Sample records for station control operators

  1. Space station operations management (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.


    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  2. 47 CFR 90.421 - Operation of mobile station units not under the control of the licensee. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of mobile station units not under the....421 Operation of mobile station units not under the control of the licensee. Mobile stations, as... unauthorized operation of such units not under its control. (a) Public Safety Pool. (1) Mobile units licensed...

  3. Space Station operations (United States)

    Gray, R. H.


    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  4. Automatic sequencing and control of Space Station airlock operations (United States)

    Himel, Victor; Abeles, Fred J.; Auman, James; Tqi, Terry O.


    Procedures that have been developed as part of the NASA JSC-sponsored pre-prototype Checkout, Servicing and Maintenance (COSM) program for pre- and post-EVA airlock operations are described. This paper addresses the accompanying pressure changes in the airlock and in the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Additionally, the paper focuses on the components that are checked out, and includes the step-by-step sequences to be followed by the crew, the required screen displays and prompts that accompany each step, and a description of the automated processes that occur.

  5. Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and...

  6. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  7. Design for an integrated discipline operations control center for Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.


    This paper presents selected features of a human factors oriented plan for a Space Station Freedom (SSF) ground Discipline Operations Center (DOC) that is integrated with other work areas used by multidisciplinary life scientists. This combined facility is referred to as an integrated DOC or IDOC. This plan is based upon the assumption that there will be a constantly changing array of specialized equipment and procedures used by life sciences principal investigators (PI) on the ground which must be linked to SSF through various DOC systems. Other sites will also be able to communicate with SSF (Anon., 1992). It is also assumed that cost reduction will be a major design consideration and that one integrated structure will be less expensive to build and operate than two separate ones. Since both the DOC personnel and PIs will need to communicate with the flight crew aboard SSF, the general interconnect architecture of the PIs' communication linkage is considered here. Key human factor design elements of this plan include: a candidate facility layout which accommodates three (3), multipurpose, rapidly reconfigurable work areas (suites) and consequent user traffic flow considerations, a multimedia telecommunications support capability, functional (human) traffic flow, optimized internal illumination and acoustics requirements, selected volumetric and safety requirements, and other architectural design parameters.

  8. Progressive autonomy. [for space station systems operation (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.


    The present investigation is concerned with the evolution of a space station in terms of the progression of autonomy, as systems perspectives and architectural concepts permit. The distinction between automation and autonomy is considered along with the evolution of autonomy, and the evolution of automation in station operations. Attention is given to the startup of a complex technological system, aspects of station control, questions of crew operational support, factors regarding the habitability of a space station, system design philosophy for autonomy, evolvability, latent capability, stage commonality, and multiple modularity. It is concluded that an evolutionary space station operating over a period of 10-20 years with a great increase in capability over that time will require a design philosophy which is more flexible and open-ended than for previous space systems.

  9. Space station operating system study (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.


    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  10. Real time control of satellite tracking station operation for millimeter wave experiments and associated data processing (United States)

    Kauffman, S. R.; Stutzman, W. L.


    Real time control, data collection, and data reduction of an earth-satellite millimeter wave system are discussed. Experiment control and data processing requirements are considered with attention to signal data acquisition, weather data acquisition, support and control functions, task classifications, the fundamental data acquisition procedure, and the computer-experiment interface. The general analysis is applied to a description of the Communications Technology Satellite system and its hardware.

  11. Preliminary Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedure for Drainage and Erosion Control at McMurdo Station (United States)


    volcanic rocks that are primarily gravel with minimal fines (i.e., sand and silts). The soil has no organic content. Subsurface temperature temporarily and create fewer infrastructure disruptions; however, it is insufficient to prevent sig- nificant sediments ( soil fines) and...necessary • to reduce the erosion of material ( soils or fines) by snowmelt runoff, • to control flow velocity in channels during extreme runoff

  12. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness (United States)

    Willits, Charles


    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  13. Space Station overall management approach for operations (United States)

    Paules, G.


    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  14. Semigraphical model of railway stations operation


    Верлан, Анатолий Иванович


    Semigraphical model of railway stations operation for technical and operational evaluation of their technology is presented in the paper. The paper is aimed at improving the model structure to simplify the mechanical engineer's interaction with a computer at the stage of a formal description of the model. In the simulation, railway station is considered as a complex system, in which maintenance of facilities by technical means and executors is carried out by performing manufacturing operation...

  15. International Space Station Water Balance Operations (United States)

    Tobias, Barry; Garr, John D., II; Erne, Meghan


    In November 2008, the Water Regenerative System racks were launched aboard Space Shuttle flight, STS-126 (ULF2) and installed and activated on the International Space Station (ISS). These racks, consisting of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), completed the installation of the Regenerative (Regen) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), which includes the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) that was launched 2 years prior. With the onset of active water management on the US segment of the ISS, a new operational concept was required, that of water balance . In November of 2010, the Sabatier system, which converts H2 and CO2 into water and methane, was brought on line. The Regen ECLSS systems accept condensation from the atmosphere, urine from crew, and processes that fluid via various means into potable water, which is used for crew drinking, building up skip-cycle water inventory, and water for electrolysis to produce oxygen. Specification (spec) rates of crew urine output, condensate output, O2 requirements, toilet flush water, and drinking needs are well documented and used as the best guess planning rates when Regen ECLSS came online. Spec rates are useful in long term planning, however, daily or weekly rates are dependent upon a number of variables. The constantly changing rates created a new challenge for the ECLSS flight controllers, who are responsible for operating the ECLSS systems onboard ISS from Mission Control in Houston. This paper reviews the various inputs to water planning, rate changes, and dynamic events, including but not limited to: crew personnel makeup, Regen ECLSS system operability, vehicle traffic, water storage availability, and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), Sabatier, and OGA capability. Along with the inputs that change the various rates, the paper will review the different systems, their constraints, and finally the operational challenges and means by which flight controllers

  16. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System (United States)

    Brandli, A. E.; Mccandless, W. T.


    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  17. SIRIO small earth station operation in Beijing (United States)

    Berardi, V.; Fabiano, L.; Jing, Y.; Kuang, Z.; Wang, J.

    The main characteristics are described for the small earth station installed at Beijing to permit joint experimentation through the SIRIO satellite. The experimental facilities and data acquisition system are illustrated, including the transmitter/receiver, digitally controlled SCPC communication and thermal control sybsystem, from both the electrical and mechanical viewpoints. The measurement layout of the system includes a 1200 bps modem, two controllers (HP9845B and HP 85F), a DVM, relay actuator, chart recorder, and two counters. RS-232C and IEEE-488 links are used. Station environmental conditions, EIRP, G/T and other specifics are noted.

  18. Improved grid operation through power smoothing control strategies utilizing dedicated energy storage at an electric vehicle charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Thomas; Holjevac, Ninoslav; Bremdal, Bernt A.


    This paper addresses the principal service aspects for electric vehicles (EV), as well as issues related to energy storage design, charging station integration into power system and load management issues. It builds on the research conducted in the Flexible Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

  19. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations (United States)

    Doyle, John F.


    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  20. Orbit keeping attitude control for space station (United States)

    Barrows, D.; Bedell, H.


    It is pointed out that on-orbit configuration variability is expected to be a characteristic of a space station. The implementation of such a chracteristic will present reboost and thruster control system designers with a number of new challenges. The primary requirement for the space station orbit reboost (or orbit keeping) system is to ensure system viability for extended duration and prevent an uncontrolled reentry as with Skylab. For a station in a low earth orbit, earodynamic drag will be sufficient to cause relatively quick orbit altitude decay. A propulsion system is, therefore, needed to counteract the aerodynamic drag forces and to boost the vehicle to the desired orbit altitudes. A description is given of a typical reboost operational procedure and propellant requirements. Attention is given to thruster control systems, and aspects of reboost guidance.

  1. Research on station management in subway operation safety (United States)

    Li, Yiman


    The management of subway station is an important part of the safe operation of urban subway. In order to ensure the safety of subway operation, it is necessary to study the relevant factors that affect station management. In the protection of subway safety operations on the basis of improving the quality of service, to promote the sustained and healthy development of subway stations. This paper discusses the influencing factors of subway operation accident and station management, and analyzes the specific contents of station management security for subway operation, and develops effective suppression measures. It is desirable to improve the operational quality and safety factor for subway operations.

  2. How the Station will operate. [operation, management, and maintenance in space (United States)

    Cox, John T.


    Aspects of the upcoming operational phase of the Space Station (SS) are examined. What the crew members will do with their time in their specialized roles is addressed. SS maintenance and servicing and the interaction of the SS Control Center with Johnson Space Center is discussed. The planning of payload operations and strategic planning for the SS are examined.

  3. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located. ...

  4. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed


    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  5. 47 CFR 80.165 - Operator requirements for voluntary stations. (United States)


    ... Requirements § 80.165 Operator requirements for voluntary stations. Minimum Operator License Ship Morse telegraph T-2. Ship direct-printing telegraph MP. Ship telephone, with or without DSC, more than 250 watts...

  6. Enhanced methods for operating refueling station tube-trailers to reduce refueling cost (United States)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Reddi, Krishna


    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a refueling station including source tube-trailers and at least one compressor to reduce refueling cost. The refueling station includes a gaseous fuel supply source including a plurality of tanks on a tube trailer coupled to a first control unit, and high pressure buffer storage having predefined capacity coupled to a second control unit and the first tanks by a pressure control valve and the first control unit, and at least one compressor. The refueling station is operated at different modes depending on a state of the refueling station at the beginning of each operational mode. The refueling system is assessed at the end of each operational mode to identify the state of the system and select a next mode of operation. The operational modes include consolidating hydrogen, or any gaseous fuel, within the tubes mounted on the trailer.

  7. Operations research investigations of satellite power stations (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Ballard, J. L.


    A systems model reflecting the design concepts of Satellite Power Stations (SPS) was developed. The model is of sufficient scope to include the interrelationships of the following major design parameters: the transportation to and between orbits; assembly of the SPS; and maintenance of the SPS. The systems model is composed of a set of equations that are nonlinear with respect to the system parameters and decision variables. The model determines a figure of merit from which alternative concepts concerning transportation, assembly, and maintenance of satellite power stations are studied. A hybrid optimization model was developed to optimize the system's decision variables. The optimization model consists of a random search procedure and the optimal-steepest descent method. A FORTRAN computer program was developed to enable the user to optimize nonlinear functions using the model. Specifically, the computer program was used to optimize Satellite Power Station system components.

  8. 47 CFR 95.217 - (R/C Rule 17) May I operate my R/C station transmitter by remote control? (United States)


    ... records. See R/C Rule 24, § 95.224. (c) Remote control means operation of an R/C transmitter from any place other than the location of the R/C transmitter. Direct mechanical control or direct electrical control by wire from some point on the same premises, craft or vehicles as the R/C transmitter is not...

  9. CO2 on the International Space Station: An Operations Update (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Alexander, David


    PROBLEM STATEMENT: We describe CO2 symptoms that have been reported recently by crewmembers on the International Space Station and our continuing efforts to control CO2 to lower levels than historically accepted. BACKGROUND: Throughout the International Space Station (ISS) program, anecdotal reports have suggested that crewmembers develop CO2-related symptoms at lower CO2 levels than would be expected terrestrially. Since 2010, operational limits have controlled the 24-hour average CO2 to 4.0 mm Hg, or below as driven by crew symptomatology. In recent years, largely due to increasing awareness by crew and ground team, there have been increased reports of crew symptoms. The aim of this presentation is to discuss recent observations and operational impacts to lower CO2 levels on the ISS. CASE PRESENTATION: Crewmembers are routinely asked about CO2 symptoms in their weekly private medical conferences with their crew surgeons. In recent ISS expeditions, crewmembers have noted symptoms attributable to CO2 starting at 2.3 mmHg. Between 2.3 - 2.7 mm Hg, fatigue and full-headedness have been reported. Between 2.7 - 3.0 mm Hg, there have been self-reports of procedure missed steps or procedures going long. Above 3.0 - 3.4 mm Hg, headaches have been reported. A wide range of inter- and intra-individual variability in sensitivity to CO2 have been noted. OPERATIONAL / CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These preliminary data provide semi-quantitative ranges that have been used to inform a new operational limit of 3.0 mmHg as a compromise between systems capabilities and the recognition that there are human health and performance impacts at recent ISS CO2 levels. Current evidence would suggest that an operational limit between 0.5 and 2.0 mm Hg may maintain health and performance. Future work is needed to establish long-term ISS and future vehicle operational limits.

  10. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  11. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration (United States)


    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  12. Instructor/Operator Station (IOS) Design Guide. (United States)


    BOX.LK.CONT V.BRK.TIRE.SJ.SOLRLY,P IN.LGT.MS 24 LNDG CR- N CR UP LK N UHL STRNG SHIMMY 25 8RK &. A/S- 8 SEL VAL-,LKD,rITRG VALS.L INE A-’S VAL TEST...position. Console legends and abbreviations shall be in accor- dance with the Abbreviations For Use at IOSs contained in the Instructor/Opera-tor Station

  13. Space Station Displays and Controls Technology Evolution (United States)

    Blackburn, Greg C.


    Viewgraphs on space station displays and controls technology evolution are presented. Topics covered include: a historical perspective; major development objectives; current development activities; key technology areas; and technology evolution issues.

  14. The MSFC space station/space operations mechanism test bed (United States)

    Sutton, William G.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    The Space Station/Space Operations Mechanism Test Bed consists of the following: a hydraulically driven, computer controlled Six Degree-of-Freedom Motion System (6DOF); a six degree-of-freedom force and moment sensor; remote driving stations with computer generated or live TV graphics; and a parallel digital processor that performs calculations to support the real time simulation. The function of the Mechanism Test Bed is to test docking and berthing mechanisms for Space Station Freedom and other orbiting space vehicles in a real time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. Typically, the docking and berthing mechanisms are composed of two mating components, one for each vehicle. In the facility, one component is attached to the motion system, while the other component is mounted to the force/moment sensor fixed in the support structure above the 6DOF. The six components of the contact forces/moments acting on the test article and its mating component are measured by the force/moment sensor.

  15. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  16. National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service, manages a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) that provide...

  17. Measures for track complexity and robustness of operation at stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Jensen, Lars Wittrup


    Stations are often limiting the capacity of a railway network. However, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. This paper presents methods to analyse and describe stations by the use of complexity and robustness measures at stations.Five methods to analyse infrastructure...... and operation at stations are developed in the paper. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse switch zones and platform tracks at stations with simple track layouts. The second method examines the need for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains...... will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyses the conflicts and the infrastructure complexity in the switch zone(s). The fourth method can be used to examine the complexity and the expected robustness of timetables at a station. The last method...

  18. Smoke Control of Fires in Subway Stations (United States)

    Chen, Falin; Guo, Shin-Chang; Chuay, He-Yuan; Chien, Shen-Wen

    We investigate the effectiveness of the smoke control scheme of the Gong-Guan subway station (GGSS), a typical subway station of the Taipei Rapid Transit System and whose mechanical control systems are also standard in modern subway station design. Three-dimensional smoke flow fields under various kinds of fires are computed by computational fluid dynamics techniques and the results are illustrated on various cross-sectional planes. Results indicate that the stack effect plays a deterministic role in smoke control when a fire occurs near the stairwell; under such circumstances, no mechanical smoke control is necessary. When a fire occurs in other places, such as at the end or the center of the platform, the current mechanical control schemes of GGSS are effective; namely, the smoke can be well controlled, either it is confined to a small region or is evacuated from the station, leaving the four exits free of smoke so that the passengers can escape through them. The effect of the platform edge door (PED) on smoke control is also investigated. With the PED, the effectiveness of the present smoke control system for fires occurring on the chassis of a train, a serious fire in the subway station, increases. We also propose an innovative smoke control scheme with a PED, which turns out to be much more efficient in evacuating smoke than that currently used. This study provides both valuable information for the design of passenger evacuation routes in fires as well as criteria for the design of a smoke control system for subway stations.

  19. Smoke control of fires in subway stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Falin; Guo, Shin-Chang [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (Taiwan); Chuay, He-Yuan [SinoTech Engineering Consulting Co., 171 Nanking E. Road, 5 Sec., Taipei, Taiwan 105 (Taiwan); Chien, Shen-Wen [Department of Fire Science and Administration, National Central Police University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333 (Taiwan)


    We investigate the effectiveness of the smoke control scheme of the Gong-Guan subway station (GGSS), a typical subway station of the Taipei Rapid Transit System and whose mechanical control systems are also standard in modern subway station design. Three-dimensional smoke flow fields under various kinds of fires are computed by computational fluid dynamics techniques and the results are illustrated on various cross-sectional planes. Results indicate that the stack effect plays a deterministic role in smoke control when a fire occurs near the stairwell; under such circumstances, no mechanical smoke control is necessary. When a fire occurs in other places, such as at the end or the center of the platform, the current mechanical control schemes of GGSS are effective; namely, the smoke can be well controlled, either it is confined to a small region or is evacuated from the station, leaving the four exits free of smoke so that the passengers can escape through them. The effect of the platform edge door (PED) on smoke control is also investigated. With the PED, the effectiveness of the present smoke control system for fires occurring on the chassis of a train, a serious fire in the subway station, increases. We also propose an innovative smoke control scheme with a PED, which turns out to be much more efficient in evacuating smoke than that currently used. This study provides both valuable information for the design of passenger evacuation routes in fires as well as criteria for the design of a smoke control system for subway stations. (orig.)

