the test.

  12. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  13. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2010 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011 and the continued permanent presence of six crew members on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and extension of the ISS service life from 2015 to 2020 or beyond.

  14. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  15. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non -regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  16. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  17. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  18. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  19. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028. 1

  20. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  1. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Cover, John

    2015-01-01

    Nov 2, 2014 marked the completion of the 14th year of continuous human presence in space on board the International Space Station (ISS). After 42 expedition crews, over 115 assembly & utilization flights, over 180 combined Shuttle/Station, US & Russian Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), the post-Assembly-Complete ISS continues to fly and the engineering teams continue to learn from operating its systems, particularly the life support equipment. Problems with initial launch, assembly and activation of ISS elements have given way to more long term system operating trends. New issues have emerged, some with gestation periods measured in years. Major events and challenges for each U.S. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) subsystem occurring during calendar years 2010 through 2014 are summarily discussed in this paper, along with look-aheads for what might be coming in the future for each U.S. ECLS subsystem.

  2. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  3. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  4. Final Environmental Assessment of Mosquito Control at Joint Base Charleston - Weapons Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    fermentation solids and solubles . 11.6 1% 88.39% 100.00% Other Ingredients ........ ... .. ...... . Total . . . •.......•........ .... Potency...public pes t control programs sponsored by governmental entities): It is not necessary to avoid farm buildings. dairy barns, and feed or forage areas

  5. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  6. Environmental assessment, proposed generating station for Darlington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This document indicates the intention of Ontario Hydro to seek approval from the Provincial Government for its plan to construct and operate a 3400 MWe nuclear generating station at the Darlington site, west of Bowmanville. This preliminary proposal also contains the environmental assessment. The environmental section of this proposal describes and assesses the existing environment and the environmental influences which would occur due to the construction and operation of a nuclear generating station, consisting of four 850 MW units, at the Darlington site. This proposed station is similar to the Bruce GS A station presently under construction. (author)

  7. Overview of Microbiological Tests Performed During the Design of the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    The design and manufacturing of the main Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the United States segments of the International Space Station (ISS) was an involved process that started in the late 1980's, with the assessment and testing of competing technologies that could be used to clean the air and recycle water. It culminated in 2009 with the delivery and successful activation of the Water Recovery System (WRS) water processor (WP). The ECLSS required the work of a team of engineers and scientist working together to develop systems that could clean and/or recycle human metabolic loads to maintain a clean atmosphere and provide the crew clean water. One of the main goals of the ECLSS is to minimize the time spent by the crew worrying about vital resources not available in the vacuum of space, which allows them to spend most of their time learning to live in a microgravity environment many miles from the comforts of Earth and working on science experiments. Microorganisms are a significant part of the human body as well as part of the environment that we live in. Therefore, the ISS ECLSS design had to take into account the effect microorganisms have on the quality of stored water and wastewater, as well as that of the air systems. Hardware performance issues impacted by the accumulation of biofilm and/or microbiologically influenced corrosion were also studied during the ECLSS development stages. Many of the tests that were performed had to take into account the unique aspects of a microgravity environment as well as the challenge of understanding how to design systems that could not be sterilized or maintained in a sterile state. This paper will summarize the work of several studies that were performed to assess the impacts and/or to minimize the effects of microorganisms in the design of a closed loop life support system.

  8. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  9. RF-Station control crate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzekom, M.G. van; Es, J.T. van.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives a description of the electronic control-system for the RF-station of AmPS. The electronics form the connection between the computer-system and the hardware of the RF-station. Only the elements of the systems which are not described in the other NIKHEF-reports are here discussed in detail. (author). 7 figs

  10. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  11. Environmental radioactivity in the antarctic station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.; Osores, J.; Martinez, J.; Lopez, E.; Jara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Study about environmental radioactivity in the Peruvian antarctic station Machu Pichu they were carried out during the last three periods to the southern summer. The objective of the project it is to evaluate environmental component in order to elaborate a study it base on the levels background radioactivity and artificial in the antarctic region

  12. Environmental surveillance of PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The action of Electricite de France with respect to the environment of PWR nuclear power stations is essentially centred on prevention. Controls are carried out at two levels: - before the power station goes on stream (radioecological study), - when the power station is operational. The purpose of the controls effected on the radioactive effluents and the environment is to check that the maximum discharge rate stipulated in the corresponding orders is complied with and to ensure that there are no anomalies in the environment [fr

  13. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  14. Aggregated data from two double-blind base station provocation studies comparing individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance with attribution to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Russo, Riccardo; Fox, Elaine

    2015-02-01

    Data from two previous studies were aggregated to provide a statistically powerful test of whether exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produced by telecommunication base stations negatively affects well-being in individuals who report idiopathic environmental illness with attribution to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) and control participants. A total of 102 IEI-EMF and 237 controls participated in open provocation trials and 88 IEI-EMF and 231 controls went on to complete double-blind trials in which they were exposed to EMFs from a base station emitting either a Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System or a Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System signal. Both experiments included a comparison sham condition. Visual analog and symptom scales measured subjective well-being. Results showed that IEI-EMF participants reported lower levels of well-being during real compared to sham exposure during open provocation, but not during double-blind trials. Additionally, participants reported lower levels of well-being during high compared to low load trials and this did not interact with radiofrequency-EMF exposure. These findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating there is no causal relationship between short-term exposure to EMFs and subjective well-being in members of the public whether or not they report perceived sensitivity to EMFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S; Osores, J; Jara, R [Direccion General de Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    1998-07-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40.

  16. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.; Osores, J.; Jara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40

  17. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  18. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews

  19. Hybrid radiation background monitoring in operational control and forecasting of environmental contamination by nuclear power station discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermeev, I.S.; Eremenko, V.A.; Makarov, Y.A.; Matueev, V.V.; Zhernov, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid developments in nuclear power have stimulated research on monitoring and forecasting environmental radiation pollution (ERP), and in particular the amounts, compositions, and distributions of radionuclides in the environment. A conceptual model is presented for hybrid environmental radiation pollution monitoring. When there is an emergency, the model operates in a fashion most closely corresponding to the actual meteorological conditions, and the ERP data given by the model enable one to distinguish changes due to the man-made component from random fluctuations in the natural background. The measurement system in general includes mobile and stationary data-acquisition facilities linked by wire or radio to the central point. The system also accumulates and stores data on the radiation environment, which are edited on the basis of radioactive, chemical, and other transformations. The purpose of hybrid monitoring is ultimately to analyze trends in order to detect elevated discharges and thus to output data to the regional monitoring system

  20. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located. ...

  1. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1977 annual environmental report: radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The environmental monitoring conducted during 1977 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station is described. The environmental monitoring program consists of onsite sampling of water, gaseous, and air effluents, as well as offsite monitoring of water, air, river sediments, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. The report discusses releases of small quantities of radioactivity to the Ohio River from the Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station during 1977

  2. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  3. Sizewell B Power Station control dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, G.

    1995-01-01

    Sizewell B Power Station is the first Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) built in the UK for commercial electricity production. An effective control dosimetry system is a crucial tool, in allowing the station to assess its radiological performance against targets. This paper gives an overview of the control dosimetry system at Sizewell B and describes early operating experience with the system. (UK)

  4. Principles of nuclear power station control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.B.

    1975-12-01

    This memorandum represents lecture notes first distributed as part of a UKAEA introductory course on Reactor Technology held during November 1975. A nuclear power station is only one element of a dispersed interconnected arrangement of other nuclear and fossil-fired units which together constitute the national 'grid'. Thus the control of any one station must relate to the objectives of the grid network as a whole. A precise control of the supply frequency of the grid is achieved by regulating the output power of individual stations, and it is necessary for each station to be stable when operating in isolation with a variable load. As regards individual stations, several special control problems concerned with individual plant items are discussed, such as: controlled reactivity insertions, temperature reactivity time constants and flow instability. A simplified analysis establishes a fundamental relationship between the stored thermal energy of a boiler unit (a function of mechanical construction) and the flexibility of the heat source (nuclear or fossil-fired) if the station is to cope satisfactorily with demands arising from unscheduled losses of other generating sets or transmission capacity. Two basic control schemes for power station operation are described known as 'coupled' and 'decoupled control'. Each of the control modes has its own merits, which depend on the proposed station operating strategy (base load or load following) and the nature of the heat source. (U.K.)

  5. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM. ... involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. ... the processed signals to control electromagnetic devices through motor drivers.

  6. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1984 Annual environmental report, radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted during 1984 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Radiological Environmental Program consists of on-site sampling of water and gaseous effluents and off-site monitoring of water, air, river sediments, soils, food pathway samples, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. This report discusses the results of this monitoring during 1984. The environmental program outlined in the Beaver Valley Power Station Technical Specifications was followed throughout 1984. The results of this environmental monitoring program show that Shippingport Atomic Power Station and Beaver Valley Power Station operations have not adversely affected the surrounding environment. 23 figs., 18 tabs

  7. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... base station or a small control station. (a) Except for a GMRS system licensed to a non-individual, one or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any point...

  8. Microbiological Tests Performed During the Design of the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Part 1, Bulk Phase. Part 1; Bulk Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    The design and manufacturing of the main Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the United States segments of the International Space Station (ISS) was an involved process that started in the mid 1980s, with the assessment and testing of competing technologies that could be used to clean the air and recycle water. It culminated in 2009 with the delivery and successful activation of the Water Recovery System (WRS) water processor (WP). The ECLSS required the work of a team of engineers and scientist working together to develop systems that could clean and/or recycle human metabolic loads to maintain a clean atmosphere and provide the crew clean water. One of the main goals of the ECLSS is to minimize the time spent by the crew worrying about vital resources not available in the vacuum of space, which allows them to spend most of their time learning to live in a microgravity environment many miles from the comforts of Earth and working on science experiments. Microorganisms are a significant part of the human body as well as part of the environment that we live in. Therefore, the ISS ECLSS design had to take into account the effect microorganisms have on the quality of stored water and wastewater, as well as that of the air systems. Hardware performance issues impacted by the accumulation of biofilm and/or microbiologically influenced corrosion were also studied during the ECLSS development stages. Many of the tests that were performed had to take into account the unique aspects of a microgravity environment as well as the challenge of understanding how to design systems that could not be sterilized or maintained in a sterile state. This paper will summarize the work of several studies that were performed to assess the impacts and/or to minimize the effects of microorganisms in open, semi-closed and closed loop life support system. The biofilm and biodeterioration studies that were performed during the design and test periods will be presented in

  9. Environmental radiation monitoring system in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Sadazumi; Tadachi, Katsuo; Endo, Mamoru; Yuya, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    At the time of the construction of nuclear power stations, prior to their start of operation, the state of environmental radiation must be grasped. After the start of the power stations, based on those data, the system of environmental radiation monitoring is established. Along with the construction of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. jointly with Fujitsu Ltd. has developed a high-reliability, environmental radiation monitoring system, and adopted ''optical data highways'' using optical fiber cables for communication. It consists of a central monitoring station and 11 telemeter observation points, for collecting both radiation and meteorological data. The data sent to the central station through the highways are then outputted on a monitoring panel. They are analyzed with a central processor, and the results are printed out. (Mori, K.)

  10. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Draft Regulatory Guides in the ``Regulatory Guides'' collection of the NRC's Library at http://www.nrc... Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-4016, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations...

  11. Smoke control of fires in subway stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Falin; Guo, Shin-Chang [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (Taiwan); Chuay, He-Yuan [SinoTech Engineering Consulting Co., 171 Nanking E. Road, 5 Sec., Taipei, Taiwan 105 (Taiwan); Chien, Shen-Wen [Department of Fire Science and Administration, National Central Police University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333 (Taiwan)

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of the smoke control scheme of the Gong-Guan subway station (GGSS), a typical subway station of the Taipei Rapid Transit System and whose mechanical control systems are also standard in modern subway station design. Three-dimensional smoke flow fields under various kinds of fires are computed by computational fluid dynamics techniques and the results are illustrated on various cross-sectional planes. Results indicate that the stack effect plays a deterministic role in smoke control when a fire occurs near the stairwell; under such circumstances, no mechanical smoke control is necessary. When a fire occurs in other places, such as at the end or the center of the platform, the current mechanical control schemes of GGSS are effective; namely, the smoke can be well controlled, either it is confined to a small region or is evacuated from the station, leaving the four exits free of smoke so that the passengers can escape through them. The effect of the platform edge door (PED) on smoke control is also investigated. With the PED, the effectiveness of the present smoke control system for fires occurring on the chassis of a train, a serious fire in the subway station, increases. We also propose an innovative smoke control scheme with a PED, which turns out to be much more efficient in evacuating smoke than that currently used. This study provides both valuable information for the design of passenger evacuation routes in fires as well as criteria for the design of a smoke control system for subway stations. (orig.)

  12. Towards station-keeping using GPI controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    In this paper, we propose to use a Generalized Proportional-Integral controller for station-keeping of a ship. For output feedback, this has the advantage of not requiring the use of an asymptotic Luenberger or Kalman observer. After describing the methodology for the simple case of controlling...

  13. Discharges to the environment and environmental protection at CEGB power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (scope of paper will cover the principles, methods and results obtained in environmental protection in relation to atmospheric discharges made routinely during power generation); air pollution control; nuclear power stations (type of discharge, annual discharges, environmental monitoring); fossil fuelled power stations; health effects; trace elements; long range transport and acid rain; future coal fired plant; carbon dioxide. (U.K.)

  14. Environmental Statement. Oswego Steam Station. Unit 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-12-27

    of the draft environmental statement was conducted and found to be in accord with the requirements set forth in the Environmental Policy Act of 1969...furnishcd by the Government or through GovernraenT- cncd facilities for the use of the liconse, inclumire the liccnzee’s proportionate share of the cost of...Commerce, Bureau of the Census I4 Osweqo, N.Y.. Greater Oswego Chamber of Commerce, Inc. IJ 15 Land Use and Transportation Plan - Policies for- Action

  15. Nuclear power stations: environmental surveillance of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, P.

    1972-01-01

    Because of the radiations they emit, radioactive substances can be detected, identified and measured at extremely low concentrations ? the corresponding masses are lower by a factor ranging from 1000 to 10 000 than those that can be measured by any other chemical or physical method, however precise, applied to non-radioactive substances. Radioisotopes can therefore be detected in the environment at levels much lower than those at which genuine public health problems begin to arise. Unfortunately, we cannot say the same of numerous non-radio active pollutants, which can be measured only at concentrations very close to, or even exceeding, the toxicity threshold. In the mind of the uninformed public confusion seems quite frequently to reign as between the detection threshold and the toxicity threshold. This undoubtedly explains the following situation which is, to say the least, paradoxical: people are afraid of the hypothetical effects of radioactivity at ridiculously low levels, whereas nobody is alarmed at the fact that the toxicity limits for a very large number of non-radioactive, but very real pollutants are being exceeded almost continuously. The sum of all artificial irradiations does not exceed the normal fluctuations of natural irradiation, and if the genetic effects of very low radiation doses were truly cumulative, the natural radiation to which we are all exposed and which is by far the highest would by itself have eliminated every trace of life on earth long ago. Lastly, let us not forget that merely the use of X-rays in medicine, particularly in radiodiagnosis, represents an additional average artificial irradiation of the population amounting to double the natural radiation (100 millirem per year). This is about 100 times the irradiation which would accrue from nuclear industry even according to the most pessimistic estimate. We have seen that the measures described above will make it genuinely possible to maintain environmental radioactivity in all

  16. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  17. Thermal power stations and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerking, E.

    1975-01-01

    In this book, the advantages of an optimum cooling concept for waters are compared with the disadvantages of an uncontrolled thermal pollution of waters by waste waters from thermal power plants. The book focuses on the problem of the cost of measures for environmental protection which has not yet received a detailed and complete treatment. The author suggests that perfectionist solutions and superfluos measures be abandoned in favour of a far-reaching, efficient environmental protection concept with a low expenditure of fuel and capital. A detailed treatment is given to false conclusions in the present estimations of the effects of thermal pollution of the waters and to the advantages of freshwater cooling and cooling in general. Also discussed are immission problems and attempts at their solution. (ORU/AK) [de

  18. Dynamics and control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    This volume presents a wide view of aspects of control of nuclear power stations by taking into consideration the plant as a whole and the protection systems employed therein. Authors with worldwide experience consider all aspects of dynamics and control in the context of both fast and thermal power stations. The topics discussed include the methods of development and applications within the analysis of plant behaviour, the validation of mathematical models, plant testing, and the design and implementation of controls. There are 27 papers all of which are indexed separately; steady states and model evolution (5 papers), control and protection systems (5 papers), transients (7 papers), testing and data (3 papers), model validation (6 papers) and commissioning and operation (1 paper). (author)

  19. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The following items are covered: the site, the station, environmental effects of site preparation and station construction, environmental effects of station operation, effluent and environmental monitoring programs, environmental effects of accidents, need for BFRSS, benefit-cost analysis of alternatives, generic environmental impact statements, and discussion of and response to comments received on the draft environmental statement

  20. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, M.; McMorran, P.D.

    1982-11-01

    Multivariable methods have the potential to improve the control of large systems such as nuclear power stations. Linear-quadratic optimal control is a multivariable method based on the minimization of a cost function. A related technique leads to the Kalman filter for estimation of plant state from noisy measurements. A design program for optimal control and Kalman filtering has been developed as part of a computer-aided design package for multivariable control systems. The method is demonstrated on a model of a nuclear steam generator, and simulated results are presented

  1. Nuclear safeguards control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedege, R.; Braatz, U.; Heger, H.

    1976-01-01

    The execution of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has initiated a third phase in the efforts taken to ensure peace by limiting the number of atomic powers. In this phase it is important, above all, to turn into workable systems the conditions imposed upon technology by the different provisions of the Verification Agreement of the NPT. This is achieved mainly by elaborating annexes to the Agreement specifically geared to certain model plants, typical representatives selected for LWR power stations being the plants at Garigliano, Italy (BWR), and Stade, Federal Republic of Germany (PWR). The surveillance measures taken to prevent any diversion of special nuclear material for purposes of nuclear weapons manufacture must be effective in achieving their specific objective and must not impede the circumspect management of operations of the plants concerned. A VDEW working party has studied the technical details of the planned surveillance measures in nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany and now presents a concept of material balancing by units which meets the conditions imposed by the inspection authority and could also be accepted by the operators of nuclear power stations. The concept provides for uninterrupted control of the material balance areas of the nuclear power stations concerned, allows continuous control of the whole nuclear fuel cycle, is based exclusively on existing methods and facilities, and can be implemented at low cost. (orig.) [de

  2. Environmental impact of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, O.; Balfanz, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    Following a comparative consideration of the present and future environmental impact by coal, oil, and nuclear power plants, the special risks connected with the use of the latter are dealt with. A distinction is made in considering the risk between public exposure, in the environment of a plant due to operational leakage and radiation exposure in the plant under normal operation and in the case of an accident. The accident risk consideration is the basis of the Rasmussen study where the different containment construction of german plants as well as the higher population density for sites in the FRG are considered. Evaluation parameters are given to quantify the risks and using this, the risks of various cases of impact of nuclear power plants are compared. The comparison shows that the risks of nuclear power plant operation according to the value in normal operation are comparable to those in the case of an accident. (ORU/LH) [de

  3. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  4. Environmental qualification test of electrical penetration for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooziro, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Akitoshi; Toyoda, Shigeru; Uno, Shunpei

    1979-01-01

    Environmental qualification test was conducted according to IEEE Std. 323-1974 in order to evaluate the safety and reliability of electrical penetration of PWR type nuclear power station. Electrical penetration is the assemblies of electric cables attached to the containment vessel and penetrate through the vessel. Since it is a part of the vessel, it is deemed to be one of the primary safety equipments that are important for the safety and reliability of nuclear power stations. Environmental tests were conducted continuously as to heat cycle, vibration and LOCA with the full size specimens of bushing type, pigtail type and triaxial cable type and at the same time thermal life and irradiation tests were conducted on the insulation materials used, in order to obtain the comprehensive evaluation of their electrical and mechanical characteristics. As the result, they all satisfied the requirements for the circuits for actual use during and after various environmental qualification tests according to IEEE Std. 323. (author)

  5. Environmental levels of microwave radiation around a satellite earth station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.; Bangay, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the background to claims of possible adverse health effects arising from exposure to environmental levels of microwave radiation around satellite earth stations. Results of a recent survey of the environmental levels of microwave radiation around two 32 metre diameter satellite communications antennas owned and operated by the Overseas Telecommunications Commission (OTC) of Australia are presented. From the measurements obtained in this survey it can be concluded that the environmental levels of microwave radiation around the OTC and similar satellite facilities do not pose a health risk to persons in the vicinity

  6. Hydraulic oil control system for transformer stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, P.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Electrical oil control systems are commonly used to contain large volumes of spilled oil in transformer stations. Specially calibrated floats, some of which are designed to float only in oil and others only in water, are used in combination with a pump to contain oil at the catch basin below a transformer station.This electrical control system requires frequent maintenance and inspections to ensure the electrical system is not affected by any electrical surges. Also the floats need to be inspected and cleaned frequently to prevent oil or grit build up that may affect the systems' ability to contain oil.Recognizing the limitations of electrical oil control systems, Hydro One is investigating alternative control systems. A hydraulic oil control system is being investigated as an alternative which can backup oil in a containment area while allowing any water entering the containment area to pass through. Figure 1 shows a schematic of a bench-top model tested at Ryerson University. Oil and water separation occurs within the double-piped column. Oil and water are allowed to enter the external pipe column but only water is allowed to exit the internal pipe column. The internal pipe column is designed to generate enough hydrostatic pressure to ensure the oil is contained in the external pipe column.The hydraulic oil control system provides a reliable control mechanism and requires less maintenance compared to that of the electrical control system. Since the hydraulic oil control system has no moving parts, nor would any parts that require electricity, it is not affected by electrical surges such as lightening.The maintenance requirements of the hydraulic oil control system are: the removal of any oil and grit from the catch basin, and the occasional visual inspection for any crack or clogs in the system. (author)

  7. Environmental implications of fossil-fuelled power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, A.

    1979-01-01

    The public health and environmental implications of electricity generation by fossil-fuelled power stations are discussed with respect to pollutant emission and the disposal of waste products. The following conclusions were deduced. The policy of using tall chimney stacks has ensured that acceptable concentrations of potential pollutants are observed in the vicinity of power stations. Large scale carbon dioxide emission may represent a problem in the future due to its effect on the climate. The effects of sulphur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen need to be kept under review but it is likely that sources other than power stations will be of greater importance in this context. Pulverised fuel ash is a safe and useful by product of power production. Finally the radiation dose to man caused by the release of naturally occurring radioisotopes is negligible compared to the natural background levels. (UK)

  8. 30 CFR 77.309-1 - Control stations; location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control stations; location. 77.309-1 Section 77... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.309-1 Control stations; location. Thermal dryer system control stations constructed after June 30, 1971, shall be installed at a location which will give to the operator of the...

  9. Environmental protection in coal utilization and its problems at Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Power Station, Kapar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, L.C. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia). Research and Development Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    Efforts to prevent and minimise pollution as well as to enhance the quality of the environment around the new coal-fired Sultan Salanuddin Power Station are described. Malaysian environmental regulations are mentioned and pollution-reducing elements designed into the power plant are listed. A Public Participation Forum was held to inform the public of the planned power station and the environmental considerations. An Environmental Audit was conducted which compared the measured impacts of the operational station with the predicted expectations. On-going air quality and wastewater discharge monitoring procedures are outlined. Measures to control coal dust and spontaneous combustion of coal, and methods used to dispose of coal ash are described. 3 figs.

  10. Environmental analysis report : Becancour cogeneration power station by TransCanada Energy Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, D.; Theberge, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents an environmental analysis of TransCanada Energy's proposed project to construct the Becancour cogeneration power station fuelled by natural gas. The realization of this project requires the delivery of a certificate of authorization by the Quebec government. One requirement to obtain this certificate is the completion of an environmental impact study. This report first presents the purpose and general description of the project. It includes an environmental analysis of the issues and impacts associated with the project including environmental problems associated with greenhouse gas emissions. The conclusion and the recommendations for the conditions of the project are presented thereafter. The report concludes that the environmental impacts resulting from the realization of the power station are very few and include atmospheric emissions, vapors, noise, rejections liquid and technological risks. Suitable abatement measures and selected technology make it possible to control these impacts. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 appendices

  11. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER IMPLEMENTATION FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Zein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar panels have a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP, which depends on the environmental factors, such as temperature and irradiation. In order to continuously harvest maximum power from the solar panels, they have to operate at their MPP despite the inevitable changes in the environment. This is why the controllers of all solar power electronic converters employ some method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT . Over the past years many MPPT techniques have been published and based on that the main paper’s objective is to analyze one of the most promising MPPT control algorithms: fuzzy logic controller

  12. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    A draft of the environmental impact statement for the Barnwell Fuel Receiving and Storage Station is presented. This facility is being constructed on a 1700 acre site about six miles west of the city of Barnwell in Barnwell County, South Carolina. The following topics are discussed: the site, the station, environmental effects of site preparation and station construction, environmental effects of station operation, effluent and environmental monitoring programs, environmental effects of accidents , need for the station, benefit-cost analysis of alternatives, and conclusions. (U.S.)

  13. Environmental control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    During this report period, Chem Tech identified environmental control technology (ECT) as an area of emphasis for future planning and resource allocation. The Division plans to continue to perform R and D activities in ECT for external sponsors such as the DOE Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) while striving for recognition as an R and D center for ECT within the Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Complex. Chem Tech has already played supporting roles in this area for the Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) and is currently expanding its support to organizations within ORNL responsible for environmental matters. Over the long term, the Division hopes to achieve recognition as a center for R and D in ECT within the wider DOE system. Recent initiatives supporting these plans are discussed below

  14. Environmental reduction of mobile telephone base station produced radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G.; Testagrossa, B.; Sansotta, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the authors discuss about their own proposal about a model to modify how the Wireless Telephone Base Stations (W.T.B.S.) works. The proposal, which was made having in mind the GSM technology, can be applied to all other kind of similar technologies and was pointed out as a different way of working of the W.T.B.S. without any modifications on their distribution over the territory. After a short review of the state of the art about the technology and the basis of wireless telephone base stations, the baselines and the principles of the proposed model are discussed, facing out the most significant parameters obtained from the way W.T.B.S. are working at present towards the proposed one. Then the authors illustrate the possible advantages o f the proposed model in terms of environmental, socials and energy savings aspects. It is the authors opinion that such model can be a simple and no -cost solution to apply to the existing infrastructures; more over it can be of interest either for mobile phone companies or for environmental and/or customers associations. (authors)

  15. Space Station CMIF extended duration metabolic control test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathryn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Extended Duration Metabolic Control Test (EMCT) was conducted at the MSFC Core Module Integration Facility. The primary objective of the EMCT was to gather performance data from a partially-closed regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system functioning under steady-state conditions. Included is a description of the EMCT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements of water and gas samples taken during the test. A comparison of the physical, chemical, and microbiological methods used in the post test laboratory analyses of the water samples is included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test, providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item. Analytical results pertaining to a system level mass balance and selected system power estimates are also included.

  16. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  17. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of transmitting stations. 25.271 Section 25.271 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.271 Control of transmitting stations. (a) The licensee of...

  19. Environmental Control Subsystem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Jacob; Zelik, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B, part of Launch Complex 39, is currently undergoing construction to prepare it for NASA's Space Launch System missions. The Environmental Control Subsystem, which provides the vehicle with an air or nitrogen gas environment, required development of its local and remote display screens. The remote displays, developed by NASA contractors and previous interns, were developed without complete functionality; the remote displays were revised, adding functionality to over 90 displays. For the local displays, multiple test procedures were developed to assess the functionality of the screens, as well as verify requirements. One local display screen was also developed.

  20. Environmental Control Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the Environmental Control Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA), Piracicaba , Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. Such research comprises: determination of ions and metals in waters from different sources; survey of the mineralogical composition of Amazon Basin rivers; development of specific methodologies for the determination of minerals in studies of mineral nutrition of plants and animal nutrition; development of methodologies for the determination of wood sample density, a nuclear method being developed to be applied to field conditions; study of the water flux mouvement within wood. (M.A.) [pt

  1. Mechanisms in environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeneg, K.

    1994-01-01

    The theory of implementation provides methods for decentralization of decisions in societies. By using mechanisms (game forms) it is possible (in theory) to implement attractive states in different economic environments. As an example the market mechanisms can implement Pareto-efficient and individual rational allocations in an Arrow-Debreu economic environment without market failures. And even when there exists externalities the market mechanism sometime can be used if it is possible to make a market for the goods not allocated on a market already - examples are marketable emission permits, and deposit refund systems. But environmental problems can often be explained by the existence of other market failures (e.g. asymmetric information), and then the market mechanism do not work properly. And instead of using regulation or traditional economic instruments (subsidies, charges, fees, liability insurance, marketable emission permits, or deposit refund systems) to correct the problems caused by market failures, some other methods can be used to deal with these problems. This paper contains a survey of mechanisms that can be used in environmental control when the problems are caused by the existence of public goods, externalities, asymmetric information, and indivisible goods in the economy. By examples it will be demonstrated how the Clarke-Groves mechanism, the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism, and other mechanisms can be used to solve specific environmental problems. This is only theory and examples, but a recent field study have used the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism to solve the problem of lake liming in Sweden. So this subject may be of some interests for environmental policy in the future. (au) 23 refs

  2. A molecular epidemiological study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations in Guangzhou of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J L; Peng, Y; Ou, Q T; Lin, D X; Li, Y; Ye, X H; Zhou, J L; Yao, Z J

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused a series of public health problems since it was first found in 1961. However, there are few research studies on the MRSA environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine MRSA environmental contamination in public transport stations. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 380 surface samples from three railway stations (180) and four coach stations (200) in Guangzhou were collected to isolate and determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococci strains. 39·21% of all samples were Staphylococci isolates, 1·58% of Staphylococci isolates were MRSA isolates, and 6·05% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. The proportion of multidrug resistant among 149 Staphylococci isolates was 75·84%. None of MRSA isolates was identified with the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes, and one of them was identified with the qac gene. Four MRSA isolates were Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec IVa, and the other two were nontypeable. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were classified into several sequence types (STs), and STs showed possible cross-transmissions of isolates from various sources. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci contamination prevalence was high, and the environment of stations may be the vectors transmitting the Staphylococci to passengers. This is the first study to comprehensively report the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics of contamination of Staphylococci isolates in railway stations and coach stations of China. It will have great public health implications on infection control in community settings because of the serious hazard of Staphylococci, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. Our findings have provided evidence for relevant departments to reduce the contamination of Staphylococci in environment of public transport stations. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  3. Ground control station software design for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Oldziej, Daniel; Binczyk, Dawid Przemyslaw; Slowik, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the process of designing the equipment part and the software of a ground control station used for configuring and operating micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). All the works were conducted on a quadrocopter model being a commonly accessible commercial construction. This article contains a characteristics of the research object, the basics of operating the micro aerial vehicles (MAV) and presents components of the ground control station model. It also describes the communication standards for the purpose of building a model of the station. Further part of the work concerns the software of the product - the GIMSO application (Generally Interactive Station for Mobile Objects), which enables the user to manage the actions and communication and control processes from the UAV. The process of creating the software and the field tests of a station model are also presented in the article.

  4. BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION EXPERIENCE AT INDIAN POINT STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1963-09-15

    The environs monitoring program at Indian Point Station is presented. Thirty sampling stations within a circle of approximately 10 miles of the station are used for the collection of samples of air, water, vegetation, and soil that are then analyzed for gross beta-gamma activity. Data are tabulated. (P.C.H.)

  5. 75 FR 36700 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ...; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact... Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (TMI-1), located... Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, NUREG-0552, dated December 1972, and Generic...

  6. National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Geodetic Control Stations, (Horizontal and/or Vertical Control), March 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  7. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of performance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays) and the human operator. In the remote control engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures

  8. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of peformance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays, etc.) and the human operator. In the Remote Control Engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures

  9. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  10. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system

  11. Load control on nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takuya; Tsukuda, Yoshiaki.

    1988-01-01

    Power generation control is required for the nuclear power plants to meet electric power demand. In BWRs, power generation control can be achieved by arranging the coolant flow rate and control rod operation. In PWRs, power generation can be regulated by the control rods automatically controled with the steam valves. As a result of the experiments, it is confirmed that the operational function is normal, and safety of reactor components, pressure vessel and fuel elments are assured. (Katagiri, S)

  12. Environmental Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Arroyo, Elvin A.

    2018-01-01

    Since before the first men landed on the moon, human beings have aspired to reach farther into space, to discover and answer the great mysteries that exist beyond imagination. To reach where no one has gone before. To able to see all the wonderful things that can be found in space and that only satellites have revealed to us during all this time. Considering the last trip to the moon, mankind has been evolving and improving their technology to reach destinations whose distances had been impossible to transit. To reach that goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has designed and developed the largest and most powerful rocket ever created by the human race, the Space Launch System - better known as the SLS. To be able to send this large rocket to space, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is doing upgrades to their existing facilities and equipment. At Launch Pad 39B, they are setting up a new Environmental Control System (ECS) developed to supply the rocket with the correct gases and mixtures that will be needed for the rocket to launch. The ECS is similar to an air conditioning unit. The main functionality of it is to supply the SLS with the correct gas mixture for it to launch. Also the ECS has been required to reduce or eliminate the possibility of a complete system failure. The system is part of the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) for the SLS that will be going to the Moon and Mars.