  20. Towards station-keeping using GPI controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    the low-frequency linear model of a ship, and for which a very simple simulation is presented to illustrate the behavior of the GPI controller, we present the extension of the method to include a wave-frequency model that we then use for station-keeping in extreme seas. Simulations are presented......In this paper, we propose to use a Generalized Proportional-Integral controller for station-keeping of a ship. For output feedback, this has the advantage of not requiring the use of an asymptotic Luenberger or Kalman observer. After describing the methodology for the simple case of controlling...

  1. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  2. Object-oriented model of railway stations operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Kozachenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this article is improvement of the railway stations functional model; it leads to time expenditure cut for formalization technological processes of their work through the use of standard elements of technology. Methodology. Some technological operations, executives and technology objects are considered as main elements of the railway station functioning. Queuing techniques were used as the methods of research, simulation, finite state machines and object-oriented analysis. Findings. Formal data structures were developed as the result of research that can allow simulating the operation of the railway station with any degree of detail. In accordance with the principles of object-oriented approach in the developed model, separate elements of station technology are presented jointly with a description of their behavior. The proposed model is implemented as a software package. Originality. Functional model of railway stations was improved through the application of object-oriented approach to data management. It allow to create libraries of elementary technological processes and reduce time expenditure for formalization the technology of stations work. Practical value. Using of software package that it was developed on the base of proposed model will reduce time expenditure of technologists in order to obtain technical and operational assessment of projected and existing rail stations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Levitskiy


    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of control law for network multilevel invertor of solar power station and design device for control law realization. Methodology. At synthesis of control law theory of automatic control, power network engineering and circuit technique are considered. The control law for distributive control over the direct-axis and quadrature-axis currents of invertor after abc-dq transform of three phase current’s momentary value is used. Results. The improved model of regulator of direct-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the voltage optimization of invertor’s operating both from solar module and from network by means of calculation the reactive power consumption from network, voltage on network and voltage on solar module. The improved model of regulator of quadrature-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the power and frequency optimization of invertor’s operating by means of calculation ratio of active power consumption and power from solar module. Originality. The offered control law and device, which realize it, is working out on secondary loop from power network smart grid with active and reactive power consumption monitoring. That provides the optimal operation of solar station both from solar module and from power network. Practical value. The proposed control law and structure of the network multilevel invertor for solar power station provide the operate mode of solar module in maximum power point and increasing the solar module’s productivity.

  4. 75 FR 11205 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station... Nuclear Power Station,'' NUREG-1437, Supplement 29, published in July 2007 (ADAMS Accession No...

  5. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (United States)


    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...


    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  7. Microbial Characterization of Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Hardware Surfaces after Five Years of Operation in the International Space Station (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Weir, Natalee E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Pyle, Barry H.


    A flex hose assembly containing aqueous coolant from the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consisting of a 2 foot section of Teflon hose and quick disconnects (QDs) and a Special Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) heat exchanger containing separate channels of IATCS coolant and iodinated water used to cool spacesuits and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUS) were returned for destructive analyses on Shuttle return to flight mission STS-114. The original aqueous IATCS coolant used in Node 1, the Laboratory Module, and the Airlock consisted of water, borate (pH buffer), phosphate (corrosion control), and silver sulfate (microbiological control) at a pH of 9.5 +/- 0.5. Chemical changes occurred after on-orbit implementation including a decrease to pH 8.4 due to the diffusion of carbon dioxide through the Teflon hoses, an increase in nickel ions due to general corrosion of heat exchanger braze coatings, a decrease in phosphate concentration due to precipitation of nickel phosphate, and the rapid disappearance of silver ions due to deposition on hardware surfaces. Also associated with the coolant chemistry changes was an increase in planktonic microorganisms from less than 100 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 ml to approximately 1 million CFU per 100 ml. Attachment and growth of microorganisms to the system surfaces (biofilm) was suspected due to the levels of planktonic microorganisms in the coolant. Biofilms can reduce coolant flow, reduce heat transfer, amplify degradation of system materials initiated by chemical corrosion, and enhance mineral scale formation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of accidents experienced with railway transportation involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. These collisions can be averted by putting safety measures in place. Part of the measures can be achieved by using computerized railway station traffic control systems that use ...

  9. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision... and ML102210411, respectively), concerns the operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... (non- EQ) inaccessible cables at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim) are capable of performing...

  10. Leadership and Cultural Challenges in Operating the International Space Station (United States)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.; Saylor, S. A.; Kanas, N.


    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. ISS flight controllers have had to find ways to maintain effective team performance in this challenging new context. The goal of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate the major leadership and cultural challenges faces by ISS flight controllers, and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We conducted a qualitative survey using a semi-structured interview. Subjects included 14 senior NASA flight controllers who were chosen on the basis of having had substantial experience working with international partners. Data were content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted some new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of Russian and American ISS mission control personnel. The interview data showed that respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership and cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Surprisingly few respondents offered strategies for addressing the challenge of working with team members whose native language is not American English. The questionnaire data showed that Americans think it is more important than Russians that mission control personnel speak the same dialect of one shared common language. Although specific to the ISS program, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future ISS flight controllers.

  11. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.L. Jr.


    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

  12. Integration of accident management strategies into station operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermarkar, F. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    The Fukushima event presented a number of challenges in the integration of accident management strategies into station operation. A number of post-Fukushima improvements include passive autocatalytic recombiners, portable diesel pumps, hoses and generators as well as additional flood barriers around essential equipment.

  13. Space Station Control Moment Gyroscope Lessons Learned (United States)

    Gurrisi, Charles; Seidel, Raymond; Dickerson, Scott; Didziulis, Stephen; Frantz, Peter; Ferguson, Kevin


    Four 4760 Nms (3510 ft-lbf-s) Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscopes (DGCMG) with unlimited gimbal freedom about each axis were adopted by the International Space Station (ISS) Program as the non-propulsive solution for continuous attitude control. These CMGs with a life expectancy of approximately 10 years contain a flywheel spinning at 691 rad/s (6600 rpm) and can produce an output torque of 258 Nm (190 ft-lbf)1. One CMG unexpectedly failed after approximately 1.3 years and one developed anomalous behavior after approximately six years. Both units were returned to earth for failure investigation. This paper describes the Space Station Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscope design, on-orbit telemetry signatures and a summary of the results of both failure investigations. The lessons learned from these combined sources have lead to improvements in the design that will provide CMGs with greater reliability to assure the success of the Space Station. These lessons learned and design improvements are not only applicable to CMGs but can be applied to spacecraft mechanisms in general.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Lavrukhin


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this research work is to develop an intelligent technology for determination of the optimal route of freight trains administration on the basis of the technical and technological parameters. This will allow receiving the operational informed decisions by the station duty officer regarding to the train operation execution within the railway station. Metodology. The main elements of the research are the technical and technological parameters of the train station during the train operation. The methods of neural networks in order to form the self-teaching automated system were put in the basis of the generated model of train operation execution. Findings. The presented model of train operation execution at the railway station is realized on the basis of artificial neural networks using learning algorithm with a «teacher» in Matlab environment. The Matlab is also used for the immediate implementation of the intelligent automated control system of the train operation designed for the integration into the automated workplace of the duty station officer. The developed system is also useful to integrate on workplace of the traffic controller. This proposal is viable in case of the availability of centralized traffic control on the separate section of railway track. Originality. The model of train station operation during the train operation execution with elements of artificial intelligence was formed. It allows providing informed decisions to the station duty officer concerning a choice of rational and a safe option of reception and non-stop run of the trains with the ability of self-learning and adaptation to changing conditions. This condition is achieved by the principles of the neural network functioning. Practical value. The model of the intelligent system management of the process control for determining the optimal route receptionfor different categories of trains was formed.In the operational mode it offers the possibility

  15. 75 FR 13798 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 Environmental Assessment and... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 Environmental Assessment and... Operations, Inc. (Entergy, the licensee), for operation of the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3...

  16. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations. (United States)


    ... technical servicing and maintenance of the remote stations. (5) International VSAT system operators are... within the VSAT network immediately upon notification of harmful interference. (d) The licensee shall...

  17. Rehabilitation of the unit control system at an industrial power station after 37 years of operation; Ertuechtigung der Blockleittechnik in einem Industriekraftwerk nach 37jaehriger Betriebszeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zgorzelski, P.; Wenzlaff, R. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Edelburg, J. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)


    The paper describes how the control system of an industrial power plant unit has been renovated in the short timescale of 12 weeks in parallel with rehabilitation measures on the pressure parts of the boiler. The short period of implementation has been made possible by detailed preliminary planning, extensive advance manufacture of components with subsequent system testing as well as by flexible working by the personnel. The installation of new switchgear rooms for MVR and electrical systems in the immediate vicinity of the boiler has proved advantageous and permitted a part of the field and switchgear room installation to be carried out before the shutdown of the unit. Experience available so far with the new process control system has been mainly positive. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird beschrieben, wie die Leittechnik eines Industriekraftwerksblockes in einem engen Zeitraum von zwoelf Wochen parallel zu Sanierungsmassnahmen am Druckteil des Kessels erneuert wurde. Die kurze Realisierungszeit wurde durch detaillierte Vorplanung, weitgehende Vorfertigung der Komponenten mit anschliessendem Systemtest sowie flexiblem Personaleinsatz ermoeglicht. Vorteilhaft erwies sich die Schaffung neuer Schaltraeume fuer MSR- und E-Technik in direkter Naehe des Kessels, was erlaubte, einen Teil der Feld- und Schaltrauminstallation schon vor dem Abstellen des Blockes durchzufuehren. Die bisher vorliegenden Erfahrungen mit dem neuen Prozessleitsystem sind ueberwiegend positiv. (orig.)

  18. 75 FR 2164 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim), located in Plymouth County, MA. Therefore...

  19. Operation of hydrologic data collection stations by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987 (United States)

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto


    The U.S. Geological Survey operates hydrologic data collection stations nationwide which serve the needs of all levels of government, the private sector, and the general public, for water resources information. During fiscal year 1987, surface water discharge was determined at 10,624 stations; stage data on streams, reservoirs, and lakes were recorded at 1,806 stations; and various surface water quality characteristics were determined at 2,901 stations. In addition, groundwater levels were measured at 32,588 stations, and the quality of groundwater was determined at 9,120 stations. Data on sediment were collected daily at 174 stations and on a periodic basis at 878 stations. Information on precipitation quantity was collected at 909 stations, and the quality of precipitation was analyzed at 78 stations. Data collection platforms for satellite telemetry of hydrologic information were used at 2,292 Geological Survey stations. Funding for the hydrologic stations was derived, either solely or from a combination, from three major sources - the Geological Survey 's Federal Program appropriation, the Federal-State Cooperative Program, and reimbursements from other Federal agencies. The number of hydrologic stations operated by the Geological Survey declined from fiscal year 1983 to 1987. The number of surface water discharge stations were reduced by 452 stations; surface water quality stations declined by 925 stations; groundwater level stations declined by 1,051 stations; while groundwater quality stations increased by 1,472 stations. (Author 's abstract)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Zein


    Full Text Available Solar panels have a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP, which depends on the environmental factors, such as temperature and irradiation. In order to continuously harvest maximum power from the solar panels, they have to operate at their MPP despite the inevitable changes in the environment. This is why the controllers of all solar power electronic converters employ some method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT . Over the past years many MPPT techniques have been published and based on that the main paper’s objective is to analyze one of the most promising MPPT control algorithms: fuzzy logic controller

  1. Improved chain control operations. (United States)


    In California, field maintenance personnel use turntable signs to advise motorists of chain control conditions on rural : highways and freeways. To do this an operator has to park, exit the vehicle, turn the sign on the shoulder and then : walk acros...

  2. 75 FR 12311 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station... Statement for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Docket No. 50-271, dated July 1972, as supplemented...

  3. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... Operations Inc. (the licensee), the operator of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). Renewed facility... Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station,'' dated July 2007 (ADAMS Accession Nos...

  4. Autonomous Payload Operations Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Deitsch, David K.; Cruzen, Craig A.; Haddock, Angie T.


    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves many complex crew tended, ground operated and combined systems. Over the life of the ISS program, it has become evident that by having automated and autonomous systems on board, more can be accomplished and at the same time reduce the workload of the crew and ground operators. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama, working in collaboration with The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory have developed an autonomous software system that uses the Timeliner User Interface Language and expert logic to continuously monitor ISS payload systems, issue commands and signal ground operators as required. This paper describes the development history of the system, its concept of operation and components. The paper also discusses the testing process as well as the facilities used to develop the system. The paper concludes with a description of future enhancement plans for use on the ISS as well as potential applications to Lunar and Mars exploration systems.

  5. On Chinese National Continuous Operating Reference Station System of GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junyong


    Full Text Available Objective: Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System can maintain a accurate, 3D, geocentric and dynamic reference coordinate frame in the corresponding area, can provide positioning and navigation service. It can also serve for the meteorology, geodynamics, earthquake monitoring and Location Based services (LBS etc in the same area. Until now, our country can’t provide a facing National CORS System serving for every profession and trade, and the national sharing platform of CORS System resources has not been established. So this paper discusses some valuable insight how to construct the National CORS System in China. Method: Constructing goal、Service object、CORS distribution、CORS geographic、geology and communication environment and other factors, are major considerations for the Constructing the National CORS System. Moreover, constructing GNSS CORS is more specific, mainly from four aspects, namely site-selection、civil construction、security measures and equipment-selection for consideration. Outcome: The project of the Constructing Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is put forward, and is discussed from goal、principle、project and other for construction. Some meaning thought how to construct the National CORS System is submitted Conclusion: The Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is the lack of a unified planning and design in the national level. So far, the national CORS system serving all walks of life has not been provided, and the national sharing platform of CORS System resources has not been established The primary mission of the Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is as follows: using data set of GNSS and receiving, transport, process, integration, transmit information and

  6. Robotic assembly and maintenance of future space stations based on the ISS mission operations experience (United States)

    Rembala, Richard; Ower, Cameron


    MDA has provided 25 years of real-time engineering support to Shuttle (Canadarm) and ISS (Canadarm2) robotic operations beginning with the second shuttle flight STS-2 in 1981. In this capacity, our engineering support teams have become familiar with the evolution of mission planning and flight support practices for robotic assembly and support operations at mission control. This paper presents observations on existing practices and ideas to achieve reduced operational overhead to present programs. It also identifies areas where robotic assembly and maintenance of future space stations and space-based facilities could be accomplished more effectively and efficiently. Specifically, our experience shows that past and current space Shuttle and ISS assembly and maintenance operations have used the approach of extensive preflight mission planning and training to prepare the flight crews for the entire mission. This has been driven by the overall communication latency between the earth and remote location of the space station/vehicle as well as the lack of consistent robotic and interface standards. While the early Shuttle and ISS architectures included robotics, their eventual benefits on the overall assembly and maintenance operations could have been greater through incorporating them as a major design driver from the beginning of the system design. Lessons learned from the ISS highlight the potential benefits of real-time health monitoring systems, consistent standards for robotic interfaces and procedures and automated script-driven ground control in future space station assembly and logistics architectures. In addition, advances in computer vision systems and remote operation, supervised autonomous command and control systems offer the potential to adjust the balance between assembly and maintenance tasks performed using extra vehicular activity (EVA), extra vehicular robotics (EVR) and EVR controlled from the ground, offloading the EVA astronaut and even the robotic

  7. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)


    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  8. Engineering challenges of operating year-round portable seismic stations at high-latitude (United States)

    Beaudoin, Bruce; Carpenter, Paul; Hebert, Jason; Childs, Dean; Anderson, Kent


    Remote portable seismic stations are, in most cases, constrained by logistics and cost. High latitude operations introduce environmental, technical and logistical challenges that require substantially more engineering work to ensure robust, high quality data return. Since 2006, IRIS PASSCAL has been funded by NSF to develop, deploy, and maintain a pool of polar specific seismic stations. Here, we describe our latest advancements to mitigate the challenges of high-latitude, year-round station operation. The IRIS PASSCAL program has supported high-latitude deployments since the late 1980s. These early deployments were largely controlled source, summer only experiments. In early 2000 PASSCAL users began proposing year-round deployments of broadband stations in some of the harshest environments on the planet. These early year-round deployments were stand-alone (no telemetry) stations largely designed to operate during summer months and then run as long as possible during the winter with hopes the stations would revive come following summer. In 2006 and in collaboration with UNAVCO, we began developing communications, power systems, and enclosures to extend recording to year-round. Since this initial effort, PASSCAL continued refinement to power systems, enclosure design and manufacturability, and real-time data communications. Several sensor and data logger manufacturers have made advances in cold weather performance and delivered newly designed instruments that have furthered our ability to successfully run portable stations at high-latitude with minimal logistics - reducing size and weight of instruments and infrastructure. All PASSCAL polar engineering work is openly shared through our website:

  9. Space Station assembly sequence planning - An engineering and operational challenge (United States)

    Kaidy, James T.; Bastedo, William G.


    This paper discusses the Space Station assembly sequence planning and development process. It presents the planning methodologies from both historial and current perspectives. It is shown that planning the assembly sequence is a new and unique challenge and its solution requires the simultaneous satisfaction of many diverse variables and constants. The considerations which influence the development of the assembly sequence include launch vehicle integration and lift capabilities, on-orbit assembly flight operations, vehicle flight dynamics, spacecraft system capabilities and resource availability. Many of these considerations are described in this paper. In addition, the examples presented demonstrate the current process for assembly sequence planning and show many of the complex trade-offs that must be performed.

  10. 75 FR 38147 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption (United States)


    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background... No. NFP-3, which authorizes operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS). The... regulations. Therefore, the exemption is authorized by law. Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station Exemption...

  11. 75 FR 15749 - Entergy Operations, Inc., Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Exemption (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Operations, Inc., Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), is the holder of Facility Operating License No. NPF-29 which authorizes operation of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (GGNS). The license provides, among other...

  12. 78 FR 28000 - Entergy Louisiana, LLC and Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Stream Electric Station, Unit No... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Louisiana, LLC and Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Stream Electric Station, Unit No. 3... Operations, Inc. (EOI) (the licensees), are co-holders of Facility Operating License No. NPF- 38. The ELL is the owner and EOI is authorized to possess, use, and operate Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No...

  13. 75 FR 9955 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Operations, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding... protection of plants and materials,'' for Facility Operating License No. DPR-46, issued to Entergy Operations, Inc. (Entergy, the licensee), for operation of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (GGNS), located...

  14. Space Station CMIF extended duration metabolic control test (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathryn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.


    The Space Station Extended Duration Metabolic Control Test (EMCT) was conducted at the MSFC Core Module Integration Facility. The primary objective of the EMCT was to gather performance data from a partially-closed regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system functioning under steady-state conditions. Included is a description of the EMCT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements of water and gas samples taken during the test. A comparison of the physical, chemical, and microbiological methods used in the post test laboratory analyses of the water samples is included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test, providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item. Analytical results pertaining to a system level mass balance and selected system power estimates are also included.

  15. Investigation the Effects of Operation Methods on Energy Consumption in Agricultural Water Pumping Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DelfanAzari


    Full Text Available Introduction: The energy crisis has led the world toward the reduction of energy consumption. More than 70 percent of the energy in agriculture sector is used by pumps. In our country, there is no clear standard and guideline and also no adequate supervision for the design, selection, installation and operation of pumping systems appropriate to the circumstances and needs. Consequently, these systems operate with low efficiency and high losses of energy. While more than 20 percent of the world's electricity is consumed by pumps, average pumping efficiency is less than 40%. So evaluation of pumping stations and providing some solutions to increase efficiency and pumping system’s life time and to reduce energy consumption can be an effective in optimization of energy consumption in the country. The main reasons for the low efficiency of pumping systems comparing to potential efficiency are using unsuitable techniques for flow control, hydraulic and physical changes of pumping system during the time, using pumps or motors with low efficiency and poor maintenance. Normally the amount of flow is not constant over the time in a pumping system and needed flow rate is changed at different times. Designing of pumping system should be responsible for peak requirements as well as it must suggest the suitable flow control method to achieve least energy losses for minimum flow requirements. Also one of the main capabilities to reduce energy consumption in pumping stations is improving the flow control method. Using the flow control valves and bypass line with high energy losses is very common. While the use of variable speed pumps (VSPs that supply water requirement with sufficient pressure and minimum amount of energy, is limited due to lack of awareness of designers and (or high initial costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the operation of the pumping stations under four scenarios (for discharge control in a drip irrigation system was analyzed

  16. A Categorization of Converter Station Controllers Within Multi-terminal DC Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irnawan, Roni; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth


    As more and more VSC-HVDC links are planned and commissioned, interconnection of neighboring links or connection to an existing link becomes a feasible step towards secure and reliable multi-terminal DC (MTDC) transmission systems. Multi-vendor MTDC (MV-MTDC) operation is anticipated as an impact...... of controller might exist in the same system. It is therefore important to identify the parameters required by the converter station controllers to ensure a smooth coordination. In this paper, different converter station controllers available in the literatures are categorized. Challenges of converter station...

  17. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer


    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  18. Problems and concepts of space station guidance, navigation, and control (United States)

    Guha, A. K.; Craig, M.

    The Space Station System is defined as a network of space and ground assets which work together to support a variety of missions including commercial missions, science and applications missions, and technology development missions. The elements of the Space Station System include a Space Station Base, Space Platforms, Free Flyers, a Teleoperator Manuevering System (TMS), Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV), Orbiter Berthing Equipment, and Ground Support Equipment and Facilities. Guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) subsystem requirements are considered along with configuration trades.

  19. Operation and maintenance of thermal power stations best practices and health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Pradip


    This book illustrates operation and maintenance practices/guidelines for economic generation and managing health of a thermal power generator beyond its regulatory life. The book provides knowledge for professionals managing power station operations, through its unique approach to chemical analysis of water, steam, oil etc. to identify malfunctioning/defects in equipment/systems much before the physical manifestation of the problem. The book also contains a detailed procedure for conducting performance evaluation tests on different equipment, and for analyzing test results for predicting maintenance requirements, which has lent a new dimension to power systems operation and maintenance practices. A number of real life case studies also enrich the book. This book will prove particularly useful to power systems operations professionals in the developing economies, and also to researchers and students involved in studying power systems operations and control. .

  20. Monitoring and controlling unit operations


    Cypes, Stephen; Uhrich, M; Carlson, Eric; Kolosov, Oleg; Padowitz, David; Bennett, James; Matsiev, L


    Fluid sensor methods and systems adapted for monitoring and/or controlling distillation operations in fluidic systems, such as batch distillation operations or continuous distillation operations, are disclosed. Preferred embodiments are directed to process monitoring and/or process control for unit operations involving endpoint detemlination of a distillation, for example, as applied to a liquid-componentswitching operation (e.g., a solvent switching operation), a liquid-liquid separation ope...

  1. National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Geodetic Control Stations, (Horizontal and/or Vertical Control), March 2009 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  2. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

  3. The expanded role of computers in Space Station Freedom real-time operations (United States)

    Crawford, R. Paul; Cannon, Kathleen V.


    The challenges that NASA and its international partners face in their real-time operation of the Space Station Freedom necessitate an increased role on the part of computers. In building the operational concepts concerning the role of the computer, the Space Station program is using lessons learned experience from past programs, knowledge of the needs of future space programs, and technical advances in the computer industry. The computer is expected to contribute most significantly in real-time operations by forming a versatile operating architecture, a responsive operations tool set, and an environment that promotes effective and efficient utilization of Space Station Freedom resources.

  4. PID Controller with Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel


    Full Text Available The paper presents a PID controller made with LM741 operational amplifier that implement the PID controllers laws and allow for a widerange of applications of in the field of automatic control of technicalprocesses and systems.

  5. 78 FR 75386 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Combined License Application for River Bend Station Unit 3, Exemption... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Operations, Inc.; Combined License Application for River Bend Station Unit 3, Exemption... Operations, Inc. (EOI) which requested an exemption from addressing enhancements to the Emergency... docketing the River Bend Station Unit 3 (RBS3) COL application on December 4, 2008, (Agencywide Documents...

  6. 75 FR 14209 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background.... DPR-28, which authorizes operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VY). The license....55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

  7. 75 FR 14208 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The license provides, among..., ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  8. 78 FR 784 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). The license provides, among... with the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant and Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, on February 9, 2011 and...

  9. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption (United States)


    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background... No. NFP-3, which authorizes operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS). The...,'' section 73.55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors...

  10. Factors controlling particle number concentration and size at metro stations (United States)

    Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Martins, V.; Minguillón, M. C.; Jones, T.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.; Centelles, S.; Querol, X.


    An extensive air quality campaign was performed at differently designed station platforms in the Barcelona metro system, aiming to investigate the factors governing airborne particle number (N) concentrations and their size distributions. The study of the daily trends of N concentrations by different size ranges shows that concentrations of N0.3-10 are closely related with the schedule of the metro service. Conversely, the hourly variation of N0.007-10 (mainly composed of ultrafine particles) could be partly governed by the entrance of particles from outdoor emissions through mechanical ventilation. Measurements under different ventilation settings at three metro platforms reveal that the effect on air quality linked to changes in the tunnel ventilation depends on the station design. Night-time maintenance works in tunnels are frequent activities in the metro system; and after intense prolonged works, these can result in higher N concentrations at platforms during the following metro operating hours (by up to 30%), this being especially evident for N1-10. Due to the complex mixture of factors controlling N, together with the differences in trends recorded for particles within different size ranges, developing an air quality strategy at metro systems is a great challenge. When compared to street-level urban particles concentrations, the priority in metro air quality should be dealing with particles coarser than 0.3 μm. In fact, the results suggest that at narrow platforms served by single-track tunnels the current forced tunnel ventilation during operating hours is less efficient in reducing coarse particles compared to fine.

  11. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies July 2001 to May 2013 (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.


    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the on-orbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  12. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies from July 2011 to May 2013 (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.


    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the onorbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  13. Operability of Space Station Freedom's meteoroid/debris protection system (United States)

    Kahl, Maggie S.; Stokes, Jack W.


    The design of Space Station Freedom's external structure must not only protect the spacecraft from the hazardous environment, but also must be compatible with the extra vehicular activity system for assembly and maintenance. The external procedures for module support are utility connections, external orbital replaceable unit changeout, and maintenance of the meteoroid/debris shields and multilayer insulation. All of these interfaces require proper man-machine engineering to be compatible with the extra vehicular activity and manipulator systems. This paper discusses design solutions, including those provided for human interface, to the Space Station Freedom meteoroid/debris protection system. The system advantages and current access capabilities are illustrated through analysis of its configuration over the Space Station Freedom resource nodes and common modules, with emphasis on the cylindrical sections and endcones.

  14. Preliminary Design of Monitoring and Control Subsystem for GNSS Ground Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong


    Full Text Available GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System Ground Station monitors navigation satellite signal, analyzes navigation result, and uploads correction information to satellite. GNSS Ground Station is considered as a main object for constructing GNSS infra-structure and applied in various fields. ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute is developing Monitoring and Control subsystem, which is subsystem of GNSS Ground Station. Monitoring and Control subsystem acquires GPS and Galileo satellite signal and provides signal monitoring data to GNSS control center. In this paper, the configurations of GNSS Ground Station and Monitoring and Control subsystem are introduced and the preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem is performed. Monitoring and Control subsystem consists of data acquisition module, data formatting and archiving module, data error correction module, navigation solution determination module, independent quality monitoring module, and system operation and maintenance module. The design process uses UML (Unified Modeling Language method which is a standard for developing software and consists of use-case modeling, domain design, software structure design, and user interface structure design. The preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem enhances operation capability of GNSS Ground Station and is used as basic material for detail design of Monitoring and Control subsystem.

  15. Intelligent real-time operation of a pumping station for an urban drainage system (United States)

    Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Huang, Chien-Lin; Wei, Chih-Chiang


    SummaryIn this study, we apply artificial intelligence techniques to the development of two real-time pumping station operation models, namely, a historical and an optimized adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS-His and ANFIS-Opt, respectively). The functions of these two models are the determination of the real-time operation criteria of various pumping machines for controlling flood in an urban drainage system during periods when the drainage gate is closed. The ANFIS-His is constructed from an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using historical operation records. The ANFIS-Opt is constructed from an ANFIS using the best operation series, which are optimized by a tabu search of historical flood events. We use the Chung-Kong drainage basin, New Taipei City, Taiwan, as the study area. The operational comparison variables are the highest water level (WL) and the absolute difference between the final WL and target WL of a pumping front-pool. The results show that the ANFIS-Opt is better than the ANFIS-His and historical operation models, based on the operation simulations of two flood events using the two operation models.

  16. history and operational capability of the ethiopian seismic station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Alemaya (ALME), Asmera (ASME), Dessie (DESE) and. Wendogenet (WNDE). Later on, the portacorders were replaced by Lennartz analog recorders with time marks made by internal clocks and synchronized daily to radio-broadcast time. Substantial amount of data were collected with the old station network and bulletins ...

  17. History and operational capability of the Ethiopian Seismic Station ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital data facilitate quick interpretations of seismic signals using computers. The seismic stations are in a good position to date to monitor major seismic activities of the Ethiopian rift. The earthquake locations estimated using data from our own network are found to be reliable with reasonable accuracy. A total of 15 ...

  18. The approach channel control structure at Arrow Lakes Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, A. [Columbia Power Corp., Victoria, BC (Canada); Gemperline, G. [Franklin G. DeFazio Inc., Camano Island, WA (United States); Christison, K. [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Zipparro, V. [MWH Americas Inc., Broomfield, CO (United States)


    In 1999, the Columbia Power Corporation partnered with Columbia Basin Trust and Klohn Crippen SNC Lavalin to develop a project to add generation capability to the Arrow Reservoir, the Arrow Lakes Generating Station (ALGS). Construction was completed in the spring of 2002. The hydroelectric development consists of a 185 MW two-unit powerhouse constructed 400 m downstream of the existing dam. Coordinated mathematical and physical model studies were conducted to design a 35 m wide by 9.4 m high approach channel control structure (ACCS) 200 m upstream of the ALGS. The purpose of the ACCS is to control water levels during abnormal and unexpected operations of the powerhouse and prevent uplift of the concrete channel lining. The discharge capacity of the submerged weir was determined by unsteady open channel modelling. Prototype observations following completion of the structure correlated well with simulated behaviour. Analytical methods were used to optimize flow over the ACCS in order to develop design parameters for the structure. The physical model verified potential ACCS impacts on powerhouse performance parameters. It showed that there would be some reduction in uniformity of the intake flow distribution and a small improvement in vorticity. The study also identified operation restrictions, such as discharge, head loss and rate of flow change restrictions. A series of modifications were considered in the design, such as weir location along the approach channel, crest height, shape of the weir, and future operational consideration. The minor increase in head loss resulted in approximately 2 per cent reduction in average annual energy generation. 16 figs.

  19. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey


    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  20. Performance of Sub-Array of ARIANNA Detector Stations during First Year of Operation (United States)

    Tatar, Joulien Erdintch

    observed when wind speeds exceed ˜ 6 mph. The frequency components of the excess noise are compatible with noise emitted by the wind generator. There are several periods of impulsive noise with durations of minutes to hours in January and narrowband, suggesting an origin from external transmitters. On one occasion, the noise was contemporaneous with rescue operations at McMurdo Station. Heartbeat events were collected in special runs in 4 separate time periods. They indicate that LPDA coupling to ice medium increased over the first few weeks as the pits with the receiver antennas filled in with snow, and then increased slowly as the snow overburden increased on the transmitting antenna, initially placed flat on the snow surface. We conducted a search for neutrino events in the data from Station 3 between December 6, 2012 and March 13, 2013 by cross-correlating observed waveforms in parallel receiver channels with the expected neutrino template in the time domain. The cross-correlation analysis rejects all thermal triggers and retains more than 90% of the simulated neutrino events. It is clear that none of the collected events contain waveforms that match the shape expected for neutrino signals in two parallel channels, but cross-correlation of waveforms with excess power during windy periods are systematically larger than thermal noise events. Thermal triggers with the largest cross-correlation values are clustered in time and, as described in the text, possess unusual characteristics that clearly indicate they are background processes. This analysis indicates that the ARIANNA site is RF quiet, and meets requirements of the ARIANNA project. Using the effective volume per station and measured live-time, a preliminary flux limit was obtained to be E2φ ≤ 10-5 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr -1, assuming a E-2 differential energy spectrum. Based on initial experience with station operation and control, data transmission, and event analysis, we conclude that main scientific and

  1. Design and development of a Space Station proximity operations research and development mockup (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.


    Proximity operations (Prox-Ops) on-orbit refers to all activities taking place within one km of the Space Station. Designing a Prox-Ops control station calls for a comprehensive systems approach which takes into account structural constraints, orbital dynamics including approach/departure flight paths, myriad human factors and other topics. This paper describes a reconfigurable full-scale mock-up of a Prox-Ops station constructed at Ames incorporating an array of windows (with dynamic star field, target vehicle(s), and head-up symbology), head-down perspective display of manned and unmanned vehicles, voice- actuated 'electronic checklist', computer-generated voice system, expert system (to help diagnose subsystem malfunctions), and other displays and controls. The facility is used for demonstrations of selected Prox-Ops approach scenarios, human factors research (work-load assessment, determining external vision envelope requirements, head-down and head-up symbology design, voice synthesis and recognition research, etc.) and development of engineering design guidelines for future module interiors.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2017 ... The signal processing unit is the microcontroller itself. This unit takes inputs from the sensors in the detector unit and sends output signals to the control unit that consists of the motor drivers, the motors, visual display units and the alarm system. The track switching stage depicted in the circuit diagram.

  3. Using Distributed Operations to Enable Science Research on the International Space Station (United States)

    Bathew, Ann S.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Lochmaier, Geoff D.; Rodriquez, Rick C.; Simpson, Donna


    In the early days of the International Space Station (ISS) program, and as the organization structure was being internationally agreed upon and documented, one of the principal tenets of the science program was to allow customer-friendly operations. One important aspect of this was to allow payload developers and principle investigators the flexibility to operate their experiments from either their home sites or distributed telescience centers. This telescience concept was developed such that investigators had several options for ISS utilization support. They could operate from their home site, the closest telescience center, or use the payload operations facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) processes and structures were put into place to allow these different options to its customers, while at the same time maintain its centralized authority over NASA payload operations and integration. For a long duration space program with many scientists, researchers, and universities expected to participate, it was imperative that the program structure be in place to successfully facilitate this concept of telescience support. From a payload control center perspective, payload science operations require two major elements in order to make telescience successful within the scope of the ISS program. The first element is decentralized control which allows the remote participants the freedom and flexibility to operate their payloads within their scope of authority. The second element is a strong ground infrastructure, which includes voice communications, video, telemetry, and commanding between the POIC and the payload remote site. Both of these elements are important to telescience success, and both must be balanced by the ISS program s documented requirements for POIC to maintain its authority as an integration and control center. This paper describes both elements of distributed payload

  4. 47 CFR 90.1331 - Restrictions on the operation of base and fixed stations. (United States)


    ... affect their operations. Information regarding the location and operational characteristics of the radar... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on the operation of base and fixed...-3700 MHz Band § 90.1331 Restrictions on the operation of base and fixed stations. (a)(1) Except as...