  13. Criteria for the design of the control room complex for a nuclear power generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This Standard addresses the central control room of a nuclear power generating station and the overall complex in which this room is housed. It is not intended to cover special or normally unattended control rooms, such as those provided for radioactive waste handling or for emergency shutdown operations. The nuclear power generating station control room complex provides a protective envelope for plant operating personnel and for instrument and control equipment vital to the operation of the plant during normal and abnormal conditions. In this capacity, the control room complex must be designed and constructed to meet the following criteria contained in Appendix A of 10CFR50, General Design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants: (1) Criterion 2: design bases for protection against natural phenomena; (2) Criterion 3: fire protection; (3) Criterion 4: environmental and missile design bases; (4) Criterion 5: sharing of structures, systems and components (multiunit stations only); and (5) Criterion 19: control room

  14. Online control loop tuning in Pickering Nuclear Generating Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.X.; Harrington, S.

    2008-01-01

    Most analog controllers in the Pickering B Nuclear Generating Stations adopted PID control scheme. In replacing the analog controllers with digital controllers, the PID control strategies, including the original tuning parameters were retained. The replacement strategy resulted in minimum effort on control loop tuning. In a few cases, however, it was found during commissioning that control loop tuning was required as a result of poor control loop performance, typically due to slow response and controlled process oscillation. Several factors are accounted for the necessities of control loop re-tuning. Our experience in commissioning the digital controllers showed that online control tuning posted some challenges in nuclear power plant. (author)

  15. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  16. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... Software simulation was carried out using the Proteus virtual system modeling ... system which helps in track switching and level crossing gate traffic control is capable of improving reliability, speed, .... Lane Switching Network.

  17. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, M.; McMorran, P.D.

    1982-12-01

    Linear, state-space models of power plant systems tend to be of high order, leading to difficulties in the design of control systems by state-space methods. However, the control system has access only to the plant inputs and outputs, and the fast-responding internal variables may be masked by slower, dominant variables. Model order reduction applies modal analysis to eliminate the fast modes while retaining the character of the input-output response. Two alternative techniques are presented and demonstrated on a model of a nuclear steam generator. The preferred method is implemented in MVPACK, the computer-aided design package

  18. Computer functions in overall plant control of candu generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Q.B.; Stokes, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    System Planning Specifications form the basic requirements for the performance of the plant including its response to abnormal situations. The rules for the computer control programs are devised from these, taking into account limitations imposed by the reactor, heat transport and turbine-generator systems. The paper outlines these specifications and the limitations imposed by the major items of plant equipment. It describes the functions of each of the main programs, their interactions and the control modes used in the existing Ontario Hydro's nuclear station or proposed for future stations. Some simulation results showing the performance of the overall unit control system and plans for future studies are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  20. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Space Biology program funded two multi-year studies to catalogue International Space Station (ISS) environmental microbiome. The first Microbial Observatory (MO) experiment will generate a microbial census of the ISS surfaces and atmosphere using advanced molecular microbial community analysis "omics" techniques, supported by traditional culture-based methods and state-of-the art molecular techniques. The second MO experiment will measure presence of viral and select bacterial and fungal pathogens on ISS surfaces and correlate their presence on crew. The "omics" methodologies of the MO experiments will serve as the foundation for an extensive microbial census, offering significant insight into spaceflight-induced changes in the populations of beneficial and potentially harmful microbes. The safety of crewmembers and the maintenance of hardware are the primary goals for monitoring microorganisms in this closed habitat. The statistical analysis of the ISS microbiomes showed that three bacterial phyla dominated both in ISS and Earth cleanrooms, but varied in their abundances. While members of Actinobacteria were predominant on ISS, Proteobacteria dominated the Earth cleanrooms. Alpha diversity estimators indicated a significant drop in viable microbial diversity. To better characterize the shared community composition among samples, beta-diversity metrics analysis were conducted. At the bacterial species level characterization, the microbial community composition is strongly associated with sampling site. Results of the study indicate significant differences between ISS and Earth cleanroom microbiomes in terms of community structure and composition. Bacterial strains isolated from ISS surfaces were also tested for their resistance to nine antibiotics using conventional disc method and Vitek 2 system. Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to penicillin. Five strains were specifically resistant to erythromycin and the ermA gene was also

  1. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  2. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of River Bend Station (Docket No. 50-458)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This draft environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of River Bend Station, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  3. The central monitoring station of Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON): the architecture and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Saurabh; Ratheesh, M.P.; Mukundan, T.; Patel, M.D.; Nair, C.K.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON) is being established across the country by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The network consists of stations with automated systems for environmental radiation monitoring with online data communication facility. Currently about 100 stations are operational and additional 500 stations are expected to be installed by March, 2012. The network is established with different objectives, the main objective being the detection and reporting of any nuclear emergency anywhere in the country. The central monitoring station of the network is established in Mumbai. This paper describes the architecture and functions of IERMON Central Station. The Central Station consists of server room for online data collection from remote stations and maintenance of databases for various applications; central monitoring room for user interaction with database and IERMON website maintenance and development room for the development of new applications. The functions of IERMON Central Station include detection and reporting of nuclear emergency, maintenance of remote stations, enhancement of public awareness on environmental radiation through public display systems and website, etc. The details on system layout and data protocols can be found in the paper. (author)

  4. 75 FR 52045 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No.... NPF-74, issued to Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee), for operation of Palo Verde... Statement for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, NUREG-0841, dated February 1982. Agencies and...

  5. An adaptive predictive controller and its applications in power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Lu Huiming; Zhang Xinggao [North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Song Chunping [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Energy Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Based on the objective function in the form of integration of generalized model error, a globally convergent model reference adaptive predictive control algorithm (MRAPC) containing inertia-time compensators is presented in this paper. MRAPC has been successfully applied to control important thermal process of more than 20 units in many Chinese power stations. In this paper three representative examples are described. Continual operation results for years demonstrate that MRAPC is a successful attempt for the practical applications of adaptive control techniques. (author)

  6. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S.

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m 3 /h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10 -6 Bq/m 3 . The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pollutants emissions from filling stations and their impact on the air quality. Gas monitors were employed to identify the different pollutants present in the ambient air of the study areas. The results showed that the most prominent pollutants present in the ambient air are the volatile organic compounds ...

  8. Prospects for solving environmental problems pertinent to thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.G. Tumanovskii; V.R. Kotler [OAO All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    Possible ways to protect the atmosphere and water basin against harmful emissions and effluent waters discharged from thermal power stations are considered. Data on the effectiveness of different methods for removing NOx, SO{sub 2}, and ash particles, as well as heavy metals and CO{sub 2}, from these emissions and discharges are presented.

  9. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  10. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1988. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1989-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1988 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,700 analyses were made on 1,200 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  11. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1988-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1987 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,800 analyses were made on 1,300 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and periwinkles. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  12. Retrofit of new digital control systems in existing power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.E.; Baird, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    With the notable exception of the Canadian CANDU nuclear power stations, little use has been made of digital control in North American nuclear stations. Recently, however, there has been renewed interest in such systems within the nuclear industry in response to demands for better ergonomics in control room design and the obsolescence of control equipment whose fundamental design has changed little in 20 yr. Early in 1985, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was asked by New Brunswick Power to advise on the redesign of the control systems for two fossil-fired generating stations, Coleson Cove and Courtenay Bay Unit 4. Coleson Cove is to be converted from oil to coal firing with consequent extensive control system changes and Courtenay Bay Unit 4 required a low-cost solution to the problem of relocating its control room from the existing isolated location to the combined control center used by units 1, 2, and 3. In both cases, the recommended solution involves the retrofit of state-of-the-art digital control systems. Although the units involved are nonnuclear the experience is applicable

  13. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.

  14. Shielded chamber control stations: an answer to radiological protection requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaboudiniere, Catherine.

    1979-06-01

    This study, carried out at the radiometallurgy laboratory of the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre, is based on an ergonomic approach. It shows that the shielded chamber control station, designed for human protection against ionizing radiations, demands an effort of adaptation on the part of the operator. This station does in fact meet radiological protection obligations but would benefit from certain improvements aimed at reducing the secondary fatigue of manipulators already under the strain of adapting to the machine. Fields in which improvements and/or changes are desirable have been investigated with special reference to telemanipulators. New and better designed instruments will soon appear on the telemanipulator market [fr

  15. Final environmental statement related to the operation of River Bend Station (Docket No. 50-458)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of River Bend Station, pursuant to the National Environment Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  16. Return on experience on control gates in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valendru, N.

    2009-01-01

    In application of an EDF internal directive, control gates are used at the exit of the Controlled Areas of each nuclear power station site for the radiological control of materials or wastes on pedestrians and vehicles. The author first presents the radiological control chain for people and its principles. This chain comprises the different controls performed within the controlled area, either at the exit of a works area or at the exit of the reactor building, the different controls performed at the exit of the controlled area (depending on the site classification), the control of pedestrians at the site exit, and the 'whole body' anthropo-gamma-metric control. For each of these controls, the authors indicate the detection objectives, the different contamination threshold values, and the type of gate used. In a second part, the authors more precisely present the new C2 gates which include gamma and beta sensors, indicate how control thresholds are adjusted on different power station sites, and discuss the lessons learned after the first years of use of these new gates (difficulties and problems faced as far as detection and detection thresholds are concerned, changes in organization)

  17. Emissions from coal-fired electric stations : environmental health effects and reduction options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P.; Lourie, B.; Pengelly, D.; Labatt, S.; Ogilvie, K.; Kelly, B.

    1998-01-01

    Findings of a study on the environmental effects of current emissions from coal-fired electric stations were summarized. Current and projected emissions from coal-fired electric stations for five emission reduction scenarios were estimated for Ontario, Eastern Canada, Ohio Valley/Great Lakes, and the U.S. northeast regions. Coal-fired electric stations generate a wide range of environmentally significant air emissions. The five pollutants selected - sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (less than 10 micrometres in size), mercury, and carbon dioxide - are considered to impact most on environmental health. This report focused on 312 coal-fired electric stations in the regions named above. They were selected based on the likelihood that long-range transport of the emissions from these coal-fired utilities would have an impact on human health and the environment. 55 refs., 10 tabs., 8 figs

  18. Evolution of the CANDU control centre retrofit and new stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, R.A.; Mitchell, W.

    1991-01-01

    Significant event data from operating nuclear plants in many countries consistently indicates human errors are the root cause for 40-60% of operating station significant events. Because so much information is already in digital form, opportunities exist to improve the CANDU control centre with retrofits that exploit this information. These opportunities are enhanced because of rapid technological development in computers and electronics, coupled with significant progress in the behavioural sciences that greatly increases our knowledge of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of human beings. CANDU control rooms are undergoing retrofits and for future CANDU stations, a new concept of the control centre is emerging. The objective is to significantly reduce the incidence of human error, reduce operations and maintenance costs and improve both reliability and safety

  19. Evolution of the CANDU control centre retrofit and new stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmstead, R A [AECL-CANDU, ON (Canada); Mitchell, W [Ontario Hydro, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bowmanville, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    Significant event data from operating nuclear plants in many countries consistently indicates human errors are the root cause for 40-60% of operating station significant events. Because so much information is already in digital form, opportunities exist to improve the CANDU control centre with retrofits that exploit this information. These opportunities are enhanced because of rapid technological development in computers and electronics, coupled with significant progress in the behavioural sciences that greatly increases our knowledge of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of human beings. CANDU control rooms are undergoing retrofits and for future CANDU stations, a new concept of the control centre is emerging. The objective is to significantly reduce the incidence of human error, reduce operations and maintenance costs and improve both reliability and safety.

  20. Brokdorf nuclear power station: Construction scheduling and deadline control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembcke, U.D.F.

    1986-01-01

    Scheduling, especially deadline control, for all installations of the Brokdorf nuclear power station was carried out centrally by the Project Management of Kraftwerk Union AG. 130 timetables encompassing some 13,000 activities were handled, which were interconnected and linked to 189 timetables (approx. 18,000 activities) from various specialized sections by means of data processing systems. Much space in time scheduling was taken by controls of software processing, especially of the preliminary inspection documents in the piping sector and of working documents for construction management in the control systems area. (orig.) [de

  1. Grandy Brook Station to Hope Brook Station transmission line, environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro proposes to construct a 138kW transmission line to provide power and energy requirements of the Hope Brook Gold Mine. The proposed route runs approximately 33 km adjacent to Route 480, requiring a cleared right-of-way approximately 30 m wide, with access provided by an all terrain vehicle trail. Concerns were expressed about possible adverse effects on terrestrial and aquatic habitat, water resources, resource utilization, wildlife, and historic resources. This document provides a description of the project and the rationale; the baseline environmental conditions; the environmental protection plan agreed to by Hydro, including mitigation measures and predicted impacts; rehabilitation measures; monitoring; and public involvement. Hydro's studies concluded there would be no significant impact on the environment, including the La Poile caribou herd or the raptors affected. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Legionella control in power station cooling towers using oxidising biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Christian; Rawlinson, Julia; Killeen, Paul [Ecolab PTY LTD, Ascot, WA (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Power stations have used oxidising biocides such as chlorine or bromine for many years to control microbial growth in their cooling towers. In this paper Ecolab trademark looks at the direct effect halogen concentration has on Legionella populations in order to determine the most effective halogenation rate required to ensure that the site key performance indicator (KPI) of < 100 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL can be maintained. (orig.)

  3. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  4. International Space Station Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem Verification for Node 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem design. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Element Verification methodologies for nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem operations utilized during the Qualification phase.

  5. Fuzzy control in environmental engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielowski, Wojciech Z

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for engineers, technicians and people who plan to use fuzzy control in more or less developed and advanced control systems for manufacturing processes, or directly for executive equipment. Assuming that the reader possesses elementary knowledge regarding fuzzy sets and fuzzy control, by way of a reminder, the first parts of the book contain a reminder of the theoretical foundations as well as a description of the tools to be found in the Matlab/Simulink environment in the form of a toolbox. The major part of the book presents applications for fuzzy controllers in control systems for various manufacturing and engineering processes. It presents seven processes and problems which have been programmed using fuzzy controllers. The issues discussed concern the field of Environmental Engineering. Examples are the control of a flood wave passing through a hypothetical, and then the real Dobczyce reservoir in the Raba River, which is located in the upper Vistula River basin in Southern Poland, th...

  6. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1990. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1991-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1990 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,500 analyses were made on 1,100 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air particulates, airborne water vapour, carbon dioxide in air, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops, periwinkles, sea plants and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Radon is not assessed.

  7. The Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station: Draft environmental statement (Docket No. 50-358)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of an operating license to the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company, the Columbus and Southern Ohio Electric Company, and the Dayton Power and Light Company for the startup and operation of the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station (Docket No. 50-358) (the station), located on the Ohio River in Clermont County, about 24 miles southeast of Cincinnati, Ohio. The information in this statement represents the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the Zimmer Nuclear Power Station pursuant to the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 of the Commission's Regulations. After receipt of an application in 1970 to construct this plant, the staff carried out a review of impact that would occur during the plant's construction and operation. This evaluation was issued as a final environmental statement in September 1972. As the result of this environmental review, a safety review, an evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, and a public hearing in Cincinnati, Ohio, the AEC (now NRC) issued a permit in October 1972 for the construction of Unit 1 of the Zimmer Nuclear Power Station. As of June 1976, the construction of the plant was 54% complete. With a proposed fuel-loading data of April 1978, the applicant has petitioned for license to operate Unit 1 and has submitted (September 1975) the required safety and environmental reports to substantiate this petition. 96 refs., 17 figs., 34 tabs

  8. A10 – UAS Control Station Ergo-nomics Considerations : Tasks CS-6 through CS-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The overall objective of the control station tasks within Project A-10 is to provide the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with information on an ergonomic design of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) control stations which will allow safe piloting o...

  9. National Geodetic Control Stations, Geographic NAD83, NGS (2004) [geodetic_ctrl_point_la_NGS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  10. Environmental management at the Grand Rapids Generating Station following the Unit No.1 headcover failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Failure of the headcover of Unit 1 in the Grand Rapids generating station in March, 1992 caused the station to flood, releasing several thousand gallons of oil and removing the station from service for several weeks. Environmental considerations were a considerable part of the station restoration activities, reservoir and flow management programs and responses to public concerns arising from the accident. A major oil spill containment and cleanup program was undertaken, with station cleanup and debris disposal carried out in a manner acceptable to environmental authorities. Reservoir spillage was necessitated by the station shutdown. The spill recreated fish habitat in the spillway and walleye spawning were documented. A compensation program was developed to respond to problems caused by debris flushed from the spillway channel. On spill termination, a fish salvage program removed fish from a scour hole in the spillway channel. A proactive program of public information provided local residents with the facts about the incident and response program, and allayed concerns about public safety. 4 refs., 2 figs

  11. Nuclear power stations. Information paper no. 1. Controls on the building and running of nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Controls and constraints which govern the development and running of nuclear power stations are briefly examined. Government policy, permission to build, authority to start building, site acquisition building, running and public opinion are briefly discussed.

  12. Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and...

  13. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  14. Riel Converter Station, Winnipeg: Site selection and environmental assessment status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    As part of its expansion plans, Manitoba Hydro is planning to construct a converter station east of Winnipeg to receive power from a 850-km dc transmission line which will be constructed to bring power from a new generating station in the north of the province. Work performed to date on site selection and preliminary environmental assessment of the converter station is reviewed. The role of the converter station is described and the potential impacts are summarized in such areas as employment opportunities, pollution and noise during construction, electric and magnetic field effects, and land use impacts. Site selection criteria are outlined and potential sites are identified and evaluated. The Deacon site has been chosen as the preferred site since it has a number of inherent advantages including existing ownership by Manitoba Hydro, proximity to existing transmission rights-of-way, and low visual and land-use impact. 12 figs

  15. Orientation of Space Station Freedom electrical power system in environmental effects assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1990-01-01

    The orientation effects of six Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) components are evaluated for three environmental interactions: aerodynamic drag, atomic oxygen erosion, and orbital debris impact. Designers can directly apply these orientation factors to estimate the magnitude of the examined environment and the environmental effects for the EPS component of interest. The six EPS components are the solar array, photovoltaic module radiator, integrated equipment assembly, solar dynamic concentrator, solar dynamic radiator, and beta gimbal.

  16. Low earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahra, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the photovoltaic power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized

  17. Indicators to assess the environmental performances of an innovative subway station : example of Noisy-Champs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J. M.; Charbonnier, L.; Versini, P. A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2017-12-01

    Noisy-Champs is a train station located in Noisy-le-Grand and Champs-sur-Marne, in the Paris urban area (France). Integrated into the Grand Paris Express project (huge development project to modernise the transport network around Paris), this station is going to be radically transformed and become a major hub. Designed by the architectural office Duthilleul, the new Noisy-Champs station aspires to be an example of an innovative and sustainable infrastructure. Its architectural precepts are indeed meant to improve its environmental performances, especially those related to storm water management, water consumption and users' thermal and hygrometric comfort. In order to assess and monitor these performances, objectives and associated indicators have been developed. They aim to be adapted for a specific infrastructure such as a public transport station. Analyses of pre-existing comfort simulations, blueprints and regulatory documents have led to identify the main issues for the Noisy-Champs station, focusing on its resilience to extreme events like droughts, heatwaves and heaxvy rainfalls. Both objectives and indicators have been proposed by studying the space-time variabilities of physical fluxes (heat, pollutants, radiation, wind and water) and passenger flows, and their interactions. Each indicator is linked to an environmental performance and has been determined after consultation of the different stakeholders involved in the rebuilding of the station. It results a monitoring program to assess the environmental performances of the station composed by both the indicators grid and their related objectives, and a measurement program detailing the nature and location of sensors, and the frequency of measurements.

  18. Accounting and cost control of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmaier, P.

    1977-01-01

    1) chart or classification of accounts, 2) all plant expenses, 3) cost control, 4) storage of spare parts and supplies, 5) control of applicable dose rate, 6) charges for insurance. The accuracy of accounting and cost control is a primary thing for the efficiency in a nuclear power station. The much more important factor is the availability. It is necessary to save costs by a more effective storage or a more detailed and automatic process of single jobs in the workshop. But a very definite experience made in Obrigheim is the fact that not only commercial people know which financial loss will occur if the plant is out of operation one hour. This knowledge is also important for the technical people and for the workers in the workshops. The technical responsibility and the security in operation of the plant and the commercial understanding for the risk of non-availability do not exclude each other. (HP) [de

  19. A Categorization of Converter Station Controllers Within Multi-terminal DC Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irnawan, Roni; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    of controller might exist in the same system. It is therefore important to identify the parameters required by the converter station controllers to ensure a smooth coordination. In this paper, different converter station controllers available in the literatures are categorized. Challenges of converter station...

  20. Draft Environmental Statement related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs

  1. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations -survey of design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmorran, P.D.

    1979-12-01

    The development of larger nuclear generating stations increases the importance of dynamic interaction between controllers, because each control action may affect several plant outputs. Multivariable control provides the techniques to design controllers which perform well under these conditions. This report is a foundation for further work on the application of multivariable control in AECL. It covers the requirements of control and the fundamental mathematics used, then reviews the most important linear methods, based on both state-space and frequency-response concepts. State-space methods are derived from analysis of the system differential equations, while frequency-response methods use the input-output transfer function. State-space methods covered include linear-quadratic optimal control, pole shifting, and the theory of state observers and estimators. Frequency-response methods include the inverse Nyquist array method, and classical non-interactive techniques. Transfer-function methods are particularly emphasized since they can incorporate ill-defined design criteria. The underlying concepts, and the application strengths and weaknesses of each design method are presented. A review of significant applications is also given. It is concluded that the inverse Nyquist array method, a frequency-response technique based on inverse transfer-function matrices, is preferred for the design of multivariable controllers for nuclear power plants. This method may be supplemented by information obtained from a modal analysis of the plant model. (auth)

  2. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-461

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Clinton Power Station Unit 1 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land-use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts will also be small. However, steam fog from the station's cooling lake has the potential for reducing visibility over nearby roads and bridges. A fog-monitoring program for roads and ridges near the lake has been recommended. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible. Chemical discharges to Lake Clinton and Salt Creek are expected to have no appreciable impacts on water quality under normal conditions and will be required to meet conditions of the station's NPDES permit. The hydrothermal analyses indicate that under certain meteorological conditions (1-in-50-year drought), the plant would have to be operated at reduced power levels in order to meet the thermal standards established by the Illinois Pollution Control Board Order PCB 81-82. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission line facilties should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. Contentions associated with environmental issues accepted during the operating-license hearing are related to assessment of effects of low-level radiation. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Unit 1 of Clinton

  3. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  4. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  5. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  6. Reliable, fault tolerant control systems for nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, T.O.; Olmstead, R.A.; Schafer, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two operational features of CANDU Nuclear Power Stations provide for high plant availability. First, the plant re-fuels on-line, thereby eliminating the need for periodic and lengthy refuelling 'outages'. Second, the all plants are controlled by real-time computer systems. Later plants are also protected using real-time computer systems. In the past twenty years, the control systems now operating in 21 plants have achieved an availability of 99.8%, making significant contributions to high CANDU plant capacity factors. This paper describes some of the features that ensure the high degree of system fault tolerance and hence high plant availability. The emphasis will be placed on the fault tolerant features of the computer systems included in the latest reactor design - the CANDU 3 (450MWe). (author)

  7. Decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The US DOE proposes to decommission the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. This environmental impact statement analyzes possible decommissioning alternatives, evaluates potential environmental impacts associated with each alternative, and presents cost estimates for each alternative. The Department's preferred decommissioning alternative is immediate dismantlement. Other alternatives include no action, safe storage followed by deferred dismantlement, and entombment. The environmental impacts that are evaluated include those associated with occupational radiation dose, public radiation dose, handling and transporting of radioactive wastes, resource commitments, and socio-economic effects

  8. Experience on environmental qualification of safety-related components for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, A.S.; Kukreti, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The proliferation of Nuclear Power Plant safety concerns has lead to increasing attention over the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Components to provide the assurance that the safety related equipment will meet their intended functions during normal operation and postulated accident conditions. The environmental qualification of these components is also a Licensing requirement for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station. This paper provides an overview of EQ and the experience of a pilot project, in the qualification of the Main Moderator System safety-related functions for the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station currently under construction. It addresses the various phases of qualification from the identification of the EQ Safety-Related Components List, definition of location specific service conditions (normal, adbnormal and accident), safety-related functions, Environmental Qualification Assessments and finally, an EQ system summary report for the Main Moderator System. The results of the pilot project are discussed and the methodology reviewed. The paper concludes that the EQ Program developed for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, as applied to the qualification of the Main Moderator System, contained all the elements necessary in the qualification of safety-related equipment. The approach taken in the qualification of the Moderator safety-related equipment proves to provide a sound framework for the qualification of other safety-related components in the station

  9. International Space Station Atmosphere Control and Supply, Atmosphere Revitalization, and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem - Verification for Node 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 ACS, AR, and WRM design and detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for Node 1.

  10. Open control/display system for a telerobotics work station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keslowitz, Saul

    1987-01-01

    A working Advanced Space Cockpit was developed that integrated advanced control and display devices into a state-of-the-art multimicroprocessor hardware configuration, using window graphics and running under an object-oriented, multitasking real-time operating system environment. This Open Control/Display System supports the idea that the operator should be able to interactively monitor, select, control, and display information about many payloads aboard the Space Station using sets of I/O devices with a single, software-reconfigurable workstation. This is done while maintaining system consistency, yet the system is completely open to accept new additions and advances in hardware and software. The Advanced Space Cockpit, linked to Grumman's Hybrid Computing Facility and Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS), was used to test the Open Control/Display System via full-scale simulation of the following tasks: telerobotic truss assembly, RCS and thermal bus servicing, CMG changeout, RMS constrained motion and space constructible radiator assembly, HPA coordinated control, and OMV docking and tumbling satellite retrieval. The proposed man-machine interface standard discussed has evolved through many iterations of the tasks, and is based on feedback from NASA and Air Force personnel who performed those tasks in the LASS.

  11. Assessment of Health, Safety and Environmental Risks of Zahedan City Gasoline Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Far

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and determine the health, safety and environmental status of fuel stations in Zahedan. In this study, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA method was used for risk assessment in accordance with the HSE guidelines, national and international standards and laws. In this cross-sectional study, 2 governmental stations and 6 active private stations were evaluated after the necessary coordination with the relevant units. As a result of risk assessment, 27 health risks, 55 safety risks and 22 environmental risks were identified. From among all the identified risks, 67 risks had a Risk Priority Number (RPN of less than 91, 31 risks had an RPN ranging between 91 and 201, and 6 risks had an RPN of over 201. The findings of the study indicated that compliance with the HSE requirements was 51.85%, in the area of health, 47.57% in the area of safety and 27.45% in the environmental area. Overall compliance with the HSE requirements was 42.54%. In order to distribute fuel considering health, reducing risk and increasing compliance with the requirements for safety improvement, health and environmental conditions of fuel supplies are essential.

  12. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  13. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  14. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  15. Inexpensive, Open-Source, Internet of Things-Enabled Sensing Stations for Environmental Parameter Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, P. M.; Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    In the age of the Internet, data is inherently portable. Given the shrinking numbers of stream gauges in the US under the banner of the USGS and the lack of collocation of sensors for environmental parameters, it is clear the only way to collect these data is with near real-time, multi-parameters sensing stations. We are designing a system that can be built and deployed for under $300 by community groups interested in learning more about the land that they are protecting, such as conservation groups, or groups interested in the basic science behind sensing and ecology, such as makerspaces. Sensing stations like these will enable a greater diversity of data collection while increasing public awareness of environmental issues and the research process.

  16. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  17. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  18. Environmental isotopes and chemistry characterization of the rainfall at the CDTN GNIP Station, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, Stela; Peixoto, Claudia M.; Dias, Vagner S.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Moreira, Leandro; Palmieri, Helena E.L.

    2011-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in collaboration with the Worldwide Meteorological Organization (WMO), for the last 50 years, has been keeping a network of Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) stations. The main objective is to survey the content of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in precipitation samples in order to allow the establishment of patterns of temporal and spatial variation of the environmental isotopes as result of natural processes that affect isotope fractionation. Since October/2008, CDTN, as a response to IAEA initiatives for reactivating the Brazilian GNIP program, has started collecting precipitation samples for environmental isotopes analysis. This paper aims to present the lessons-learned of the CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear) GNIP Station implementation process, as well as the results of the first year (2008-2009) of sampling. We present the sampling procedure in place at the CDTN GNIP Station, based on the IAEA sampling protocols, and an analysis of the temporal variation of the environmental isotopes in the rainfall in Belo Horizonte. It is also presented the results of a chemical survey of the 2010's precipitation samples in order to assess the chemistry characteristics and quality of the Belo Horizonte precipitation in the CDTN's region. (author)

  19. 233S Decommissioning Project Environmental Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoric, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This Environmental Control Plan is for the 233S Decommissioning activities conducted under the removal action report for the 233S Decontamination and Demolition Project. The purpose of this ECP is to identify environmental requirements for the 233S project. The ECP is a compilation of existing environmental permit conditions, regulatory requirements, and environmental requirements applicable to the specific project or functional activity

  20. NOISE CONTROL IN GAS STATIONS – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Eduardo Amaral Herzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The high noise level in urban has changed, in the last decades, in some way of pollution that has worried the health agents. The value registered accused levels of so high discomfort that the urban sound pollution passed to be considered as a kind of pollution that hit the outnumbered people. There are efficient measures in its control, but still there are few companies that adopt measure control and auditive conservation program. This way, the objective of the work was to evaluate the noise level in which the employees and users of the gas station are daily exposed. The survey of quantitative datum was done measuring the noise level right in the emission source and making arithmetic means with the gotten sample. The average obtained revealed that the working environment isn’t appropriate, that means the noise can affect straight to communication and working production. With the prevention objective or stabilizing the auditive lost in witch the workers and the frequenters are submitted to the referred place were proposed measures to the implantation of a Auditive Conservation Program (ACP.

  1. The Environmental Action Internal Control Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports research designed to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior in (n=853) undergraduate students. Results suggest that the Environmental Action Internal Control Index can accurately predict environmentally responsible behavior.…

  2. Environmental control for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, A W; Wells, W H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Peaceful applications introduce some new environmental considerations into the design of nuclear explosives. Much of the experience gained in weapon work can be applied, but the requirement of survival in a very deep hole is not found in any military system. We will briefly mention the overall environment and make a few comparisons with some general characteristics of the weapon environment. The major portion of this paper is devoted to the special problems of pressure and temperature found in the emplacement environment. Potential users should know where we stand with regard to survival in hostile environments in terms of feasibility and possible effects on field operations. In all applications there are several things competing for the available diameter. Given that explosives can be made to work over a range of diameters and that necessary environmental control is feasible, all further discussions can be related to the cost of providing a hole big enough to accomplish the task. The items competing for diameter are: 1) bare nuclear assembly 2) insulation and cooling system if needed 3) pressure canister 4) shielding material 5) emplacement clearance All of these must be considered with the cost of the hole in optimizing an overall design. Conditions in a particular location will affect the shielding requirements and the emplacement clearance. The nuclear assembly can vary in size, but the long development time requires that decisions be made quite early, perhaps in ignorance of the economic details of a particular application. The pressure canister is a relatively straightforward design problem that can be resolved by giving appropriate consideration to all of the design requirements. In particular for 20,000 psi pressure in the emplacement hole, a canister of heat-treated alloy steel having a yield strength of 200,000 psi and a wall thickness which is about .07 times the outside diameter is adequate and straight- forward to fabricate. The insulation and cooling

  3. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs, and concludes that the action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Beaver Valley Unit 2

  4. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  5. Quality control of Ling'ao nuclear power station civil construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Buliang; Ye Changyuan

    2001-01-01

    Based on the quality control model adopted during Ling'ao Nuclear Power Station construction, the author briefly introduces quality control process of some main civil construction activities (reinforced concrete, steel liner, steel works and prestressing force) of nuclear power station, and makes some descriptions on non-conformance control of civil works. These quality control processes described come from the concrete practice during civil construction of Ling'ao Nuclear Power Station, and are based on Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station construction experience

  6. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix

  7. Chemistry control experiences at Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), NPCIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikrishna, K.; Somasundaram, K.M.; Sanathkumar, V.V.; Nageswara Rao, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Chemistry control section at Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), NPCIL had keenly pursued many developmental works and projects which had not only improved the system performance and reliability but also largely benefited the Station by many ways. The highlights of some of the major developmental works that have contributed significantly are: 1. Studies on frequent and sharp rise in dew point values of AGMS: In the Annulus Gas Monitoring Systems (AGMS) of KGS units, it was observed that the system dew points were rising very sharply and abruptly. The systematic studies revealed the presence of Hydrogen impurity in CO 2 gas cylinders, hence emphasized the need to ensure the gaseous contents before injecting the media from the cylinders to the system. 2. a. Studies on frequent tube failures of TG auxiliary coolers: The detailed studies and investigation revealed that under deposit corrosion contributed by microbiological attack was the main cause for frequent failures of 90/10 Cupro Nickel cooler tubes which could be minimized either by resorting to periodical mechanical/chemical cleaning of cooler tubes or by regular chemical treatment with a suitable chemical formulation. b. Development of suitable chemical formulation for chemical cleaning of TG auxiliary coolers: A series of in-house experiments at site resulted in developing a suitable chemical formulation for effective cleaning of 90/10 Cupro Nickel cooler tubes. The formulation with 1 % w/w Citric acid with pH adjusted to 8.0 by Ammonia in first step followed by 1 % w/w EDTA with pH adjusted to 9.0 by Hydrazine in the second step could yield more than 90 % cleanliness. 3. Chemical cleaning of cooling circuits of AHUs: An in-house formulation was developed and used for chemical cleaning of cooling circuits (with copper tubes) of AHUs. Post chemical cleaning, the room temperatures decreased by 3-4 degC, hence resulted in better cooling. 4. Enhancement in service period of BBD IX columns: The service period of

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  9. An environmental testing facility for Space Station Freedom power management and distribution hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackola, Arthur S.; Hartjen, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    The plans for a new test facility, including new environmental test systems, which are presently under construction, and the major environmental Test Support Equipment (TSE) used therein are addressed. This all-new Rocketdyne facility will perform space simulation environmental tests on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) hardware to Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Engineering Model, Qualification Model, and Flight Model levels of fidelity. Testing will include Random Vibration in three axes - Thermal Vacuum, Thermal Cycling and Thermal Burn-in - as well as numerous electrical functional tests. The facility is designed to support a relatively high throughput of hardware under test, while maintaining the high standards required for a man-rated space program.