  5. Operation of hydrologic data collection stations by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1985 (United States)

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operated hydrologic data collection stations during fiscal yr 1985 in response to the needs of all levels of Government for hydrologic information. Surface water discharge was determined at 11,076 stations; stage data on streams, reservoirs, and lakes were recorded at 2,141 stations; and surface water quality was determined at 4,166 stations. Groundwater levels were measured at 39,301 stations, and the quality of groundwater was determined at 9,263 stations nationwide. Data on sediment were collected daily at 212 stations and on a periodic basis at 1,027 stations. Information on precipitation quantity was collected at 921 stations, and the quality of precipitation was analyzed at 108 stations. Data collection platforms for satellite telemetry of hydrologic information were used at 1,520 USGS stations. Funding support for the hydrologic stations was derived either solely or from a combination of three major sources--the Geological Survey 's Federal Program appropriation, the Federal-State Cooperative Program, and reimbursements from other Federal agencies. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Effect of time lag upon the economical operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, X.


    In this paper we discretize the state parameter - flow of cascade hydroelectric power stations - into the step function of time variable, and use constrained nonlinear programming to establish a mathematical model of economical operation which is universally applicable for general cascade hydroelectic power stations, and then the primary factors which affect the value of the time lag are discussed. According to each case of different values of the time lag, the formulas for calculating the gradient of augmented objective functions and other important formulas which will be used in SUMT for optimization are derived. Furthermore, the functional relation between the time lag and the state of operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations is derived. The situations in which the time lag will cause the mutual relation between hydroelectric power stations to change were studied. Finally, the affect that time lag will have on the economical operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations is discussed.

  7. Preliminary control system design and analysis for the Space Station Furnace Facility thermal control system (United States)

    Jackson, M. E.


    This report presents the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) thermal control system (TCS) preliminary control system design and analysis. The SSFF provides the necessary core systems to operate various materials processing furnaces. The TCS is defined as one of the core systems, and its function is to collect excess heat from furnaces and to provide precise cold temperature control of components and of certain furnace zones. Physical interconnection of parallel thermal control subsystems through a common pump implies the description of the TCS by coupled nonlinear differential equations in pressure and flow. This report formulates the system equations and develops the controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to satisfy flow rate tracking requirements. Extensive digital simulation results are presented to show the flow rate tracking performance.

  8. Potential applications of expert systems and operations research to space station logistics functions (United States)

    Lippiatt, Thomas F.; Waterman, Donald


    The applicability of operations research, artificial intelligence, and expert systems to logistics problems for the space station were assessed. Promising application areas were identified for space station logistics. A needs assessment is presented and a specific course of action in each area is suggested.

  9. 77 FR 47680 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action... (NRC or the Commission) take action with regard to the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The...

  10. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Coyote Wash Compressor Station (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Coyote Wash Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  11. 75 FR 14635 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment...Energy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power...

  12. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов


    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Polishchuk


    Full Text Available Purpose. Improvement of existing methods for evaluation of condition and functioning quality of railway stations and development of the new ones in order to improve operation of railway stations. Methodology. During research the local, prognostic, aggregated and interactive analyses of condition and functioning quality of station infrastructure elements and train processing at the stations were applied. Local evaluations are obtained as the result of scheduled and off-schedule surveys. On the basis of local evaluations, aggregated evaluations of different generalization level are applied. Method for interactive evaluation is based on the analysis of compliance with train tables. Method of prognostic analysis applies the prehistory of evaluations obtained during previous surveys. Findings. Resulting from researches held, the complex determinative approach was proposed for evaluation of station sector of Ukrainian Railways. This approach allows determining comprehensive and objective notion about station, functioning quality and interaction between objects of station sector. Originality. Existing method for station infrastructure elements evaluation was improved. Proposed method for interactive evaluation allows performing continuous observation of station functioning quality between scheduled surveys. Practical value. Proposed methodology for complex evaluation may be applied to structural units of station sector of different hierarchy levels. Software developed allows navigating promptly over evaluation results and localizing drawbacks discovered.

  14. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.


    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  15. Earth Station Neural Network Control Methodology and Simulation


    Hanaa T. El-Madany; Faten H. Fahmy; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Hassen T. Dorrah


    Renewable energy resources are inexhaustible, clean as compared with conventional resources. Also, it is used to supply regions with no grid, no telephone lines, and often with difficult accessibility by common transport. Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are the most important application of renewable energy. Neural control is a branch of the general field of intelligent control, which is based on the concept of artificial intelligence. This paper presents the mathematic...

  16. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (United States)


    ... equivalent well-control fluid volume shall be calculated and posted near the operator's station. A mechanical... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations... Operations § 250.514 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

  17. Human Error and the International Space Station: Challenges and Triumphs in Science Operations (United States)

    Harris, Samantha S.; Simpson, Beau C.


    Any system with a human component is inherently risky. Studies in human factors and psychology have repeatedly shown that human operators will inevitably make errors, regardless of how well they are trained. Onboard the International Space Station (ISS) where crew time is arguably the most valuable resource, errors by the crew or ground operators can be costly to critical science objectives. Operations experts at the ISS Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, have learned that from payload concept development through execution, there are countless opportunities to introduce errors that can potentially result in costly losses of crew time and science. To effectively address this challenge, we must approach the design, testing, and operation processes with two specific goals in mind. First, a systematic approach to error and human centered design methodology should be implemented to minimize opportunities for user error. Second, we must assume that human errors will be made and enable rapid identification and recoverability when they occur. While a systematic approach and human centered development process can go a long way toward eliminating error, the complete exclusion of operator error is not a reasonable expectation. The ISS environment in particular poses challenging conditions, especially for flight controllers and astronauts. Operating a scientific laboratory 250 miles above the Earth is a complicated and dangerous task with high stakes and a steep learning curve. While human error is a reality that may never be fully eliminated, smart implementation of carefully chosen tools and techniques can go a long way toward minimizing risk and increasing the efficiency of NASA's space science operations.

  18. Compressor station optimum real-time control in a gas system; Gestion optimal en temps reel des stations de compression d'un systeme gazier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cmakal, T. [Transgas, s.p. (Czech Republic); Jenicek, T.; Kralik, J.; Sterba, J. [Simone Research Group (Italy)


    Integration of automation and IT with telecommunications tools has become a pivotal programme in line with global tendencies also in the Czech gas industry., including Transgas. The paper also describes optimum control of the entire system in real time, with automatic compressor station control. When developing the concept of transit pipeline control, a control architecture was designed which would make possible a full automation of compressor station operation control, including optimisation in respect of predefined criteria functions. The basic tool for achieving this level of control is the SIMONE dynamic model. The paper offers a detailed description of the implementation of a simulation programme for compressor station control as part of the control system. SIMONE is a standard program used for the simulation of any gas network. An installation at a compressor station is modified for the specific needs of simulating its operation and expanded to include functions permitting hooking to the control system. At the end, real-life results with a graphic output of the movement of the turbine compressor's working point are presented. (authors)

  19. Space station dynamics, attitude control and momentum management (United States)

    Sunkel, John W.; Singh, Ramen P.; Vengopal, Ravi


    The Space Station Attitude Control System software test-bed provides a rigorous environment for the design, development and functional verification of GN and C algorithms and software. The approach taken for the simulation of the vehicle dynamics and environmental models using a computationally efficient algorithm is discussed. The simulation includes capabilities for docking/berthing dynamics, prescribed motion dynamics associated with the Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS) and microgravity disturbances. The vehicle dynamics module interfaces with the test-bed through the central Communicator facility which is in turn driven by the Station Control Simulator (SCS) Executive. The Communicator addresses issues such as the interface between the discrete flight software and the continuous vehicle dynamics, and multi-programming aspects such as the complex flow of control in real-time programs. Combined with the flight software and redundancy management modules, the facility provides a flexible, user-oriented simulation platform.

  20. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1990. Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The exchange of experience within the VGB Specialist Committee 'Exchange of Operational Experience' (ABE) (Nuclear Technology) embraces nuclear power stations in the following countries: Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports on the operating results achieved in 1990, incidents relevant to safety technology, important modifications and annual discharge rates of radioactivity. (orig.).

  1. 77 FR 2766 - Facility Operating License Amendment from Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC., Catawba Nuclear Station... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Facility Operating License Amendment from Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC., Catawba Nuclear Station... and NPF-52 issued to Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Catawba Nuclear...

  2. Control Optimization of a LHC 18 KW Cryoplant Warm Compression Station Using Dynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bradu, B; Niculescu, S I


    This paper addresses the control optimization of a 4.5 K refrigerator used in the cryogenic system of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. First, the compressor station with the cold-box have been modeled and simulated under PROCOS (Process and Control Simulator), a simulation environment developed at CERN. Next, an appropriate parameter identification has been performed on the simulator to obtain a simplified model of the system in order to design an Internal Model Control (IMC) enhancing the regulation of the high pressure. Finally, a floating high pressure control is proposed using a cascade control to reduce operational costs.

  3. Power generation, operation, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J


    A comprehensive text on the operation and control of power generation and transmission systems In the ten years since Allen J. Wood and Bruce F. Wollenberg presented their comprehensive introduction to the engineering and economic factors involved in operating and controlling power generation systems in electric utilities, the electric power industry has undergone unprecedented change. Deregulation, open access to transmission systems, and the birth of independent power producers have altered the structure of the industry, while technological advances have created a host of new opportunities

  4. Instrumentation and control system for the prototype fast breeder reactor 'MONJU' power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Hiroshi (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Mae, Yoshinori; Ishida, Takayuki; Hashiura, Kazuhiko; Kasai, Shozo; Yamamoto, Hajime


    The fast breeder reactor 'Monju' power station is constructed as the nuclear power station of next generation in Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture. In order to realize high safety and operational reliability as the newest nuclear power station, the measurement and control system of Monju (electric power output 280 MW) has been designed and manufactured by reflecting the experiences of construction and operation of the experimental FBR 'Joyo' and the results of various research and development of sodium instrumentation and others, and by using the latest digital control technology and multiplexing system technology. In this paper, the results of development of the characteristic measurement and control technology as fast breeder reactors and the state of application to the measurement and control system which was designed and manufactured for Monju are described. Central monitoring panel, plant control system, sodium instrumentation, preheating control system and so on are reported. In the case of Monju, the heat capacity and thermal inertia of the primary and secondary cooling systems are large, and the system comprises three loops. (K.I.).

  5. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations (United States)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.


    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  6. Methods of evaluating human exposure to electromagnetic fields radiated from operating base stations in Korea. (United States)

    Kim, Byung Chan; Choi, Hyung-Do; Park, Seong-Ook


    This article presents measurement methods used to determine the human exposure to electromagnetic fields radiated from operating base stations. In Korea, when evaluating the human exposure to electromagnetic fields from operating base stations, the measurement procedure is different between the following cases: in situ measurement and electromagnetic environment measurement. When performing an in situ measurement, compliance with human exposure limits is determined by the spatially averaged field value obtained within the space occupied by humans at one arbitrary position, but when performing an electromagnetic environment measurement, it is determined by the maximum value at the highest field position selected from several places.

  7. Impacting Space Station Freedom design with operations and safety requirements - An availability process (United States)

    Garegnani, Jerry J.; Schondorf, Steven Y.


    The unusually long mission duration of Space Station Freedom leads to operations costs that have significant impacts on life-cycle cost relative to previous manned space programs. Maintaining an affordable program requires that operations costs be considered throughout the design process. An appropriate means of impacting the design with operations concerns is to specify requirements that ensure operational effectiveness when implemented. The Space Station Freedom Program has developed a process defining such requirements. It focuses on specifying functional profiles and allocating resources such that designers gain a better understanding of the operational envelope in which their systems must perform. This paper examines the details of the process, where it came from, and why it is effective.

  8. Neumayer III and Kohnen Station in Antarctica operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wesche


    Full Text Available The Alfred Wegener Institute operates two stations in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The German overwintering station Neumayer III is located on the Ekström Ice Shelf at 70°40’S and 08°16’W and is the logistics base for three long-term observatories (meteorology, air chemistry and geophysics and nearby research activities. Due to the vicinity to the coast (ca. 20 km from the ice shelf edge, the Neumayer III Station is the junction for many German Antarctic expeditions, especially as the starting point for the supply traverse for the second German station Kohnen. The summer station Kohnen is located about 600 km from the coast and 750 km from Neumayer III Station on the Antarctic plateau at 75°S and 00°04’E. It was erected as the base for the deep-drilling ice core project, which took place between 2001 and 2006. Since then Kohnen Station is used as a logistics base for different research projects.

  9. Designing an Alternate Mission Operations Control Room (United States)

    Montgomery, Patty; Reeves, A. Scott


    The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a multi-project facility that is responsible for 24x7 real-time International Space Station (ISS) payload operations management, integration, and control and has the capability to support small satellite projects and will provide real-time support for SLS launches. The HOSC is a service-oriented/ highly available operations center for ISS payloads-directly supporting science teams across the world responsible for the payloads. The HOSC is required to endure an annual 2-day power outage event for facility preventive maintenance and safety inspection of the core electro-mechanical systems. While complete system shut-downs are against the grain of a highly available sub-system, the entire facility must be powered down for a weekend for environmental and safety purposes. The consequence of this ground system outage is far reaching: any science performed on ISS during this outage weekend is lost. Engineering efforts were focused to maximize the ISS investment by engineering a suitable solution capable of continuing HOSC services while supporting safety requirements. The HOSC Power Outage Contingency (HPOC) System is a physically diversified compliment of systems capable of providing identified real-time services for the duration of a planned power outage condition from an alternate control room. HPOC was designed to maintain ISS payload operations for approximately three continuous days during planned HOSC power outages and support a local Payload Operations Team, International Partners, as well as remote users from the alternate control room located in another building.

  10. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge : Station Crowd Control Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Crowd Control Plan for Mingo NWR outlines operational procedures in the event of a civil disorder on the Refuge. An inventory of resources is provided, along...

  11. National Geodetic Control Stations, Geographic NAD83, NGS (2004) [geodetic_ctrl_point_la_NGS_2004 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  12. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance (United States)


    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  13. Control of Warm Compression Stations Using Model Predictive Control: Simulation and Experimental Results (United States)

    Bonne, F.; Alamir, M.; Bonnay, P.


    This paper deals with multivariable constrained model predictive control for Warm Compression Stations (WCS). WCSs are subject to numerous constraints (limits on pressures, actuators) that need to be satisfied using appropriate algorithms. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to achieve precise control of pressures in normal operation or to avoid reaching stopping criteria (such as excessive pressures) under high disturbances (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors, expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details the simulator used to validate this new control scheme and the associated simulation results on the SBTs WCS. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

  14. Fuzzy Supervisor Approach Design Based-Switching Controller for Pumping Station: Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Chakchouk


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a discrete-time switching controller strategy for a hydraulic process pumping station. The proposed solution leads to improving control system performances with two tests: combination of Fuzzy-PD and PI controllers and Fuzzy-PID and PI controllers. The proposed design methodology is based on accurate model for pumping station (PS, which is developed in previous works using Fuzzy-C Means (FCM algorithm. The control law design is based on switching control; a fuzzy supervisor manages the switching from one to another and regulates the rate of participation of each order, in order to satisfy various objectives of a stable pumping station like the asymptotic stability of the tracking error. To validate the proposed solution, experimental tests are made and analyzed. Compared to the conventional PI and fuzzy logic (FL approaches, the results show that the switching controller allows exhibiting excellent transient response over a wide range of operating conditions and especially is easier to be implemented in practice.

  15. Title V Operating Permit: XTO Energy, Inc. - Little Canyon Unit Compressor Station (United States)

    Initial Title V Operating Permit (Permit Number: V-UO-000016-2006.00), Response to Public Comments and the Administrative Permit Record for the XTO Energy, Inc., Little Canyon Unit Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation.

  16. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao [Guangzhou College of Education, Guangzhou (China)


    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  17. The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan


    Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material may already provide adequate coverage of certain issues. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  18. 49 CFR 236.777 - Operator, control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator, control. 236.777 Section 236.777..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.777 Operator, control. An employee assigned to operate the control machine of a traffic control system. ...

  19. Radiation exposure to the orbiting lunar station and lunar surface related to reusable nuclear shuttle operations (United States)

    Hutchinson, P. I.


    The radiation environment created by the Reusable Nuclear Vehicle (RNS) in performing its normal mission functions while in the lunar vicinity and the impact of that environment on the Orbiting Lunar Station (OLS) and/or the lunar surface are examined. Lunar surface exposures from the operating reactor were evaluated for both the arrival and departure burns and while there is little probability that manned bases would lie along the paths in which measurable exposures would be recorded, the analyses do indicate the need to consider this possibility in planning such operations. Conclusions supported by the analyses and recommended operational constraints for the RNS are presented.

  20. Development of Abnormal Operating Strategies for Station Blackout in Shutdown Operating Mode in Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Su-Hyun [FNC Tech. Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    Loss of all AC power is classified as one of multiple failure accident by regulatory guide of Korean accident management program. Therefore we need develop strategies for the abnormal operating procedure both of power operating and shutdown mode. This paper developed abnormal operating guideline for loss of all AC power by analysis of accident scenario in pressurized water reactor. This paper analyzed the loss of ultimate heat sink (LOUHS) in shutdown operating mode and developed the operating strategy of the abnormal procedure. Also we performed the analysis of limiting scenarios that operator actions are not taken in shutdown LOUHS. Therefore, we verified the plant behavior and decided operator action to taken in time in order to protect the fuel of core with safety. From the analysis results of LOUHS, the fuel of core maintained without core uncovery for 73 minutes respectively for opened RCS states after the SBO occurred. Therefore, operator action for the emergency are required to take in 73 minutes for opened RCS state. Strategy is to cooldown by using spent fuel pool cooling system. This method required to change the plant design in some plant. In RCS boundary closed state, first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is to remove the residual heat of core by steam dump flow and auxiliary feedwater of SG.

  1. The FLOWS (FAA-Lincoln Laboratory Operational Weather Studies) Automatic Weather Station Network in Operation. (United States)


    south side of the tripod and are set at a favorable angle for receiving the sun’s rays. Two Arco model 16-1200 panels are used per station. These...or stolen during the summer of 1983 were replaced with the new, more powerful version from Arco . The new solar panels are 12" x 48" with roughly 75...34last-in, first-out" (LIFO) parameter at which the word may be used. For exam- stack. The parameters are entered post-fix pIe , the usage for the word

  2. Event-driven model predictive control of sewage pumping stations for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks. (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Chemicals such as Mg(OH)2 and iron salts are widely dosed to sewage for mitigating sulfide-induced corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. The chemical dosing rate is usually not automatically controlled but profiled based on experience of operators, often resulting in over- or under-dosing. Even though on-line control algorithms for chemical dosing in single pipes have been developed recently, network-wide control algorithms are currently not available. The key challenge is that a sewer network is typically wide-spread comprising many interconnected sewer pipes and pumping stations, making network-wide sulfide mitigation with a relatively limited number of dosing points challenging. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an Event-driven Model Predictive Control (EMPC) methodology, which controls the flows of sewage streams containing the dosed chemical to ensure desirable distribution of the dosed chemical throughout the pipe sections of interests. First of all, a network-state model is proposed to predict the chemical concentration in a network. An EMPC algorithm is then designed to coordinate sewage pumping station operations to ensure desirable chemical distribution in the network. The performance of the proposed control methodology is demonstrated by applying the designed algorithm to a real sewer network simulated with the well-established SeweX model using real sewage flow and characteristics data. The EMPC strategy significantly improved the sulfide mitigation performance with the same chemical consumption, compared to the current practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for.... The license authorizes the operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee) in...

  4. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingru Zou


    Full Text Available Station inflow control (SIC is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows and section flows is then constructed. Second, capacity bottlenecks are identified by considering the transport capacity of each section. Then, a feedback-based bottleneck elimination strategy is established to search target control stations and determine their control time and control strength. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a decision support system coded in the C# programming language was developed, and the Beijing subway was used as a case study. The results indicate that the proposed method and tool are capable of practical applications, and the generated SIC plan has better performance over the existing SIC plan. This study provides a practical and useful method for operation agencies to construct SIC schemes in the subway system.

  5. Unexpected Control Structure Interaction on International Space Station (United States)

    Gomez, Susan F.; Platonov, Valery; Medina, Elizabeth A.; Borisenko, Alexander; Bogachev, Alexey


    On June 23, 2011, the International Space Station (ISS) was performing a routine 180 degree yaw maneuver in support of a Russian vehicle docking when the on board Russian Segment (RS) software unexpectedly declared two attitude thrusters failed and switched thruster configurations in response to unanticipated ISS dynamic motion. Flight data analysis after the maneuver indicated that higher than predicted structural loads had been induced at various locations on the United States (U.S.) segment of the ISS. Further analysis revealed that the attitude control system was firing thrusters in response to both structural flex and rigid body rates, which resonated the structure and caused high loads and fatigue cycles. It was later determined that the thruster themselves were healthy. The RS software logic, which was intended to react to thruster failures, had instead been heavily influenced by interaction between the control system and structural flex. This paper will discuss the technical aspects of the control structure interaction problem that led to the RS control system firing thrusters in response to structural flex, the factors that led to insufficient preflight analysis of the thruster firings, and the ramifications the event had on the ISS. An immediate consequence included limiting which thrusters could be used for attitude control. This complicated the planning of on-orbit thruster events and necessitated the use of suboptimal thruster configurations that increased propellant usage and caused thruster lifetime usage concerns. In addition to the technical aspects of the problem, the team dynamics and communication shortcomings that led to such an event happening in an environment where extensive analysis is performed in support of human space flight will also be examined. Finally, the technical solution will be presented, which required a multidisciplinary effort between the U.S. and Russian control system engineers and loads and dynamics structural engineers to

  6. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station: The First Operational Payload on the ISS (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; McFadin, Lou; Steiner, Mark D.; Conley, Carolynn L.


    As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found amateur radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a important on-board companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the Functional Cargo Block (also referred to as the FGB or Zarya module) to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. This paper will discuss the development, qualification, installation and operation of the amateur radio system. It will also discuss some of the challenges that the amateur radio international team of volunteers overcame to bring its first phase of equipment on ISS to fruition.

  7. Operational and biological effects zones from base stations of cellular telephony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geronikolou, St. A., E-mail: [Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zimeras, S., E-mail: [University of the Aegean, Karlovassi, Samos (Greece); Tsitomeneas, S. Th., E-mail: [Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Aigaleo (Greece)


    The possible environmental impacts of cellular base stations are operational and biological. The operational effects comprise Εlectro-Μagnetic Interference (EMI), lightning alterations and aesthetic degradation. Both thermal and non-thermal biological effects depend on the absorption of UHF radiofrequencies used. We measured, calculated and estimated the impact zones. The results are: (a) The lightning lethal zone equal to the antenna height, (b) the EMI impact in a zone up to 40m and (c) the ICNIRP’s limits exceed to a zone of 8∼20m into the antenna’s radiation pattern (for 2G GSM and 3G UMTS station). Finally we conclude the adverse effects must not expected in a zone of more than 150m from the radiated antenna, whereas, there is possibility of stochastic effects in intermediate distances (20/40-150m).

  8. Modeling the Spin Motor Current of the International Space Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes (United States)

    Pereira, Miguel A.


    The International Space Station (ISS) attitude control is provided by two means: The Russian Segment uses thrusters and the U.S. Segment uses double-gimbaled control moment gyroscopes (CMG). CMGs are used as momentum exchange devices, providing non propulsive attitude control for the vehicle. The CMGs are very important for the ISS program because, first, they save propellant - which needs to be transferred to the Station in special cargo vehicles - and, second, they provide the microgravity environment on the Station - which is necessary for scientific experiments planned for the ISS mission. Since 2002, when one of the CMG on the ISS failed, all CMGs are closely monitored. High gimbal rates, vibration spikes, unusual variations of spin motor current and bearing temperatures are of great concern, since these parameters are the CMG health indicators. The telemetry analysis of these and some other CMG parameters is used to determine constrains and make changes to the CMGs operation on board. These CMG limitations, in turn, may limit the ISS attitude control capabilities and may be critical to ISS operation. Therefore, it is important to know whether the CMG parameter is nominal or out of family, and why. The goal of this project is to analyze an important CMG parameter - spin motor current. Some operational decisions are made now based on the spin motor current signatures. The spin motor current depends on gimbal rates, ISS rates, and spin bearing friction. The spin bearing friction in turn depends on the bearing temperatures, wheel rates, normal load - which is a function of gimbal and wheel rates - lubrication, etc. The first task of this project is to create a spin motor current mathematical model based on CMG dynamics model and the current knowledge on bearing friction in microgravity.

  9. [Evaluating psychophysiologic adaptation state in operators of Bilibino nuclear power station]. (United States)

    Isaeva, N A; Torubarov, F S; Denisova, E A; Zvereva, Z F; Koronotova, M A


    The study revealed that 60% operators of Bilibino nuclear power station suffer from psychosomatic diseases, 41.7% of them are assigned to occupational group of workers, and major part of the examinees with psychosomatic diseases (45.82%) are aged 41-50, high integral level ofpsychophysiologic adaptation is revealed in 5 examinees (12.5%), medium integral level--in 12 examinees (30%). Lower integral level of psychophysiologic adaptation manifested in decrease in psychophysiologic and physiologic levels.

  10. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey


    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper

  11. Real-Time Embedded Control System for a Portable Meteorological Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moya


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to design and code an embedded system for a portable automatic weather station. The portable station includes high performance sensors to measure parameters such as: i wind speed and direction, micro perturbations and wind gusts, ii air temperature, iii solar radiation, iv relative humidity, and v atmospheric pressure. The main contribution of this work is the development of an embedded control system operating in real time. This system is based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA device. The method developed guarantees high-resolution data acquisition of a number of samples in real time. The samples obtained are grouped and stored in a database, which will be used as a starting point for further analysis.

  12. Summary of Current and Future MSFC International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Activities (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Minton-Summers, Silvia


    This paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station (ISS). Current activities include ECLSS computer model development, component design and development, subsystem integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.

  13. EURISOL 100 kW Target Stations Operation and Implications for its Proton Driver Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Lettry, Jacques; Lindroos, Mats; Stora, Thierry

    EURISOL, the next European radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility calls for the development of target and ion source assemblies to dissipate deposited heat and to extract and ionize isotopes of interest efficiently. The EURISOL 100 kW direct targets should be designed for a goal lifetime of up to three weeks. Target operation from the moment it is installed on a target station until its exhaustion involves several phases with specific proton beam intensity requirements. This paper discusses operation of the 100 kW targets within the ongoing EURISOL Design Study, with an emphasis on the requirements for the proton driver beam.

  14. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian


    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  15. Integrated dynamic analysis simulation of space stations with controllable solar arrays (supplemental data and analyses) (United States)

    Heinrichs, J. A.; Fee, J. J.


    Space station and solar array data and the analyses which were performed in support of the integrated dynamic analysis study. The analysis methods and the formulated digital simulation were developed. Control systems for space station altitude control and solar array orientation control include generic type control systems. These systems have been digitally coded and included in the simulation.

  16. Expert operator preferences in remote manipulator control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstrom, E. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fausz, A.; Woods, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    This report describes a survey of expert remote manipulator operators designed to identify features of control systems related to operator efficiency and comfort. It provides information for designing the control center for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System (TWRMS) Test Bed, described in a separate report. Research questions concerned preferred modes of control, optimum work sessions, sources of operator fatigue, importance of control system design features, and desired changes in control rooms. Participants comprised four expert remote manipulator operators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who individually have from 9 to 20 years of experience using teleoperators. The operators had all used rate and position control, and all preferred bilateral (force-reflecting) position control. They reported spending an average of 2.75 h in control of a teleoperator system during a typical shift. All were accustomed to working in a crew of two and alternating control and support roles in 2-h rotations in an 8-h shift. Operators reported that fatigue in using remote manipulator systems came mainly from watching TV monitors and making repetitive motions. Three of four experienced symptoms, including headaches and sore eyes, wrists, and back. Of 17 features of control rooms rated on importance, highest ratings went to comfort and support provided by the operator chair, location of controls, location of video monitors, video image clarity, types of controls, and control modes. When asked what they wanted to change, operators said work stations designed for comfort; simpler, lighter hand-controls; separate controls for each camera; better placement of remote camera; color monitors; and control room layouts that support crew interaction. Results of this small survey reinforced the importance of ergonomic factors in remote manipulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Eduardo Amaral Herzer


    Full Text Available The high noise level in urban has changed, in the last decades, in some way of pollution that has worried the health agents. The value registered accused levels of so high discomfort that the urban sound pollution passed to be considered as a kind of pollution that hit the outnumbered people. There are efficient measures in its control, but still there are few companies that adopt measure control and auditive conservation program. This way, the objective of the work was to evaluate the noise level in which the employees and users of the gas station are daily exposed. The survey of quantitative datum was done measuring the noise level right in the emission source and making arithmetic means with the gotten sample. The average obtained revealed that the working environment isn’t appropriate, that means the noise can affect straight to communication and working production. With the prevention objective or stabilizing the auditive lost in witch the workers and the frequenters are submitted to the referred place were proposed measures to the implantation of a Auditive Conservation Program (ACP.

  18. Rapid toxicity detection in water quality control utilizing automated multispecies biomonitoring for permanent space stations (United States)

    Morgan, E. L.; Young, R. C.; Smith, M. D.; Eagleson, K. W.


    The objective of this study was to evaluate proposed design characteristics and applications of automated biomonitoring devices for real-time toxicity detection in water quality control on-board permanent space stations. Simulated tests in downlinking transmissions of automated biomonitoring data to Earth-receiving stations were simulated using satellite data transmissions from remote Earth-based stations.

  19. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment (United States)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.


    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  20. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit (United States)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.


    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  1. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - the First Operational Payload on the ISS (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.; McFadin, L.; Steiner, M.; Conley, C. L.


    As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found Amateur Radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a constant companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the FGB to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early in the development of ISS, an international organization called ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station) was formed to coordinate the construction and operation of amateur radio (ham radio) equipment on ISS. ARISS represents a melding of the volunteer teams that have pioneered the development and use of amateur radio equipment on human spaceflight vehicles. The Shuttle/Space Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) team enabled Owen Garriott to become the first astronaut ham to use amateur radio from space in 1983. Since then, amateur radio teams in the U.S. (SAREX), Germany, (SAFEX), and Russia (Mirex) have led the development and operation of amateur radio equipment on board NASA's Space Shuttle, Russia's Mir space station, and the International Space Station. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the Amateur Radio public, 3) scheduled contacts with the astronauts' friends and families and 4) ISS-based communications experimentation. To date, over 65 schools have been selected from around the world for scheduled contacts with the orbiting ISS crew. Ten or more students at each school ask the astronauts questions, and the nature of these contacts embodies the primary goal of the ARISS program, -- to excite student's interest in science, technology and amateur radio. The ARISS team has developed various hardware elements for the ISS amateur radio station. These hardware elements have flown to ISS

  2. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn


    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  3. Year Round Operation of Autonomous, Low Power Geophysical Stations in Antarctica (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; White, S.; Bonnett, B.; Parker, T.; Johns, B.; Anderson, K. R.


    Year round operation of autonomous, low power geophysical stations in Antarctica presents both technical and logistical challenges. Prior to 2005, few if any autonomous seismic or GPS stations operated continuously throughout the austral winter. There are two basic environmental challenges in Antarctica beyond the logistical challenge: the margins with relatively mild temperatures but extreme winds and the Polar Plateau with extreme temperatures but relatively little wind. Large caches of lead-acid batteries can operate stations on the Antarctic margins where temperatures are relatively high, but are logistically expensive and will not survive the extreme temperatures of the Polar Plateau. Primary lithium thionyl chloride batteries have been proven to be successful and economical for use in the extreme plateau environment. These technical and logistical challenges were the focus of an IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration to design power and communications for a logistical constrains for increased efficiency in polar operations. These year-round systems can now be deployed in a single twin otter flight. The IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration has resulted in deployable systems backed by facilities with proven track records of longevity of technical field support. Our expertise and sustained engineering has resulted in a robust community product. We have significantly lowered the barriers of entry to scientists who desire year-round autonomous data collection in the Polar regions. A transparent development process with broad community support and input has resulted in a new generation of GPS and seismic systems fielded on several major IPY projects. The challenge now is how to keep the development and testing effort sustained to take advantage of the evolving renewable energy research.

  4. Eclipse of the Floating Orbs: Controlling Robots on the International Space Station (United States)

    Wheeler, D. W.


    I will describe the Control Station for a free-flying robot called Astrobee. Astrobee will serve as a mobile camera, sensor platform, and research testbed when it is launched to the International Space Station (ISS)in 2017. Astronauts on the ISS as well as ground-based users will control Astrobee using the Eclipse-based Astrobee Control Station. Designing theControl Station for use in space presented unique challenges, such as allowing the intuitive input of 3D information without a mouse or trackpad. Come to this talk to learn how Eclipse is used in an environment few humans have the chance to visit.

  5. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren


    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... and individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing...... the conditions necessary for normative control. This is illustrated by a case study of control in a Danish producers co-operative. The analysis of the case study leads to the hypothesis of a paradox of normative control in co-operatives: The need of information tends to be greater in co-operatives comparet...

  6. Frequency of oral mucosa micronuclei in gas station operators after introducing methanol. (United States)

    Gattás, G J; Cardoso, L de A; Medrado-Faria, M de A; Saldanha, P H


    Methanol has been proposed in different countries as an alternative automotive fuel to be used as an additive to, or replacement for, gasoline or ethanol. Utilization of methanol is increasing exposure to low levels of methanol vapors in the environment and more specifically in occupational settings such as gas stations. Pump operators are exposed to relatively high levels of fuel vapors, the consequences of which have not been fully examined. In this study, the micronucleus assay in squamous oral cells was performed on pump operators of 28 gas stations in three different periods in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The frequency of micronuclei (MN) was evaluated before and 1 year after a mixed fuel called MEG, which contains 33% methanol, 60% ethanol and 7% gasoline, was introduced. The third evaluation, 3 years later, represents a period where the number of cars using alcohol fuel had decreased drastically and the pump operator exposure to MEG became very low. The frequency of MN observed in 76 employees in 1992 (mean = 3.62 +/- 0.39) was significantly increased (P fuel. These findings could indicate a mutagenic hazard of the MEG occurring in those with occupational exposure.