  10. Local control station for development, testing and maintenance of mirror fusion facility subsystem controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ables, E.; Kelly, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A Local Control Station (LCS) was designed and built to provide a simplified ad easily configurable means of controlling any Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) subsystem for the purpose of development, testing and maintenance of the subsystem. All MFTF-B Subsystems incorporate at least one Local Control Computer (LCC) that is connected to and accepts high level commands from one of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) computers. The LCS connects directly to the LCC in place of SCDS. The LCS communicates with the subsystem hardware using the same SCDS commands that the local control computer recognizes and as such requires no special configuration of the LCC

  11. 75 FR 43572 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-369 and 50-370; NRC-2010-0259] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... Energy Carolinas, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2...

  12. 75 FR 43571 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment And...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-413 and 50-414; NRC-2010-0260] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment And Finding of No Significant... Energy Carolinas, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2...

  13. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  14. Report on radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at nuclear power stations during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.J.; Thomas, D.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the details for 1991 of radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at Nuclear Electric sites. In addition to the main section which summarises the discharges and monitoring at the Company's nuclear sites as a whole, appendices are presented covering the data in detail for individual sites. In each case the radiological impact on the general public has been estimated. Discharges generally were not substantially different from those of recent years. All radioactive effluent discharges from power stations were within authorised limits. Radiation doses to members of the public resulting from these discharges, and from direct radiation from the Stations, were in all cases less than the limit of 1 mSv per year which has been recommended by ICRP since 1985. (Author)

  15. Space station communications and tracking equipment management/control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapell, M. H.; Seyl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Design details of a communications and tracking (C and T) local area network and the distribution system requirements for the prospective space station are described. The hardware will be constructed of LRUs, including those for baseband, RF, and antenna subsystems. It is noted that the C and T equipment must be routed throughout the station to accommodate growth of the station. Configurations of the C and T modules will therefore be dependent on the function of the space station module where they are located. A block diagram is provided of a sample C and T hardware distribution configuration. A topology and protocol will be needed to accommodate new terminals, wide bandwidths, bidirectional message transmission, and distributed functioning. Consideration will be given to collisions occurring in the data transmission channels.

  16. Human-factors-based implementation of the remote characterization system high-level control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, M.W.; Richardson, B.S.; Rowe, J.C.; Draper, J.V.; Sandness, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of the numerous US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Department of Defense waste disposal sites. DOE, through its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Robotics and Technology Development Program, has developed the Remote Characterization System (RCS) to address the needs of remote subsurfacecharacterization. The RCS consists of a low-metal-content (low-metallic-signature) remotely piloted vehicle, a high-level control station (HLCS) where operators can remotely control the vehicle and analyze real-time data from sensors, and an array of sensors that can be chosen to meet the survey task at hand. Communication between the vehicle and the base station is handled by a radio link. Site mapping is made possible through the use of geopositioning satellite data. The primary mode of vehicle operation is teleoperation, but provision has been made for semiautonomous or supervisory control that allows for automated sitesurvey on simple sites. Data analysis and display is supported for both real-time observation and postprocessing of data. The particular emphasis of this paper documents the human-factors-based design influences on the HLCS and describes the design in detail

  17. An Assessment of the International Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Process Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry J. L.; Cole, H. E.; El-Lessy, H. N.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System includes equipment speci.cally designed to actively remove trace chemical contamination from the cabin atmosphere. In the U.S. on-orbit segment, this function is provided by the trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS) located in the atmosphere revitalization subsystem rack housed in the laboratory module, Destiny. The TCCS employs expendable adsorbent beds to accomplish its function leading to a potentially signi.cant life cycle cost over the life of the ISS. Because maintaining the TCCSs proper can be logistically intensive, its performance in .ight has been studied in detail to determine where savings may be achieved. Details of these studies and recommendations for improving the TCCS s process economics without compromising its performance or crew health and safety are presented and discussed.

  18. Environmental control medical support team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, William J.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The activities conducted in support of the Environmental Control and Life Support Team during December 7, 1987 through September 30, 1988 are summarized. The majority of the ongoing support has focused on the ECLSS area. Through a series of initial meetings with the ECLSS team and technical literature review, an initial list of critical topics was developed. Subtasks were then identified or additional related tasks received as action items from the ECLSS group meetings. Although most of the efforts focused on providing MSFC personnel with information regarding specific questions and problems related to ECLSS issues, other efforts regarding identifying an ECLSS Medical Support Team and constructing data bases of technical information were also initiated and completed. The specific tasks are as follows: (1) Provide support to the mechanical design and integration of test systems as related to microbiological concerns; (2) Assist with design of Human Subjects Test Protocols; (3) Interpretation and recommendations pertaining to air/water quality requirements; (4) Assist in determining the design specifications required as related to the Technical Demonstration Program; (5) Develop a data base of all microorganisms recovered from previous subsystem testing; (6) Estimates of health risk of individual microbes to test subjects; (7) Assist with setting limits for safety of test subjects; (8) Health monitoring of test subjects; (9) Assist in the preparation of test plans; (10) Assist in the development of a QA/QC program to assure the validity, accuracy and precision of the analyses; and (11) Assist in developing test plans required for future man in the loop testing.

  19. Evolution of occupational exposure to environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in service stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, J F; Prado, C

    2005-04-01

    During refuelling, people may easily be exposed to extremely high levels of gasoline vapour for a short time, although such exposure takes on more importance in the case of service station attendants. The volume of gasoline sold in refuelling operations and the ambient temperature can significantly increase the environmental level of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) vapours and, subsequently, the occupational risk of service station attendants. This is especially true in the case of benzene, the most important component of gasoline vapours from a toxicological point of view. The European Directive 98/70/EC, limiting the benzene composition of gasoline, and 94/63/EC, concerning the use of vapour recovery systems in the delivery of gasoline to services stations, were applied in Spain from January 2000 and 2002, respectively. In addition, a new limit value for occupational exposure of 3.25 mg/m(3) was fixed for benzene in Directive 97/42/EC, applied from June 2003. However, recent years have seen the growing use of diesel as well as of unleaded and reformulated gasoline. In this study, we analyse the differences found between air concentration levels of BTXs in 2000 and 2003, analysing samples taken from the personal breathing-zone of occupationally exposed workers in service stations. The results are compared with those obtained in a similar study carried out in 1995 (before the new regulations came into force). The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase was carried out in 2000, after application of the new legal regulation limiting the benzene concentration in gasoline. In this case, an occupationally exposed population of 28 service station attendants was sampled in July, with a mean ambient temperature of 30-31 degrees C. In the second phase, 19 exposed subjects were sampled in July 2003, one of the warmest months in recent years with mean temperatures of 35-36 degrees C during the time of exposure monitoring. The results were then compared with

  20. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  1. Assessment of environmental effects on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Nahra, Henry K.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of EPS (electrical power system) interactions with the LEO (low earth orbit) environment are described. The results of these analyses will support EPS design so as to be compatible with the natural and induced environments and to meet power, lifetime, and performance requirements. The environmental impacts to the Space Station Freedom EPS include aerodynamic drag, atomic oxygen erosion, ultraviolet degradation, VXB effect, ionizing radiation dose and single event effects, electromagnetic interference, electrostatic discharge, plasma interactions (ion sputtering, arcing, and leakage current), meteoroid and orbital debris threats, thermal cycling effects, induced current and voltage potential differences in the SSF due to induced electric field, and contamination degradation.

  2. Environmental and public interface for Point Aconi generating station, Point Aconi, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, T P

    1993-01-01

    Nova Scotia Power's most recent generating station is a 165 MW coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) unit located at Point Aconi on the northern tip of Boularderie Island. This paper discusses the environmental and public interfaces associated with this project, particularly on the unique items and issues requiring delicate and/or innovative approaches for their successful completion. Specific issues discussed include clarification of the process, the turnkey arrangement, the community liaison committee, freshwater supply, air emissions and dealings with commercial growers, dealings with lobster fishermen, dealings with Native peoples, and the transmission line.

  3. Assessment of environmental radiation hazards from the Koeberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    Escom's decision to build the 2 x 922 MW (e) Koeberg nuclear power station on the coastal Duynefontein site, 28 km north of Cape Town is explained. After describing the internationally accepted basis of radiation protection, the philosophy of nuclear-installation licensing, as applied by the AEB Licensing Branch, is outlined. Pre-operational environmental investigations that have provided acceptable release rates of radioactive effluent to the sea and the atmosphere are discussed. Accidental releases are described and the sound basis of such studies is compared with normal industrial undertakings [af

  4. Monitoring and studies of environmental cumulative dose of Guangdong Da Ya Bay nuclear-power station by thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yusong; Li Shili; Yang Lin; Feng Zhanglin; Kong Lingfeng; Yu Jinglan

    1999-01-01

    The author presents the environmental γ radiation routine monitoring by TLD in Guangdong Da Ya Bay Nuclear Power Station and its peripheral 50 km area, which has been put into commercial operation since 1994. The year's monitoring result indicates that there is no obvious change of the total environmental γ radiation in Da Ya Bay Nuclear Power Station and its peripheral 50 km area. But the influence of gas release γ radiation was monitored in 1995 at the monitoring points in the area of 0∼1 km from the nuclear power station

  5. Man/machine interface for a nuclear cask remote handling control station: system design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.; Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Design requirements are presented for a control station of a proposed semi-automated facility for remote handling of nuclear waste casks. Functional and operational man/machine interface: controls, displays, software format, station architecture, and work environment. In addition, some input is given to the design of remote sensing systems in the cask handling areas. 18 references, 9 figures, 12 tables

  6. DETERMINING THE STUDENTS’ VIEWS TOWARDS THE LEARNING STATIONS DEVELOPED FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Gerçek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to increase awareness in students in relation to environmental consciousness. Therefore, the prepared presentations and the adapted learning stations were used to create awareness of students in the out-of-the-school learning environment supported by the municipality of a county in Ankara the capital city of Turkey. Learning stations serve to people’s individual study. The basic goal here is to develop higher order skills and to make sure that students work in stations according to their abilities in a pre-determined order. The study group was composed of volunteering 15 fifth graders of a private school in Ankara. Firstly, the content to be applied in the study was developed. Prior to the application, a readiness presentation was made so as to raise students’ interest and awareness in terms of the importance of waste and recycling the waste. As a conclusion of the current study, it may be said that students’ interest in and awareness of the environment and collecting the waste developed. Enlarging this pilot project and applying it to bigger groups is important in terms of the success of the educational activities for separating the waste and in terms of the durability of the relevant behavior.

  7. A design proposal of real-time monitoring stations: implementation and performance in contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of creating a real-time monitoring network for both oceanographic and meteorological data, a monitoring station conceptual design was developed. A common framework for software and electronics was adapted to different environmental conditions using two buoy approaches: one intended for oceanic waters, to be moored up to 30-40 m depth, where waves are the critical design factor, and one for continental waters (rivers, lakes and the inner part of estuaries, where currents are the critical design factor. When structures such as bridges are present in the area, the monitoring station can be installed on these structures, thus reducing its impact and increasing safety. In this paper, the design, implementation, operation and performance of these stations are described. A reliability index is calculated for the longest time series of the three related deployment options on the Galician coast: Cíes (oceanic buoy in front of the Ría de Vigo, Catoira (continental buoy in the Ulla river and Cortegada (installation in a bed in the Ría de Arousa.

  8. Environmental risk assessment in an oil production station near a mangrove area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z' Graggen, M.; Moraes, R.; Ferreira, H.; Thomas, C. [Golder Associates, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, M.; Vaqueiro, R.L.C.; Sauerbronn, J.L.B. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Pedra Branca Station is an oil production area that pumps, stores and transfers crude oil from wells located near the station. It is located 2 km of the mouth of the Sao Paulo River, northeast Brazil, in a mangrove area of social, economical and environmental importance. During the past 30+ years of operation, the area has been contaminated with leaks and spills of crude oil from pipelines and storage tanks. The assessment aimed to verify if local conditions represent risk to maintenance workers at the Station, nearby residents that collect firewood and shellfish and that consume shellfish from the Site. Crab and oyster samples were collected and analyzed and a questionnaire concerning activities of workers and residents was administrated. Contaminants of potential concern included barium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons. Potential risks associated with soil/sediment ingestion, dermal contact with soil/sediment and ingestion of shellfish were evaluated. The study indicated that risks to maintenance worker and nearby residents due to exposure to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic substances present in soil, sediment, and shellfish were below limits considered acceptable to regulatory authorities. The evaluation provided scientific bases for decision making regarding the management of the contaminated area. (author)

  9. Performance of International Space Station Alpha Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis presented herein was conducted during the early transitional period between the Space Station Freedom and the International Space Station programs as part of an effort to evaluate key design specifications and standards used by the United States and Russia. The analysis was originally documented under NASA cover letter ED62(36-94) dated August 16, 1994. The analysis was revised and rereleased under NASA cover letter ED62(51-94) dated November 14, 1994. These cover letters are provided here to guide programmatic context for the reader.

  10. Integrating environmental control for coal plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-01-01

    As emission control requirements for power plants have grown more stringent, utilities have added new environmental protection technology. As environmental controls have been added one after another, plant designers have rarely had the opportunity to integrate these components with each other and the balance of the plant. Consequently they often cost more to build and operate and can reduce power plant efficiency and availability. With the aim of lowering the cost of environmental systems, a design approach known as integrated environmental control (IEC) has emerged. This is based on the premise that environmental controls can function most economically if they are designed integrally with other power generation equipment. EPRI has established an IEC progam to develop integrated design strategies and evaluate their net worth to utilities. Various aspects of this program are described. (3 refs.)

  11. Environmental monitoring report for the Point Lepreau, New Brunswick nuclear generating station 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.P.; Ellis, K.M.; Smith, J.N.

    1986-07-01

    The Point Lepreau Environmental Monitoring Program (PLEMP) has been established within the Department of Fisheries and Oceans to assess the environmental impact of radioactive, thermal, and chemical releases from the Point Lepreau, N.B. Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) located on the Bay of Fundy. This report contains the results for the second year of the operational phase of the monitoring program. Emphasis has been placed on those areas where effects from the NGS operation were expected to be observed. Further studies were carried out on the characterization of the thermal plume during several pre-arranged tritium releases. Attention was given to tritium levels at the outfall, in the atmosphere and in biological samples. An initial attempt was made to relate the distribution of tritium in the Point Lepreau area in various phases to local meteorological conditions. Radionuclide levels in lichen, including, for the first time, aerial lichen on a regular basis, an efficient accumulator of atmospheric particulates were monitored. In addition, radionuclide measurements were made on samples collected during the pre-operational phase from the major environmental reservoirs and these radioactivity levels were compared to previous measurements to assess the impact of the operation of the NGS. The purpose of this program is to provide government with a comprehensive scientific basis upon which to assess the environmental implications of the operation of nuclear reactors in coastal regions

  12. Design and validation of a model to offer environmental consulting services to minimize oil pollution at gas stations: case study: a gas station in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Hernandez, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    An environmental consulting service was designed and validated to minimize hydrocarbon contamination at gas stations, to be used by Migliore S.A. in order to strengthen and increase the number of services offered in the market niche of these companies. A matrix was synthesized with tools such as SWOT, deployment of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and international analysis. With the standardized protocols it will be possible to increase in a fluid way, the offer of consulting services. The final validation of the model allowed to verify the functionality of the same, through the generation of solid evaluation criteria that allowed a good knowledge of the gas station, case study, to offer a timely solution to your particular case, in a simple way and harmonious. The company providing environmental consulting services Migliore S.A. can count on a better commercial development, using the designed model [es

  13. Inspection control and the environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Dragan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is the task of many administrative bodies, but the activity of the environmental inspection is of special importance. According to the Law on Environmental Protection, inspection's tasks in this area belong to the competence of republican bodies, ie. Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection. Autonomous province and local self-government have only delegated competence in this field, under condition that this is explicitly regulated in special laws. Environmental inspection's activity consists in preventive actions, certain prior - preparatory activities and the audit itself. In addition, following the intervention of the Inspector issue of the control may be corrective or repressive. According to the Law on Inspection Control and the Law on Environmental Protection, the inspectors have a number of powers and responsibilities, which enable them to ensure the lawful and proper conduct of individuals and legal entities.

  14. Applicability of Long Duration Exposure Facility environmental effects data to the design of Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1992-01-01

    Data defining space environmental effects on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are examined in terms of the design of the electrical power system (EPS) of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The significant effects of long-term exposure to space are identified with respect to the performance of the LDEF's materials, components, and systems. A total of 57 experiments were conducted on the LDEF yielding information regarding coatings, thermal systems, electronics, optics, and power systems. The resulting database is analyzed in terms of the specifications of the SSF EPS materials and subsystems and is found to be valuable in the design of control and protection features. Specific applications are listed for findings regarding the thermal environment, atomic oxygen, UV and ionizing radiation, debris, and contamination. The LDEF data are shown to have a considerable number of applications to the design and planning of the SSF and its EPS.

  15. Microprocessor control unit of thyristor regulator of microhydroelectric power station ballast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomokonova, Yu; Bogdanov, E

    2014-01-01

    The operational principle of microhydroelectric power station ballast load is presented. The comparative overview of the mathematical modeling methods is performed. The ranges of thyristors optimal work are shown as a result of the regulator regimes analysis. Shows the necessity of regulation the ballast load in microhydroelectric power station with help of developed algorithm of the program for microprocessor control

  16. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above

  17. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  18. Environmental situation in Austria. Sixth environmental control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deweis, M.; Kaitna, M.

    2001-01-01

    This sixth environmental control report gives an overall picture of the situation of the environment in Austria for the period from 1997 to 2000. It emphasizes the areas of the Austrian environmental policy where significant improvements were achieved, such as the reduction of air pollutant emissions and the improvement of the quality of running waters. It also deals with problem areas such as transport, climate protection and renewable energy, where new solutions will have to be found within the framework of the Austrian and European environmental policies and already agreed upon strategies will have to be translated into daily practice. This environmental control report was written by experts of the Federal Environment Agency, which is an agency subordinate to the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, and which acquired independent status in the form of a limited company. The report gives comprehensive information on all aspects of environmental monitoring in Austria, with a huge amount of numerical, geographical and evaluated data. The report is structured by the following chapters: population and land use; air; global climate change; stratospheric ozone degradation; water; soil; forests; environmental protection; agriculture; traffic; industry; economic audit; waste; contaminated sites; energy; noise; secure handling of chemicals; plant-protective agents; gene technology; radioecology. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope, dealing with radioecology and ecological aspects of nuclear and non-nuclear energy are treated individually on analytical level for the INIS database. (a.n.)

  19. Environmental impact assessment for nuclear and coal-fired power stations in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapcik, V.

    1994-01-01

    Czechoslovakia has had legislation requiring environmental impact assessment since 1992. A methodology for complex evaluation of areas with thermal and nuclear energy sources, as related to ecology and environment, was developed by the staff of the Department of Ecology in accordance with the environmental Protection act (No. 17/1992) for use by the Czech Energy Company (Prague). This methodology will serve as a handbook of environmental impact assessment for the energy industry. Chapter 1 of the handbook describes the project, including information on the site, design, and size of the thermal or nuclear power station. Chapter 2 includes the data necessary to identify and assess the main effects that the project is likely to have on the environment. Chapter 3 describes aspects of the environment likely to be affected significantly by a proposed project, including population, fauna, flora, soil, water, air, climatic factors, material assets (such as architectural and archeological heritage), landscape, and the interrelationship between the above factors. Chapter 4 summarizes the measures envisaged to prevent, reduce, and where possible, offer any significant adverse effects on the environment

  20. The expected environmental consequences and hazards of laser-fusion electric generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, J.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    The operation of an expected early form of a laser-fusion electric power plant is described and the hazards and the environmental effects of such a station are estimated. Possible environmental impacts and hazards to mankind can occur from nuclear excursions or explosions, nuclear weapon proliferation, loss of coolant accident (LOCA), tritium releases, chemical fires and accompanying releases of radioactivity or chemicals, induced radioactivity releases (other than tritium), radioactive waste disposal, lasers, normal electrical generation and steam plant effects, external intrusions, natural disasters, land use, resource and transportation use, thermal pollution, and air and water pollution. We find the principle environmental effects to be those of a medium size chemical plant. Electric, magnetic, steam, and radioactive hazards are of a lower order. Indeed in the event of extraordinary success in getting high temperatures and densities so that more difficult nuclear species can be reacted, such as protons with boron-11, there will be no radioactivity at all and also enormously lower hazardous chemical inventories. In our plant designs, for any fusion fuels, nuclear explosions (or even excursions beyond design limits) are not possible. (author)

  1. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2000-04-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  2. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  3. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  4. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  5. Design and verification of computer-based reactor control system modification at Bruce-A candu nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Webb, N.

    1995-01-01

    The Reactor Control System at Bruce-A Nuclear Generating Station is going through some design modifications, which involve a rigorous design process including independent verification and validation. The design modification includes changes to the control logic, alarms and annunciation, hardware and software. The design (and verification) process includes design plan, design requirements, hardware and software specifications, hardware and software design, testing, technical review, safety evaluation, reliability analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, environmental qualification, seismic qualification, software quality assurance, system validation, documentation update, configuration management, and final acceptance. (7 figs.)

  6. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Cruz, E.S. da

    1989-01-01

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  7. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  8. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, M.; Hu, L. B.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory

  9. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present climatic characteristics of Mars favor the presence of extense permafrost areas in this lonely planet. Therefore environmental parameters that are included in Martian Rover missions are also used for monitoring thermal soil surface evolution in order to study the permafrost active layer thickness and the energy balance in the soil-atmosphere boundary limit layer. The REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) is an environmental station designed by the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB- Spain) with the collaboration of national and international partners (CRISA/EADS, UPC and FMI), which is part of the payload of the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) NASA mission to Mars (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/overview/). This mission is expected to be launched in the final months of 2009, and mainly consists of a Rover, with a complete set of scientific instruments; the Rover will carry the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. Five sensors compose the REMS instrument: ground (GT-REMS) and air temperatures, wind speed and direction, pressure, humidity and ultraviolet radiation (UV-REMS). A simplified setup of the REMS was deployed on Antarctica in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Stations on Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctica), where the permafrost distribution is well-known. The aim of the experiment was to check REMS's sensors response against hard environmental conditions and calibrates their measures with standard Antarctic devices. The experimental apparatuses included some standard meteorological and thermopiles sensors corresponding to the REMS. All the sensors are mounted in a 1.8 m mast and include a Pt100 air temperature sensor with shield solar protection on the mast top, a Kipp and Zonnen CNR1 net radiometer for measuring infrared (5-50 μm) and short wave solar (305-2800 nm) radiation at 1.5 m high, GT-REMS sensor and its amplification box at 0.7 m high and finally

  10. Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulpule, Pinak J.; Marano, Vincenzo; Yurkovich, Stephen; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging station located in a workplace parking garage. • Emissions from the power grid. • Economic analysis. • Parametric analysis for parking rates, installed capacities to show benefits to vehicle and garage owner. - Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) have high potential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and for providing a way to utilize renewable energy sources for the transportation sector. On the other hand, charging millions of PEVs could overload the power grid, increase emissions and significantly alter economic characteristics. A day-time photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle charging station located in a workplace parking garage is considered in this research. The results show the impact of PV based workplace charging on the economics and emissions from the power grid. An optimal charge scheduling strategy is compared with an uncontrolled charging case to perform the economics and emissions analysis. Two locations (Columbus, OH and Los Angeles, CA) are selected such that the analysis includes different scenarios of yearly variation of solar radiation and finance structure. A high fidelity hourly simulation model for energy economic analysis is developed considering different types of vehicles, statistical data for driving distances, parking time, installation cost, tax rebates and incentives. An incremental parking rate for accessing the charging facility is considered for economic analysis for the garage owner and the vehicle owner. The analysis is extended to consider the impact of carbon tax implementation on the driver economics and shows the feasibility of such PV based charging stations. Parametric analysis for different parking rates and installed capacities show (i) the feasibility of a PV based workplace charging facility, (ii) benefits to the vehicle owner and the garage owner, and (iii) the need for

  11. Preliminary Design of Monitoring and Control Subsystem for GNSS Ground Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System Ground Station monitors navigation satellite signal, analyzes navigation result, and uploads correction information to satellite. GNSS Ground Station is considered as a main object for constructing GNSS infra-structure and applied in various fields. ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute is developing Monitoring and Control subsystem, which is subsystem of GNSS Ground Station. Monitoring and Control subsystem acquires GPS and Galileo satellite signal and provides signal monitoring data to GNSS control center. In this paper, the configurations of GNSS Ground Station and Monitoring and Control subsystem are introduced and the preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem is performed. Monitoring and Control subsystem consists of data acquisition module, data formatting and archiving module, data error correction module, navigation solution determination module, independent quality monitoring module, and system operation and maintenance module. The design process uses UML (Unified Modeling Language method which is a standard for developing software and consists of use-case modeling, domain design, software structure design, and user interface structure design. The preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem enhances operation capability of GNSS Ground Station and is used as basic material for detail design of Monitoring and Control subsystem.

  12. 76 FR 73721 - Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC, Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit No. 2, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    .... Solid radioactive waste streams include filter sludge, spent ion exchange resin, and dry active waste... Environmental Impact of Transportation of Fuel and Waste to and from One Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power... facilities. NMP2 uses a boiling-water reactor and a nuclear steam supply system designed by General Electric...

  13. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. 134 Cs and 137 Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the 137 Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total 137 Cs and 134 Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984

  14. Integrated real time control of influent pumping station and primary settling tanks at WWTP Eindhoven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daal-Rombouts, P.M.M.; de Jonge, J; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2016-01-01

    This research deals with the design and implementation of an integrated control for the WWTP of Eindhoven. The control influences the operation of the primary settling tanks and influent pumping station to reduce reduce ammonia peaks in the WWTP effluent. The control takes into account the treatment

  15. Flow Control and Design Assessment for Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Rosa Affleck, Meredith...Flow Control and Design Assessment for Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Rosa Affleck, Meredith Carr, and Brendan West Cold Regions...Characterization and Variations at McMurdo Station, Antarctica . ERDC/CRREL TR-14-6. Hanover, NH: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center

  16. Automated subsystems control development. [for life support systems of space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, R. F.; Heppner, D. B.; Samonski, F. H., Jr.; Lance, N., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    NASA has the objective to launch a Space Station in the 1990s. It has been found that the success of the Space Station engineering development, the achievement of initial operational capability (IOC), and the operation of a productive Space Station will depend heavily on the implementation of an effective automation and control approach. For the development of technology needed to implement the required automation and control function, a contract entitled 'Automated Subsystems Control for Life Support Systems' (ASCLSS) was awarded to two American companies. The present paper provides a description of the ASCLSS program. Attention is given to an automation and control architecture study, a generic automation and control approach for hardware demonstration, a standard software approach, application of Air Revitalization Group (ARG) process simulators, and a generic man-machine interface.

  17. Control of Warm Compression Stations Using Model Predictive Control: Simulation and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, F.; Alamir, M.; Bonnay, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with multivariable constrained model predictive control for Warm Compression Stations (WCS). WCSs are subject to numerous constraints (limits on pressures, actuators) that need to be satisfied using appropriate algorithms. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to achieve precise control of pressures in normal operation or to avoid reaching stopping criteria (such as excessive pressures) under high disturbances (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors, expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details the simulator used to validate this new control scheme and the associated simulation results on the SBTs WCS. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

  18. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    OpenAIRE

    Qingru Zou; Xiangming Yao; Peng Zhao; Fei Dou; Taoyuan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Station inflow control (SIC) is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows a...

  19. Quality control for the construction of Ikata Nuclear Power Station No. 2 Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Akiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    In the construction of No. 2 unit in Ikata Nuclear Power Station, Shikoku Electric Power Co., the quality control was practiced making effective use of the experience in preceding stations including the Three Mile Island station, U.S., and improving those. The construction works were also performed in consideration of ensuring the safe running of No. 1 unit in commercial operation. In this report, first the outline of No. 2 unit facility and the quality control in the construction processes are described sequentially. For the comprehensive quality control activity over a series of plant design, manufacturing, installation and commissioning processes, the quality control policy was fixed, the system was established, the plan was prepared, and the quality control was promoted as planned and systematically. The outline of the quality control in each stage is described as follows. Design stage: It was implemented for the confirmation of applicable standards and references, the management of drawings submitted for approval, the selection of materials used, the coordination among sub-contractors, design change and the reflection of experience in preceding stations. Manufacturing stage. It was performed for material control, manufacturing management, factory test and control. Installation stage. It was practiced for the management of installation works, the inspection during the installation, and the check-up and control after the installation. Several quality control items were implemented also in the method of construction works and construction management. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  1. Environmental Effects on Mesozooplankton Size Structure and Export Flux at Station ALOHA, North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Bellineth; Décima, Moira; Landry, Michael R.

    2018-02-01

    Using size-fractionated mesozooplankton biomass data collected over 23 years (1994-2016) of increasing primary production (PP) at station ALOHA (A Long-Term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment), we evaluate how changing environmental conditions affect mesozooplankton size structure, trophic cycling, and export fluxes in the subtropical North Pacific. From generalized additive model analysis, size structure is significantly influenced by a nonlinear relationship with sea surface temperature that is mainly driven by the strong 1997-1998 El Niño and a positive and linear relationship with PP. Increasing PP has more strongly enhanced the biomass of smaller (0.2-0.5 mm) and larger (>5 mm) mesozooplankton, increasing evenness of the biomass spectra, while animals of 2-5 mm, the major size class for vertically migrating mesozooplankton, show no long-term trend. Measured PP is sufficient to meet feeding requirements that satisfy mesozooplankton respiration and growth rates, as determined by commonly used empirical relationships based on animal size and temperature, consistent with a tightly coupled food web with one intermediate level for protistan consumers. Estimated fecal pellet production suggests an enhanced contribution of mesozooplankton to passive particle export relative to the material collected in 150 m sediment traps. In contrast, the biomass of vertically migrants does not vary systematically with PP due to the varying responses of the different size classes. These results illustrate some complexities in understanding how varying environmental conditions can affect carbon cycling and export processes at the community level in open-ocean oligotrophic systems, which need to be confirmed and better understood by process-oriented mechanistic study.

  2. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  3. Current situation and control measures of groundwater pollution in gas station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qianjin

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, pollution accidents caused by gas station leakage has occurred worldwide which can be persistent in groundwater. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the contaminated groundwater is threatening the ecological environment and human health. In this article, current status and sources of groundwater pollution by gas station are analyzed, and experience of how to prevent groundwater pollution from gas stations are summarized. It is demonstrated that installation of secondary containment measures for the oil storage of the oil tank system, such as installation of double-layer oil tanks or construction of impermeable ponds, is a preferable method to prevent gas stations from groundwater pollution. Regarding to the problems of groundwater pollution caused by gas station, it is proposed that it is urgent to investigate the leakage status of gas station. Relevant precise implementation regulations shall be issued and carried out, and supervision management of gas stations would need to be strengthened. Then single-layer steel oil tanks shall be replaced by double-layer tanks, and the impermeable ponds should be constructed according to the risk ranking. From the control methodology, the groundwater environment monitoring systems, supervision level, laws and regulations as well as pollution remediation should also be carried out and strengthened.