  7. Buffalo Air Traffic Control Tower Operations Analysis. (United States)


    This report provides a description of the non-surveillance aspects of the FAA air traffic control facility operation at Greater Buffalo International Airport from the air traffic controller's point of view. It includes photographs of all controller c...

  8. Investigation on Main Radiation Source at Operation Floor of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 4 (United States)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Seishiro; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Iwanaga, Kohei


    Pulse height distributions were measured using a LaBr3 detector set in a 1 cm lead collimator to investigate main radiation source at the operation floor of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 4. It was confirmed that main radiation source above the reactor well was Co-60 from the activated steam dryer in the DS pool (Dryer-Separator pool) and that at the standby area was Cs-134 and Cs-137 from contaminated buildings and debris at the lower floor. Full energy peak count rate of Co-60 was reduced about 1/3 by 12mm lead sheet placed on the floor of the fuel handling machine.

  9. Component monitoring during operation in nuclear power stations. Betriebsbegleitende Bauteilueberwachung in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, H. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.))


    In the design of nuclear power stations all stresses on the pressure-bearing enclosure in respect of their effect on component strength and integrity are investigated. In addition, local and global monitoring during operation is carried out, in order to detect also those stresses which have been hitherto unknown or are caused by malfunctions of components. In this way a realistic assessment of the condition of the pressure-bearing enclosure is possible and any irregularities which can imply malfunctions of components or physical effects not hitherto known can be detected early. (orig.).

  10. A radiological assessment of space nuclear power operations near Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Stevenson, Steve


    In order to accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear reactors may be used in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) either as power sources for coorbiting platforms or as part of the propulsion system for departing and returning personnel or cargo vehicles. This study identifies ranges of operational parameters, such as parking distances and reactor cooldown times, which would reasonably guarantee that doses to the SSF crew from all radiation sources would be below guidelines recently recommended by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements. The specific scenarios considered include: (1) the launch and return of a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle, (2) the launch and return of a nuclear thermal rocket vehicle, (3) the operation of an SP-100 class reactor on a coorbiting platform, (4) the activation of materials near operating reactors, (5) the storage and handling of radioisotope thermal generator units, and (6) the storage and handling of fresh and previously operated reactors. Portable reactor shield concepts were examined for relaxing the operational constraints imposed by unshielded (for human proximity operations) reactors and that might also be used to provide additional SSF crew protection from natural background radiation.

  11. 700-MW coal fired sliding pressure operation boiler with improving operational characteristics. ; Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, J.; Kiyama, K. (Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan))


    In response to requirements of improvements of efficiency and operability to provide demand control and environmental preservation in coal fired boilers, Babcock-Hitachi has endeavored to develop a large capacity coal fired boiler. As a result, Babcock-Hitachi has installed a 700MW supercritical sliding pressure operation coal fired once through boiler at the Hekinan Thermal Power Station Unit No.2 of Chubu Electric Power Co. For this coal fired boiler, spiral water wall construction was adopted to stabilize the furnace outlet water temperature via uniform heat absorption at the furnace. A three-stage spray-type attemperator was also applied to the main steam temperature control to improve load controllability and to correspond to a fluctuation of heat absorption at the furnace and the convection pass zone. Moreover, gas recirculation system, parallel gas damper, and intermediate spray attemperator were used to control the reheat steam temperature. The present article describes design summary and results of trial operation of this large capacity coal fired boiler. 11 figs., 3 tabs.


    Miller, G.


    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  13. Trainer module for security control center operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.A.


    An operator trainer module has been developed to be used with the security control center equipment to be installed as part of a safeguards physical protection system. The module is designed to provide improved training and testing capabilities for control center operators through the use of simulations for perimeter equipment operations. Operators, through the trainer module, can be challenged with a variety of realistic situations which require responsive action identical to that needed in an actual system. This permits a consistent evaluation and confirmation of operator capabilities prior to assignment as an operator and allows for periodic retesting to verify that adequate performance levels are maintained.

  14. Space Station Operations Would Extend Until at Least 2024 Under Obama Plan (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    An 8 January decision by the White House to propose an extension of the International Space Station's (ISS) operation until at least 2024 would allow for increased research on board the floating laboratory, a longer planning horizon for commercial activities, and a continuation of international cooperation in space, administration officials said. The proposal, which has received initial support from some key members of Congress, would be the second extension for ISS under the Obama administration and would accommodate increased research related to long-duration human space flight, Earth science, and other areas. ISS, which in the United States is authorized under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, was last extended in 2010 and costs about $3 billion annually to operate.

  15. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1994; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering), an active exchange of experience has been cultivated over a period of more than 25 years. It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports on operating results obtaned in 1994 and also on safety-related incidents, important rehabilitation measures and annual discharge rates of radio activity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 Jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 28 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1994 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  16. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1995; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For more than 25 years, an active exchange of experience has been cultivated within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering). It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. The paper reports operating results achieved in 1995 and also safety-related incidents, important retrofitting measures and annual emission rates of radioactivity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 36 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1995 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  17. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station Hardware and Operations (United States)

    Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie


    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly, logging more than 620 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) which accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample-Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400 C. Once an SCA is installed, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via

  18. Predicting the difficulty of operative vaginal delivery by ultrasound measurement of fetal head station. (United States)

    Kasbaoui, Sidi; Séverac, François; Aïssi, Germain; Gaudineau, Adrien; Lecointre, Lise; Akladios, Chérif; Favre, Romain; Langer, Bruno; Sananès, Nicolas


    Clinical assessment of fetal head station is difficult and subjective; it is mandatory before attempting operative vaginal delivery. The principal objective of our study was to assess whether measurement of the perineum-to-skull ultrasound distance was predictive of a difficult operative vaginal delivery. Secondary objectives included evaluation of the interobserver reproducibility of perineum-to-skull ultrasound distance and comparison of this measurement and digital examination in predicting a difficult operative delivery. This was a prospective cohort study including all cases of operative vaginal deliveries in singleton pregnancies in cephalic presentation >34 weeks' gestation, from 2012 through 2015. All data were entered prospectively in a medical record system specially devised to meet the requirements of this study. Of the 659 patients in whom perineum-to-skull ultrasound distance was measured prior to operative vaginal delivery, 120 (18%) met the composite criterion for a difficult extraction. Perineum-to-skull ultrasound distance measurement of ≥40 mm was significantly associated with the occurrence of a difficult extraction based on the composite criterion, after adjustment for parity, presentation type, and fetal macrosomia (odds ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-3.74; P = .0002). The intraclass correlation coefficient between the perineum-to-skull ultrasound distance measured by the first operator and that measured by the second operator was 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.95-0.97; P digital vaginal examination (P = .036). Measurement of the perineum-fetal skull ultrasound distance is a reproducible and predictive index of the difficulty of instrumental extraction. Ultrasound is a useful supplementary tool to the usual clinical findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Control-based operating system design

    CERN Document Server

    Leva, Alberto; Papadopoulos, AV; Terraneo, F


    This book argues that computer operating system components should be conceived from the outset as controllers, synthesised and assessed in the system-theoretical world of dynamic models, and then realised as control algorithms.

  20. Empirical Requirements Analysis for Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Lee, Pascal; Sierhuis, Maarten; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Living and working on Mars will require model-based computer systems for maintaining and controlling complex life support, communication, transportation, and power systems. This technology must work properly on the first three-year mission, augmenting human autonomy, without adding-yet more complexity to be diagnosed and repaired. One design method is to work with scientists in analog (mars-like) setting to understand how they prefer to work, what constrains will be imposed by the Mars environment, and how to ameliorate difficulties. We describe how we are using empirical requirements analysis to prototype model-based tools at a research station in the High Canadian Arctic.

  1. Optimal design and operation of booster chlorination stations layout in water distribution systems. (United States)

    Ohar, Ziv; Ostfeld, Avi


    This study describes a new methodology for the disinfection booster design, placement, and operation problem in water distribution systems. Disinfectant residuals, which are in most cases chlorine residuals, are assumed to be sufficient to prevent growth of pathogenic bacteria, yet low enough to avoid taste and odor problems. Commonly, large quantities of disinfectants are released at the sources outlets for preserving minimum residual disinfectant concentrations throughout the network. Such an approach can cause taste and odor problems near the disinfectant injection locations, but more important hazardous excessive disinfectant by-product formations (DBPs) at the far network ends, of which some may be carcinogenic. To cope with these deficiencies booster chlorination stations were suggested to be placed at the distribution system itself and not just at the sources, motivating considerable research in recent years on placement, design, and operation of booster chlorination stations in water distribution systems. The model formulated and solved herein is aimed at setting the required chlorination dose of the boosters for delivering water at acceptable residual chlorine and TTHM concentrations for minimizing the overall cost of booster placement, construction, and operation under extended period hydraulic simulation conditions through utilizing a multi-species approach. The developed methodology links a genetic algorithm with EPANET-MSX, and is demonstrated through base runs and sensitivity analyses on a network example application. Two approaches are suggested for dealing with water quality initial conditions and species periodicity: (1) repetitive cyclical simulation (RCS), and (2) cyclical constrained species (CCS). RCS was found to be more robust but with longer computational time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Controlling operational risk: Concepts and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Tillaart, A.H.A.J.


    The subject of this thesis is controlling 'operational risk' in banks. Operational risk is defined as the risk of losses resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people, systems, or from external events. Within this very broad subject, we focus on the place of operational risk

  3. A class of symmetric controlled quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccaro, John A.; Steuernagel, O.; Huelga, S.F. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom)


    Certain quantum gates, such as the controlled-NOT gate, are symmetric in terms of the operation of the control system upon the target system and vice versa. However, no operational criteria yet exist for establishing whether or not a given quantum gate is symmetrical in this sense. We consider a restricted, yet broad, class of two-party controlled gate operations for which the gate transforms a reference state of the target into one of an orthogonal set of states. We show that for this class of gates it is possible to establish a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the gate operation to be symmetric. (author)

  4. Operating manual for the miniservo-control tester (United States)

    Rapp, W.L.


    Ever since the implementation of servo-control units (regular and minimodels) with manometers at U. S. Geological Survey streamflow stations, the need for an effective and efficient servo-control unit tester has been paramount among field personnel. In numerous cases, servo-control unit failures were blamed on battery failures and vice versa. There was no valid instrument to definitively identify cause of failure, let alone properly diagnose the servo-control/manometer system. In 1983, two servo-control unit testers were developed and fabricated. One was mechanical in fabrication, operation, and serviceability; the other was electronic. The testers were extensively used and evaluated in Maine, Ohio, Kansas, and Louisiana under a wide range of environmental conditions. The consensus to integrate the best aspects of both testers into one instrument allowed the Survey to finally solve its long-time need for an effective, efficient servo-control unit tester. (USGS)

  5. Preparedness of fire safety in underground train station: Comparison between train operators in Malaysia with other operators from the developed countries (United States)

    Tajedi, Noor Aqilah A.; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah A.; Ismail, Mohd Ashraf M.; Shamsudin, Shahrul A.


    The purpose of this paper is to compare the fire evacuation plan and preparation at the underground train stations in the different countries. The methodology for this study was using the extended questionnaire survey to investigate the Rapid Rail Sdn Bhd, Malaysia's fire safety plan and preparation at the underground train stations. There were four sections in the questionnaire which included (i) background of the respondents, (ii) the details on the train stations, safety instruction and fire evacuation exercises (iii) technical systems, installation and equipment at the underground stations and (iv) procedures and technical changes related to fire safety that had been applied by the operators. Previously, the respondents from the different train operator services in the developed countries had completed the questionnaires. This paper extends the response from the Rapid Rail Sdn Bhd to compare the emergency procedures and preparation for fire event with the developed countries. As a result, this study found that the equipment and facilities that provided at the underground train stations that operated by Rapid Rail are relevant for fire safety procedures and needs. The main advantage for Rapid Rail is the underground stations were designed with two or more entrances/exits that may perform better evacuation compare to one main entrance/exit train stations in the other developed countries.

  6. Metrological and operational performance of measuring systems used in vehicle compressed natural gas filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velosa, Jhonn F.; Abril, Henry; Garcia, Luis E. [CDT de GAS (Venezuela). Gas Technological Development Center Corporation


    Corporation CDT GAS financially supported by the Colombian government through COLCIENCIAS, carried out a study aimed at designing, developing and implementing in Colombia a calibration and metrological verification 'specialized service' for gas meters installed at dispensers of filling stations using compressed natural gas. The results permitted the identification of improving opportunities (in measuring systems, equipment and devices used to deliver natural gas) which are focused on achieving the highest security and reliability of trading processes of CNG for vehicles. In the development of the first stage of the project, metrological type variables were initially considered, but given the importance of the measuring system and its interaction with the various elements involving gas supply to the filling station, the scope of the work done included aspects related to the operational performance, that is, those influencing the security of the users and the metrological performance of the measuring system. The development of the second stage counted on the collaboration of national companies from the sector of CNG for vehicles, which permitted the carrying out of multiple calibrations to the measuring systems installed in the CNG dispensers, thus achieving, in a concrete way, valid and reliable technological information of the implemented procedures. (author)

  7. Computer control for remote wind turbine operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, J.F.; Rogers, A.L.; Abdulwahid, U.; Driscoll, J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)


    Light weight wind turbines located in harsh, remote sites require particularly capable controllers. Based on extensive operation of the original ESI-807 moved to such a location, a much more sophisticated controller than the original one has been developed. This paper describes the design, development and testing of that new controller. The complete control and monitoring system consists of sensor and control inputs, the control computer, control outputs, and additional equipment. The control code was written in Microsoft Visual Basic on a PC type computer. The control code monitors potential faults and allows the turbine to operate in one of eight states: off, start, run, freewheel, low wind shut down, normal wind shutdown, emergency shutdown, and blade parking. The controller also incorporates two {open_quotes}virtual wind turbines,{close_quotes} including a dynamic model of the machine, for code testing. The controller can handle numerous situations for which the original controller was unequipped.

  8. Application of Human-Autonomy Teaming to an Advanced Ground Station for Reduced Crew Operations (United States)

    Ho, Nhut; Johnson, Walter; Panesar, Karanvir; Wakeland, Kenny; Sadler, Garrett; Wilson, Nathan; Nguyen, Bao; Lachter, Joel; Stallmann, Summer


    Within human factors there is burgeoning interest in the "human-autonomy teaming" (HAT) concept as a way to address the challenges of interacting with complex, increasingly autonomous systems. The HAT concept comes out of an aspiration to interact with increasingly autonomous systems as a team member, rather than simply use automation as a tool. The authors, and others, have proposed core tenets for HAT that include bi-directional communication, automation and system transparency, and advanced coordination between human and automated teammates via predefined, dynamic task sequences known as "plays." It is believed that, with proper implementation, HAT should foster appropriate teamwork, thus increasing trust and reliance on the system, which in turn will reduce workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance. To this end, HAT has been demonstrated and/or studied in multiple applications including search and rescue operations, healthcare and medicine, autonomous vehicles, photography, and aviation. The current paper presents one such effort to apply HAT. It details the design of a HAT agent, developed by Human Automation Teaming Solutions, Inc., to facilitate teamwork between the automation and the human operator of an advanced ground dispatch station. This dispatch station was developed to support a NASA project investigating a concept called Reduced Crew Operations (RCO); consequently, we have named the agent R-HATS. Part of the RCO concept involves a ground operator providing enhanced support to a large number of aircraft with a single pilot on the flight deck. When assisted by R-HATS, operators can monitor and support or manage a large number of aircraft and use plays to respond in real-time to complicated, workload-intensive events (e.g., an airport closure). A play is a plan that encapsulates goals, tasks, and a task allocation strategy appropriate for a particular situation. In the current implementation, when a play is initiated by a user, R

  9. Conceptual Inquiry of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station GNC Flight Controllers (United States)

    Kranzusch, Kara


    The concept of Mission Control was envisioned by Christopher Columbus Kraft in the 1960's. Instructed to figure out how to operate human space flight safely, Kraft envisioned a room of sub-system experts troubleshooting problems and supporting nominal flight activities under the guidance of one Flight Director who is responsible for the success of the mission. To facilitate clear communication, MCC communicates with the crew through a Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) who is an astronaut themselves. Gemini 4 was the first mission to be supported by such a MCC and successfully completed the first American EVA. The MCC seen on television is called the Flight Control Room (FCR, pronounced ficker) or otherwise known as the front room. While this room is the most visible aspect, it is a very small component of the entire control center. The Shuttle FCR is known as the White FCR (WFCR) and Station's as FCR-1. (FCR-1 was actually the first FCR built at JSC which was used through the Gemini, Apollo and Shuttle programs until the WFCR was completed in 1992. Afterwards FCR-1 was refurbished first for the Life Sciences Center and then for the ISS in 2006.) Along with supporting the Flight Director, each FCR operator is also the supervisor for usually two or three support personnel in a back room called the Multi-Purpose Support Room (MPSR, pronounced mipser). MPSR operators are more deeply focused on their specific subsystems and have the responsible to analyze patterns, and diagnose and assess consequences of faults. The White MPSR (WMPSR) operators are always present for Shuttle operations; however, ISS FCR controllers only have support from their Blue MPSR (BMPSR) while the Shuttle is docked and during critical operations. Since ISS operates 24-7, the FCR team reduces to a much smaller Gemini team of 4-5 operators for night and weekend shifts when the crew is off-duty. The FCR is also supported by the Mission Evaluation Room (MER) which is a collection of contractor engineers

  10. Power generation, operation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J; Sheblé, Gerald B


    Since publication of the second edition, there have been extensive changes in the algorithms, methods, and assumptions in energy management systems that analyze and control power generation. This edition is updated to acquaint electrical engineering students and professionals with current power generation systems. Algorithms and methods for solving integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis are provided. Also included are the state-of-the-art topics undergoing evolutionary change, including market simulation, multiple market analysis, multiple interchange contract analysis, c

  11. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hekinan thermal power station is situated at the port of Kinuura in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Unit 1 began commercial operation in October 1991, Unit 2 in June 1992 and Unit 3 in April 1993. This brochure gives the specification of the main facilities of the power station, shows its layout; illustrates its pollution control equipment, gives specifications of its flue gas treatment systems and of its large steam turbine, describes its coal handling facilities and gives their specifications, and mentions the power station`s automated control system.