  4. Environmental pollution and control, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesilind, P.A.; Peirce, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the problems, principles, and solutions are presented here in a non-biased, easy-to-read format. The language used is non-technical for the most part, and the inclusion of a complete glossary aids when some technical terms must be used. The text itself is supported by photographs, drawings, tables, and examples. Major Sections: Environmental Pollution, Water Pollution; Measurement of Water Quality; Water Supply; Water Treatment; Collection of Wastewater; Wastewater Treatment; Sludge Treatment and Disposal; Nonpoint Source Water Pollution; Water Pollution Law; Solid Waste; Solid Waste Disposal; Resource Recovery; Hazardous Waste; Radioactive Waste; Solid and Hazardous Waste Law; Air Pollution; Meteorology and Air Quality; Measurement of Air Quality; Air Pollution Control; Air Pollution Law; Noise Pollution; Noise Measurement and Control; Environmental Impact; The Environmental Ethic; Appendix: Conversion Factors; Glossary and Abbreviations; Index

  5. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  7. Solid waste disposed in the surrounding of Caetés Ecological Station - PE: opportunity of environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Megumi Nishiwaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several human activities have affected the integrity and balance of conservation unit, compromising the efficiency of the preservation of biodiversity, natural resources and cultural. This work aims to study the solid waste irregular disposition in the surrounding of Caetés Ecological Station (PE and the impacts on site, as well as presenting a proposal of environmental education program involving the local community. The problem has been identified through visiting areas, resulting in primary data, which were crossed with secondary data about solid waste and its negative effects, as well as on environmental education in communities. The environmental education program developed consists in lectures, dynamics, workshops, partnerships with local schools and training. The community mobilization expected in the program will rescue of the history of the Caetés Ecological Station.

  8. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  9. Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects on Trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. ... African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock due to anemia, loss of condition and emaciation. The disease when neglected is lethal and untreated ...

  10. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Say, Nuriye Peker; Yuecel, Muzaffer; Yilmazer, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool for decision makers to take into account the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software-CEDINFO-developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power station, hydraulic station, nuclear station) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations

  11. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Say, Nuriye Peker; Yuecel, Muzaffer [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Department of Landscape Architecture; Yilmazer, Mehmet [Bogazici University, Kandilli, Istanbul (Turkey). Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute

    2007-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool for decision makers to take into account the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software - CEDINFO - developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power station, hydraulic station, nuclear station) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations. (author)

  12. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuriye Peker Say; Muzaffer Yucel; Mehmet Yilmazer [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Department of Landscape Architecture

    2007-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool to enable decision makers to account for the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software CEDINFO developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power stations, hydroelectric power stations, nuclear power stations) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations. 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. New software of the control and data acquisition system for the Nuclotron internal target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, A.Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The control and data acquisition system for the Internal Target Station (ITS) of the Nuclotron (LHEP, JINR) is implemented. The new software is based on the ngdp framework under the Unix-like operating system FreeBSD to allow easy network distribution of the on-line data collected from ITS, as well as the internal target remote control

  14. PC-based control of the internal target station at the Nuclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilman, J [and others

    1996-12-31

    A PC-based control system of the internal target at the Nuclotron is described. The system is based on CAMAC-control of the step motor of the station and screen representation of information about needed beam parameters and space-time position of targets relative to a beam. 6 refs.; 4 figs.

  15. Ergonomic configuration of control rooms in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.

    1984-01-01

    Human possibilities and limits of performance can be taken into account by work configuration measures, in order to make the optimum contribution to the total output of the human being/machine system. The results of and considerations for the level ergonomic configuration of the control room, for the elements of the information carrier, for the structuring of the work field and for communication centres are introduced. (DG) [de

  16. Minimal average consumption downlink base station power control strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Holtkamp H.; Auer G.; Haas H.

    2011-01-01

    We consider single cell multi-user OFDMA downlink resource allocation on a flat-fading channel such that average supply power is minimized while fulfilling a set of target rates. Available degrees of freedom are transmission power and duration. This paper extends our previous work on power optimal resource allocation in the mobile downlink by detailing the optimal power control strategy investigation and extracting fundamental characteristics of power optimal operation in cellular downlink. W...

  17. Control and digital supervision of sub-stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, O; Messie, M; Labrouche, G. de la

    1996-01-01

    The article is about the electromagnetic compatibility, security of the operation, requirements evolution and techniques among other aspects. It concludes that the dynamics of the progress associated with digital technologies should therefore, to control by means of a rational development that requires of tools and methods that are at the same time with the technological and economic jump, the jump should also be cultural concerning the coming of a new field of knowledge, the prosecution of data

  18. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    boreholes at the Boulder Seismic Station for research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) as part of the U.S. Nuclear Treaty monitoring...14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Location of the proposed Boulder Seismic Station, borehole locations and associated buffers...juncture of Spring Creek and Scab Creek Road (Figure 1). Currently, the Boulder Seismic Station has a 13-element array of seismometers on the property

  19. Access control system in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Hisashi; Shimura, Shigetaka; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Kitazawa, Toshiichi

    1983-01-01

    The new computerized system has introduced to improve function of radiation protection for those who enter the radiation control area, by dealing with measurement of radiation dose, check of personal qualification, resistration of working condition and statistical treatment of these data. This system uses combined TLD, ''TL BADGE'', as a radiation detection sensor, instead of conventional pocket dosimeter and film badge. TL BADGE reading instrument are installed at the entrance to the control area and at working areas. The data of radiation dose, personal qualification etc. read by the reading instrument are transmitted directly to the computer system, which compiles and transacts these data. This system is consisted of three minicomputers, double memory files, CRTs for effective data search and display and floppy disks as a medium for registration, etc. Thus the computer system improves its reliability and the maintenanceability of data, being capable of automatical transaction of a great amount of data quickly. This report describes: Concept of using computer system, System outline, Measurement of radiation dose and Operational functions. (author)

  20. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental control system. (a) Identification. A powered environmental control system is an AC- or battery-powered device intended for medical purposes that is used by a patient to operate an environmental control... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725...

  1. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  2. Use of environmental TLD data at a nuclear power station to estimate detection limits for radiation exposure due to station operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, E.; Hardeman, J.; Kahn, B.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental radiation monitoring network maintained by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources at the Hatch Nuclear Plant, Baxley, GA, was used to determine the variability in measured background exposures in order to estimate the detection limits for radiation due to station operation. Data were obtained from LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) exposed in sets of four at 46 locations for 16 consecutive quarters from 1982 to 1985. The average exposure for 695 values was 11.8 microC kg-1 y-1 (mR/quarter). At individual locations, the averages of quarterly exposures ranged from 9.3 to 14.3 microC kg-1 y-1 and had standard deviations from 0.8 to 2.2 microC kg-1 y-1 with a typical standard deviation of 1.5 microC kg-1 y-1. The standard deviation due to reading the TLDs and subtracting the transit plus storage exposure, estimated as 0.4 microC kg-1 y-1, contributed only a small fraction of the uncertainty of the mean background; the greater contribution is from temporal fluctuations. There is a spatial pattern of higher background along the Altamaha River but no distinct seasonal pattern. The observation that exposure values at most locations rose and fell in unison suggested a calculational model that adjusts the average exposure level at a location by an increment determined each quarter at control locations. This model reduced the standard deviation for a predicted quarterly background exposure to 0.9 microC kg-1 y-1, with a range of 0.5 to 1.3 microC kg-1 y-1. If the standard deviation of the net value is multiplied by an error probability constant of 3.3 (type I and II errors not greater than 5%), the detection limits range from 2 to 5 microC kg-1 y-1 at the individual locations, with an average of 3 microC kg-1 y-1. This approach or two similar ones described earlier are recommended for improving the detection limit where needed

  3. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Assessment Construction and Operation of Revised PACBAR III Radar Station Saipan, CNMI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    ...). Many project design features have already incorporated environmental concerns. In addition, discussions with Saipan environmental agencies have resulted in mitigation measures, which have been added to the design...

  4. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of Hope Creek Generating Station (Docket No. 50-354)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.H.

    1984-06-01

    This report contains an assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the Hope Creek Generating Station pursuant to the National Environment Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environmental impacts, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs associated with station operation. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. No operational impacts to historic and archeological sites are anticipated. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. Socioeconomic impacts of the project are anticipated to be minimal. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Hope Creek Generating Station, Unit 1

  5. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF MONITORING AND CONTROL SUBSYSTEM FOR GNSS GROUND STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS becomes more important and is applied to various systems. Recently, the Galileo navigation system is being developed in Europe. Also, other countries like China, Japan and India are developing the global/regional navigation satellite system. As various global/regional navigation satellite systems are used, the navigation ground system gets more important for using the navigation system reasonably and efficiently. According to this trend, the technology of GNSS Ground Station (GGS is developing in many fields. The one of purposes for this study is to develop the high precision receiver for GNSS sensor station and to provide ground infrastructure for better performance services on navigation system. In this study, we consider the configuration of GNSS Ground Station and analyze function of Monitoring and Control subsystem which is a part of GNSS Ground Station. We propose Monitoring and Control subsystem which contains the navigation software for GNSS Ground System to monitor and control equipments in GNSS Ground Station, to spread the applied field of navigation system, and to provide improved navigation information to user.

  6. Measurements of tritium (HTO, TFWT, OBT) in environmental samples at varying distances from a nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.G.; Workman, W.J.G.

    1999-12-01

    Concentrations of tritium have been measured in environmental samples (vegetation, water, soil, air) from sites distal and proximal to a CANDU nuclear generating station in Southern Ontario (OPG-Pickering). Levels of tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) in vegetation are as high as 24,000 TU immediately adjacent to the nuclear generating station and rapidly decrease to levels of tritium which are comparable to natural ambient concentrations for tritium in the environment (approximately ≤ 60 TU). Tritium concentrations (OBT, TFTW) have also been measured in samples of vegetation and tree rings growing substantial distances away from nuclear generating stations and are within a factor of 1 to 2 of the ambient levels of tritium measured in precipitation in several parts of Canada (approximately ≤30 TU). (author)

  7. Measurements of tritium (HTO, TFWT, OBT) in environmental samples at varying distances from a nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzer, T.G.; Workman, W.J.G

    1999-12-01

    Concentrations of tritium have been measured in environmental samples (vegetation, water, soil, air) from sites distal and proximal to a CANDU nuclear generating station in Southern Ontario (OPG-Pickering). Levels of tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) in vegetation are as high as 24,000 TU immediately adjacent to the nuclear generating station and rapidly decrease to levels of tritium which are comparable to natural ambient concentrations for tritium in the environment (approximately {<=} 60 TU). Tritium concentrations (OBT, TFTW) have also been measured in samples of vegetation and tree rings growing substantial distances away from nuclear generating stations and are within a factor of 1 to 2 of the ambient levels of tritium measured in precipitation in several parts of Canada (approximately {<=}30 TU). (author)

  8. Draft environmental impact statement. River Bend Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Federal financing of an undivided ownership interest of River Bend Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 on a 3293-acre site near St. Francisville, Louisiana is proposed in a supplement to the final environmental impact statement of September 1974. The facility would consist of a boiling-water reactor that would produce a maximum of 2894 megawatts (MW) of electrical power. A design level of 3015 MW of electric power could be realized at some time in the future. Exhaust steam would be cooled by mechanical cooling towers using makeup water obtained from and discharged to the Mississippi River. Power generated by the unit would be transmitted via three lines totaling 140 circuit miles traversing portions of the parishes of West Feliciana, East Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge, Pointe Coupee, and Iberville. The unit would help the applicant meet the power needs of rural electric consumers in the region, and the applicant would contribute significanlty to area tax base and employment rolls during the life of the unit. Construction related activities would disturb 700 forested acres on the site and 1156 acres along the transmission routes. Of the 60 cubic feet per second (cfs) taken from the river, 48 cfs would evaporate during the cooling process and 12 cfs would return to the river with dissolved solids concentrations increased by 500%. The terrace aquifer would be dewatered for 16 months in order to lower the water table at the building site, and Grants Bayou would be transformed from a lentic to a lotic habitat during this period. Fogging and icing due to evaporation and drift from the cooling towers would increase slightly. During the construction period, farming, hunting, and fishing on the site would be suspended, and the social infractructure would be stressed due to the influx of a maximum of 2200 workers

  9. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeologic sites will be small. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this environmental statement, it is concluded that the action called for under NEPA and 10 CFR 51 is the issuance of an operating license for Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3. 101 references, 33 figures, 30 tables

  10. A digital, decentralized power station control system with bus-transmission facilitates the problem of backfitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.E.; Schemmel, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Current NPP control equipment technology is essentially characterized by the transmission of information in parallel using individual cables, and utilizes hardwired techniques for the processing of information. Progress in the area of semiconductor development characterized by micro-processors and LSI-circuits, has opened up new possibilities for the solution of the control tasks. The new power station control system PROCONTROL P utilizes these possibilities

  11. Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITE, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309/Rev.1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis

  12. Environmental Assessment for Replacement of the Main Gate Facility at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    rural with interspersed forests and residential areas. Land cover on the station is consistent with the surrounding area, and much of the habitat ...deciduous and mixed forest habitat types. The environmental assessment evaluates the potential impacts of two configurations (A and B) of the proposed...with air quality, topography, vegetation, soils, surface waters, and listed and non-listed wildlife and habitat resources. Demolition of Building 102

  13. Axial power deviation control strategy and computer simulation for Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yehong; Zhou Xiaoling, Xiao Min

    2004-01-01

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station has very tight operation diagram especially at its right side. Therefore the successful control of axial power deviation for PWR is crucial to nuclear safety. After analyzing various core characters' effect on axial power distribution, several axial power deviation control strategies has been proposed to comply with different power varying operation scenario. Application and computer simulation of the strategies has shown that our prediction of axial power deviation evolution are comparable to the measurement values, and that our control strategies are effective. Engineering experience shows that the application of our methodology can predict accurately the transient of axial power deviation, and therefore has become a useful tool for reactor operation and safety control. This paper presents the axial power control characteristics, reactor operation strategy research, computer simulation, and comparison to measurement results in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  14. The controlled ecological life support system Antarctic analog project: Analysis of wastewater from the South Pole Station, Antarctica, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Bubenheim, David L.; Straight, Christian L.; Belisle, Warren

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support system (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and NASA project for the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific studies to facilitate technology selection and system design. The NSF goals are that the food production, water purification, and waste treatment capabilities which will be provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. This report presents an analysis of wastewater samples taken from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The purpose of the work is to develop a quantitative understanding of the characteristics of domestic sewage streams at the South Pole Station. This information will contribute to the design of a proposed plant growth/waste treatment system which is part of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP).

  15. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1: Primary cooling system chemical decontamination: Draft environmental statement (Docket No. 50-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The staff has considered the environmental impact and economic costs of the proposed primary cooling system chemical decontamination at Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. The staff has focused this statement on the occupational radiation exposure associated with the proposed Unit 1 decontamination program, on alternatives to chemical decontamination, and on the environmental impact of the disposal of the solid radioactive waste generated by this decontamination. The staff has concluded that the proposed decontamination will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Furthermore, any impacts from the decontamination program are outweighed by its benefits. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Control of individual daily growth in group-housed pigs using feeding stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, it was examined whether it is possible to control individual daily growth and carcass composition in group-housed pigs using feeding stations. A forelegs weighing system to estimate the daily individual body weight (BW) of group-housed pigs was developed and validated. In two

  17. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...

  18. Two-Level Control for Fast Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations with Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a hierarchical control for a fast charging station (FCS) composed of paralleled PWM rectifier and dedicated paralleled multiple flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs), in order to mitigate peak power shock on grid caused by sudden connection of electrical vehicle (EV) chargers...

  19. Environmental Radiation Surveillance Results from over the Last Decade of Operational Experience at the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations(RRMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Young [Daegu Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Dong Han [Ulsan Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objectives of the current program are to monitor environmental radiation/radioactivity level in Korea and to provide the base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity which will be useful in the case of radiological emergency situations. This program plays an important role in the view of protecting the public health against the potential hazards of radiation and maintaining a clean environment. This paper describes an introduction to the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations (RRMS), and also presents some results of recent years (2001-2014). The environmental radiation surveillance results of years 2001-2014 have been described. It indicates normal levels of radiation in the past years. These kinds of studies are very important in providing references in understanding the environmental radioactivity level in a particular region.

  20. Control Optimization of a LHC 18 KW Cryoplant Warm Compression Station Using Dynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bradu, B; Niculescu, S I

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the control optimization of a 4.5 K refrigerator used in the cryogenic system of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. First, the compressor station with the cold-box have been modeled and simulated under PROCOS (Process and Control Simulator), a simulation environment developed at CERN. Next, an appropriate parameter identification has been performed on the simulator to obtain a simplified model of the system in order to design an Internal Model Control (IMC) enhancing the regulation of the high pressure. Finally, a floating high pressure control is proposed using a cascade control to reduce operational costs.

  1. Control of Flywheel Energy Storage Systems in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo

    energy storage system (FESS). The proposed PhD project supports a corresponding smart control strategy that could be termed “charging station to grid (CS2G)”. It explores the possibility of using a dedicated energy storage system (FESS) within the charging station to alleviate grid and market conditions...... converters is built and analyzed. |Based on modeling analysis, centralized and distributed control methods are both explored to realize the coordination control of each components in the system. Specially, this project proposes a “dc voltage vs speed” droop strategy for FESS control based on distributed bus...... function method when the system switches its operation behavior between two modes. Finally, a downscaled FCS prototype with FESS is built in the intelligent MG lab, and experiments and hardware-in-loop simulation results are conducted to verify the effectiveness and feasibility with the proposed FCS...

  2. Station-keeping control of an unmanned surface vehicle exposed to current and wind disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda, Edoardo I.; Qu, Huajin; Bertaska, Ivan R.; von Ellenrieder, Karl D.

    2017-01-01

    Field trials of a 4 meter long, 180 kilogram, unmanned surface vehicle (USV) have been conducted to evaluate the performance of station-keeping heading and position controllers in an outdoor marine environment disturbed by wind and current. The USV has a twin hull configuration and a custom-designed propulsion system, which consists of two azimuthing thrusters, one for each hull. Nonlinear proportional derivative, backstepping and sliding mode feedback controllers were tested in winds of abou...

  3. Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 7- 1 Engineering for Polar Operations , Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for...January 2017 Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Rosa Affleck U.S. Army Engineer Research and...runoff can be extreme where the flow can overwhelm both the drainage system and the operations and maintenance (O&M) crew. CRREL has been involved

  4. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-410)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit 2, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  5. Environmental management control. An empirical study on the use of environmental performance measures in management control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Companies increasingly adapt their accounting systems to accommodate the internal demand of environmental-related information for making decisions and control their activities in compliance with extant environmental regulation. Prior research in environmental accounting has predominantly focused on

  6. Does environmental impact assessment really support technological change? Analyzing alternatives to coal-fired power stations in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.

    1997-01-01

    Danish energy policy calls for development of decentralized, cleaner technologies to replace conventional power stations and, since 1990, aims to reduce CO 2 emissions in 2005 to 20% below their 1988 level. These political goals require a technological change, from conventional, central power stations to cleaner, decentralized technologies such as energy conservation, cogeneration, and renewable energy. In principle, environmental impact assessment (EIA) supports this change on a project-by-project basis. The EU directive on EIA was based on the preventive principle: to eliminate pollution source rather than attempting to counteract it subsequently. According to the Danish implementation of the directive, an EIA must review a project's main alternatives and the environmental consequences of the alternatives. If this were done properly, EIAs could assist Denmark in meeting its CO 2 reduction goals. However, because EIA is implemented on a restricted, regional basis, it does not support technological change. Responsibility for the preparation of the EIA is given to the regional authorities through a law which does not require alternatives to be assessed that extend geographically beyond the boundaries of a regional authority. Thus, there is no certainty of serious analysis of cleaner technology alternatives to large coal-fired power stations. This conclusion is based on examination of three case studies using a participatory research method

  7. Ageing management of control and instrumentation systems for Indian Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premchandran, T.; Ghoshal, B.; Shirolkar, K.M.; Ahmad, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    During the time of enmasse coolant channel replacement program, undertaken at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station and Madras Atomic Power Station, upgradation and ageing management activities of these units were also taken up with a view to improve the performance of the station. This paper presents the approach followed for handling the issues, pertaining to the ageing management and obsolesce of various components of Control and Instrumentation systems of these stations. Ageing related issues for field instruments, control room instruments and hardware like cables, terminal blocks and relays will be covered in this paper. It will also cover various aspects of ageing management like assessment of degradation due to ageing, policy followed for identifying the instruments that are to be replaced, selection procedure for items for assessment of residual life, testing method followed for life assessment and problems faced during replacement. From the experience gained, the issues to be addressed during design and construction stages of future plants to minimize the ageing related problems are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  8. Research on ISFLA-Based Optimal Control Strategy for the Coordinated Charging of EV Battery Swap Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid, electric vehicles (EVs could be a good measure against energy shortages and environmental pollution. A main way of energy supply to EVs is to swap battery from the swap station. Based on the characteristics of EV battery swap station, the coordinated charging optimal control strategy is investigated to smooth the load fluctuation. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA is an optimization method inspired by the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking food. An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA with the reflecting method to deal with the boundary constraint is proposed to obtain the solution of the optimal control strategy for coordinated charging. Based on the daily load of a certain area, the numerical simulations including the comparison of PSO and ISFLA are carried out and the results show that the presented ISFLA can effectively lower the peak-valley difference and smooth the load profile with the faster convergence rate and higher convergence precision.

  9. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingru Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Station inflow control (SIC is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows and section flows is then constructed. Second, capacity bottlenecks are identified by considering the transport capacity of each section. Then, a feedback-based bottleneck elimination strategy is established to search target control stations and determine their control time and control strength. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a decision support system coded in the C# programming language was developed, and the Beijing subway was used as a case study. The results indicate that the proposed method and tool are capable of practical applications, and the generated SIC plan has better performance over the existing SIC plan. This study provides a practical and useful method for operation agencies to construct SIC schemes in the subway system.

  10. Environmental Assessment: Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mission Beddown Minneapolis-St. Paul Air Reserve Station Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    training area. The baseball/ softball field adjacent to Building 750. A parking lot and storage area on station property leased to the Minnesota Air...was constructed on this site to help reduce storm water runoff volume at MSPARS. The baseball/ softball field adjacent to Building 750. Site is the

  11. Radioactivity in the vicinity of Sizewell nuclear power station: marine environmental monitoring, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regular monitoring of radioactivity in the aquatic environment of the British Isles has continued. A report presents the results of this program in relation to the Sizewell nuclear power station for 1983, so as to supplement the most recently available full report which is for 1982. (author)

  12. Production and quality control of concrete for the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station - [Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Roy, P.K.; Sukhtankar, K.D.; Prasad, K.

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of the production and quality control of concrete and concrete materials used in the construction of twin-reactor Rajasthan Atomic Power Station are discussed : (1) relationship between strength of cubes and cylinders made of concrete used for the prestressed dome (2) temperature control during pouring of concrete (3) thermal conductivity of heavy concrete (4) various types of grouting procedures used for different structures forming part of reactors (5) quality control of normal and heavy concrete and (6) leakage through form ties. Typical concrete mixes used for grouts are also given. (M.G.B.)

  13. A portable meteorological station plus nuclear radiation monitoring system using a basic-8052 micro-controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mohamad, A.; Aghabi, S.; Weiss, C.

    2002-01-01

    a portable meteorology station capable of measuring various atmospheric parameters (mainly ambient temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction) was designed and built. The physical quantities were converted to electrical signals using suitable sensors. These signals were then processed and transferred to digital values to be stored in suitable memories. A nuclear radiation alarm system was also built, on the main board, to monitor the nuclear radiation releases levels. The system consists of three main parts: control board, data acquisition board and signals conditioning board. the overall system is controlled by a BASIC-8052 micro-controller. (authors)

  14. Ergonomic evaluation of CRT display in new control panels for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabazawa, Yoshihiko

    1983-01-01

    New control panels are to support powerfully the synthetic judgement function of operators by processing enormous plant data in the normal operation and at the time of accidents in nuclear power stations, and displaying the results in collective and ordered form on CRTs. This time, by carrying out the evaluation of new control panels using human engineering method, it was able to be confirmed that the new control panels have achieved the initial objectives, and to determine the criteria for the ergonomic evaluation of central control panels mainly with CRT display. Besides, it is considered that the application to wide range can be expected for this evaluation, not only to the CRT display system of the new control panels for nuclear power stations but also to other CRT images, therefore, the outline is reported. Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. plans to adopt the new control panels with CRT display effectively utilizing process computers hereafter. It is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the method of using CRT images, the kinds of displayed images, colors and the form and arrangement of letters and symbols. 12 CRTs are used for the new control panel. The results are reflected to the control panel for Hamaoka No.3 plant. (Kako, I.)

  15. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites: the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.

    1976-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data for the years 1973 and 1974 pertaining to the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 1, which began operation in early 1974, were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Terrestrial biotic resources were considered for this plant. The effects of the operation of Unit 1 on the local terrestrial organisms were found to be undetectable. Although the plant has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, the present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. The data acquired, method of analysis, and results obtained are presented in detail along with recommendations for improving monitoring techniques

  16. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites. The Zion Nuclear Power Station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.; Policastro, A.; Daniels, E.; Ferrante, J.; Vaslow, F.

    1976-11-01

    Environmental monitoring data for the years 1972 through 1975 pertaining to the Zion Station, which began commercial operation in 1974, were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Thermal plume, water chemistry and aquatic biota data were evaluated and the results are presented. The results showed no significant immediate deleterious effects, thus confirming preoperational predictions. Although the plant has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, the present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. The data utilized, the methods of analysis, and the results obtained are presented in detail, along with recommendations for improving monitoring techniques

  17. Environmental Radiological Impact of Nuclear Power. Monitoring and Control Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment and public exposure to ionizing radiation may result from releases from programmed or accidental operations in regulated activities, or they may be due to preexisting situations such as contamination caused by past accidents, radioactive rain caused by nuclear tests, or increased natural radioactivity resulting from human activities. In many cases, both the emission sources and the environment should be monitored to determine the risk to the population and verify to what extent the limits and conditions established by competent authorities are being observed. Monitoring can be divided into three categories: monitoring of the emission source, of the receiving medium and of members of the public; individual monitoring of the population is extremely rare and would only be considered when estimated doses substantially exceed the annual public dose limit. In practices likely to produce significant radioactive releases, as is the case of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the limits and conditions for monitoring and controlling them and the requirements for environmental radiological monitoring are established in the licensing process. Programs implemented during normal operation of the facilities form the basis for monitoring in the event of accidents. in addition to environmental radiological monitoring associated with facilities, different countries have monitoring programs outside the facilities zones of influence, in order to ascertain the nationwide radiological fund and determine possible increases in this fund. In Spain, the facilities that generate radioactive waste have effluent storage, treatment and removal systems and radiological monitoring programs based on site and discharge characteristics. The environmental radiological monitoring system is composed of the network implemented by the owners in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities zones of influence, and by nationwide monitoring networks managed by the Consejo de

  18. Biotechnology for uranium extraction and environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    India is looking forward to augmenting mining and extraction of uranium mineral for its nuclear energy needs. Being a radio-active mineral, mining and processing of uranium ore deposits need be carried out in an environmentally acceptable fashion. In this respect, a biotechnological approach holds great promise since it is environment-friendly, cost-effective and energy-efficient. There are several types of microorganisms which inhabit uranium ore bodies and biogenesis plays an important role in the mineralisation and transport of uranium-bearing minerals under the earth's crust. Uranium occurrences in India are only meagre and it becomes essential to tap effectively all the available resources. Uraninite and pitchblende occurring along with sulfide mineralisation such as pyrite are ideal candidates for bioleaching. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans present ubiquitously in the ore deposits can be isolated, cultured and utilised to bring about efficient acidic dissolution of uranium. Many such commercial attempts to extract uranium from even lean ores using acidophilic autotrophic bacteria have been made in different parts of the world. Anaerobes such a Geobacter and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) can be effectively used in uranium mining for environmental control. Radioactive uranium mined wastes and tailing dumps can be cleaned and protected using microorganisms. In this lecture use of biotechnology in uranium extraction and bioremediation is illustrated with practical examples. Applicability of environment-friendly biotechnology for mining and extraction of uranium from Indian deposits is outlined. Commercial potentials for bioremediation in uranium-containing wastes are emphasised. (author)

  19. Some environmental effects of emissions from CANDU nuclear generating stations and heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effer, W.R.

    Non-radioactive releases during normal operation of Ontario Hydro's nuclear generating stations and heavy water plants are summarized and related to existing regulations and guidelines. Low-grade heat in the circulating cooling water discharge is the most important of the non-radioactive effluents. Some of the hydrological, biological and water quality aspects of thermal discharges are discussed in relation to the operation of Ontario Hydro's thermal generating stations on the Great Lakes. Chemical releases to air or water include chlorine, hydrogen sulphide, water treatment plant effluents, oily waste water and sewage lagoon effluents. The significance of the first two of these releases to the environment is reviewed, particularly in relation to Great Lakes water quality and biological concerns. (author)

  20. Overview of different control strategies for a typical cryogenic warm compressor station at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzetti, M.; Garcia, C. V. M.; Bradu, B.; Rogez, E.

    2017-12-01

    Helium cryogenic systems are extensively used at CERN under several configurations for accelerators and detectors. The Warm Compressor Station (WCS) is the primary component of the helium cryogenic systems. The basic controls structure mainly depends on the bypass, charge and discharge valves configuration ensuring the nominal flow and compression ratio. This paper presents three studied methods for the WCS process control systems covering all transient and operational requirements: the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control approach, the Fuzzy Logic Control approach (FLC) and the Internal Model Control approach (IMC). The paper emphasizes on simulation results of the different control strategies using Ecosimpro software associated to the CERN CryoLib library. Advantages and limitations of each method are presented.

  1. Environmental Assessment (EA) for Replacement of the Wastewater Lift Station (Building 510)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-13

    ensure that wastewater from FEW continues to be safely and efficiently moved to the City of Cheyenne sanitary sewer system. The lift station is...from four to six inches. The subsoil is primarily alluvial clay that extends from a depth of approximately 6 to 36 inches. 8.4. Air Quality. Under...Disposal 8.6.1. Sanitary Sewer System A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the WYDEQ is in place to allow discharge

  2. Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for Replacement of the Wastewater Lift Station (Building 510)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ensure that wastewater from FEW continues to be safely and efficiently moved to the City of Cheyenne sanitary sewer system. The lift station is...from four to six inches. The subsoil is primarily alluvial clay that extends from a depth of approximately 6 to 36 inches. 8.4. Air Quality. Under...Disposal 8.6.1. Sanitary Sewer System A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the WYDEQ is in place to allow discharge

  3. Power consumption analysis of pump station control systems based on fuzzy controllers with discrete terms in iThink software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyova, E. A.; Bondarev, A. V.; Sharipov, M. I.; Galiaskarova, G. R.; Kubryak, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, power consumption of pumping station control systems is discussed. To study the issue, two simulation models of oil level control in the iThink software have been developed, using a frequency converter only and using a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. A simulation of the oil-level control was carried out in a graphic form, and plots of pumps power consumption were obtained. Based on the initial and obtained data, the efficiency of the considered control systems has been compared, and also the power consumption of the systems was shown graphically using a frequency converter only and using a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. The models analysis has shown that it is more economical and safe to use a control circuit with a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller.

  4. Environmental aspects of airbrone radioactive effluent from a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Miaofa; Fu Rongchu; Lu Zhizhao

    1987-01-01

    The authors determined the contents of natural uranium and thorium in coal and tunnel ash samples taken from a large coal-fired power station in the nearby area. The hourly climate data in 1980 are analysed and the atmospheric stability is cataloged by Pasquill-Turner method. Wind direction-atmospheric stability-wind velocity combined probabilities and rain-wind direction probabilities are calculated. The near ground air pollution concentrations, the ground depositions and the distributions of U and Th presented in airborne effluent (fly ash) within an area round the station with a radius of 60 km are also estimated. In the calculations, some factors such as wind velocity in the higher atmosphere, plume rise, still wind and decrease of air pollution concentration by the ground deposition (especially the wet deposition porduced by rain) have been considered. Some corrections necessary for the factors described above are also made. It is shown that the maximum annual average air pollution concentration (U max = 1.95 x 10 -7 mg.m -3 , Th max = 3.45 x 10 -7 mg.m -3 ) appears at the point 1 km away from the source in the fan SE. In the area round the station with a radius shorter than 10 km, the ground deposition is mainly by the wet deposition, but, where the radius longer than 10 km, the dry deposition must be taken into account

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A NUCLEAR POWERED ELECTRICAL GENERATING STATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  6. Lessons learned in digital upgrade projects digital control system implementation at US nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, S.; Bolian, T. W.