  12. International Space Station Mechanisms and Maintenance Flight Control Documentation and Training Development (United States)

    Daugherty, Colin C.


    International Space Station (ISS) crew and flight controller training documentation is used to aid in training operations. The Generic Simulations References SharePoint (Gen Sim) site is a database used as an aid during flight simulations. The Gen Sim site is used to make individual mission segment timelines, data, and flight information easily accessible to instructors. The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) training schematic includes simple and complex fluid schematics, as well as overall hardware locations. It is used as a teaching aid during WHC lessons for both ISS crew and flight controllers. ISS flight control documentation is used to support all aspects of ISS mission operations. The Quick Look Database and Consolidated Tool Page are imagery-based references used in real-time to help the Operations Support Officer (OSO) find data faster and improve discussions with the Flight Director and Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM). A Quick Look page was created for the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) by locating photos of the module interior, labeling specific hardware, and organizing them in schematic form to match the layout of the PMM interior. A Tool Page was created for the Maintenance Work Area (MWA) by gathering images, detailed drawings, safety information, procedures, certifications, demonstration videos, and general facts of each MWA component and displaying them in an easily accessible and consistent format. Participation in ISS mechanisms and maintenance lessons, mission simulation On-the-Job Training (OJT), and real-time flight OJT was used as an opportunity to train for day-to-day operations as an OSO, as well as learn how to effectively respond to failures and emergencies during mission simulations and real-time flight operations.

  13. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3. (United States)

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

  14. The Optimum Operation Strategy of Hybrid SIT with PAFS following a Station Blackout Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Sun; Ha, Hui-Un [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A coolant storage tank of PAFS can provide coolant for reactor cooling more than 8 hours and a dedicated battery system of PAFS can provide electricity for I-C more than 72 hours. PAFS is 2-train system, that is, PAFS has two water tanks, two battery systems and two heat exchangers. PAFS provides feedwater to steam generator more than 8 hours, even if single train was unavailable, AC power was not provided and water tank is not refilled. Following Fukushima Daiichi Accident, we have made many improvements and challenging research to prevent and mitigate accidents which can be caused by earthquake, tsunami or station blackout. It includes the Hybrid SIT to deliver cooling water into core even if RCS pressure is high. To prevent a waste of SIT water and maintain core cooling more long time, an optimum operation strategy of Hybrid SIT has been developed. It considers the operation of PAFS and the optimum coolability of SIT water. For the optimum coolability of Hybrid SIT with PAFS, some operation methods were considered. It shows that the coolant injected before the swelling of RCS water is released during the first POSRV opening and has very little effect on core cooling. The core cooling period is longest when the Hybrid SIT is actuated one by one after a exhaustion of PAFS and POSRV opening.

  15. Flexible and Accessible Automated Operation of Miniature Chromatography Columns on a Liquid Handling Station. (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Spyridon; Goh, Hai-Yuan; Martin Bufájer, José M; de Galbert, Paul; Parau, Maria; Velayudhan, Ajoy


    The High Throughput (HT) investigation of chromatographic separations is an important element of downstream bioprocess development due to the importance of chromatography as a technique for achieving stringent regulatory requirements on product purity. Various HT formats for chromatography exist, but the miniature column approach has characteristics resembling large scale packed bed column chromatography the most. The operation of such columns on robotic stations can be automated, but this is not always a straightforward procedure; the robotic manipulations are highly dependent on the settings of each experiment and the standard commands of the supporting software may not provide readily the required flexibility and accessibility for "plug and play" functionality. These can limit the potential of this technique in laboratories engaging on HT activities. In this work, we present an application which aims to overcome this challenge by providing end-users with a flexible operation of the miniature column technique on an automated liquid handler. The application includes a script which is written on Freedom EVOware, and is supplemented by custom compiled executables. Here, the manipulations carried out by the application are described in detail and its functionality is demonstrated through typical experiments based on bind and elute miniature column chromatography. The application is shown to allow for the unsupervised "on-the-fly" programming of the robotic station and to ultimately make the technique accessible to non-automation experts. This application is therefore well suited to simplifying development activities based on the robotic deployment of the miniature column chromatography technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.


    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.


    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  18. Group excitation control of generators in state regional electric power plant transformer station automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumin, M.I.; Rosman, L.V.; Tarnavskii, V.M.


    Group excitation control of electric generators according to standard methods is essential for the management of power plant conditions according to voltage and reactive power. A system is described that provides coordinated changes in the automatic excitation controller set point for generators that operate on common buses. The advantages of the excitation control system are discussed.

  19. International Space Station Passive Thermal Control System Analysis, Top Ten Lessons-Learned (United States)

    Iovine, John


    The International Space Station (ISS) has been on-orbit for over 10 years, and there have been numerous technical challenges along the way from design to assembly to on-orbit anomalies and repairs. The Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) management team has been a key player in successfully dealing with these challenges. The PTCS team performs thermal analysis in support of design and verification, launch and assembly constraints, integration, sustaining engineering, failure response, and model validation. This analysis is a significant body of work and provides a unique opportunity to compile a wealth of real world engineering and analysis knowledge and the corresponding lessons-learned. The analysis lessons encompass the full life cycle of flight hardware from design to on-orbit performance and sustaining engineering. These lessons can provide significant insight for new projects and programs. Key areas to be presented include thermal model fidelity, verification methods, analysis uncertainty, and operations support.

  20. Enhancing Safety at Airline Operations Control Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Řasa


    Full Text Available In recent years a new term of Safety Management System (SMS has been introduced into aviation legislation. This system is being adopted by airline operators. One of the groundbased actors of everyday operations is Operations Control Centre (OCC. The goal of this article has been to identify and assess risks and dangers which occur at OCC and create a template for OCC implementation into SMS.

  1. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas


    Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system...... for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...

  2. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Backgrounds Vb0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Backgrounds dataset was collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS...

  3. Operational Assessment of Controller Complexity Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In today's operations, acceptable levels of controller workload are maintained by assigning sector capacities based on simple aircraft count and a capacity threshold...

  4. A study of the transmitting power control for earth stations (United States)

    Seta, Mitsuru; Ayukawa, Ichiro

    Various transmitting power control (TPC) methods, particularly for digital data communication systems, are described. Four types of TPC systems are addressed: independent control system, central control system, central pilot system, and pair control system. The detection of rain attenuation and the measurement of signal quality in these systems is examined. Effective TPC methods for three kinds of networks are discussed. For a TDMA network, a central control system with BER detection is effective. A central control system with beacon and pilot is shown to be useful for a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) network, particularly in the Ku-band, and an independent control system is suitable for an SCPC network.

  5. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.


    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  6. Automatic Control of Freeboard and Turbine Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    The report deals with the modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation on board the Wave dragon, Nissum Bredning (WD-NB) prototype, and covers what has been going on up to ultimo 2003.......The report deals with the modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation on board the Wave dragon, Nissum Bredning (WD-NB) prototype, and covers what has been going on up to ultimo 2003....

  7. Robust H infinity control design for the space station with structured parameter uncertainty (United States)

    Byun, Kuk-Whan; Wie, Bong; Geller, David; Sunkel, John


    A robust H-infinity control design methodology and its application to a Space Station attitude and momentum control problem are presented. This new approach incorporates nonlinear multi-parameter variations in the state-space formulation of H-infinity control theory. An application of this robust H-infinity control synthesis technique to the Space Station control problem yields a remarkable result in stability robustness with respect to the moments-of-inertia variation of about 73% in one of the structured uncertainty directions. The performance and stability of this new robust H-infinity controller for the Space Station are compared to those of other controllers designed using a standard linear-quadratic-regulator synthesis technique.

  8. SPOT4 Operational Control Center (CMP) (United States)

    Zaouche, G.


    CNES(F) is responsible for the development of a new generation of Operational Control Center (CMP) which will operate the new heliosynchronous remote sensing satellite (SPOT4). This Operational Control Center takes large benefit from the experience of the first generation of control center and from the recent advances in computer technology and standards. The CMP is designed for operating two satellites all the same time with a reduced pool of controllers. The architecture of this CMP is simple, robust, and flexible, since it is based on powerful distributed workstations interconnected through an Ethernet LAN. The application software uses modern and formal software engineering methods, in order to improve quality and reliability, and facilitate maintenance. This software is table driven so it can be easily adapted to other operational needs. Operation tasks are automated to the maximum extent, so that it could be possible to operate the CMP automatically with very limited human interference for supervision and decision making. This paper provides an overview of the SPOTS mission and associated ground segment. It also details the CMP, its functions, and its software and hardware architecture.

  9. Controlled unknown quantum operations on hybrid systems (United States)

    He, Yong; Luo, Ming-Xing


    Any unknown unitary operations conditioned on a control system can be deterministically performed if ancillary subspaces are available for the target systems [Zhou X Q, et al. 2011 Nat. Commun. 2 413]. In this paper, we show that previous optical schemes may be extended to general hybrid systems if unknown operations are provided by optical instruments. Moreover, a probabilistic scheme is proposed when the unknown operation may be performed on the subspaces of ancillary high-dimensional systems. Furthermore, the unknown operations conditioned on the multi-control system may be reduced to the case with a control system using additional linear circuit complexity. The new schemes may be more flexible for different systems or hybrid systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61303039 and 61201253), Chunying Fellowship, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2682014CX095).

  10. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Savidge


    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  11. Post-IOC space station: Models of operation and their implications for organizational behavior, performance and effectiveness (United States)

    Danford, S.; Meindl, J.; Hunt, R.


    Issues of crew productivity during design work on space station are discussed. The crew productivity is defined almost exclusively in terms of human factors engineering and habitability design concerns. While such spatial environmental conditions are necessary to support crew performance and productivity, they are not sufficient to ensure high levels of crew performance and productivity on the post-Initial Operational Configurations (IOC) space station. The role of the organizational environment as a complement to the spatial environment for influencing crew performance in such isolated and confined work settings is examined. Three possible models of operation for post-IOC space station's organizational environment are identified and it is explained how they and space station's spatial environment will combine and interact to occasion patterns of crew behavior is suggested. A three phase program of research design: (1) identify patterns of crew behavior likely to be occasioned on post-IOC space station for each of the three models of operation; and (2) to determine proactive/preventative management strategies which could be adopted to maximize the emergence of preferred outcomes in crew behavior under each of the several spatial and organizational environment combinations.

  12. Achieving Operational Two-Way Laser Acquisition for OPALS Payload on the International Space Station (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Sindiy, Oleg; Biswas, Abhijit


    The Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) experiment was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in April 2014. Developed as a technology demonstration, its objective was to experiment with space-to-ground optical communications transmissions from Low Earth Orbit. More than a dozen successful optical links were established between a Wrightwood, California-based ground telescope and the OPALS flight terminal from June 2014 to September 2014. Each transmission required precise bi-directional pointing to be maintained between the space-based transmitter and ground-based receiver. This was accomplished by acquiring and tracking a laser beacon signal transmitted from the ground telescope to the OPALS flight terminal on the ISS. OPALS demonstrated the ability to nominally acquire the beacon within three seconds at 25deg elevation and maintain lock within 140 µrad (3(sigma)) for the full 150-second transmission duration while slewing at rates up to 1deg/sec. Additional acquisition attempts in low elevation and weather-challenged conditions provided valuable insight on the optical link robustness under off-nominal operational conditions.

  13. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven


    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  14. Accuracy analysis of pointing control system of solar power station (United States)

    Hung, J. C.; Peebles, P. Z., Jr.


    The first-phase effort concentrated on defining the minimum basic functions that the retrodirective array must perform, identifying circuits that are capable of satisfying the basic functions, and looking at some of the error sources in the system and how they affect accuracy. The initial effort also examined three methods for generating torques for mechanical antenna control, performed a rough analysis of the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector, and defined a control system configuration for mechanical pointing control of the array.

  15. Control and Operation of Islanded Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar

    with more than one generator connected to the same system. An isochronous controller with feedback has been developed in this research study. It performs relatively well in both islanded and grid connected conditions. Hence, if there is more than one DG unit in the distribution system, employing isochronous...... of power supply provided that various issues with islanding are properly addressed. Some of the issues with islanding are state (islanded or grid connected) detection, control of voltage and frequency, load control and protection. In this dissertation, some of the major technical issues with islanding...... power shift). However, the active technique is used only when the passive technique cannot clearly discriminate between islanded and grid connected conditions. DG units perform the best if they are operated with droop control and power factor control when they are operating parallel to the grid...

  16. Monitoring of International Space Station Telemetry Using Shewhart Control Charts (United States)

    Fitch, Jeffery T.; Simon, Alan L.; Gouveia, John A.; Hillin, Andrew M.; Hernandez, Steve A.


    Shewhart control charts have been established as an expedient method for analyzing dynamic, trending data in order to identify anomalous subsystem performance as soon as such performance would exceed a statistically established baseline. Additionally, this leading indicator tool integrates a selection methodology that reduces false positive indications, optimizes true leading indicator events, minimizes computer processor unit duty cycles, and addresses human factor concerns (i.e., the potential for flight-controller data overload). This innovation leverages statistical process control, and provides a relatively simple way to allow flight controllers to focus their attention on subtle system changes that could lead to dramatic off-nominal system performance. Finally, this capability improves response time to potential hardware damage and/or crew injury, thereby improving space flight safety. Shewhart control charts require normalized data. However, the telemetry from the ISS Early External Thermal Control System (EETCS) was not normally distributed. A method for normalizing the data was implemented, as was a means of selecting data windows, the number of standard deviations (Sigma Level), the number of consecutive points out of limits (Sequence), and direction (increasing or decreasing trend data). By varying these options, and treating them like dial settings, the number of nuisance alerts and leading indicators were optimized. The goal was to capture all leading indicators while minimizing the number of nuisances. Lean Six Sigma (L6S) design of experiment methodologies were employed. To optimize the results, Perl programming language was used to automate the massive amounts of telemetry data, control chart plots, and the data analysis.

  17. Data Reduction and Control Software for Meteor Observing Stations Based on CCD Video Systems (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Lyytinen, E.


    The SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN) is performing a continuous monitoring of meteor activity over Spain and neighbouring countries. The huge amount of data obtained by the 25 video observing stations that this network is currently operating made it necessary to develop new software packages to accomplish some tasks, such as data reduction and remote operation of autonomous systems based on high-sensitivity CCD video devices. The main characteristics of this software are described here.

  18. Current situation and control measures of groundwater pollution in gas station (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qianjin


    In recent years, pollution accidents caused by gas station leakage has occurred worldwide which can be persistent in groundwater. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the contaminated groundwater is threatening the ecological environment and human health. In this article, current status and sources of groundwater pollution by gas station are analyzed, and experience of how to prevent groundwater pollution from gas stations are summarized. It is demonstrated that installation of secondary containment measures for the oil storage of the oil tank system, such as installation of double-layer oil tanks or construction of impermeable ponds, is a preferable method to prevent gas stations from groundwater pollution. Regarding to the problems of groundwater pollution caused by gas station, it is proposed that it is urgent to investigate the leakage status of gas station. Relevant precise implementation regulations shall be issued and carried out, and supervision management of gas stations would need to be strengthened. Then single-layer steel oil tanks shall be replaced by double-layer tanks, and the impermeable ponds should be constructed according to the risk ranking. From the control methodology, the groundwater environment monitoring systems, supervision level, laws and regulations as well as pollution remediation should also be carried out and strengthened.

  19. Private financing and operation of a space station: Investment requirements, risk, government support and other primary business management considerations (United States)

    Simon, M.


    Private investment in a manned space station is considered as an alternative to complete government sponsorship of such a program. The implications of manned space operations are discussed from a business perspective. The most significant problems and risks which would be faced by a private company involved in a space station enterprise are outlined and possible government roles in helping to overcome these difficulties suggested. Economic factors such as inflation and the rate of interest are of primary concern, but less obvious conditions such as antitrust and appropriate regulatory laws, government appropriations for space activities, and national security are also considered.

  20. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  1. Earthquake alarm; operating the seismograph station at the University of California, Berkeley. (United States)

    Stump, B.