    2006-01-01

    AREVA NP has gained significant experience during the past five years in digital upgrades at operating nuclear power stations in the US. Plants are seeking modernization with digital technology to address obsolescence, spare parts availability, vendor support, increasing age-related failures and diminished reliability. New systems offer improved reliability and functionality, and decreased maintenance requirements. Significant lessons learned have been identified relating to the areas of licensing, equipment qualification, software quality assurance and other topics specific to digital controls. Digital control systems have been installed in non safety-related control applications at many utilities within the last 15 years. There have also been a few replacements of small safety-related systems with digital technology. Digital control systems are proving to be reliable, accurate, and easy to maintain. Digital technology is gaining acceptance and momentum with both utilities and regulatory agencies based upon the successes of these installations. Also, new plants are being designed with integrated digital control systems. To support plant life extension and address obsolescence of critical components, utilities are beginning to install digital technology for primary safety-system replacement. AREVA NP analyzed operating experience and lessons learned from its own digital upgrade projects as well as industry-wide experience to identify key issues that should be considered when implementing digital controls in nuclear power stations

  7. Enhancements to inventory control procedures used at Koeberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.P.; Adams, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    In industry today, industrial engineers are forced to seek new and innovative ideas to reduce costs. This can often be accomplished by simplified or modernized operational procedures. With the advancement in computer technology, operational procedures can be enhanced. Despite the fact that Eskom's Koeberg nuclear power station is one of a kind in Africa, it, like most other industries requires a large stock holding capacity. There are currently 25 000 stock items in the Koeberg Stores Information System. Controlling all of these items is no minor task and management is continually trying to optimise the inventory control procedures. One of these procedures is described. 3 refs., 1 fig

  8. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  9. Manufacture and quality control of concrete for Ikata Nuclear Power Station, Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Akiomi; Kitada, Takao

    1989-01-01

    Ikata Nuclear Power Station, only one nuclear power station in Shikoku, is located at the root of Sada Peninsula on Seto Inland sea side. At present, No.1 and No.2 plants of 566 MW each are in commercial operation, and on the east side, No.3 plant is under construction. No.3 plant is a PWR type plant of 890 MWe output, and the start of commercial operation is scheduled in March, 1995. In the construction of No.3 plant, the concrete used for civil engineering and building works is about 430,000 m 3 , and for the improvement of the quality control of concrete, the pursuit of economic efficiency, the fostering of concrete technology of employee and the coprosperity with local industries, the facilities for manufacturing concrete were constructed within the premise of the power station. The amount of use of concrete and respective materials classified by respective fiscal years, and the amount of manufacture of concrete that determines the scale of the concrete plant are shown. As to the construction of the concrete plant, the foundation work was started in March, 1987, and the machine foundation and building works were started in May, 1987. The acceptance was completed on August 17, 1987. The facilities of manufacturing concrete, the manufacture of concrete, and the quality control of materials and concrete are reported. (author)

  10. Experiences of ultra-low-crud high-nickel control in Onagawa nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Goto, Y.; Shinomiya, T.; Sato, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Hirasawa, H.; Yotsuyanagi, T.

    2002-01-01

    We have adopted various countermeasures for worker dose reduction to plants in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station. ''Ni/Fe ratio control'' has been adopted to Unit 1, and ''ultra-low-crud high-nickel control'' has been adopted to Unit 2 and 3, along with other countermeasures like wide utilization of low Co materials, for the purpose of dose rate reduction of primary recirculation piping which is thought to be one of the main exposure sources. In this paper, we describe, first, the reason and background that ultra-low-crud high-nickel control has been adopted to Unit 2, and, second, water chemistry of Unit 2 up to the 5. cycle under ultra-low-crud high-nickel control compared to that of Unit 1 under Ni/Fe ratio control. Following those, we show brief analysis of the fuel crud of Unit 2 and water chemistry of Unit 3 only at the startup stage. (authors)

  11. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  12. Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Bennett, J; Beale, L; de Hoogh, K; Best, N; Briggs, D J

    2010-06-22

    To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Case-control study. Cancer registry and national birth register data in Great Britain. 1397 cases of cancer in children aged 0-4 from national cancer registry 1999-2001 and 5588 birth controls from national birth register, individually matched by sex and date of birth (four controls per case). Incidence of cancers of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and all cancers combined, adjusted for small area measures of education level, socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and population mixing. Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76,890 base station antennas in 1996-2001, was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131) m v 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). For modelled power density at the address at birth, compared with the lowest exposure category the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.18) in the intermediate and 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) in the highest exposure category for all cancers (P=0.79 for trend), 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37) and 0.76 (0.51 to 1.12), respectively, for brain and central nervous system cancers (P=0.33 for trend), and 1.16 (0.90 to 1.48) and 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) for leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (P=0.51 for trend). There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.

  13. Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

  14. The Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure: A Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study reveals the need for extensive refinement of the Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure purported in the past to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure the relationship between the psychological construct, "locus of control," and environmental action or environmentally responsible behavior. (MCO)

  15. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR

  16. 77 FR 39746 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc. Millstone Power Station, Unit 2; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... be no change to the radioactive effluent releases that effect radiation exposures to plant workers... socioeconomic resources. Therefore, no changes or different types of non-radiological environmental impacts are...

  17. Methodology for characterizing the environmental impacts of hydroelectric generating stations : a case study of Farmer Rapids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, C.; Renaud, S.; Begin, P.; Belzile, L.; Caumartin, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper described a novel methodology used to characterize the downstream section of a generating station that was not navigable by boat. The method was used as part of a fish habitat characterization study conducted in the Farmers Rapids area of Quebec. The purpose of the study was to identify the discharges and water levels needed to preserve fish habitats in the region. Initially, experimental fishing was undertaken to locate, validate and characterize fish habitats. Habitat models were then developed using a microhabitat modelling method to establish pertinent discharges and water levels. In order to model areas that were not navigable by boat, discharges released by the generating station were reduced to a minimum to temporarily decrease water levels and expose the river. High definition aerial photography and topographic mapping was conducted. The information obtained from the 2 procedures was then used to describe and map the riverbed substrate as well as the bathymetry and aquatic habitats. A 2D hydrodynamic model was then used to simulate water flows in the area at various discharges. The results of the hydrodynamic models and the habitat models were then used to establish appropriate discharges for optimal fish habitats

  18. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  19. Model Predictive Control of Offshore Power Stations With Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Chan, Richard; Li, Xiangan

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of waste heat recovery units on oil and gas offshore platforms demands advances in both design methods and control systems. Model-based control algorithms can play an important role in the operation of offshore power stations. A novel regulator based on a linear model predictive...... control (MPC) coupled with a steady-state performance optimizer has been developed in the SIMULINK language and is documented in the paper. The test case is the regulation of a power system serving an oil and gas platform in the Norwegian Sea. One of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic...... Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator to increase the energy conversion efficiency. Results show a potential reduction of frequency drop up to 40%for a step in the load set-point of 4 MW, compared to proportional–integral control systems. Fuel savings in the range of 2–3% are also expected by optimizing on...

  20. The decision on the application to carry out a decommissioning project at Hinkley Point A Power Station under the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    European Council Directive 85/337/EEC, as amended by Council Directive 97/1 I/EC, sets out a framework on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. The Directive is implemented in Great Britain for decommissioning nuclear reactor projects by the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999. The intention of the Directive and Regulations is to involve the public through consultation in considering the potential environmental impacts of a decommissioning project, and to make the decision-making process on granting consent open and transparent. The Regulations require the licensee to undertake an environmental impact assessment, prepare an environmental statement that summarises the environmental effects of the project, and apply to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for consent to carry out a decommissioning project. There is an optional stage where the licensee may request from HSE an opinion on what the environmental statement should contain (called a pre-application opinion). The licensee of Hinkley Point A Power Station, Magnox Electric pie, requested a pre-application opinion and provided information in a scoping report in December 2000. HSE undertook a public consultation on the scoping report and provided its pre- application opinion in April 2001. The licensee applied to HSE for consent to carry out a decommissioning project and provided an environmental statement in December 2001. Following a public consultation on the environmental statement, HSE requested further information that was subsequently provided by the licensee. A further public consultation was undertaken on the further information that ended in March 2003. All these public consultations involved around 60 organisations. HSE granted consent to carry out a decommissioning project at Hinkley Point A Power Station under the Regulations in July 2003, and attached conditions to the Consent. HSE took relevant

  1. Lessons Learned from the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for the ECLS equipment in this rack.

  2. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    June, 1999. The chief aims of such experiments are to allow the participants to check their home calibrations of their detectors and to compare the responses of the individual environmental radiation measurement systems used in the different EU member states and making a link between the different...... a simulation of a radioactive plume passing over the monitors during a certain time was made using a specially designed source set up in the field that was able to vary the air kerma rate from low activity Cs-137 sources additional to the natural air kerma rate. It is demonstrated that a typical environmental...

  3. Environmental management control systems for carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Di Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to focus on a global consulting company and examine how it struggled to establish an effective environmental management control system for carbon emissions for its employees’ air travel. The organisation was motivated to reduce its carbon emissions both to comply with regulation and to enhance or maintain corporate reputation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a case study approach, examining internal and external documents as well as conducting interviews with senior staff. Findings – The case study investigates how Beta’s management implemented a system to reduce carbon emissions. The organisation focused on air travel, but the study finds that employee travel preferences did not radically change. Rather than reduction in carbon emissions, as planned by head office, air travel carbon emissions actually increased during the period, and, as a consequence, the reported reduction targets were significantly adjusted downwards to meet the new realities. Practical implications – The study has implications for both policy and practice for organisations seeking to improve their sustainability performance. Originality/value – The study responds to calls in the literature to undertake research to identify how management practices might reduce negative sustainability impacts, as there is little evidence of what management practices and accounting tools are being adopted, particularly in relation to carbon emissions from air travel. The paper adds to the creation of new accounting, giving visibility to carbon emission management through case study analysis.

  4. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  5. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to...

  6. IEEE Std 649-1980: IEEE standard for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for outside containment applications in nuclear power generating stations. Qualification of motor control centers located inside containment in a nuclear power generating station is beyond the scope of this standard. The purpose of this standard is (1) to define specific qualification requirements for Class 1E motor control centers in accordance with the more general qualification requirements of IEEE Std 323-1974, IEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations; (2) to provide guidance in establishing a qualification program for demonstrating the design adequacy of Class 1E motor control centers in nuclear power generating station applications

  7. Survey of the environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N.; de Boever, P.; Poddubko, S.; Deshevaya, E.; Polikarpov, N.; Rakova, N.; Coninx, I.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Reports on the exploitation of the orbital station Mir has indicated that microorganisms are ubiquitously present and that they should be considered as indigenous to any spacecraft environment Although most microorganisms do not affect human health it has been reported that in a confined environment such as a space cabin microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat Monitoring the biological contamination of the current International Space Station ISS is imperative and the results of the investigations may trigger off specific countermeasures when microbial concentrations pass defined thresholds e g disinfection and sterilization Aim More than 500 samples were collected at different locations over a period of six years to characterize air and surface biocontamination residing in the ISS Results Concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi were lower than 7 1x102 CFU m 3 and 4 4x101 CFU m 3 respectively Staphylococcus sp was by far the most dominant airborne bacterial species whereas Aspergillus sp and Penicillium sp dominated the fungal population The bacterial concentrations in surfaces samples fluctuated from 2 5x101 to 4 3x104 CFU 100 cm2 Staphylococcus sp dominated in all of these samples The number of fungi varied between 2 5x101 CFU 100 cm2 and 3 0x105 CFU 100 cm2 with Aspergillus sp and Cladosporium sp as the most dominant genera Furthermore the investigations identified the presence of several opportunistic pathogens e g S aureus

  8. Final environmental statement for Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1: (Docket No. 50-322)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of an Operating License to the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) for the startup and operation of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (the plant) located on the north shore of Long Island, the State of New York, County of Suffolk, in the town of Brookhaven. The Shoreham station will employ a boiling-water reactor (BWR), which will operate at a thermal output of 2436 MW leading to a gross output of 846 MWe and a net output of about 820 MWe. The unit will be cooled by once-through flow of water from the Long Island Sound. One nuclear unit with a net capacity of 820 MWe will be added to the generating resources of the Long Island Lighting Company. This will have a favorable effect on reserve margins and provide a cost savings of approximately $62.1 million (1980 dollars) in production costs in 1980 if the unit comes on line as scheduled; additional cost savings will be realized in subsequent years. Approximately 100 acres (40 hectares) of the 500-acre (202-hectare) site of rural (mostly wooded) land owned by the applicant have been cleared. Most of this will be unavailable for other uses during at least the 40-year life of the plant. No offsite acreage has been or will be cleared. Land in the vicinity of the site has undergone some residential development that is typical for all of this area of Long Island. The operation of Shoreham Unit 1 will have insignificant impacts on this and other types of land uses in the vicinity of the site. 33 figs., 56 tabs

  9. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ingyu; Kim, Enhan; Keum, Dongkwon

    2012-04-01

    To develop the comprehensive environmental radiation management technology, - An urban atmospheric dispersion model and decision-aiding model have been developed. - The technologies for assessing the radiation impact to non-human biota and the environmental medium contamination have developed. - The analytical techniques of the indicator radionuclides related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste repository have been developed. - The national environmental radiation impact has been assessed, and the optimum management system of natural radiation has been established

  10. Control of the Onboard Microgravity Environment and Extension of the Service Life of the Long-Term Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of control of the on-board microgravity environment in order to extend the service life of the long-term space station has been discussed. Software developed for the ISS and the results of identifying dynamic models and external impacts based on telemetry data have been presented. Proposals for controlling the onboard microgravity environment for future long-term space stations have been formulated.

  11. Examination of new environmental control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Drouin, Gilbert; Routhier, François

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the application of new Environmental Control Systems (ECSs) in the homes of users and caregivers. The research questions were: (1) Can new ECS applications improve the activities of daily living (ADL) of people with significant functional limitations who require personal assistance? (2) Can new ECS applications replace home services and lessen caregiver burden? To answer these questions, user satisfaction regarding ECS applications, impact on ADL, technical performance, and caregiver burden were examined. This collaborative investigation involving a local community health care center, a telephone monitoring service, an industrial partner, and a university research team used a case study approach. Five users with moderate cognitive problems or significant functional limitations who required personal assistance were chosen, along with their caregivers, for a 3-month in-home trial to test new ECS alternatives. The ECS in the study featured remote control functions (e.g., door lock release, outside intercom), specific verbal reminders (e.g., reminders to turn off stove elements), and automatic functions (e.g., night-lights in the bathroom and hallway). Information was collected in the users' homes with three standardized questionnaires and a company-designed questionnaire. The overall technical performance of the ECS was found to be in most cases moderately efficient. Participant satisfaction revealed that ECS alternatives needed improvement with respect to the service aspects such as follow-up services and repair/servicing. Caregiver burden was lessened for psychological aspects but not for physical tasks. Users seemed to have a positive perception of the impact of the ECS on many of their ADL. We learned six lessons from this 15-month case study, namely: (1) the use of remote control by people with moderate cognitive impairments was difficult; (2) verbal reminders were greatly appreciated; (3) the automatic ECS applications needed

  12. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... with dedicated paralleled flywheel-based energy storage system. The distributed DC-bus signaling method is employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a distributed secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set-point through a dynamic...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  13. Control room inleakage testing using tracer gases at Zion Generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, P.L.; Brown, J.H.; Dubois, L.J.; Fleming, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to assess the amount of air inleakage into the Control Room Envelope at Zion Generating Station (ZGS), a series of tracer gas tests using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) were performed on the Control Room ventilation system (PV system) and the Computer Room/Miscellaneous Area ventilation system (OV system) during February, 1991. Two redundant trains, denoted A and B comprise the PV system. Inleakage was measured for each train. An OV supply duct passes through the Control Room Envelope. Leakage from this duct into the Control Room would constitute air leakage into the Control room Envelope and hence any potential leakage had to be quantified. Each test attempted to measure the contribution (if any) of a particular section of PV return duct or OV supply duct to the total air inleakage into the Control Room. This paper reviews the tracer gas tests. Described here are the control room inleakage testing, HVAC equipment room duct inleakage, purge plenum inleakage, OV duct leakage into the control room envelope, vestibule PV return inleakage, TSC duct inleakage, and cable spreading room inleakage. Conclusions from the testing are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Performance testing of the environmental TLD system for the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toke, L F; Carson, B H; Baker, G G; McBride, M H; Plato, P A; Miklos, J A

    1984-05-01

    Panasonic UD-801 thermoluminescent dosimeters ( TLDs ) containing two calcium sulfate phosphors were tested under Performance Specification 3.1 established by the American National Standard Institute ( ANSI75 ) and in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 4.13 ( NRC77 ). The specific qualifying tests included TLD uniformity, reproducibility, energy dependence and directional dependence. The overall measurement uncertainties and associated confidence levels are within the prescribed guidelines defined in the qualifying requirements for environmental TLDs .

  15. Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1. Annual operation report: January-December 1977 (including environmental report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Net electrical energy generated in 1977 was 2,922,683.7 MWH with the generator on line 6,959.8 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, occupational personnel radiation exposures, and primary coolant chemistry. Data on radioactive effluent releases, meteorology, environmental monitoring, and potential radiation doses to individuals for July 7, 1977 to December 31, 1977 are also included

  16. Construction and environmental aspects of hydroelectric power stations; Bauliche Gestaltung und Umweltaspekte von Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesecke, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau

    1997-12-31

    In terms of environmental-friendliness, inexhaustibility, availability, non-pollution and cost conditions, hydro power is the most obvious renewable energy source. Harnessing of hydro power does interfere with nature. But there are ways of reconciling economic and ecological concerns. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Hinblick auf Umweltfreundlichkeit, Unerschoepflichkeit, Verfuegbarkeit, Schadstofffreiheit und Kostenlage stellt die Wasserkraft die vorrangige erneuerbare Energiequelle dar. Ihre Nutzung fuehrt zu Eingriffen in die Natur. Es gibt jedoch Wege, die Belange der Oekonomie und der Oekologie ausgewogen aufeinander abzustimmen. (orig.)

  17. Case Studies in Crewed Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support System Process Compatibility and Cabin Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of a crewed spacecraft's cabin environment leading to environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) functional capability and operational margin degradation or loss can have an adverse effect on NASA's space exploration mission figures of merit-safety, mission success, effectiveness, and affordability. The role of evaluating the ECLSS's compatibility and cabin environmental impact as a key component of pass trace contaminant control is presented and the technical approach is described in the context of implementing NASA's safety and mission success objectives. Assessment examples are presented for a variety of chemicals used in vehicle systems and experiment hardware for the International Space Station program. The ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact assessment approach, which can be applied to any crewed spacecraft development and operational effort, can provide guidance to crewed spacecraft system and payload developers relative to design criteria assigned ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact ratings can be used by payload and system developers as criteria for ensuring adequate physical and operational containment. In additional to serving as an aid for guiding containment design, the assessments can guide flight rule and procedure development toward protecting the ECLSS as well as approaches for contamination event remediation.

  18. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre.

  19. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre

  20. Environmental advertisement: An alternative policy to control consumption pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Sartzetakis, Eftichios Sophocles; Xepapadeas, Anastasios P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the efficiency enhancing potential of supplementing existing policies of controlling consumption pollution with environmental advertisement. Our definition of environmental advertisement includes both information dissemination and persuasion. While incentive-based regulations that are based on coercion are effective immediately, environmental advertisement that is based on inducing voluntary action requires time. We formalise this argument by assuming that the shift of con...

  1. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  2. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    With growing world population, diminishing resources, and realization of the harmful effects of various pollutants, research focus in environmental management has shifted towards sustainability. The goal of a sustainable management strategy is to promote the structure and operati...

  3. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  4. Thermal Control Subsystem Design for the Avionics of a Space Station Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    1996-01-01

    A case study of the thermal control subsystem development for a space based payload is presented from the concept stage through preliminary design. This payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement System 2 (SAMS-2), will measure the acceleration environment at select locations within the International Space Station. Its thermal control subsystem must maintain component temperatures within an acceptable range over a 10 year life span, while restricting accessible surfaces to touch temperature limits and insuring fail safe conditions in the event of loss of cooling. In addition to these primary design objectives, system level requirements and constraints are imposed on the payload, many of which are driven by multidisciplinary issues. Blending these issues into the overall system design required concurrent design sessions with the project team, iterative conceptual design layouts, thermal analysis and modeling, and hardware testing. Multiple tradeoff studies were also performed to investigate the many options which surfaced during the development cycle.

  5. Positive identity entry control system with geographically distributed portals and enrollment stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntire, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A positive identity entry control system using distributed processing to allow reliable geographically separated portals and enrollment stations has been installed and is fully operational at a large area DOE site. Identity verification requires a credential, a memorized number and measurement of a physical characteristic of the user. Additionally, all portal activity is monitored by guards. The portal system is dual redundant such that no single point failure will shut down operations. Each portal site maintains its own subset of the master data base so off-site failure of the central data base manager or its communication links will not significantly affect local portal activity. The system is suitable for installations with large populations requiring access control at several remote sites scattered over a large area

  6. Assessment of environmental gamma radiation levels in the environs of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.G.; Takale, R.A.; Swarnkar, M.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the assessment of the environmental impact of the Indian nuclear power programme, radiation surveys are being carried out on continuous basis in the environs of all the nuclear facilities in India using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters. This paper discusses the environmental gamma radiation levels based on the analysis of data generated for year 1989-2009 at twenty-eight locations currently being monitored in and around the environs of NAPS using passive dosimeter. Of these, six are within the exclusion zone (1.6 km) while the remaining twenty two locations are spread over an aerial distance of twenty six km from reactor stack. The annual background gamma levels for NAPS site beyond 1.6 km exclusion zone based on twenty-two monitoring locations are evaluated and seen to be 1.20 ± 0.15 mGy/a. This is comparable with earlier reported pre-operational value 1.24 ± 0.26 mGy/a. From this it can be said that the reactor operations have not contributed to any increase in the gamma radiation levels in the environs of the NAPS region. (author)

  7. Evaluation of 25 Y of environmental monitoring data around Madras atomic power station (MAPS), Kalpakkam (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, S.; Brindha, J. T.; Sreedevi, K. R.; Manu, A.; Thilakavathi, A.; Ramkumar, S.; Santhanakrishnan, V.; Balagurunathan, M. R.; Jesan, T.; Kannan, V.; Hegde, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Survey Laboratory at Kalpakkam (India) carries out elaborate monitoring programme involving atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic samples for radioactivity to evaluate the impact of operating two pressurised heavy water reactors. This paper presents the evaluation of 25 y (1983-2008) data. Statistical analysis of the environmental data for different radionuclides showed that the data best fits log-normal distribution. The data analysed showed that fission products such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I were due to global fallout only. A ratio of 0.2 was obtained for 90 Sr to 137 Cs in air filter samples, only during Chernobyl accident period. The transfer factor of 137 Cs and 90 Sr for rice was computed to be 0.23 and 0.03 and vegetables 0.25 and 0.10, respectively. Activation products 3 H and 41 Ar are the only radionuclides that are related to MAPS operation. A strong correlation (r = 0.9) was observed between 3 H activity in air and 3 H discharged to the atmosphere. A similar correlation (r = 0.8) was observed in 3 H concentration in seawater and 3 H discharged in the liquid waste. The annual internal dose due to 3 H and annual external dose due to 41 Ar evaluated in the last 25 y show that the members of the public received less than 2% of the dose limit (1 mSv y -1 ) set by ICRP 72. (authors)

  8. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  9. Potential human factors deficiencies in the design of local control stations and operator interfaces in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, C.S.; Levy, I.S.; Fecht, B.A.

    1984-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a project to identify human factors deficiencies in safety-significant control stations outside the control room of a nuclear power plant and to determine whether NUREG-0700, Guidelines for Control Room Design Reviews, would be sufficient for reviewing those local control stations (LCSs). The project accomplished this task by first, reviewing existing data pertaining to human factors deficiencies in LCSs involved in significant safety actions; second, surveying LCSs environments and design features at several operating nuclear power plants; and third, assessing the results of that survey relative to the contents of NUREG-0700

  10. A concept of environmental controlling for industrial enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelzl, U.

    1992-01-01

    The protection of nature is seen as a global challenge to mankind. Industrial enterprises are confronted with the question of how to contribute to the solution of environmental problems. In this study possibilities and concepts are printed out that would enable industrial enterprises to recognize and as a consequence reduce environmental pollution and risks caused by their products and production processes by means of organization. After a description of recent developments in the entrepreneur's surroundings brought about by environmental problems, and a characterization of environmental management, which can be seen as a reaction to the above mentioned developments, a concept of environmental controlling for industrial enterprises is developed deductively. Environmental controlling is here regarded as a sub-system of environmental management that supports the determination of environmental aims, the analysis, the planning and the control of environmental pollution, as well as the use of material and energy by installing and coordinating a specific environment information system. The main functions of environmental controlling are planning, controlling, informing, advising and some special functions. The specific functional instruments for carrying out these tasks are described in a special chapter. (author)

  11. Space Station Engineering and Technology Development. Proceedings of the Panel on Program Performance and Onboard Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    An ad-hoc committee was asked to review the following questions relevant to the space station program: (1) onboard maintainability and repair; (2) in-space research and technology program and facility plans; (3) solar thermodynamic research and technology development program planning; (4) program performance (cost estimating, management, and cost avoidance); (5) onboard versus ground-based mission control; and (6) technology development road maps from IOC to the growth station. The objective of these new assignments is to provide NASA with advice on ways and means for improving the content, performance, and/or effectiveness of these elements of the space station program.

  12. State-space model predictive control method for core power control in pressurized water reactor nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guo Xu; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Bifan; Wu, Wangqiang; Ma, Xiao Qian [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Zhibin [Electric Power Research Institute of Guangdong Power Grid Corporation, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-02-15

    A well-performed core power control to track load changes is crucial in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power stations. It is challenging to keep the core power stable at the desired value within acceptable error bands for the safety demands of the PWR due to the sensitivity of nuclear reactors. In this paper, a state-space model predictive control (MPC) method was applied to the control of the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, the MPC model, and quadratic programming (QP). The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on neutron dynamic models, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The MPC model was presented in state-space model form, and QP was introduced for optimization solution under system constraints. Simulations of the proposed state-space MPC control system in PWR were designed for control performance analysis, and the simulation results manifest the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed control method for core power control.

  13. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of operating licenses to the Texas Utilities Generating Company for the startup and operation of Units 1 and 2 of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station located on Squaw Creek Reservoir in Somervell County, Texas, about 7 km north-northeast of Glen Rose, Texas, and about 65 km southwest of Fort Worth in north-central Texas. The information in this environmental statement represents the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station pursuant to the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 of the Commission's Regulations. After receiving an application to construct this station, the staff carried out a review of impact that would occur during its construction and operation. This evaluation was issued as a Final Environmental Statement -- Construction Phase. After this environmental review, a safety review, an evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, and public hearings in Glen Rose, Texas, the US Atomic Energy Commission (now US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) issued construction permits for the construction of Units 1 and 2 of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. 16 figs., 34 tabs

  14. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. STN 50-482, Kansas Gas and Electric Company, et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts will also be small. However, steam fog from the station's cooling lake has the potential for reducing visibility over nearby roads and bridges. A fog-monitoring program for roads and bridges near the lake has been recommended. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible. Chemical discharges to the Neosho River are expected to have no appreciable impacts on water quality under normal conditions and will be required to meet conditions of the station's NPDES permit. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission line facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for the Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1

  15. Reusable Rack Interface Controller Common Software for Various Science Research Racks on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, George C.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the EXPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station) rack project is to provide a set of predefined interfaces for scientific payloads which allow rapid integration into a payload rack on International Space Station (ISS). VxWorks' was selected as the operating system for the rack and payload resource controller, primarily based on the proliferation of VME (Versa Module Eurocard) products. These products provide needed flexibility for future hardware upgrades to meet everchanging science research rack configuration requirements. On the International Space Station, there are multiple science research rack configurations, including: 1) Human Research Facility (HRF); 2) EXPRESS ARIS (Active Rack Isolation System); 3) WORF (Window Observational Research Facility); and 4) HHR (Habitat Holding Rack). The RIC (Rack Interface Controller) connects payloads to the ISS bus architecture for data transfer between the payload and ground control. The RIC is a general purpose embedded computer which supports multiple communication protocols, including fiber optic communication buses, Ethernet buses, EIA-422, Mil-Std-1553 buses, SMPTE (Society Motion Picture Television Engineers)-170M video, and audio interfaces to payloads and the ISS. As a cost saving and software reliability strategy, the Boeing Payload Software Organization developed reusable common software where appropriate. These reusable modules included a set of low-level driver software interfaces to 1553B. RS232, RS422, Ethernet buses, HRDL (High Rate Data Link), video switch functionality, telemetry processing, and executive software hosted on the FUC computer. These drivers formed the basis for software development of the HRF, EXPRESS, EXPRESS ARIS, WORF, and HHR RIC executable modules. The reusable RIC common software has provided extensive benefits, including: 1) Significant reduction in development flow time; 2) Minimal rework and maintenance; 3) Improved reliability; and 4) Overall

  16. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  17. Control structures design for fossil power station units; Diseno de estructuras de control para unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel; Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this paper are designed an analyzed the control ties of a 300MW fossil unit at different operation levels. The design and analysis were developed on an operation range of 50% to 100% load. The main control ties were studied among which are the feedwater flow, the superheating zone temperatures and the generated output. The technique used for the design is the decomposition in singular values (DSV) of the plant transference matrix. This is a recent technique that permits finding the most important interactions among output-input variables, over a significative frequencies range for the transference matrix of the plant. For this purpose utilizes the control properties of the transference matrix, such as: control effort, output-input interaction and ruggedness with respect to uncertainties. The control structures obtained were tested in a digital model of a fossil plant unit. A comparison study of both structures (original and modified) showed enhancement in the performance of the power plant with modified structure. [Espanol] En este trabajo se disenan y analizan los lazos de control de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 MW, a diferentes niveles de operacion. El diseno y analisis se desarrollo sobre un rango de operacion de 50 a 100 por ciento de carga. Se estudiaron los principales lazos de control entre los que se encuentran el flujo de agua de alimentacion, las temperaturas de la zona de sobrecalentamiento y la potencia generada. La tecnica utilizada para el diseno es la descomposicion en valores singulares (DVS) de la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Esta es una tecnica reciente que permite encontrar las interacciones mas importantes entre variables entrada-salida, sobre un rango de frecuencias significativas para la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Utiliza para ello las propiedades de control de la matriz de transferencia, como son: esfuerzo de control, interaccion entrada-salida y robustez con respecto a incertidumbres. Las estructuras de control

  18. Control structures design for fossil power station units; Diseno de estructuras de control para unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel; Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this paper are designed an analyzed the control ties of a 300MW fossil unit at different operation levels. The design and analysis were developed on an operation range of 50% to 100% load. The main control ties were studied among which are the feedwater flow, the superheating zone temperatures and the generated output. The technique used for the design is the decomposition in singular values (DSV) of the plant transference matrix. This is a recent technique that permits finding the most important interactions among output-input variables, over a significative frequencies range for the transference matrix of the plant. For this purpose utilizes the control properties of the transference matrix, such as: control effort, output-input interaction and ruggedness with respect to uncertainties. The control structures obtained were tested in a digital model of a fossil plant unit. A comparison study of both structures (original and modified) showed enhancement in the performance of the power plant with modified structure. [Espanol] En este trabajo se disenan y analizan los lazos de control de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 MW, a diferentes niveles de operacion. El diseno y analisis se desarrollo sobre un rango de operacion de 50 a 100 por ciento de carga. Se estudiaron los principales lazos de control entre los que se encuentran el flujo de agua de alimentacion, las temperaturas de la zona de sobrecalentamiento y la potencia generada. La tecnica utilizada para el diseno es la descomposicion en valores singulares (DVS) de la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Esta es una tecnica reciente que permite encontrar las interacciones mas importantes entre variables entrada-salida, sobre un rango de frecuencias significativas para la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Utiliza para ello las propiedades de control de la matriz de transferencia, como son: esfuerzo de control, interaccion entrada-salida y robustez con respecto a incertidumbres. Las estructuras de control

  19. The use of the environmental Caesium-137 for soil erosion study at Kalumpang Agriculture Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Zainudin

    2004-01-01

    Rapid industrial development and intensive agriculture land use induce soil erosion, increase surface runoff and subsequent deposition of eroded sediment. It is a serious threat to sustainable agricultural development and environmental conservation. Several methods have been developed to assess the degree of soil erosion. One of the method currently being applied is using environmental isotope caesium-137. Caesium-137 (1 37C s) is a product of nuclear weapons tests during the 1950s to 1970s. Fallout of 137 Cs from the atmosphere is distributed globally and become part of the world ecosystem. The fallout has been used as an indicator of soil erosion and sediment deposition status. Since it has been uniformly deposited on the soil, the sites with no net soil loss should have 137 Cs inventories that reflect the amount of 137 Cs fallout, less the loss due to radioactive decay, 137 Cs has a half-life 30 years. The level of 137 Cs at an undisturbed site provides a reference value for assessing the degree of erosion and deposition within the area. The sites having concentration less than the reference value can be considered eroded and the sites having more than the reference value can be regarded as depositional (Walling and Quine, 1992). In recent years, there has been an increase increasing attention of using this technique it offers as an alternative technique in providing more information and answers to some soil erosion and sediment deposition status. In order to establish the spatial variability of 137 Cs in the soil in the erosion plot, soil samples were collected using a motorized corer at 72 sampling points in a sloping erosion plot of an area 120 x 50 meter. In this study, a slope transects technique was employed because the site was characterised by a simple topography. Four combine soil cores are needed at each point for analysis. The results strongly indicated that 137 Cs concentration was uniformly distributed throughout the cultivation layer of the plot

  20. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP): configuration control system and project activity controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullee, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The SSDP has been using a Configuration Control system as a significant element in the management plan for the safe and effective performance of the project. The objective of the Configuration Control system is to control the physical plant configuration, system status, work schedules, status tracking, and day-to-day problem resolution. Prior to the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC) assuming operational responsibility for the Shippingport Plant, an assessment was made of the status of the configuration of the systems and related documentation. Action was taken as required to match the operating procedures and system documentation with the actual physical condition of the plant. During the first stage of the project, planning was put in place for subsequent decommissioning activities. This planning included defining organizational responsibilities, completing the necessary project instructions and procedures, and doing the planning and scheduling for the subsequent decommissioning phase activities. Detailed instructions for the performance of the various decommissioning tasks were prepared. Prior to the start of any work on a given Activity Package, a Work Authorization is required. The Work Authorization form provides a complete checklist to ensure that all necessary prerequisites are completed. A computerized Communications Configuration Control Information system monitors status including information on system status, tag-outs, radiological work permits, etc. An ongoing effort is being directed toward maintaining operating instructions and system schematics, etc. current as the Plant configuration changes. The experience with the Configuration Control System to date has been favorable

  1. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  2. Environmental radiological studies downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Information compiled in 1985 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides previously discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant is presented. In October 1984, the quantities of gamma-emitting radionuclides in water discharged to Clay Creek from the plant were reduced below operationally defined detection limits for liquid effluents. However, radionuclides previously discharged persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components. 134 Cs and 137 Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of different fish, crayfish, and frogs. Coefficients for exponential equations are generated, from a least square analysis, that relate the change in concentration of 137 Cs in fish to distance downstream and time between March and October 1985. Concentrations of 137 Cs in surface creek sediments also decreased in the downstream direction much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. However, there was no significant difference in the radiocesium concentrations in surface sediements collected from comparable locations during both 1984 and 1985

  3. Revamping of thermal power stations focusing on extension of service life and compliance with environmental requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on some of advanced clean coal technologies supplied by the Austrian Energy and Environment GmbH (AE). A short description is given of their main advantages and possibilities to offer optimal environmental and technical solutions for removal of SO x , NO x , HCL, HF, fine dust, aerosols, heavy metals and noise. The following technologies are considered: 1) Revamping; 2) Flue gas desulfuration - Dry Circulating Fluid Bed Scrubbing (DCFBS); MgO-based Regenerative Process (MgO-Process); Semi Dry Flue Gas Desulphurization (Spray Absorption Technology) ; Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization (limestone slurry scrubbing - IFO process); 3) Fluidized Bed Combustion - Bubbling Bed Combustion , Fast Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion, External Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion. AE's objective is to cooperate with local firms which will provide benefits to the local economy in the following manner: 1) Foreign currency requirements for applying the technology to domestic sources would be minimized; 2) A substantial portion of the work involved in engineering, manufacturing and installing the system could be done by local personnel

  4. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-352 and 50-353, Philadelphia Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    In April 1984 the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Final Environmental Statement (NUREG-0974) related to the operation of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, (Docket Nos. 50-352 and 50-353), located on the Schuylkill River, near Pottstown, in Limerick Township, Montgomery and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania. The NRC has prepared this supplement to NUREG-0974 to present its evaluation of the alternative of facility operation with the installation of further severe accident mitigation design features. The NRC staff has discovered no substantial changes in the proposed action as previously evaluated in the Final Environmental Statement that are relevant to environmental concerns nor significant new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the licensing of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2. 15 refs., 10 tabs

  5. International Space Station Passive Thermal Control System Analysis, Top Ten Lessons-Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, John

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been on-orbit for over 10 years, and there have been numerous technical challenges along the way from design to assembly to on-orbit anomalies and repairs. The Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) management team has been a key player in successfully dealing with these challenges. The PTCS team performs thermal analysis in support of design and verification, launch and assembly constraints, integration, sustaining engineering, failure response, and model validation. This analysis is a significant body of work and provides a unique opportunity to compile a wealth of real world engineering and analysis knowledge and the corresponding lessons-learned. The analysis lessons encompass the full life cycle of flight hardware from design to on-orbit performance and sustaining engineering. These lessons can provide significant insight for new projects and programs. Key areas to be presented include thermal model fidelity, verification methods, analysis uncertainty, and operations support.

  6. Generating a representative signal of coal moisture content to anticipate combustion control in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto-Fernandez, Ismael; Luengo-Garcia, J. Carlos; Alonso-Hidalgo, Manuela; Ponte-Gutierrez, Daniel [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus Universitario s/n 33203, Asturias Gijon (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    This article describes the possibilities of continuously measuring coal moisture in the boiler feeding circuit of a thermal power station so that the measurement can be used as a signal for the boiler combustion control system. To do so, in the first place, the point through which coal would be fed into the boiler was chosen. After studying the different parts of the circuit, the feeder was selected. Then, an installation was designed, at semi-industrial scale, faithfully reproducing the operation of a belt conveyor. In order to measure the moisture content, a microwave system was installed, and a large number of coal samples with different ranks and grain sizes was tested showing eventually the likelihood of the objective.

  7. Elevated-constant pH control assessment at TXU's Comanche peak steam electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellers, B.; Perkins, D.; Bosma, J.; Deshon, J.

    2002-01-01

    Industry experience with axial offset anomaly (AOA) has raised the importance of crud management strategies. Elevated-constant pH control is recognized as one potential solution. Additionally, minimizing radiation fields remains a high industry goal which is supported by this strategy. An investigation of industry experience and experimental data has supported a strategy of constant at-temperature pH of 7.4, requiring as much as 6-ppm lithium at the beginning-of-cycle (BOC). This approach, in a modern high temperature plant with high boron requirements, necessitated a careful assessment of potential risk for increased susceptibility to corrosion for both fuel cladding and RCS structural materials. This paper presents results of the assessment for Comanche peak steam electric station (CPSES) and plans for a demonstration of this practice. (author)

  8. IEEE Std 649-1991: IEEE standard for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for both harsh and mild environment applications in nuclear power generating stations are described. In addition to defining specific qualification requirements for Class 1E motor control centers and their components in accordance with the more general qualification requirements of IEEE Std 323-1983, this standard is intended to provide guidance in establishing a qualification program for demonstrating the adequacy of Class 1E motor control centers in nuclear power generating station applications

  9. The effects of local control station design variation on plant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of human engineering deficiencies at local control stations (LCSs) was addressed in a study (NUREG/CR-3696) conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL concluded that the existence of these human factors deficiencies at safety significant LCSs increases the potential for operator errors that could be detrimental to plant and public safety. However, PNL did not specific analysis to evaluate the effects of LCS design variations on human performance, on plant risk, or on the cost benefit feasibility of upgrading LCSs. The purpose of the present investigation was to conduct such an analysis. The specific objectives of the research were (1) to further define important local control stations, human factors related LCS design variations, and typical human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) at LCSs; (2) to determine the effect of LCS design variations on human performance, i.e., on risk-significant human errors (HEs); (3) to determine the effect of LCS-induced human performance variation on plant risk as measured by core melt frequency (CMF); and (4) to determine whether LCS improvements (upgrades in LCS design to mitigate HEDs) are feasible in a scoping-type value-impact analysis. The results can be summarized as follows. There was an overall effect of LCS variations on human performance. The transition from the worst LCS configuration to the best resulted in an absolute reduction or improvement of 0.82 in mean HEP (reduction by a factor of 20). The transition from low to high levels of FC was associated with a 0.46 (86%) reduction in mean HEP. The majority of the effect was accounted for in the transition from the low to medium levels. The Panel Design dimension also had an effect on human performance although not as large as functional centralization. Upgrading from a low to high panel design resulted in a 0.29 (69%) reduction in mean HEP

  10. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  11. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M. H.; Kim, E. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, M. J.; Jang, B. W.

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the study are to development of an urban atmospheric dispersion model and data assimilation technique for improving the reliability, to develop the technology for assessing the radiation impact to biota and the surface water transport model, to develop the analytical techniques for the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites and to assess of the national environmental radiation impact and establish the optimum management bases of natural radiation. The obtained results might be used; for assessing the radiological effects due to and radiological incident in an urban area, for assessing radiation doses on biota for the environmental protection from ionizing radiation with the application of new concept of the ICP new recommendation, for analyzing the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites, and for providing the natural radionuclide database of Korea to international organizations such as UNSCEAR. It can be used for emphasizing relative nuclear safety

  12. MODELING OF THE HEAT PUMP STATION CONTROLABLE LOOP OF AN INTERMEDIATE HEAT-TRANSFER AGENT (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is studied the model of the heat pump station controllable loop of an intermediate heat-transfer agent for the use in wineries. There are demonstrated transients after the disturbing action of the temperature on the input of cooling jacket of the fermentation stirred tank. There are compared different control laws of the object.

  13. [Risk-oriented model of the control of the level of electric magnetic fields of base stations of cellular communications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, L A; Tulakin, A V; Egorova, A M; Mikhailova, O M; Gvozdeva, L L; Chigryay, E K

    The purpose of this study was to give the description of harmful effects of the impact of electromagnetic radiations from base stations of cellular communication as the most common sources of radio frequencies of electromagnetic fields in the environment. The highest values of the energy flux density were measured on the roofs of houses where antennas are installed - more than 10 pW/cm. The lowest values were recorded in inside premises with expositions of 0.1-1 pW/cm. In the close location of the railway station to the base stations of the cellular communication there was seen a cumulative effect. There are proposed both new safe hygienic approaches to the control for the safety of the work of base station and protective measures.

  14. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  15. Advanced Software Ground Station and UAV Development for NLoS Control Using Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr AbdElHamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs have gained much attention due to their various applications in different sections. However, their communication range is limited to utilized communication equipment. Therefore, utilization of GSM channels opens a new prospect towards long distance UAV missions and mobile command and control centers. This paper demonstrates new design and development of a small-scale UAV and a Ground Control Station (GCS using GSM bidirectional communications for Non-Line of Sight (NLoS long range control. GCSs are considered the front end node in UAV guidance process. Therefore, the proposed GCS employs a two-layer framework to consider all ground pilot requirements. Moreover, a new exploitation of global weather forecast data is added to the GCS. On the other hand, the proposed airborne system utilizes a new integration of different Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS components and excludes short range receivers. The ground and flight tests show that stable bidirectional GSM communication is established, reliable hardware integration is accomplished, real time performance is achieved, GCS functional fidelity is obtained, and low cost is maintained. Finally, some qualitative aspects of the proposed platform are presented to address the detailed features.

  16. Technology of environmental pollution control, 2nd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    The final decade of the 20th century is truly the environmental decade of the century because of the gravity of environmental challenges we are facing. This book covers the environmental spectrum in an attempt to update the reader on new technologies and topics regarding pollution control. Engineers, scientists, plant operators, and students studying the subject of pollution control will use the comprehensive text as a reference for technological advances, regulations, and pollution control. The major disasters witnessed in the last few years, such as the Bhopal gas tragedy, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the Ashland of tank collapse are described in detail

  17. Environmental control and radioprotection in Itataia and Lagoa Real uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenachi, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Monitoring Programs in Itataia and Lagoa Real uranium mines were initiated in 1982. In the actual pre-operational phase of this Programs, are being collected samples of air, surface and underground waters, stream sediments, soil, field products, and milk. Environmental contamination of air is controlled by thermoluminescent dosimeters, distributed around the mines. Instantaneous radiation measures in this stations are made with scintillometer calibrated in Radioprotection Laboratory Department-CDTN. Photographic dosimeters are used for monitoring external radiation exposures in workers. Radiation levels evaluation, air and surface contamination measures, were effectuated in installations, trenches, and research galleries. Another factors which are now being studied: climate, meteorology, and hidrology. (author) [pt

  18. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper

  19. Decentralized energy management strategy based on predictive controllers for a medium voltage direct current photovoltaic electric vehicle charging station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreglosa, Juan P.; García-Triviño, Pablo; Fernández-Ramirez, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electric vehicle charging station supplied by photovoltaic, batteries and grid connection is analyzed. • The bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system by decentralized approach. • Decentralized control approach facilities the enlargement of the system. • Photovoltaic and battery systems are controlled by model predictive controllers. • Response by model predictive controllers improves that by PI controllers. - Abstract: The use of distributed charging stations based on renewable energy sources for electric vehicles has increased in recent years. Combining photovoltaic solar energy and batteries as energy storage system, directly tied into a medium voltage direct current bus, and with the grid support, results to be an interesting option for improving the operation and efficiency of electric vehicle charging stations. In this paper, an electric vehicle charging station supplied by photovoltaic solar panels, batteries and with grid connection is analysed and evaluated. A decentralized energy management system is developed for regulating the energy flow among the photovoltaic system, the battery and the grid in order to achieve the efficient charging of electric vehicles. The medium voltage direct current bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system. The battery is controlled by a model predictive controller in order to keep the bus voltage at its reference value. Depending on the state-of-charge of the battery and the bus voltage, the photovoltaic system can work at maximum power point tracking mode or at bus voltage sustaining mode, or even the grid support can be needed. The results demonstrate the proper operation and energy management of the electric vehicle charging station under study.

  20. Status of the nuclear measurement stations for the process control of spent fuel reprocessing at AREVA NC/La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleon, Cyrille; Passard, Christian; Hupont, Nicolas; Estre, Nicolas; Battel, Benjamin; Doumerc, Philippe; Dupuy, Thierry; Batifol, Marc; Grassi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear measurements are used at AREVA NC/La Hague for the monitoring of spent fuel reprocessing. The process control is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron counting and active neutron interrogation, and gamma transmission measurements. The main objectives are criticality and safety, online process monitoring, and the determination of the residual fissile mass and activities in the metallic waste remained after fuel shearing and dissolution (empty hulls, grids, end pieces), which are put in radioactive waste drums before compaction. The whole monitoring system is composed of eight measurement stations which will be described in this paper. The main measurement stations no. 1, 3 and 7 are needed for criticality control. Before fuel element shearing for dissolution, station no. 1 allows determining the burn-up of the irradiated fuel by gamma-ray spectroscopy with HP Ge (high purity germanium) detectors. The burn-up is correlated to the 137 Cs and 134 Cs gamma emission rates. The fuel maximal mass which can be loaded in one bucket of the dissolver is estimated from the lowest burn-up fraction of the fuel element. Station no. 3 is dedicated to the control of the correct fuel dissolution, which is performed with a 137 Cs gamma ray measurement with a HP Ge detector. Station no. 7 allows estimating the residual fissile mass in the drums filled with the metallic residues, especially in the hulls, from passive neutron counting (spontaneous fission and alpha-n reactions) and active interrogation (fission prompt neutrons induced by a pulsed neutron generator) with proportional 3 He detectors. The measurement stations have been validated for the reprocessing of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuels with a burn-up rate up to 60 GWd/t. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of the nuclear measurement stations. (authors)

  1. Status of the nuclear measurement stations for the process control of spent fuel reprocessing at AREVA NC/La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleon, Cyrille; Passard, Christian; Hupont, Nicolas; Estre, Nicolas [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Battel, Benjamin; Doumerc, Philippe; Dupuy, Thierry; Batifol, Marc [AREVA NC, La Hague plant - Nuclear Measurement Team, F-50444 Beaumont-Hague (France); Grassi, Gabriele [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear measurements are used at AREVA NC/La Hague for the monitoring of spent fuel reprocessing. The process control is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron counting and active neutron interrogation, and gamma transmission measurements. The main objectives are criticality and safety, online process monitoring, and the determination of the residual fissile mass and activities in the metallic waste remained after fuel shearing and dissolution (empty hulls, grids, end pieces), which are put in radioactive waste drums before compaction. The whole monitoring system is composed of eight measurement stations which will be described in this paper. The main measurement stations no. 1, 3 and 7 are needed for criticality control. Before fuel element shearing for dissolution, station no. 1 allows determining the burn-up of the irradiated fuel by gamma-ray spectroscopy with HP Ge (high purity germanium) detectors. The burn-up is correlated to the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs gamma emission rates. The fuel maximal mass which can be loaded in one bucket of the dissolver is estimated from the lowest burn-up fraction of the fuel element. Station no. 3 is dedicated to the control of the correct fuel dissolution, which is performed with a {sup 137}Cs gamma ray measurement with a HP Ge detector. Station no. 7 allows estimating the residual fissile mass in the drums filled with the metallic residues, especially in the hulls, from passive neutron counting (spontaneous fission and alpha-n reactions) and active interrogation (fission prompt neutrons induced by a pulsed neutron generator) with proportional {sup 3}He detectors. The measurement stations have been validated for the reprocessing of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuels with a burn-up rate up to 60 GWd/t. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of the nuclear measurement stations. (authors)

  2. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  3. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    In September 1981, the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued its Final Environmental Statement (NUREG-0775) related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446), located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. The NRC has prepared this supplement to NUREG-0775 to present its evaluation of the alternative of operating Comanche Peak with the installation of further severe-accident-mitigation design features. The NRC has discovered no substantial changes in the proposed action as previously evaluated in the Final Environmental Statement that are relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the licensing of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2. 6 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Control room habitability survey of licensed commercial nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.

    1988-10-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of control room habitability systems at twelve commercial nuclear generating stations. The survey, conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is part of an NRC program initiated in response to concerns and recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The major conclusion of the report is that the numerous types of potentially significant discrepancies found among the surveyed plants may be indicative of similar discrepancies throughout the industry. The report provides plant-specific and generalized findings regarding safety functions with respect to the consistency of the design, construction, operation and testing of control room habitability systems and corresponding Technical Specifications compared with descriptions provided in the license basis documentation including assumptions in the operator toxic gas concentration and radiation dose calculations. Calculations of operator toxic gas concentrations and radiation doses were provided in the license basis documentation and were not performed by the ANL survey team. Recommendation for improvements are provided in the report

  5. Control and data acquisition systems for the Fermi Elettra experimental stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghes, R.; Chenda, V.; Curri, A.; Gaio, G.; Kourousias, G.; Lonza, M.; Passos, G.; Passuello, R.; Pivetta, L.; Prica, M.; Pugliese, R.; Strangolino, G.

    2012-01-01

    FERMI-Elettra is a single-pass Free Electron Laser (FEL) user-facility covering the wavelength range from 100 nm to 4 nm. The facility is located in Trieste, Italy, nearby the third-generation synchrotron light source Elettra. Three experimental stations, dedicated to different scientific areas, have been installed in 2011: Low Density Matter (LDM), Elastic and Inelastic Scattering (EIS) and Diffraction and Projection Imaging (DiProI). The experiment control and data acquisition system is the natural extension of the machine control system. It integrates a shot-by-shot data acquisition framework with a centralized data storage and analysis system. Low-level applications for data acquisition and online processing have been developed using the Tango framework on Linux platforms. High-level experimental applications can be developed on both Linux and Windows platforms using C/C++, Python, LabView, IDL or Matlab. The Elettra scientific computing portal allows remote access to the experiment and to the data storage system. (authors)

  6. Environmental control of branching in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Revel S M; Janssen, Bart J; Luo, Zhiwei; Oplaat, Carla; Ledger, Susan E; Wohlers, Mark W; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2015-06-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Environmental controls on stable isotopes of precipitation in Lanzhou, China: An enhanced network at city scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fenli; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Qiu, Xue; Du, Mingxia

    2017-12-31

    Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation are very sensitive to environmental changes, and can record evolution of water cycle. The Lanzhou city in northwestern China is jointly influenced by the monsoon and westerlies, which is considered as a vital platform to investigate the moisture regime for this region. Since 2011, an observation network of stable isotopes in precipitation was established across the city, and four stations were included in the network. In 2013, six more sampling stations were added, and the enhanced network might provide more meaningful information on spatial incoherence and synoptic process. This study focused on the variations of stable isotopes (δ 18 O and δD) in precipitation and the environmental controls based on the 1432 samples in this enhanced network from April 2011 to October 2014. The results showed that the precipitation isotopes had great spatial diversity, and the neighboring stations may present large difference in δD and δ 18 O. Based on the observation at ten sampling sites, an isoscape in precipitation was calculated, and the method is useful to produce isoscape for small domains. The temperature effect and amount effect was reconsidered based on the dataset. Taking meteorological parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, water vapor pressure and dew point temperature) as variables in a multi-linear regression, the result of coefficients for these meteorological parameters were calculated. Some cases were also involved in this study, and the isotopic characteristics during one event or continuous days were used to understand the environmental controls on precipitation isotopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production and quality control of concrete for the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station - [Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Roy, P.K.; Sukhtankar, K.D.; Prasad, K.

    1975-01-01

    The production and quality control of concrete and concrete materials for the construction of the twin-reactor Rajasthan Atomic Power Station with its 400 MW net capacity posed many challenges since many of the requirements for the properties of concrete were new and were being laid down for the first time in India. Some of the conditions for the concrete included leak-tightness against gas pressure, total absence of shrinkage in the containment even when the ambient temperature during concreting was as high as 45degC, placing concrete at a temperature as low as 8degC, the use of non-shrink and high strength grout, absolute impermeability against water, high density for radiation shielding, controlled modulus of elasticity for large machine foundations, high strength with high slump for the prestressed concrete dome, etc. Though the total quantity of concrete was not very much compared with a large river valley or steel plant project, (e.g., about 1.2 X 10 6 m 3 for a 2-million tonne steel plant) it was quite significant, being about 70,000 m 3 of normal density and 2,100 m 3 of high density concrete. The production of these quantities entailed intensive material study and investigation, development of new mixes with additives not tried out before in the country, and design and quality control techniques which were unique in many respects. The paper deals with the production and quality control of concrete, including grouts used in the projects, but the actual concreting and construction operations are not discussed. (author)

  9. Environmental Licensing: an Instrument of Command and Control by Exception?

    OpenAIRE

    Sleman Chams, Juliette; Gestión Ambiental de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Atlántico-CRA, autoridad ambiental del Departamento del Atlántico,; Velásquez Muñoz, Carlos Javier; Universidad del Norte (Barranquilla)

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the situation of the most important instrument of command and control existing in the Colombian environmental legislation: the environmental license. Since its first formal regulation, on behalf of Decree 1753 of August 3, 1994, has received several modifications which, apparently, have made, in spite of its importance, in an instrument of command and control by exception. The article revises on the scope of each of the modifications and the justifications put forward by...

  10. Simulations of the neutron energy-spectra at the Olympus Gate Environmental Monitoring Station due to historical Bevatron operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, R.J.; Thomas, R.H.; Zeman, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Offsite neutron fluences resulting from Bevatron operations reached a maximum in 1959, prior to the addition of a permanent concrete roof shield, which was constructed in 1962. From the first operation of the Bevatron measurements of neutron fluence were made at locations around the perimeter of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) campus. Since the late 1950's measurements made at several locations, and particularly at the site of what is now called the Olympus Gate Environmental Monitoring Station, have been routinely reported and published. Early measurements were used to establish the shape of the neutron-energy spectrum from which an energy-averaged fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficient could be derived. This conversion coefficient was then applied to a measured total neutron fluence to obtain the appropriate dose equivalent quantity required by regulation. Recent work by Thomas et al. (2000) have compared the early conversion coefficients used in the sixties with those accepted today and suggest suggested that ''the dose equivalents reported in the late fifties and early sixties were conservative by factors between two and four. In any current review of the historical data, therefore it would be prudent to reduce the reported dose equivalents by at least a factor of two.'' However, that analysis was based on the ''state of the art'' neutron energy-spectra of the '60s. This paper provides a detailed knowledge of the neutron energy spectrum at the site boundary paper thus removing any uncertainty in the analysis of Thomas et al., which might be caused by the use of the early neutron energy-spectra. Detailed Monte Carlo analyses of the interactions of 6.2 GeV protons in thick, medium-A targets are described. In the computer simulations, neutrons produced were allowed to scatter in the atmosphere. Detailed neutron energy spectra were calculated at a distance and elevation corresponding to the location of the Olympus Gate EMS. Both older

  11. Analysis of the quality of wastewater from the service stations located in the operative area of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Karna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to analyse the data of pollutant parameters for waste water from the service stations situated in the operative area of the Viikinmäki and Suomenoja WWTPs in the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY). The main reason for this analysis was that HSY wanted to know about the quality of waste water discharged from the service stations into the influent of its WWTPs. The number of cars used in Finland is increasing day by day; hence, au...

  12. Environmental Control System Software & Hardware Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    ECS hardware: (1) Provides controlled purge to SLS Rocket and Orion spacecraft. (2) Provide mission-focused engineering products and services. ECS software: (1) NASA requires Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs); fixed-length identifier used to identify information items. (2) CUI structure; composed of nine semantic fields that aid the user in recognizing its purpose.

  13. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  14. Control Centre operations as the focus for building station teamwork - issues and resource impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.; Lane, L.; Davey, E.

    2006-01-01

    Effective teamwork among station work groups is essential for plant production and safety in all phases of plant operation. To achieve effective teamwork, all contributing work groups must have ongoing access to and share a common perspective on station work priorities, and recognize how their individual contributions fit with and support the contributions of other groups in support of the larger station goals. Achieving and maintaining this alignment in perspective across all workgroups can be a challenge in large organizations. This paper discusses the experience at Darlington in building and maintaining station teamwork among the station workgroups in support of day-to-day plant operations. The issues encountered and the resource impacts of specific teamwork supporting practices adopted are outlined. (author)

  15. Control rod cluster drop time anomaly Guandong nuclear power station (Daya bay) and Electricite de France nuclear power stations (1450 MWe N4 Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera, J.J.; Naury, S.; Tricot, N.; Tran Dai, P.; Gama, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The anomaly of control rod cluster drop time revealed at Guandong Nuclear Power Station in Daya Bay and in the Chooz B1 pilot unit for the N4 series, led to the replacement of the M1 type control rod cluster guide tubes with 1300 MWe PWR type guide tubes, adapted to the geometry of the Guandong reactors and the 1450 MWe reactors of the N4 series. The comparison of the drop times obtained with the 1300 MWe type control rod cluster guide 1300 MWe type control rod cluster guide tubes gave satisfactory results. These met the safety criterion for N4 series control rod cluster drop times (2.15 under hot shutdown conditions). The drop time tests which will be carried out in middle of and at the end of cycle 1 of Chooz B1 should make it possible to finally validate the solution already successfully implemented at Guandong. However, this anomaly has revealed the limits of representativeness of the experimental test loops with regard to the real reactor configuration. In view of this, it has been deemed necessary to ask Electricite de France to pursue its analysis both on the understanding of the phenomena which led to this anomaly and on the limits of the representativeness of the experimental test loops. (authors)

  16. Environmental control technology in petroleum drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental control technology (ECT) is process integrated and relates mainly to pollution prevention and risk assessment. Mechanisms of environmental impact in petroleum drilling, well completion and production, include the generation of waste, induction of toxicity or the creation of pathways for pollutant migration. The identification and evaluation of these mechanisms constitute two parts of the scope of ECT. A third part is the development of new techniques to comply with environmental requirements without prejudicing productivity. The basic concepts of the ECT approach are presented in this chapter. The approach is then used to analyse oilfield drilling and production processes. Environmental control components developed in these technologies are described. These include: the control of the volume and toxicity of drilling fluids; source separation technology in produced water cleaning; subsurface injection of oilfield waste slurries; containment technology in the integrity of petroleum wells; subsurface reduction of produced water; oilfield pit closure technology. (37 figures; 26 tables; 227 references) (UK)

  17. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  18. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  19. Development of the Next Generation Gas Trap for the Space Station Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Spelbring, Chris; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gases (NCG) from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Design goals are to meet or exceed the current requirements to (1) include greater operating ranges and conditions, (2) eliminate reliance on the current hydrophilic tube fabrication process, and (3) increase operational life and tolerance to particulate and microbial growth fouling. In addition, the next generation gas trap will essentially be a 'dropin" design such that no modifications to the ITCS pump package assembly (PPA) will be required, and the implementation of the new design will not affect changes to the ITCS operational conditions, interfaces, or software. This paper will present the initial membrane module design and development work which has included (1) a trade study among several conceptual designs, (2) performance modeling of a hydrophobic-only design, and (3) small-scale development test data for the hydrophobic-only design. Testing has shown that the hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal.

  20. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Haddock, Angie T.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  1. Controlled Environmental Agriculture and Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris [Morrisville State College, NY (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Task A: Heating Plant - To design/build a Heating Plant Building with associated heating components for heating the greenhouse and to house the biomass gasification system. The subtasks for this task was and Engineering Design, Procurement and Construction activities. Overall milestones for this task were one construction permit, a code review and stamped drawings, engineered building vendor supplied sealed drawings, and the actual erection of a 1250 sq.ft. building. Task B: Heating System - The activities for this task included the procurement of the heating boilers and all ancillary components. This also included the installation of all heating system components in the new building plus the existing greenhouse structure. The milestone for this task was for the ability to heat 2500 gallons of water to 80 degrees F. Task C: Organic Matter Automated Hopper - The activities involved in this task involved design/fabrication of an automated hopper to feed the biomass gasification system. We need to procure materials and the automated motion components, have the system installed and factory acceptance test of the system. The milestone is to be able to feed wood chips at a rate of 20 Kg/Hr. Task D: Imbert Gasification System - The activities involved in this include the design/build of the gasifier with all accompany ductwork, cyclones and feeding system. Also there is a modification to the scrubber assembly with an automated ash removal system. Lastly a modification to the exhaust/flair system is made to capture heat from this component. Milestone for this task was to be able to produce 15 CFM of SynGas. Task E: Generator Powered by SynGas - Procure two 20kW 4 pole generator heads for installation on the gasifier system. Modification of the fuel plenum manifold with adjustment to the fuel curves for maximum power and load points. Milestone for this task is the ability to run two fuels, either SynGas or propane. This continues with the following tasks: Controls Heating

  2. Evaluation of SO{sub 2} control technologies for three SCE&G power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.A. Jr. [South Carolina Electric and Gas, Co., Columbia, SC (United States); Wiggins, D.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    South Carolina Electric and Gas, Co. (SCE&G) commissioned a detailed engineering study evaluating flue gas desulphurization (FGD) equipment for three coal fired generating stations in 1993. Raytheon Engineers and Constructors performed the study evaluating wet and dry FGD processes at three of SCE&G`s generating stations. This paper presents the results and conclusions from the study. The following areas are discussed: (1) Station Descriptions; (2) Process Design Criteria; (3) Study Goals and Methodology; (4) Results from the Economic and Kepner-Tregoe Analysis; and (5) Study Recommendations. The paper concludes with a lessons learned section discussing issues which arose during the study.

  3. Final environmental statement related to the operation of the Barnwell Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (Docket No. 70-1729)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The proposed action is to issue a materials license, pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30, 40 and 70 of the Commission's regulations, authorizing Allied-General Nuclear Services to receive and handle fuel casks containing spent reactor fuel elements and to store spent reactor fuel at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), in the Barnwell Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BFRSS). The BFRSS is a part of, and contiguous to, the BNFP-Separations Facility which is being constructed on a small portion of a 1700 acre site about six miles west of the city of Barnwell in Barnwell County, South Carolina. Construction of the BFRSS facility has been completed and the BNFP Separations Facility is more than 90% complete. A uranium Hexafluoride Facility is being constructed on the same site, and a Plutonium Product Facility is proposed to be constructed adjacent to the Separations Facility. The license that is the subject of this action will, if issued, allow lthe use of the BFRSS separate4 from the operation of the Separations Facility. Impacts resulting from the construction of the BFRSS have already occurred and mitigating measures have been and are being implemented to offset any adverse impacts. Operation of the BFRSS will not interfere with water sources, and should cause no noticeable damage to the terrestrial or aquatic environments. Operating experience at other fuel receiving and storage facilities has shown that radioactive concentrations discharged to the environs (the more significant process effluents) have been well below applicabhle state and federal limits. The small quantities to be released during operation of the BFRSS will result in negligible environmental impact. 20 figs

  4. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-456 and STN 50-457)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeologic sites will be moderate. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights of way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this environmental statement, it is concluded that the action called for under NEPA and 10 CFR 51 is the issuance of operating licenses for Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2. 27 figures, 23 tables

  5. Assessment and Control of Spacecraft Charging Risks on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve; Valentine, Mark; Keeping, Thomas; Edeen, Marybeth; Spetch, William; Dalton, Penni

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere, orbiting at altitudes ranging from 350 to 450 km at an inclination of 51.6 degrees. The relatively dense, cool F2 ionospheric plasma suppresses surface charging processes much of the time, and the flux of relativistic electrons is low enough to preclude deep dielectric charging processes. The most important spacecraft charging processes in the ISS orbital environment are: 1) ISS electrical power system interactions with the F2 plasma, 2) magnetic induction processes resulting from flight through the geomagnetic field and, 3) charging processes that result from interaction with auroral electrons at high latitude. Recently, the continuing review and evaluation of putative ISS charging hazards required by the ISS Program Office revealed that ISS charging could produce an electrical shock hazard to the ISS crew during extravehicular activity (EVA). ISS charging risks are being evaluated in an ongoing measurement and analysis campaign. The results of ISS charging measurements are combined with a recently developed model of ISS charging (the Plasma Interaction Model) and an exhaustive analysis of historical ionospheric variability data (ISS Ionospheric Specification) to evaluate ISS charging risks using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methods. The PRA combines estimates of the frequency of occurrence and severity of the charging hazards with estimates of the reliability of various hazard controls systems, as required by NASA s safety and risk management programs, to enable design and selection of a hazard control approach that minimizes overall programmatic and personnel risk. The PRA provides a quantitative methodology for incorporating the results of the ISS charging measurement and analysis campaigns into the necessary hazard reports, EVA procedures, and ISS flight rules required for operating ISS in a safe and productive manner.

  6. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midriem Mirdanies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  7. Capacity of Commune Health Stations in Chi Linh District, Hai Duong Province, for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen; Thi My Anh, Bui; Nguyen Ngoc, Nguyen; Minh Diem, Dang; Duy Kien, Vu; Bich Phuong, Tran; Quynh Anh, Tran; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-07-01

    The primary health care system in Vietnam has been playing an important role in prevention and control of diseases. This study aimed to describe the capacity of commune health stations in Chi Linh district, Hai Duong province for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). A mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative approaches) approach was applied to collect data in 20 commune health stations. The participants, including health workers, stakeholders, and patients with NCDs, were selected for the study. The findings reported that the main activities of prevention and control of NCDs at commune health stations (CHSs) still focused on information-education-community (IECs), unqualified for providing screening, diagnosis, and treatments of NCDs. The capacity for prevention and control of NCDs in CHSs was inadequate to provide health care services related to prevention and control of NCDs and unmet with the community's demands. In order to ensure the role and implementation of primary care level, there is an urgent need to improve the capacity of CHSs for prevention and control of NCDs, particularly a national budget for NCDs prevention and control, the essential equipment and medicines recommended by the World Health Organization should be provided and available at the CHSs.

  8. A study on environmental pollution control in energy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B.M.; Son, J.E.; Lee, H.K.; Choi, W.K.; Baek, I.H.; Lee, J.S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This report is contained such as following contents; Preparation of the stepwise pollution control strategies to reduce pollutants in energy field, which will be satisfy to tightened emission standard in the future. Analysis of the environmental pollution control technologies level, which related to energy field in domestic and other countries. Visualization of the reduction strategies of domestic carbon dioxide emission in energy field. And, discussion and proposal of the R and D program to improve the domestic environmental pollution control technologies in energy field. (author). 99 refs., 67 figs., 73 tabs.

  9. Environmental control procedures at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, E.B.

    1975-01-01

    New environmental control activities in the past year at SRP have included improved control and reporting procedures for chemical spills, reclamation of high-value scrap from wastes, new disposal methods for solid wastes not suitable for the sanitary landfill, improved oil containment, and reduction of sediment discharges to on-plant streams. Interdepartmental committees provide the primary routes for planning and coordinating environmental protection throughout SRP. An improved site-use coordination procedure, developed and implemented by ERDA-SR, has provided more effective control and communication pertaining to activities of the several organizations actively using the 300-square-mile SRP site. (auth)

  10. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  11. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  12. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  13. Trace Contaminant Control During the International Space Station's On-Orbit Assembly and Outfitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    analysis. During the International Space Station's (ISS's) on-orbit assembly and outfitting, a series of engineering analyses were conducted to evaluate how effective the passive TCC methods were relative to providing adequate operational margin for the active TCC equipment's capabilities aboard the ISS. These analyses were based on habitable module and cargo vehicle offgassing test results. The offgassing test for a fully assembled module or cargo vehicle is an important preflight spacecraft evaluation method that has been used successfully during all crewed spacecraft programs to provide insight into how effectively the passive contamination control methods limit the equipment offgassing component of the overall trace contaminant generation load. The progression of TCC assessments beginning in 1998 with the ISS's first habitable element launch and continuing through the final pressurized element's arrival in 2010 are presented. Early cargo vehicle flight assessments between 2008 and 2011 are also presented as well as a discussion on predictive methods for assessing cargo via a purely analytical technique. The technical approach for TCC employed during this 13-year period successfully maintained the cabin atmospheric quality within specified parameters during the technically challenging ISS assembly and outfitting stages. The following narrative provides details on the important role of spacecraft offgassing testing, trace contaminant performance requirements, and flight rules for achieving the ultimate result-a cabin environment that enables people to live and work safely in space.

  14. Ways of solving the problems of radiation safety and environmental protection in handling radioactive waste at atomic power stations in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, D.I.; Belitskij, A.S.; Turkin, A.D.; Kozlov, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Requirements of the State Sanitary Supervision on radiation safety of the personnel and population and on protection of the environment in handling radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations in the USSR are regulated by the Standards of Radiation Safety, the Main Sanitary Rules for Handling Radioactive Materials and by the Sanitary Rules for Designing Nuclear Power Stations. The regulations contained in these documents are obligatory for all the establishments at the stages of design, building and operation of nuclear power stations. The main requirement for handling radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations in the USSR is to dispose of them near the place of their production. In nuclear power station siting and designing the special territory is provided for liquid and solid radioactive wastes storage taking into account the whole period of nuclear power station operation. These storage sites are located within the controlled area. They are built as required, usually for five years. The report contains hygienic and hydrological requirements to the radiation waste burial sites and data on the accepted system of controlling leak-proof qualities of the disposal cavities and radioactivity of the ground water in this region. The results of long-term studies on radionuclide leaching from the bituminic blocks are given and it is shown that the bituminizing method used for solidification of intermediate activity wastes is very promising. In the USSR much attention is given to the problem of sanitary protection of the cooling ponds at nuclear power stations. No limits to the national-economic use of these ponds outside the nuclear power station site are established. Therefore in determining the requirements to the discharge of effluents into the cooling ponds of nuclear power stations the possibility of radionuclide transfer to the population through the aquaeous and terrestrial biological chains is taken into account. The possibility of human diet contamination

  15. Co-ordination of federal and provincial environmental assessment processes for the Point Lepreau Generating Station Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, C.; Thompson, P.D. [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Point Lepreau Refurbishment Project, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada); Barnes, J. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Modification of the Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Point Lepreau Generating Station is required to accommodate waste generated during and after an 18-month maintenance outage during which the station would be Refurbished. The modification of the facility triggered both federal and provincial environmental assessment requirements, and these assessments were conducted in a 'coordinated' and cooperative fashion. In this project, the coordinated approach worked well, and provided some significant advantages to the proponent, the public and the regulators. However, there are opportunities for further improvement in future projects, and this paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of this 'co-ordinated' approach. As part of this exploration, there is a discussion of administrative and regulatory changes that the province is considering for the environmental assessment process, and a discussion of the need for a formal 'harmonization' agreement. (author)

  16. Co-ordination of federal and provincial environmental assessment processes for the Point Lepreau Generating Station Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.; Thompson, P.D.; Barnes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Modification of the Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Point Lepreau Generating Station is required to accommodate waste generated during and after an 18-month maintenance outage during which the station would be Refurbished. The modification of the facility triggered both federal and provincial environmental assessment requirements, and these assessments were conducted in a 'coordinated' and cooperative fashion. In this project, the coordinated approach worked well, and provided some significant advantages to the proponent, the public and the regulators. However, there are opportunities for further improvement in future projects, and this paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of this 'co-ordinated' approach. As part of this exploration, there is a discussion of administrative and regulatory changes that the province is considering for the environmental assessment process, and a discussion of the need for a formal 'harmonization' agreement. (author)

  17. Greenhouse Environmental Control Using Optimized MIMO PID Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateh BOUNAAMA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate control for protected crops brings the added dimension of a biological system into a physical system control situation. The thermally dynamic nature of a greenhouse suggests that disturbance attenuation (load control of external temperature, humidity, and sunlight is far more important than is the case for controlling other types of buildings. This paper investigates the application of multi-inputs multi-outputs (MIMO PID controller to a MIMO greenhouse environmental model with actuation constraints. This method is based on decoupling the system at low frequency point. The optimal tuning values are determined using genetic algorithms optimization (GA. The inside outsides climate model of the environmental greenhouse, and the automatically collected data sets of Avignon, France are used to simulate and test this technique. The control objective is to maintain a highly coupled inside air temperature and relative humidity of strongly perturbed greenhouse, at specified set-points, by the ventilation/cooling and moisturizing operations.

  18. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-456 and STN 50-457)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The Draft Environment Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeologic sites will be negligible. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights of way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. The net socioeconomi effects of the project will be beneficial. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this environmental statement, it is concluded that the action called for under NEPA and 10 CFR 51 is the issuance of operating licenses for Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2

  19. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-352 and 50-353

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, pursuant to the National Environment Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeological sites will be negligible. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights of way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity

  20. Recent developments in environmental protection in India: Pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, H [NOIDA, Disst, Ghaziabad, Pin (IN)

    1989-01-01

    In India, pollution and environmental degradation have reached alarming dimensions due to poverty, deforestation, industrial development without adequate environmental safeguards, and sheer greed. Fortunately, public concern, rooted in the country's past, has revived. Major pollutants and critically affected areas have been identified. Pollution control of water, air and land has been established by both official and private organizations and the work on environmental protection is steadily growing. The Ganga purification plan is a representative case study. Poverty alleviation is a long-term process. It is India's major problem and is being tackled with help from private enterprise and by international assistance. Simultaneously environmental protection through pollution control is also receiving administrative and legislative support and fiscal assistance through direct and indirect tax incentives. The country's courts are rendering valuable help to environmentalists by pronouncing far-reaching decisions in public-interest litigation. To boost the existing environment-protection movement, greater emphasis is urgently needed for environmental education, peoples' participation, population control, and cost-effective pollution control measures.

  1. Robust Constrained Optimization Approach to Control Design for International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Auto Balancing Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Postma, Barry D

    2005-01-01

    ...) for a centrifuge rotor to be implemented on the International Space Station. The design goal is to minimize a performance objective of the system, while guaranteeing stability and proper performance for a range of uncertain plants...

  2. Environmental control and life support - Partially closed system will save big money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Although the NASA space station has not yet been completely defined, realistic estimates may be made of the environmental control and life support system requirements entailed by a crew of eight, a resupply interval of 90 days, an initial launch which includes expendables for the first resupply interval, 7.86 lb/day of water per person, etc. An appraisal of these requirements is presented which strongly suggests the utility of a partially closed life support system. Such a scheme would give the crew high quality water to drink, and recycle nonpotable water from hand washing, bathing, clothes and dish washing, and urinal flushing. The excess recovery process water is electrolyzed to provide metabolic and leakage oxygen. The crew would drink electrolysis water and atmospheric humidity control moisture-derived water.

  3. Study of sources, dose contribution and control measures of Argon-41 at Kaiga Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Ramana, K.; Shrikrishna, U.V.; Manojkumar, M.; Ramesh, R.; Madhan, V.; Varadhan, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    Air is used as a medium for cooling calandria vault and thermal shield systems in the earlier Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (Rajasthan Atomic Power Station and Madras Atomic Power Station) in India. This leads to production of significant quantity of 41 Ar in calandria vault and thermal shield cooling systems due to neutron activation of 40 Ar present in air (∼1% v/v). The presence of 41 Ar in reactor building contributes significant external doses to plant personnel during reactor operation and the release of this radionuclide to the environment result in dose to the public in the vicinity of the plants. An attempt is made to eliminate Argon-41 production in Indian standard Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (Narora Atomic Power Station, Kakrapar Atomic Power Station, Kaiga Generating Station -1 and 2 and Rajasthan Atomic Power Station-3 and 4), by filling the calandria vault with demineralized water and providing a separate Annulus Gas Monitoring System (AGMS) for detecting leaks from calandria tube or pressure tube using Carbon dioxide as a medium. However, 41 Ar is produced in the Annulus Gas Monitoring System, Primary Heat Transport cover gas system and moderator cover gas system due to ingress of air into the systems during operational transients or due to trace quantity of air present as an impurity in the gases used for the above systems. A study was conducted to identify and quantify the sources of 41 Ar in the work areas. This report brings out the sources of 41 Ar, reasons for 41 Ar production and the results of the measures incorporated to reduce the presence of 41 Ar in the above systems. (author)

  4. Fire protection devices in the controlled region of GKN nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the GKN nuclear power station ('Neckar reactor'), an 805 MW PWR reactor whose start-up is scheduled for the near future, fire protection measures have been realized that go far beyond those realized in other German nuclear power stations until now. One of the main reasons is that the authorities have been sensibilized by a fire in the refuelling cavity during construction and by the Browns Ferry fire and are therefore extremely thorough in their examination. Further subsections have been added to the fire prevention sections in order to provide better quenching devices for potential fire sites. (orig./AK) [de

  5. Application of ecological risk assessment to establish nonhuman environmental protection at nuclear generating stations in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wismer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    A screening ecological risk assessment was performed for regulatory compliance at three Ontario nuclear generating station sites to establish design requirements for a routine contaminant monitoring program and to address the need for non-contaminant stressor management. Site specific assessments went beyond traditional contaminant risk assessment to include stressors associated with land-use change, cooling water systems and site storm water runoff. Valued terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem components were selected from species lists after stakeholder consultation, and contaminants of concern were selected based on their relative loadings, and with respect to regulatory and literature-based benchmarks. Predictive modeling was used to estimate chemical and radionuclide exposures and likelihood of effects. Adverse effects on individual biota were predicted for aqueous emissions of chlorine and storm water but not for radionuclides. Retrospective analyses of past field monitoring were used to determine likelihood of effects from non-contaminant stressors. Individual-level adverse effects were observed for fish losses from cooling water withdrawal. Depending on the site and the biological species, either beneficial or adverse effects from thermal discharge and land-use change were observed. Followup studies include monitoring, laboratory study, computer modeling and mitigation. Field monitoring will generate more precise species-level estimates of intake fish losses, magnitude of fish response to thermal discharge and chlorine concentrations in near-field discharge waters. Laboratory study is determining the effectiveness of intake fish loss mitigation technology. Computer fish population models are being used to design field studies and interpret individual level effects. Mitigation includes storm water controls and habitat biodiversity management projects to offset past losses from site development and construction. Routine contaminant monitoring is planned to

  6. Fuzzy optimization in hydrodynamic analysis of groundwater control systems: Case study of the pumping station "Bezdan 1", Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater control system was designed to lower the water table and allow the pumping station “Bezdan 1” to be built. Based on a hydrodynamic analysis that suggested three alternative solutions, multicriteria optimization was applied to select the best alternative. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method was used, based on triangular fuzzy numbers. An assessment of the various factors that influenced the selection of the best alternative, as well as fuzzy optimization calculations, yielded the “weights” of the alternatives and the best alternative was selected for groundwater control at the site of the pumping station “Bezdan 1”. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-176022, TR-33039 i br. III-43004

  7. Provision of Flexible Load Control by Multi-Flywheel-Energy-Storage System in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Andrade, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    in order to support basic electrical operation. This paper proposes a local implementation of a hysteresis-based aggregation algorithm for coordinated control of multiple stations that can provide functions such as peak shaving, spinning reserves, frequency control, regulation and load following. Local......Electrical vehicle (EV) chargers are going to occupy a considerable portion of total energy consumption in the future smart grid. Fast charging stations (FCS), as the most demanding representatives of charging infrastructure, will be requested to provide some ancillary services to the power system...... stability. Finally, corresponding hardware in the loop results based on dSPACE1006 platform have been reported in order to verify the validity of proposed approach....

  8. 75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Moynihan Station Development Project... availability of and public comment period for the Moynihan Station Development Project Environmental Assessment... 22675

  9. Environmental Control for Regional Library Facilities. RR-80-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard G., Jr.

    This report presents an overview of the damage to library materials caused by uncontrollable environmental variables. The control of atmospheric pollutants, temperature, and humidity are discussed with regard to damage, standards, and the costs of deterioration due to these factors. Twelve references are listed. (FM)

  10. Environmental Control Plan for the Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the Hanford Site's Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility, located in the 100-N Area. This facility is used for the maintenance and storage of respirators, respiratory equipment and testing, calibration and testing of industrial hygiene equipment, and asbestos fiber counting

  11. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  12. Environmental impacts of mining: monitoring, restoration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Contains 12 chapters with the following titles: mining and the environment; surface coal mining with reclamation; reclamation and revegetation of mined land; the acid mine drainage problem from coal mines; acid rock drainage and metal migration; hydrologic impact; erosion and sediment control; wetlands; blasting; mining subsidence; postmining land use; environmental effects of gold heap-leaching operations.

  13. Modeling and Control of Flexible HEV Charging Station upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Shafiee, Qobad; Wu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a fast DC charging station (FCS) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that is connected at a remote location. Power rating of this new technology can go up to a hundred kW and it represents a main challenge for its broad acceptance in distribution systems...

  14. Heavy water radiolysis and chemistry control of the Fugen Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibuki, Y.; Kitabata, T.; Kato, T.

    1989-01-01

    A computer analysis for heavy water radiolysis clarified the mechanism of the heavy water radiolysis rate change with impurities in the heavy water and cover gas, helium. The mechanism is supported by over ten years' operational data of the heavy water radiolysis in the Fugen nuclear power station. (author)

  15. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource

  16. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Byron Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-454 and STN 50-455)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of an operating license to Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) of Chicago, Illinois, for startup and operation of the Byron Station, Units 1 and 2 on a 710-ha (1754-acre) site in Ogle County 6 km (4 miles) south-southwest of Byron, Illinois, and 3 km (2 miles) east of the Rock River. Each of the two generating units consists of a pressurized-water reactor, four steam generators, one steam turbine generator, a heat-dissipation system, and associated auxiliary and engineered safeguards. Information is presented under the following topics: purpose and need for the action; alternatives to the proposed action; project description and affected environment; environmental consequences and mitigating actions; evaluation of the proposed action; list of contributors; list of agencies and organizations requested to comment on the draft environmental statement; and responses to comments on the Draft Environmental Statement

  17. Google Home: smart speaker as environmental control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kenichiro

    2017-08-23

    Environmental Control Units (ECU) are devices or a system that allows a person to control appliances in their home or work environment. Such system can be utilized by clients with physical and/or functional disability to enhance their ability to control their environment, to promote independence and improve their quality of life. Over the last several years, there have been an emergence of several inexpensive, commercially-available, voice activated smart speakers into the market such as Google Home and Amazon Echo. These smart speakers are equipped with far field microphone that supports voice recognition, and allows for complete hand-free operation for various purposes, including for playing music, for information retrieval, and most importantly, for environmental control. Clients with disability could utilize these features to turn the unit into a simple ECU that is completely voice activated and wirelessly connected to appliances. Smart speakers, with their ease of setup, low cost and versatility, may be a more affordable and accessible alternative to the traditional ECU. Implications for Rehabilitation Environmental Control Units (ECU) enable independence for physically and functionally disabled clients, and reduce burden and frequency of demands on carers. Traditional ECU can be costly and may require clients to learn specialized skills to use. Smart speakers have the potential to be used as a new-age ECU by overcoming these barriers, and can be used by a wider range of clients.

  18. Integrated environmental control concepts for advanced power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Kalagnanam, J.R.; Berkenpas, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    For both conventional and advanced power systems, the capability to estimate the performance and cost of environmental control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. This paper describes a computer model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique feature of the model allows performance and costs of integrated environmental control concepts to be modeled probabilistically as a means of characterizing uncertainties and risks. Examples are presented of model applications comparing conventional and advanced emission control designs. 13 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  19. ON THE OPTIMAL CONTROL OF A PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dávalos Chuquipoma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is studied the optimal control of distributed parameter systems applied to an environmental pollution problem. The model consists of a differential equation partial parabolic modeling of a pollutant transport in a fluid. The model is considered the speed with which the pollutant spreads in the environment and degradation that suffers the contaminant by the presence of a factor biological inhibitor, which breaks the contaminant at a rate that is not dependent on space and time. Using the method of Lagrange multipliers is possible to prove the existence solving the problem of control and obtaining optimality conditions for optimal control.

  20. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  1. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titain, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1995-1998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for greater than 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally- listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were

  2. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titan, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1 995-1 998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for > 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally-listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were located at

  3. Internal services simulation control in 220/110kV power transformer station Mintia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulica, D.; Rob, R.

    2018-01-01

    The main objectives in developing the electric transport and distribution networks infrastructure are satisfying the electric energy demand, ensuring the continuity of supply to customers, minimizing electricity losses in the transmission and distribution networks of public interest. This paper presents simulations in functioning of the internal services system 400/230 V ac in the 220/110 kV power transformer station Mintia. Using simulations in Visual Basic, the following premises are taken into consideration. All the ac consumers of the 220/110 kV power transformer station Mintia will be supplied by three 400/230 V transformers for internal services which can mutual reserve. In case of damaging at one transformer, the others are able to assume the entire consumption using automatic release of reserves. The simulation program studies three variants in which the continuity of supply to customers are ensured. As well, by simulations, all the functioning situations are analyzed in detail.

  4. Dosimetric control on board the MIR space station during the solar proton events of September-October 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghin, V.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Chernykh, I.V.; Teltsov, M.V.; Shumshurov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    A set of dosimetric units for the control of radiation doses to cosmonauts on board the MIR space station contains an active dosimeter R-16 and a personal display dosimeter IPD-2. During the powerful solar proton events (SPE) in September-October 1989, the readings of these devices were used for the control of the crew's radiation damage. Results of the dose measurements and analysis of the dynamics caused by some heliogeophysical factors are given. It is shown that the total doses from SPE registered by the dosimeters R-16 and IPD-2 were 3.6 x 10 -2 and 0.9 x 10 -2 Gy, respectively. (author)

  5. An advanced automation system for operation of Sao Paulo pumping stations from TRANSPETRO Master Control Center - CNCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio; Barreto, Camila Maria Benevenuto [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Since 2000 the operations of the TRANSPETRO pumping stations in the state of Sao Paulo region began to be transferred from local control centers located at the transfer and storage terminals to the National Operational Control Center (CNCO) of TRANSPETRO, located at the headquarters of the company, in Rio de Janeiro. The proposed paper aims to presenting an overview of the automation system that was developed to enable such pumping stations to be operated from CNCO in a reliable and secure manner, focusing on tools that offer an embedded system alarms completely free of false alarms with automatic determining of the root cause, and also automatic and advanced diagnoses of problems caused by failures of hardware, human error and abnormal conditions of the process, providing the CNCO SCADA system of accurate and quality information that help operators to make decisions. The referred automation system was integrated for the first time to CNCO SCADA system in 2000, for pipeline pumps of Osvat (Sao Sebastiao - Vale do Paraiba pipeline) station at the Sao Sebastiao Terminal - northern coast of Sao Paulo region. (author)

  6. Nonpoint Pollution Discharge Permit Testing and Control Strategies at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    were published in the 16 November 1990 Federal Recister in response to the Water Quality Act of 1987. The existing station permit expires in 1992 and...anaerobic decomposition potential may be of major significance. Biodegradation may not occur, however, if other factors needed for bacterial growth are not... bacterially mediated oxidation of ammonia-nitrogen, these compounds can be toxic to humans or other mammals if present at excessive levels. Sources include

  7. Data Reduction and Control Software for Meteor Observing Stations Based on CCD Video Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Lyytinen, E.

    2011-01-01

    The SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN) is performing a continuous monitoring of meteor activity over Spain and neighbouring countries. The huge amount of data obtained by the 25 video observing stations that this network is currently operating made it necessary to develop new software packages to accomplish some tasks, such as data reduction and remote operation of autonomous systems based on high-sensitivity CCD video devices. The main characteristics of this software are described here.

  8. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...... catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  9. Environmental radiological studies conducted during 1986 in the vicinity of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1986 for our assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant. In October 1984, a liquid-effluent control program was initiated that significantly reduced the quantities of radionuclides discharged with liquid waste from the plant. However, results from our sampling program in 1986 indicate that previously discharged radionuclides persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components although at concentrations much lower than those measured in 1984 and 1985. The greatly reduced activities in the dietary components from the aquatic environment attest to the effectiveness of the liquid-effluent control program. Concentrations in the flesh of fish from the creeks have decreased over time and with distance from the plant outfall. The mean concentration of 137 Cs in fish collected from Laguna Creek at locations more than 7.5 km from Rancho Seco is now comparable to the concentration determined in fresh-water fish randomly selected from Chicago, Illinois, markets. By August 1986, the mean concentration of 137 Cs in the flesh of bluegill had fallen to 7% of the concentration measured in fish from comparable locations in 1984 and was 30% of the mean concentration measured in these fish during August 1985. Stable potassium in the water plays a major role in the accumulation of 137 Cs by fish. Concentrations of 137 Cs in the surface sections of creek sediments also declined between the end of 1984 and 1986 with an effective half-life of approximately 2 y. Surface soils collected around a perimeter 11 km from Rancho Seco and from ranchlands closer to the plant showed only concentrations of 137 Cs originating from global fallout. Soils previously irrigated with Clay Creek water retain levels of both 134 Cs and 137 Cs

  10. Environmental control and life support technologies for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. T.; Wynveen, R. A.; Lin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regenerative environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technologies are found by the present evaluation to have reached a degree of maturity that recommends their application to long duration manned missions. The missions for which regenerative ECLSSs are attractive in virtue of the need to avoid expendables and resupply requirements have been identified as that of the long duration LEO Space Station, long duration stays at GEO, a permanently manned lunar base (or colony), manned platforms located at the earth-moon libration points L4 or L5, a Mars mission, deep space exploration, and asteroid exploration. A comparison is made between nonregenerative and regenerative ECLSSs in the cases of 10 essential functions.

  11. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  12. Climate chamber for environmentally controlled laboratory airflow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Nurit; Zaretsky, Uri; Grinberg, Orly; Davidovich, Tomer; Kloog, Yoel; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2010-01-01

    Climate chambers have been widely used in in vitro and in vivo studies which require controlled environmental temperature and humidity conditions. This article describes a new desktop climate chamber that was developed for application of respiratory airflows on cultured nasal epithelial cells (NEC) under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Flow experiments were performed by connecting the climate chamber to an airflow generator via a flow chamber with cultured NEC. Experiments at two controlled climate conditions, 25 degrees C and 40% relative humidity (RH) and 37 degrees C and 80%RH, were conducted to study mucin secretion from the cultures inresponse to the flow. The new climate chamber is a relatively simple and inexpensive apparatus which can easily be connected to any flow system for climate controlled flow experiments. This chamber can be easily adjusted to various in vitro experiments, as well as to clinical studies with animals or human subjects which require controlled climate conditions.

  13. Environmental management: a re-emerging vector control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, S K

    1994-01-01

    Vector control may be accomplished by environmental management (EM), which consists of permanent or long-term modification of the environment, temporary or seasonal manipulation of the environment, and modifying or changing our life styles and practices to reduce human contact with infective vectors. The primary focus of this paper is EM in the control of human malaria, filariasis, arboviruses, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis. Modern EM developed as a discipline based primarily in ecologic principles and lessons learned from the adverse environmental impacts of rural development projects. Strategies such as the suppression of vector populations through the provision of safe water supplies, proper sanitation, solid waste management facilities, sewerage and excreta disposal systems, water manipulation in dams and irrigation systems, vector diversion by zooprophylaxis, and vector exclusion by improved housing, are discussed with appropriate examples. Vectors of malaria, filariasis, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis have been controlled by drainage or filling aquatic breeding sites, improved housing and sanitation, the use of expanded polystyrene beads, zooprophylaxis, or the provision of household water supplies. Community participation has been effective in the suppression of dengue vectors in Mexico and the Dominican Republic. Alone or combined with other vector control methods, EM has been proven to be a successful approach to vector control in a number of places. The future of EM in vector control looks promising.

  14. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Sabrina M.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  15. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Sabrina M.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  16. Final environmental statement related to the operation of North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of Operating Licenses to the Virginia Electric and Power Company for the startup and operation of the North Anna Power Station, Units No. 1 and 2, located on Lake Anna in Louisa County, 40 miles east of Charlottesville, Virginia. The information in this second addendum responds to the Commission's directive that the staff address in narrative form the environmental dose commitments and health effects from fuel cycle releases, fuel cycle socioeconomic impacts, and possible cumulative impacts pending further treatment by rulemaking

  17. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  18. Soil bioengineering applied to the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luria, P.

    2005-01-01

    Soil bioengineering is a discipline characterised by the capability of associating geo-technical approaches (e.g. soil stabilisation) with naturalistic rehabilitation and creation of biotopes. It is extremely suitable for the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills, especially of area and depression landfills, mainly through soil protection and stabilisation measures. Its increasing notoriety is mainly due to the great variety and specificity of its techniques, to the capability of joining technical matters with naturalistic aspects, and to the reduced cost of some interventions. Nevertheless, its application to environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills is still scarce in Italy. Only 3% of 87 closed landfills analysed, whose rehabilitation projects adopt natural techniques for soil stabilisation and protection, explicitly refers to Soil Bioengineering [it

  19. Final Environmental Assessment- Air Traffic Control Tower and Fire Station Pope AFB, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    depressions on the landscape, and between water and dry land along the edges of streams, rivers, lakes, and coastlines. Inland wetlands receive water from...bladderwort c May-July Vaccinium macrocarpon Cranberry c April-June Utricularia olivacea Dwarf bladderwort T Sept-Oct Warea cuneifolia Carolina

  20. Controlled environmental radioiodine tests at the national reactor testing station. 1965 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.R.; Bunch, D.F.; Gammill, W.P.; Hawley, C.A. Jr.; Markee, E.H.; Tiernan, M.W.

    1966-02-01

    The CERT project consists of a series of planned releases of radioiodine over different vegetation and during various meteorological conditions, with the prime objective being to measure the relationships involved in the passage of radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. The results of the first five tests in the series, which started in the spring of 1963 and is continuing, are reported. Each test was conducted under measured meteorological conditions and over prepared sampling and grazing courses. Two tests were made over open-range type vegetation, two over irrigated pastures, and one over snow-covered ground. Two tests were conducted under lapse conditions, two under inversion conditions, and one under neutral conditions. In each case, known quantities of elemental /sup 131/I/sub 2/ were released. Relationships determined included air-grass ratios (deposition velocities) which ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 cm/sec; effective half life of /sup 131/I on grass of 3.5 days and 5.5 days; the time of peak activity in milk at two days following a release; milk-grass ratio (C/1:C/g); total /sup 131/I secreted in milk by cows to that ingested by cows; adult human thyroid uptake fraction (inhalation); and based on a breathing rate of 20 m/sup 3//24 hours, the ratio between infinity mills ingestion dose and infinity inhalation dose for a single release was calculated. Data, descriptions of methods, and calculations are reported. Discussions of resuspension factors and particle sizes and behavior are also included.

  1. Significance of technical rules for environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefen, K.

    1989-01-01

    Technical rules for environmental pollution control are very important in times of intensified technical progress and especially in view of the alterations of the legislative basis of the European Market in 1992. In the fields of jurisprudence, science and technology they serve as a decision-making aid for authorities, specialists in plant development and operation and the preparatory stages of international legislation. The topic is explained by the development of guidelines with the VDI-Commission on Air Pollution Prevention. (orig.) [de

  2. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on future control station designs and human performance issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear community is currently at a stage where new reactors are being built, advanced reactors are being planned, and existing reactors are undergoing various forms of modernization of their control stations. Nuclear power plants are characterised by a high degree of complexity, where efficient and safe performance is dependent on both a sound technical design and effective teamwork and work practices. Team interactions have long traditions in current nuclear power plants. The way people operate and maintain the plants may need to accommodate technical advances associated with control station modernization and advanced plant control stations. The nuclear community likely to see the introduction of new designs, new tools to support the staff, changes to staffing types and levels, concepts of operation for new reactors that are different from current reactors, e.g., multi-unit control, possible remote operation, distributed decision making, and cooperation across distances. Based on recent experience, there is limited knowledge about human performance issues with regard to upgraded control rooms. However, even less knowledge exists regarding operation and maintenance of control stations for future and more advanced reactor designs. In order to explore these issues, the CSNI Special Experts' Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF), now the Working Group on Human and Organizational Factors (WGHOF), and the Halden Reactor Project (HRP) hosted a joint workshop which provided an international forum for utilities, vendors, research bodies and regulators to discuss human performance issues related to control stations for future nuclear power plant designs and for modified control rooms for existing plants. The Norwegian petroleum industry also shared their experiences, especially with integrated and distributed operations among off-shore and on-shore control centres. There were 74 participants from 20 countries at the workshop. Twenty-two papers were

  4. Environmental Assessment for Conversion of the 926th Fighter Group at Naval Air Station New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    that a likely to be affected by the Proposed Action and No-Action Alternative. * Ba~fsed on the installation and operational charateristics ofthe...complex social and political organizations known to exist north of Mexico. Mississippi and Louisiana, the region of influence for NAS New Orleans, has...approximately 10,000. The current active station population is an estimated 3,074 persons . Of that total, 1,136 persons , or 43 percent, are active duty military

  5. Improvement on control of waste disposal system at Genkai Nuclear Power Station No.1 and No.2 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Akria

    1989-01-01

    At Genkai Nuclear Power Station, the operational and control systems of the boric acid evaporator, waste liquid evaporator and gaseous waste disposal system were converted from general purpose analong systems to computer instrumentation and control systems in order to improve their operability and controllability. The equipments were operated by batch processing system, so plant operators were required to operate them manually. By introducing the computer instrumentation and control systems, the automatic operation of the equipments has become possible. Furthermore, it has become possible to monitor the relevant parameters intensively with a CRT in the operating room, and it contributes to the improvement of reliability and labor saving. The operation of No.1 plant was begun in October, 1975, and No.2 plant in March, 1981. Both are the PWR plants of 625 MVA capacity. The outline of the power station facilities, the background of the reconstruction, the problems and the plan of reconstruction for the boric acid recovery facility, waste liquid evaporator and gas compressor, the peculiarity of the reconstruction works, and the effect of introducing the new systems are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Fire protection equipment in the area of control of the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station - an 805 MW pressurised water reactor shortly to reach the stage of nuclear operation - fire protection measures have been realised to an extent hitherto uncommon in German nuclear power plants. The reason is to be sought from the authorities who have become more sensitive because of a fire in a reactor vessel during the construction stage and the fire at Browns Ferry and have consequently become extremely expert. Apart from the fire regulations hitherto normal further subregulations have been created in order to be able to make better provision of extinguishing devices against fire hazards. (orig.) [de

  7. Operation of Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, Dockets Nos. 50-416 and 50-417: Mississippi Power and Light Company, Middle South Energy, Inc., South Mississippi Electric Power Association. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The information in this Final Environmental Statement is the second assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, located on the Mississippi River in Claiborne County, Mississippi. The Draft Environmental Statement was issued in May 1981. The first assessment was the Final Environmental Statement related to construction, which was issued in August 1973 prior to issuance of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station construction permits. In September 1981 Grand Gulf Unit 1 was 92% complete and Unit 2 was 22% complete. Fuel loading for Unit 1 is scheduled for December 1981. The present assessment is the result of the NRC staff review of the activities associated with the proposed operation of the Station, and includes the staff responses to comments on the Draft Environmental Statement

  8. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  9. Quality-control activities of the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Jaquish, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to quality control (QC) has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program. The framework of quality control for the surveillance program has been documented in a QC implementation guide wherein QC requirements are specified and specific responsibilities and authorities are described. Subjects in the guide include the collection, analysis, and reporting of samples as well as equipment calibration and maintenance, training, audits, and record keeping. A QC file and library have been established to store pertinent documentation, records, and references for ready access

  10. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program; Usina Nuclear de Angra: programa de controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircher, E; Cruz, E.S. da [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs.

  11. Transfrontier problems in connection with the site selection of power stations and energy facilities with environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manz, P.; Kanton Basel-Landschaft, Liestal

    1977-01-01

    This contribution deals with the subjects politics and environmental protection, site selection procedures and their consequences, and tasks of international commissions, and concludes that cooperation, research and agreement are essential for environmental and energy policies which are to be beneficial to all. (RW) [de

  12. System Identification, Environmental Modelling, and Control System Design

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    System Identification, Environmetric Modelling, and Control Systems Design is dedicated to Professor Peter Young on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Professor Young has been a pioneer in systems and control, and over the past 45 years he has influenced many developments in this field. This volume is comprised of a collection of contributions by leading experts in system identification, time-series analysis, environmetric modelling and control system design – modern research in topics that reflect important areas of interest in Professor Young’s research career. Recent theoretical developments in and relevant applications of these areas are explored treating the various subjects broadly and in depth. The authoritative and up-to-date research presented here will be of interest to academic researcher in control and disciplines related to environmental research, particularly those to with water systems. The tutorial style in which many of the contributions are composed also makes the book suitable as ...

  13. Variation of radioactivity in the environmental media and dose evaluation in Suzhou city after normal operation of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Rongchu; Liu Li

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the radioactive monitoring in environmental media of Suzhou City when Qinshan Nuclear Power Station was in normal operational condition (from 1992-2001). Methods: The radiochemical method was used for monitoring the radioactivity level in air, soil and food. Results: The total radioactivity, concentrations of 134 I and 134,137 Cs in environmental media was far lower than the limit values specified by the national standard GB. Conclusion: The radioactivity level in Suzhou City is at the natural background level. The individual annual average effective dose for adults in that period caused by ingestion 134,137 Cs in food is 4.41 x 10 -4 mSv/a

  14. Observations of the Earth's magnetic field from the Space Station: Measurement at high and extremely low altitude using Space Station-controlled free-flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W., Jr.; Frawley, J. J.; Stefanik, M.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation studies established that the main (core), crustal and electrojet components of the Earth's magnetic field can be observed with greater resolution or over a longer time-base than is presently possible by using the capabilities provided by the space station. Two systems are studied. The first, a large lifetime, magnetic monitor would observe the main field and its time variation. The second, a remotely-piloted, magnetic probe would observe the crustal field at low altitude and the electrojet field in situ. The system design and the scientific performance of these systems is assessed. The advantages of the space station are reviewed.

  15. Controlling the quality of replacement parts in nuclear station, class 1E equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierson, R.K.; Clemons, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear station owners have traditionally purchased replacement parts for Class 1E equipment from the original supplier of the equipment. By this method, part and equipment quality could be maintained. In recent years, however, this traditional source of parts has continuously declined as an increasing number of original equipment suppliers stop producing Class 1E equipment or no longer stock parts for older equipment. When replacement parts for Class 1E equipment are not obtainable from the original suppliers, equipment owners have created a variety of methods for assuring the quality of parts obtained from other sources. A standard that provides direction and guidance for maintaining the quality of Class 1E equipment when repaired with parts from alternate sources is, therefore, needed to assure the methods in use are satisfactory and to alert the equipment owners to additional acceptable methods. The standard has now been proposed. IEEE Standard P934 (June, 1983 Draft): ''Requirements for Replacement Parts for Class 1E Equipment in Nuclear Power Generating Stations'' (Ref-3) consist of an introductory section followed by sections on part selection, procurement, replacement (including inspections and tests), non-conforming conditions and records. The proposed standard also includes a non-mandatory appendix on acceptable procurement methods and a summary intended to assist the user in selecting a proper procurement method

  16. Role of quality circles in dose control programs at Kaiga generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadhan, R.S.; Sukumar, T.S.; Ramamurthy, K.; Nageswara Rao, G.

    2003-01-01

    To operate the nuclear power station with maximum capacity factors and lowest collective dose it is imperative that a sense of belongingness among the employees is essential. Quality Circles provide an opportunity to the plant personnel irrespective of their grade or discipline to come together to solve the work related problems in a scientific manner to enhance the productivity and safety in the work environment. The concept of Quality Circles came to Kaiga during July 1998. The thought revolution grew slowly and steadily and brought big gains to the station. The organized thoughts and concerted actions in field resulted in development of good work culture among the employees, an important input to achieve super excellence in power generation in the most cost effective manner. This also is a means to set challenging targets and make and break the records among the NPCIL units. The genesis of Quality Circles, the methodology of QC working, promotional activities, the progress and programs of Quality Circles are discussed in this presentation. (author)

  17. Measurement and on line control of radioactive contamination of the air using ASS-500 stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.; Zak, A.; Biernacka, M.; Isajenko, K.; Lipinski, P.

    1998-01-01

    The method of continuous monitoring of artificial radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere, used for early warning system in care of nuclear emergencies, is presented. The system consist of the scintillation spectrometer AS-01 mounted in the ASS-500 station cabinet. The results of calibrations and operational tests are given. For continuous operation mode the lower activity concentration limit is 0.44 Bq/m 3 for 131 I and 0.79 Bq/m 3 for 137 Cs. The activity concentration in the air of 10 Bq/m 3 for artificial radionuclides is used as the alarm threshold value. The ASS-500 station equipped with AS-01 spectrometer allows obtaining of the immediate information on the presence of artificial radionuclides in the air. The sampling process is not disturbed by AS-01 spectrometer. Therefore, the determination of the activity concentration in the air on the level of few μBq/m 3 by means of HPGe spectrometers is possible (author)

  18. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  19. Bidding for blocks and environmental control; Licitacao de blocos e o controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Magila Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Direito do Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    With the coming of the Constitutional Emend n. 9/95, the Brazilian market of oil and natural gas stopped being monopolized by PETROBRAS. Since then, the concession of blocks began to be preceded by the public tender procedure realized by ANP- National Agency of Oil. The activities of oil exploration and production are potentially damaging to environment, what brings necessary the environmental licence and the previous study of the environmental impacts caused in this activity. Considering that the environmental licence must be done after the tender process, the enterprises that bought the blocks would assume the risk of not being allowed to practice their activities because of the absence of the environmental licence. To avoid that the It's offered blocks in not viable areas for oil exploration, the ANP, responsible for the public tender must accomplish a previous environmental control, to assure to the enterprises involved the environmental viability of the blocks offered. This project will touch the question of how has been realized the previous environmental control of the blocks offered by ANP into the public tender process, detaching, the control done at the 6. Round. (author)

  20. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) advanced automation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.; Carnes, Ray

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) Advanced Automation Project is to influence the design of the initial and evolutionary Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) ECLSS toward a man-made closed environment in which minimal flight and ground manpower is needed. Another objective includes capturing ECLSS design and development knowledge future missions. Our approach has been to (1) analyze the SSFP ECLSS, (2) envision as our goal a fully automated evolutionary environmental control system - an augmentation of the baseline, and (3) document the advanced software systems, hooks, and scars which will be necessary to achieve this goal. From this analysis, prototype software is being developed, and will be tested using air and water recovery simulations and hardware subsystems. In addition, the advanced software is being designed, developed, and tested using automation software management plan and lifecycle tools. Automated knowledge acquisition, engineering, verification and testing tools are being used to develop the software. In this way, we can capture ECLSS development knowledge for future use develop more robust and complex software, provide feedback to the knowledge based system tool community, and ensure proper visibility of our efforts.

  1. Generating a representative signal of coal ash content to anticipate combustion control in a thermal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto-Fernandez, Ismael; Santurio-Diaz, J.M.; Folgueras-Diaz, B.; Lopez-Bobo, M. Rosario; Fernandez-Viar, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of continuously measuring coal ash in the boiler feeding circuit of a thermal power station so that the measurement can be used as a signal for the boiler combustion control system. An installation was designed, at semi-industrial scale, that could faithfully reproduce the operation of a belt feeder. In order to measure the ash content, a natural radioactivity meter was installed and a large number of coal samples with different ranks and grain sizes were tested, eventually showing the possibility of achieving the objective

  2. RISK DECREASE PROBLEM WITH MAKING ERRORS IN ACTIVITY OF OPERATORS DEALING WITH AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS OF GAS-DISTRIBUTION STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Egorov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of specific features pertaining to the activity of operators dealing with automatic control systems of gas-distribution stations. The professional operator’s activity is presented in the form of the developed data model. Possible conceptual approaches to the research are analyzed in the paper. The paper describes an author’s approach to studying a risk decrease problem in the activity of operators on the basis of the analytical research results. Technology for obtaining  research results is cited in the paper. 

  3. Designing and Manufacturing a Noise Controlling Silencer for the Cooling Tower Pump of Sarcheshmeh Copper Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Zare

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the most common harmful factors in the workplace is noise. Noise control is a factor beneficial for health and safety in the workplace. Objectives The current study aimed to design and manufacture a silencer for the cooling tower pump of Sarcheshmeh Copper power station in order to control noise. Methods In this study, sound pressure level was measured by the use of a sound level meter (B & K 2260. Measurement was carried out in the light of ISO 1996 standard. After studying technical and acoustic features of the noise source, a dispersive-absorptive silencer was designed to control noise pollution generated by the cooling tower pump of the thermal station. After analyzing the frequencies of sound pressure level and using available data, a cylindrical silencer (with a diameter of 1.5 m and height of 3 m was designed and manufactured. The internal part of the silencer was filled with different columns of absorbent material covered with punched metal. Therefore, the silencer consisted of (1 acoustic diffuser, (2 acoustic chamber, and (3 acoustic channels. Results Measurements showed that, at a distance of 1 m from the source, sound pressure level reduced from 127 dBA before installing the silencer to 79 dBA after the installation, resulting in a reduction of 48 dBA. Conclusions Using a silencer with absorbent material (glass wool is very effective in reducing the noise generated by the pump.

  4. An improved droop control method for multi-terminal VSC-HVDC converter stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yue; Duan, Guozhao

    2017-01-01

    the virtual inertia is introduced. This method can ensure that each AC sub-system shares the primary frequency control function. Additionally, with the new control method, it is easy to apply the secondary frequency control method of traditional AC systems to AC/DC hybrid systems to achieve the steady control...

  5. Environmental controls on micro fracture processes in shelf ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The recent retreat and collapse of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula has been associated with regional atmospheric warming, oceanic warming, increased summer melt and shelf flexure. Although the cause of collapse is a matter of active discussion, the process is that of fracture of a creep-brittle material, close to its melting point. The environmental controls on how fracturing initiates, at a micro-scale, strongly determine the macroscopic disintegration of ice shelves. In particular the shelf temperature profile controls the plasticity of the ice shelf; the densification of shelf ice due to melting and re-freezing affects the crack tip stress intensity; the accretion of marine ice at the bottom of the shelf imposes a thermal/mechanical discontinuity; saline environments control crack tip stress corrosion; cyclic loading promotes sub-critical crack propagation. These strong environmental controls on shelf ice fracture means that assessing shelf stability is a non-deterministic problem. How these factors may be parameterized in ice shelf models, through the use of fracture mechanisms maps, is discussed. The findings are discussed in relation to the stability of Larsen C.

  6. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  7. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  8. Fulton Generating Station Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-463 and 50-464): Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Philadelphia Electric Company for the construction of the Fulton Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Fulton and Drumore Townships, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Makeup water for cooling will be withdrawn form Conowingo Pond at a maximum rate of 43,000 gpm. The dissolved solids content of the blowdown water will be increased by a factor of about two. The remainder of the water will be evaporated to the atmosphere by cooling towers. About 10 acres offsite, some 7 acres of which is woodland, will be used for railroad-spur construction. About 0.25 mile of new transmission-line rights-of-way (9 acres) will be needed, although 49 miles of new transmission line, which will require about 3 miles of selective clearing, will be constructed on existing rights-of-way. An unestablished amount of land will be used for access-road construction, but the applicant will use existing roadway corridors where feasible. A small loss of consumer species will result from loss of habitat. Some loss of benthic and pelagic organisms in Conowingo Pond will be caused by intake and discharge construction. The Station's thermal and chemical discharges will meet the State water-quality standards. The duration of additional ground-level fog caused by Station operation is expected to be less than 3 hr/year. (Sect. 5.3.3). No observable effects are expected from salt deposition from cooling-tower drift. (Sect. 5.3.3). Decomposers, primary producers, and zooplankton will be entrained and killed in the cooling-tower system; they, as well as benthic organisms, will be affected by the heated-water discharge. This loss will have little effect on the pond food web. 30 figs., 76 tabs

  9. 75 FR 14634 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Millstone Power Station, Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes... socioeconomic resources. Therefore, no changes to or different types of non-radiological environmental impacts...

  10. 75 FR 4591 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... that effect radiation exposures to plant workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes or... socioeconomic resources. Therefore, no changes to or different types of non-radiological environmental impacts...

  11. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  12. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls

  13. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3 (Docket Nos. STN 50-528, STN 50-529, and STN 50-530): Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of operating licenses to the Arizona Public Service Company (APS, applicant) for the startup and operation of PVNGS, Units 1, 2, and 3, located in Maricopa County, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Buckeye, Arizona. The information in this statement represents the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with PVNGS Units 1, 2, and 3 pursuant to the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 51 of the Commissions's Regulations. After receiving an application in July 1974 to construct this station, the staff carried out a review of impacts that would occur during its construction and operation. That evaluation was issued as a Final Environmental Statement/emdash/Construction Phase (FES-CP). After this environmental review, a safety review, an evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, and public hearings in Phoenix, Arizona, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Construction Permits Nos. CPPR-141, CPPR-142, and CPPR-143 for the construction of PVNGS Units 1, 2, and 3. As of September 1981, the construction of Unit 1 was about 92 percent complete, Unit 2 was 68 percent complete, and Unit 3 was 26 percent complete. 11 figs., 21 tabs

  14. Quality control activities in the environmental radiology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llaurado, M.; Quesada, D.; Rauret, G.; Tent, J.; Zapata, D.

    2006-01-01

    During the last twenty years many analytical laboratories have implemented quality assurance systems. A quality system implementation requires documentation of all activities (technical and management), evaluation of these activities and its continual improvement. Implementation and adequate management of all the elements a quality system includes are not enough to guarantee quality of the analytical results generated at a time. That is the aim of a group of specific activities labelled as quality control activities. The Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (Environmental Radiology Laboratory; LRA) at the University of Barcelona was created in 1984 to carry out part of the quality control assays of the Environmental Radiology Monitoring Programs around some of the Spanish nuclear power plants, which are developed by the Servei Catala d'Activitats Energetiques (SCAR) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), organisations responsible for nuclear security and radiological protection. In these kind of laboratories, given the importance of the results they give, quality control activities become an essential aspect. In order to guarantee the quality of its analytical results, the LRA Direction decided to adopt the international standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025 for its internal quality system and to accreditate some of the assays it carries out. In such as system, it is established, the laboratory shall monitor the validity of tests undertaken and data shall be recorded in such a way that trends are detectable. The present work shows the activities carried out in this way by the LRA, which are: Equipment control activities which in the special case of radiochemical techniques include measurement of backgrounds and blanks as well as periodical control of efficiency and resolution. Activities to assure the specifications settled by method validation, which are testing of reference materials and periodical analysis of control samples. Evaluation of the laboratory work quality

  15. Control of a deareador level of a thermoelectric power station using modern control techniques; Control de nivel de un deareador de una central termoelectrica utilizando tecnicas de control moderno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Estrada, Jose Israel

    1997-01-01

    The present work shows the implementation of the scheme of predictive control IMC (Internal Model Control) in order to control the level of the deareador of a combined cycle thermoelectric power station of (C.C.T.S.). The implementation has the purpose of looking for alternative strategies of control to the classic ones (PID`s) that more efficiently control the variables of interest, in addition to getting into the new control techniques of control. Following the philosophy of predictive control IMC the form to applying this technique is shown, as well as the implementation of this type of controllers. A comparison of predictive control IMC is made with the scheme of conventional control (three control elements PID`s ) used at present to control the level of the deareador in the Combined Cycle Thermoelectric Power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Mexico and of Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra la implementacion del esquema de control predictivo IMC (Control con Modelo Interno) con el objeto de controlar el nivel del deareador de una Central Termoelectrica de Ciclo Combinado (C.T.C.C.). La implementacion tiene la finalidad de buscar estrategias de control alternas a las clasicas (PID`s) que controlen mas eficientemente la variable de interes, ademas de incursionar en las nuevas tecnicas de control. Siguiendo la filosofia del control predictivo IMC se muestra la forma de aplicar esta tecnica, asi como la implementacion de este tipo de controladores. Se hace una comparacion del control predictivo IMC con el esquema de control convencional (control de tres elementos PID`s) utilizando actualmente para controlar el nivel del deareador en las centrales termoelectricas de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y de Gomez Palacio, Durango en Mexico.

  16. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  17. Study on the stability of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W C; Yang, J D; Chen, J P; Teng, Y

    2014-01-01

    According to the fact that the effects of penstock, unit and governor on stability of water level fluctuation for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber are neglected in previous researches, in this paper, Thoma assumption is broken through, the complete mathematical model of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber is established, and the comprehensive transfer function and linear homogeneous differential equation that characterize the dynamic characteristics of system are derived. The stability domain that characterizes the good or bad of stability quantitatively is drawn by using the stability conditions. The effects of the fluid inertia in water diversion system, the air cushion surge chamber parameters, hydraulic turbine characteristics, generator characteristics, and regulation modes of governor on the stability of waterpower-speed control system are analyzed through stability domain. The main conclusions are as follows: The fluid inertia in water diversion system and hydraulic turbine characteristics have unfavorable effects on the system while generator characteristics have favorable effect. The stability keeps getting better with the increase of chamber height and basal area and the decrease of air pressure and air polytropic exponent. The stability of power regulation mode is obviously better than that of frequency regulation mode

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  19. Control of Flywheel Energy Storage Systems in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Growing environmental awareness and strong political impetus have resulted in plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) becoming ever more attractive means of transportation. They are expected to have a significant impact to the overall loading of future distribution networks. Thus, current distribution grids need to be updated in order to accommodate PEV fleets, which are recognized in smart grid (SG) objective. The prevailing concern in that sense is the combined impact of a large number of randomly ...

  20. The DYFAMED time-series station: A reference site for environmental studies in the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, J.C.; Vescovali, I.; Oubelkheir, K.; Stock, A.; Chiaverini, J.; Pizay, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The observation site is located in the central part of the Ligurian sea, at about 50 km off Nice, on the Nice Corsica transect. The Ligurian sea is characterised by three different areas. The coastal area is submitted to inputs from coast and from the liguro-provencal current. The frontal zone is delimited by the ligurian current and the central area. This frontal zone isolates the central part of the basin where is located the DYFAMED site. In this central area, the primary production is dependent on inputs of nutrients from deeper waters but also, for a badly evaluated part, on atmospheric inputs of nitrogen and some trace metals particularly during summer. Since 1987, data have been collected on the time series station, in the frame of the Jgofs-France program. Then, the scientific observation service has been officially created by INSU/CNRS in 1995

  1. A raptor study for the proposed Grandy Brook Station to Hope Brook Mine transmission line environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The proposed Grandy Brook Station to Hope Brook mine transmission line study area occupies a remote area of south-central Newfoundland. Raptors have been identified as a valued ecosystem component which may be adversely affected. Since little information on population numbers and activities in the study area is available, a survey was conducted to determine raptor use of the proposed route to minimize adverse impacts of the development. Field data was the primary information source, although government officials were consulted for additional information and data files were accessed. Raptors were recorded by species and age class, and apparent activity. One field trip, composed of a ground survey and a helicopter survey, was conducted on July 12, 1986. Suggestions are made for mitigation measures related to such negative aspects as electrocution during construction and maintenance activities, harassment and persecution, collisions with the lines, and electric fields and corona.

  2. Cluster Control of Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected to a Common HVDC Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Rapp, C. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    of offshore AC grid voltage control and onshore ancillary services provision, i.e. POD by the active power modulation of the cluster. The two cases are simulated using DIgSILENT PowerFactory, where the IEC 61400-27-1 wind turbine and WPP control models and a generic offshore layout with cluster of three WPPs......In this paper a coordinated control for cluster of offshore WPPs connected to the same HVDC connection is being implemented and analyzed. The study is targeting two cases as; coordination of reactive power flow between HVDC converter and the WPP cluster while providing offshore AC grid voltage...... control, and coordinated closed loop control between the HVDC and the WPPs while the cluster is providing Power Oscillation Damping ( POD) via active power modulation. It is shown that the coordinated cluster control helps to improve the steady-state and dynamic response of the offshore AC grid in case...

  3. Science-based information processing in the process control of power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisang, C.

    1992-01-01

    Through the application of specialized systems, future-orientated information processing integrates the sciences of processes, control systems, process control strategies, user behaviour and ergonomics. Improvements in process control can be attained, inter alia, by the preparation of the information contained (e.g. by suppressing the flow of signals and replacing it with signals which are found on substance) and also by an ergonomic representation of the study of the process. (orig.) [de

  4. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic of the earth station and the satellite power systems using ModelSim PE 6.6 simulator tool. Integration between MATLAB and VHDL is used to save execution time of computation. The results shows that a good agreement between MATLAB and VHDL and a fast/flexible feed forward NN which is capable of dealing with floating point arithmetic operations; minimum number of CLB slices; and good speed of performance. FPGA synthesis results are obtained with view RTL schematic and technology schematic from Xilinix tool. Minimum number of utilized resources is obtained by using Xilinix VERTIX5.

  5. Determining the validity of exposure models for environmental epidemiology : predicting electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472641X

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in environmental epidemiology is the exposure assessment of large populations. Spatial exposure models have been developed that predict exposure to the pollutant of interest for large study sizes. However, the validity of these exposure models is often unknown. In this

  6. HEAT PUMP STATION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE AS A WORKING FLUID ENERGY EFFICIENCY GROWTH IN COMBINED DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM DUE TO ITS CONTROL SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A diagram of the heat pump station (HPS for the central heat supply station of the district heating system, which gets the power from the CHP plant is examined. A block diagram of the control of the system and compressor pressure control system are examined. The description of the control laws of evaporator at the variable heat load of the HPS and control laws of the gas cooler taking into account the goal of achieving the maximum of COP of HPS is shown as well.

  7. LabVIEW interface with Tango control system for a multi-technique X-ray spectrometry IAEA beamline end-station at Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, P.M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Bogovac, M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Sghaier, H. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Institut Superieur d’Informatique et de Mathematiques de Monastir (ISIMM), Departement de technologie, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Leani, J.J. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); IFEG – CONICET, Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Migliori, A.; Padilla-Alvarez, R. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Czyzycki, M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Osan, J. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Environmental Physics Department, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Kaiser, R.B. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); and others

    2016-10-11

    A new synchrotron beamline end-station for multipurpose X-ray spectrometry applications has been recently commissioned and it is currently accessible by end-users at the XRF beamline of Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste. The end-station consists of an ultra-high vacuum chamber that includes as main instrument a seven-axis motorized manipulator for sample and detectors positioning, different kinds of X-ray detectors and optical cameras. The beamline end-station allows performing measurements in different X-ray spectrometry techniques such as Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (µXRF), Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (TXRF), Grazing Incidence/Exit X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (GI-XRF/GE-XRF), X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR), and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). A LabVIEW Graphical User Interface (GUI) bound with Tango control system consisted of many custom made software modules is utilized as a user-friendly tool for control of the entire end-station hardware components. The present work describes this advanced Tango and LabVIEW software platform that utilizes in an optimal synergistic manner the merits and functionality of these well-established programming and equipment control tools. - Highlights: • A new methodology for control of a synchrotron beamline end-station is shown. • The new control system comprises a novel binding of Tango control system with LabVIEW interface. • The reliability of the control system is demonstrated by examples of analytical applications.

  8. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... coils, receiving coils and compensation capacitors, the wireless power transmission system is designed to be resonant when it is operating at the rated power, with the aim to achieve the optimum transmission system efficiency. Simulation and experimental results of the hierarchical control...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...

  9. Intervention assessments in the control of PM10 emissions from an urban waste transfer station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, B M; Fuller, G W

    2014-05-01

    While vehicle emissions present the most widespread cause of breaches of EU air quality standards in urban areas of the UK, the greatest PM10 concentrations are often recorded close to small industrial sites with significant and long-term public exposure within close proximity. This is particularly the case in London, where monitoring in densely populated locations, adjacent to waste transfer stations (WTS), routinely report the highest PM10 concentrations in the city. This study aims to assess the impact of dust abatement measures taken at a WTS in west London and, in so doing, develop analysis techniques transferrable to other similar industrial situations. The study was performed in a 'blinded fashion', i.e., no details of operating times, activities or remediation measures were provided prior to the analysis. The study established that PM10 concentrations were strongly related to the industrial area's working hours and atmospheric humidity. The primary source of local particulate matter during working hours was found to be from the industrial area itself, not from the adjacent road serving the site. CUSUM analysis revealed a strong, sustained change point coinciding with a number of modifications at the WTS. Analysis suggested that introducing a vehicle washer bay, leading to a less dry and dusty yard, and ceasing stock piling and waste handling activities outside of the open shed had the greatest effect on PM10 concentrations. The techniques developed in this study should empower licensing authorities to more effectively characterise and mitigate particulate matter generated by urban industrial activities, thereby improving the health and quality of life of the local population.

  10. Final site environmental statement: Blue Hills Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2. Related to the determination of the suitability of Site G for eventual construction. Docket Nos. 50-510 and 50-511

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The site suitability analysis is based on the assumption that the Blue Hills Station will employ two pressurized water reactors to produce outputs of approximately 2814 MWt each. Two steam turbine generators will use the heat produced to provide approximately 957 MWe (gross) each. The exhaust steam will be cooled by four low-profile round mechanical-draft cooling towers. Assuming construction of a nuclear station at site G, a summary of environmental impacts and adverse effects is presented

  11. Technical and environmental aspects of combined cycle power stations with integrated gasification (CCGI); Aspectos tecnicos y medioambientales de las centrales de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A description is presented of the operation of the Combined Cycle Power Stations with Integrated Gasification (CCGI) where the use of solid fuels (coal, vacuum residues, petroleum coke, and biomass) or liquids is possible in a thermal power station with the efficiency and many of the own environmental benefits of the combined cycles. The gasification process is analyzed, that is a thermo-chemical process by means of which a fuel that is in solid state or liquid becomes to the gaseous state by means of a partial oxidation and the obtained gas of this process is called synthesis gas (syngas, by its abbreviations in English) that is used in Combined Cycle Power Stations as a substitute for the natural gas. Also the other components of this type of power stations are shown, such as the air separating unit, and some of the modifications that are due to make to adapt a gas turbine so that it uses syngas, and the considerations of their integration with the air separating unit to optimize the operation of the plant are detailed. A comparison of efficiency values of power stations CCGI with the conventional carbon-electric and the power stations of combined cycle that use natural gas is also shown. Finally the emissions of pollutants of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} are analyzed. The possibility of using fuels like petroleum coke and vacuum tower residues that are produced in the Cadereyta refinery is studied for the possible construction of a CCGI power station in Mexico. [Spanish] Se presenta la descripcion del funcionamiento de las centrales ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI) donde es posible el uso de combustibles solidos (carbon, residuos de vacio, coque de petroleo, biomasa) o liquidos en una central termica con la eficiencia y muchos de los beneficios ambientales propios de los ciclos combinados. Se analiza el proceso de gasificacion, que es un proceso termoquimico mediante el cual se convierte un combustible que se encuentra en estado solido o

  12. Proceedings of a workshop on environmental oceanography of the Gulf of Mexico, College Station, Texas, 15--16 March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A workshop was convened under the sponsorship of the Energy Research and Development Administration to define the most critical energy-related environmental problems in the Gulf of Mexico and develop the framework for a program of research to solve these problems. A major and immediate concern is activity related to the oil and gas industry: production, transportation (including potential superport construction), processing, and use of petroleum-derived fuels. The problems which might be posed by the development of other potential sources of energy, such as coastal and offshore nuclear power plants, were also given consideration. Several keynote speakers presented their thoughts on Gulf environmental problems from different points of view, and their remarks are recorded in Appendix I

  13. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  14. Final Environmental Assessment Construction of New Recreational Lodging at Bellows Air Force Station O’ahu, Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Moana Blvd, Room 206 Honolulu, HI 96814 LOCAL PARTIES: Mayor Mufi Hannemann 530 S. King St Honolulu, HI 96813 City and County of Honolulu...Patrick January 22, 2009 15 CES/CEV, Environmental Planning Element 75 H Street Hickam AFB, HI 96853-5233 Dear Ms. Patrick: MUFl HANNEMANN , Mayor...DEPARTME NT OF PLANNING AND PERMITTING CITY AND COUNTY OF HONOLULU MUFI HANNEMANN MAYOR Ms. Tiffany Patrick 15 CES/CEVP 650 SOUTH KING STREET

  15. Automated process control system for heat-treating nuclear power station parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiadi, N.G.; Demin, V.P.; Launin, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    The basic factors determining the need for an automated process control system (APCS) are discussed, as are system requirements. The basic tasks solved by the system are discussed. The functional scheme for a decentralized, two-level APCS is given

  16. Possibilities to employ noise analysis techniques in controlling nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Pallares, C.; Iglesias Ferrer, R.; Sarabia Molina, I.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows basic requirements the authors think must be complied with by monitoring systems for operational surveillance based on noise analysis techniques that in turn can be employed in the regulatory control

  17. Plasma effects on the passive external thermal control coating of Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Ralph, Jr.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Holt, James M.; Werp, Richard; Sudduth, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The current baseline chromic acid anodized thermal control coating on 6061-T6 aluminum meteoroid debris (M/D) shields for SSF has been evaluated. The degradation of the solar absorptance, alpha, and the thermal emittance, epsilon, of chromic acid anodized aluminum due to dielectric breakdown in plasma was measured to predict the on-orbit lifetime of the SSF M/D shields. The lifetime of the thermal control coating was based on the surface temperatures achieved with degradation of the thermal control properties, alpha and epsilon. The temperatures of each M/D shield from first element launch (FEL) through FEL+15 years were analyzed. It is shown that the baseline thermal control coating cannot withstand the -140 V potential between the conductive structure of the SSF and the current plasma environment.

  18. Trace Contaminant Control for the International Space Station's Node 1- Analysis, Design, and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminant generation inside crewed spacecraft cabins is a technical and medical problem that must be continuously evaluated. Although passive control through materials selection and active control by adsorption and catalytic oxidation devices is employed during normal operations of a spacecraft, contaminant buildup can still become a problem. Buildup is particularly troublesome during the stages between the final closure of a spacecraft during ground processing and the time that a crewmember enters for the first time during the mission. Typically, the elapsed time between preflight closure and first entry on orbit for spacecraft such as Spacelab modules was 30 days. During that time, the active contamination control systems are not activated and contaminants can potentially build up to levels which exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) specified by NASA toxicology experts. To prevent excessively high contamination levels at crew entry, the Spacelab active contamination control system was operated for 53 hours just before launch.

  19. Human-factors engineering-control-room design review: Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. Draft audit report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.R.; Preston-Smith, J.; Savage, J.W.; Rousseau, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Shoreham control room was performed at the site on March 30 through April 3, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The presented sections are numbered to conform to the guidelines of the draft version of NUREG-0700. They summarize the teams's observations of the control room design and layout, and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment

  20. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.