    An alarm bell rings at the seismographic station and at the office of the campus police. It is 3:00 on a foggy San Francisco morning. Somewhere in the world an earthquake has occurred. The police telephone the duty seismologist at home telling him that the alarm has triggered. He makes his way into the seismograph station, bathrobe and all, to locate the earthquake and determine its magnitude. In this way, many seismology graduate students have been initiated into the responsibilities of running a seismographic station

  2. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats. (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K


    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  3. Operator approach to linear control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremensky, A


    Within the framework of the optimization problem for linear control systems with quadratic performance index (LQP), the operator approach allows the construction of a systems theory including a number of particular infinite-dimensional optimization problems with hardly visible concreteness. This approach yields interesting interpretations of these problems and more effective feedback design methods. This book is unique in its emphasis on developing methods for solving a sufficiently general LQP. Although this is complex material, the theory developed here is built on transparent and relatively simple principles, and readers with less experience in the field of operator theory will find enough material to give them a good overview of the current state of LQP theory and its applications. Audience: Graduate students and researchers in the fields of mathematical systems theory, operator theory, cybernetics, and control systems.

  4. Mathematical model for estimating of technical and technological indicators of railway stations operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Kozachenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to create a mathematical model of the railway station functioning for the solving of problems of station technology development on the plan-schedule basis. Methodology. The methods of graph theory and object-oriented analysis are used as research methods. The model of the station activity plan-schedule includes a model of technical equipment of the station (plan-schedule net and a model of the station functioning , which are formalized on the basis of parametric graphs. Findings. The presented model is implemented as an application to the graphics package AutoCAD. The software is developed in Visual LISP and Visual Basic. Taking into account that the construction of the plan-schedule is mostly a traditional process of adding, deleting, and modifying of icons, the developed interface is intuitively understandable for a technologist and practically does not require additional training. Originality. A mathematical model was created on the basis of the theory of graphs and object-oriented analysis in order to evaluate the technical and process of railway stations indicators; it is focused on solving problems of technology development of their work. Practical value. The proposed mathematical model is implemented as an application to the graphics package of AutoCAD. The presence of a mathematical model allows carrying out an automatic analysis of the plan-schedule and, thereby, reducing the period of its creation more than twice.

  5. Replacement of five main block valves without interruption of normal operation in a remote NGL station placed at 13400 FT AMSL, challenge and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Yamil; Morales, Raul; Elorreaga, Gerson [Compania Operadora del Gas del Amazonas, Lima (Peru)


    The present paper is aimed to share experience of the replacement of five block valves carried on in a pressure reduction station remotely operated and located in a remote area in The Andes of Peru at 13400 ft AMSL. To accomplish the job, it was necessary the construction of a temporary bypass made of carbon steel pipeline with its own regulating, instrumentation and automation facilities, hence capable of reduce the NGL pressure, controlled and remotely operated by a SCADA system. The temporary bypass connection and disconnection to put on service was carried out using Hot Tap and Line Stop equipment. The replacement of the five block valves was met without interruption of the hydrocarbons flow, and resetting the pressure reduction station to steady operating conditions. Besides the operating works these activities involve safety considerations for personal working in high altitudes. The outputs were the successful replacements of the block valves, and most important was that the NGL continuous flow was met, so both the production and processing plants were supplied with the daily transportation rates in standard conditions, and in accordance with the requirements of the plant operation. (author)

  6. Further experience with amine form operation of deep bed, full flow condensate polishers at Millstone power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, Lewis E. [Dominion Energy, Inc., Waterford, CT (United States). Millstone Nuclear Power Station


    This paper reports on a process for converting and operating deep bed condensate polishing resins in the amine form that has been designed, tested, and implemented at Dominion's Millstone Power Station. The plant employs amine form polishers as part of a strategy to reduce balance of plant corrosion and iron transport, while continuously providing protection of the primary pressure boundary inside the steam generators from chemical assault in the event of a condenser tube leak. Over the last year, Millstone Unit 2 (MP2) has been able to elevate secondary cycle pH to a level congruent with non-polishing plants, and the corresponding decrease in iron transport has allowed Millstone 2 to enter the industry top decile for final feedwater iron concentration. The paper describes the method by which MP2 was able to increase pH using a combination of hydrazine injection and full flow amine form polishers, and the effect on steam generator and balance of plant control parameters. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong


    Full Text Available The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS becomes more important and is applied to various systems. Recently, the Galileo navigation system is being developed in Europe. Also, other countries like China, Japan and India are developing the global/regional navigation satellite system. As various global/regional navigation satellite systems are used, the navigation ground system gets more important for using the navigation system reasonably and efficiently. According to this trend, the technology of GNSS Ground Station (GGS is developing in many fields. The one of purposes for this study is to develop the high precision receiver for GNSS sensor station and to provide ground infrastructure for better performance services on navigation system. In this study, we consider the configuration of GNSS Ground Station and analyze function of Monitoring and Control subsystem which is a part of GNSS Ground Station. We propose Monitoring and Control subsystem which contains the navigation software for GNSS Ground System to monitor and control equipments in GNSS Ground Station, to spread the applied field of navigation system, and to provide improved navigation information to user.

  8. Modeling and Control of Flexible HEV Charging Station upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Shafiee, Qobad; Wu, Dan


    of power introduced by HEV charger, avoiding big initial stress in grid converter and also is able to limit the maximum extracted power. In addition, feed-forward compensation has been implemented to reduce the voltage dip within the station. Real time simulation results, that prove the validity......This paper deals with the design of a fast DC charging station (FCS) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that is connected at a remote location. Power rating of this new technology can go up to a hundred kW and it represents a main challenge for its broad acceptance in distribution systems....... In that sense, growing number of these stations, if operated in a nonflexible regime, will start to cause problems in future distribution systems such as overloads of local network’s corridors and reduction of its total equivalent spinning reserves. A power balancing strategy based on a local energy storage...

  9. Process control and recovery in the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant (United States)

    Lee, Lorrine; Hill, Randall W., Jr.


    This paper describes our approach to providing process control and recovery functions in the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant (LMCOA). The focus of the LMCOA is to provide semi-automated monitor and control to support station operations in the Deep Space Network. The LMCOA will be demonstrated with precalibration operations for Very Long Baseline Interferometry on a 70-meter antenna. Precalibration, the task of setting up the equipment to support a communications link with a spacecraft, is a manual, time consuming and error-prone process. One problem with the current system is that it does not provide explicit feedback about the effects of control actions. The LMCOA uses a Temporal Dependency Network (TDN) to represent an end-to-end sequence of operational procedures and a Situation Manager (SM) module to provide process control, diagnosis, and recovery functions. The TDN is a directed network representing precedence, parallelism, precondition, and postcondition constraints. The SM maintains an internal model of the expected and actual states of the subsystems in order to determine if each control action executed successfully and to provide feedback to the user. The LMCOA is implemented on a NeXT workstation using Objective C, Interface Builder and the C Language Integrated Production System.

  10. Changes in production control required for untended operation of a flexible manufacturing cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, Jannes; Stecke, Kathryn E.


    This article examines and improves the production control system of a firm that wants to operate its flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in an untended third shift. The FMC consists of a machining centre, a pallet storage, a rail-guided transport vehicle for pallets and a clamping/unclamping station.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Avdonin


    Full Text Available The paper deals with questions of protection against unauthorized access to the data transmitted between unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV and ground control station (GCS. This is due to the fact that standard instruments of network security sometimes provide security of not enough proper level or do not satisfy the restrictions connected with the features of UAV: limited computing resources of the UAV on-board computer and real-time operation. We have offered to use Vernam cipher (one-time pad as an additional measure for data protection. Vernam algorithm combines such advantages as theoretically proved absolute cryptographic security, ease of implementation, high speed of encryption and low processor load. It is especially important for large volumes of data encryption (e.g. video information. Within the bounds of experimental researches the technique is used based on cryptographic gamma of block cipher GOST 28147-89 in the Cipher Feedback Mode for a one-time pad generation. Application of Vernam cipher means the deletion of used one-time pad pages. The replacement of used one-time pad pages by cipher text is proposed for assurance of the above-named requirement and for simultaneous computer memory saving. It gives additionally the opportunity not only to save key sequences but also to accumulate encrypted data in the on-board computer memory. Realization of the offered method allows increasing the data protection level without engaging large computing power and memory capacity.

  12. Base station selection for energy efficient network operation with the majorization-minimization algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Pollakis, Emmanuel; Stańczak, Slawomir


    In this paper, we study the problem of reducing the energy consumption in a mobile communication network; we select the smallest set of active base stations that can preserve the quality of service (the minimum data rate) required by the users. In more detail, we start by posing this problem as an integer programming problem, the solution of which shows the optimal assignment (in the sense of minimizing the total energy consumption) between base stations and users. In particular, this solution shows which base stations can then be switched off or put in idle mode to save energy. However, solving this problem optimally is intractable in general, so in this study we develop a suboptimal approach that builds upon recent techniques that have been successfully applied to, among other problems, sparse signal reconstruction, portfolio optimization, statistical estimation, and error correction. More precisely, we relax the original integer programming problem as a minimization problem where the objective function is ...

  13. [Controlling systems for operating room managers]. (United States)

    Schüpfer, G; Bauer, M; Scherzinger, B; Schleppers, A


    Management means developing, shaping and controlling of complex, productive and social systems. Therefore, operating room managers also need to develop basic skills in financial and managerial accounting as a basis for operative and strategic controlling which is an essential part of their work. A good measurement system should include financial and strategic concepts for market position, innovation performance, productivity, attractiveness, liquidity/cash flow and profitability. Since hospitals need to implement a strategy to reach their business objectives, the performance measurement system has to be individually adapted to the strategy of the hospital. In this respect the navigation system developed by Gälweiler is compared to the "balanced score card" system of Kaplan and Norton.

  14. 21 CFR 111.127 - What quality control operations are required for packaging and labeling operations? (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.127 What quality control operations are required for packaging and labeling operations? Quality control operations for packaging and...

  15. Quadrocopter Control Design and Flight Operation (United States)

    Karwoski, Katherine


    A limiting factor in control system design and analysis for spacecraft is the inability to physically test new algorithms quickly and cheaply. Test flights of space vehicles are costly and take much preparation. As such, EV41 recently acquired a small research quadrocopter that has the ability to be a test bed for new control systems. This project focused on learning how to operate, fly, and maintain the quadrocopter, as well as developing and testing protocols for its use. In parallel to this effort, developing a model in Simulink facilitated the design and analysis of simple control systems for the quadrocopter. Software provided by the manufacturer enabled testing of the Simulink control system on the vehicle.

  16. Integrated operation of diagnostic and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, W., E-mail: [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Behler, K.; Buhler, A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Cole, R. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Iffeldorf (Germany); Giannone, L.; Kagarmanov, A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Lueddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Iffeldorf (Germany); Neu, G.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)


    In fusion research the ability to generate and sustain high performance fusion plasmas gains more and more importance. Optimal combinations of magnetic shape, temperature and density profiles as well as the confinement time are identified as advanced regimes. Safe operation in such regimes will be crucial for the success of ITER and later fusion reactors. The operational space, on the other hand, is characterized by nonlinear dependencies between plasma parameters. Various MHD limits must be avoided in order to minimize the risk of a disruption. Sophisticated feedback control schemes help to tackle this challenge. But these in turn require detailed information on plasma state in time to allow proper reaction. Control system and diagnostic systems therefore must establish a symbiotic relationship to carry out such schemes. Today, all major fusion devices implement such a concept. An implementation of such a concept with sustained integration is presented using the example of ASDEX Upgrade. It covers data communication via a real-time network, synchronization mechanisms for data-driven algorithm execution as well as operational aspects and exception handling for failure detection and recovery. A modular distributed software framework offers standardized user algorithm interfaces, automated workflow procedures and the application of various computer and network hardware components. Designed with a special focus on reliability, robustness and flexibility, it is a sound base for exploring ITER-relevant plasma regimes and control strategies.

  17. Damage Control Plan for International Space Station Recharge Tank Assembly Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (United States)

    Cook, Anthony J.


    As NASA has retired the Space Shuttle Program, a new method of transporting compressed gaseous nitrogen and oxygen needed to be created for delivery of these crucial life support resources to the International Space Station (ISS). One of the methods selected by NASA includes the use of highly pressurized, unprotected Recharge Tank Assemblies (RTAs) utilizing Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs). A COPV consists of a thin liner wrapped with a fiber composite and resin or epoxy. It is typically lighter weight than an all metal pressure vessel of similar volume and therefore provides a higher-efficiency means for gas storage. However COPVs are known to be susceptible to damage resulting from handling, tool drop impacts, or impacts from other objects. As a result, a comprehensive Damage Control Plan has been established to mitigate damage to the RTA COPV throughout its life cycle. The DCP is intended to evaluate and mitigate defined threats during manufacturing, shipping and handling, test, assembly level integration, shipment while pressurized, launch vehicle integration and mission operations by defining credible threats and methods for preventing potential damage while still maintaining the primary goal of resupplying ISS gas resources. A comprehensive threat assessment is performed to identify all threats posed to the COPV during the different phases of its lifecycle. The threat assessment is then used as the basis for creating a series of general inspection, surveillance and reporting requirements which apply across all phases of the COPV's life, targeted requirements only applicable to specific work phases and a series of training courses for both ground personnel and crew aboard the ISS. A particularly important area of emphasis deals with creating DCP requirements for a highly pressurized, large and unprotected RTA COPV for use during Inter Vehicular Activities (IVA) operations in the micro gravity environment while supplying pressurized gas to the

  18. HVAC modifications and computerized energy analysis for the Operations Support Building at the Mars Deep Space Station at Goldstone (United States)

    Halperin, A.; Stelzmuller, P.


    The key heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) modifications implemented at the Mars Deep Space Station's Operation Support Building at Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) in order to reduce energy consumption and decrease operating costs are described. An energy analysis comparison between the computer simulated model for the building and the actual meter data was presented. The measurement performance data showed that the cumulative energy savings was about 21% for the period 1979 to 1981. The deviation from simulated data to measurement performance data was only about 3%.

  19. Operational air traffic control requirements for the new Voice Switching and Control System (United States)

    Leon, N.


    Final user requirements defined for the Voice Switching and Control System (VSCS) to be implemented for ATC functions as part of the Area Control Facility (ACF) concept for the National Airspace System (NAS) are described. The VSCS will be communications equipment at operational stations, supervisory positions, and support systems, the switching system itself, and interfaces between the VSCS and other systems. Supervisory users will include the Area Manager, Traffic Management Coordinator, a Military Operations Specialists, a Weather Coordinator, a NAS manager, Maintenance, and a flight Data Communications Specialist. The VSCS will supply computerized communications capability within and among ATC centers. Details of the efforts used to define the system requirements are recounted, noting the heavy reliance on recommendations from active ATC personnel.

  20. 78 FR 53482 - Entergy Operations, Inc., River Bend Station, Unit 1; Exemption (United States)


    ... the station's use of the appendix J definition of P a . The NRC noted a conflict between Entergy's interpretation of that definition of P a and the literal reading of the definition of P a in the regulations... submitted a request for an exemption from the definition of the P a as stated in 10 CFR part 50, appendix J...

  1. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler (United States)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar


    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target

  2. Assessment and control of chemical risk from organic vapors for attendants in a gas station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ehmig Santillán


    Full Text Available This research comprises monitoring, assessment and recommendations for chemical risk originating from organic vapors (benzene, toluene and xylene of fuel (super and extra gasoline to which attendants at a gas station are exposed. Given the concentration measured of organic vapors (benzene, toluene and xylene the chemical risk to which attendants are exposed in the supply area is acceptable. Control measures are recommended to ensure healthy working conditions for gas station attendants and also to avoid occurrence of occupational diseases in the medium or long term

  3. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 5: Structures and Materials/Thermal Control System (United States)


    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution on 16-19 Jan. 1990. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 5 consists of the technology discipline sections for Structures/Materials and the Thermal Control System. For each technology discipline, there is a level 3 subsystem description, along with papers.

  4. 14 CFR 121.533 - Responsibility for operational control: Domestic operations. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for operational control... § 121.533 Responsibility for operational control: Domestic operations. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic operations is responsible for operational control. (b) The pilot in command and the...

  5. 14 CFR 121.535 - Responsibility for operational control: Flag operations. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for operational control... § 121.535 Responsibility for operational control: Flag operations. (a) Each certificate holder conducting flag operations is responsible for operational control. (b) The pilot in command and the aircraft...

  6. Controlled physical activity for functional operability determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchenkov А.А.


    Full Text Available The aim: to use veloergometry test at patients of high anaeshtesiology-operative risk before traumatic operations for functional operability determination. Material and methods: Randomized prospective research with the double "blind" control has been performed at 95 patients of high risk (ASA>III, undergoing long and traumatic operations on thoracic and abdominal organs. Patients have divided into groups without complications and with complications (51 and 44 patients which one day prior to operation have spent veloergometry test (VEMT. Average dynamic pressure (ADP, the general peripheral resistance of vessels (GPRV, a core index (Cl; arterio-venous (a-v difference on oxygen, oxygen delivery to tissues, consumption of oxygen and coefficients extraction oxygen in tissues; energy consumption have been investigated. Statistics has been done by nonparametric methods. Results. In response to veloergometry test in both groups growth of Cl at the expense of a tachycardia and GPRV fall which in complication group remains above norm is noted. In group without complications coefficients extraction oxygen in tissues were normalised, a-v difference on 02 became above norm, in other group — coefficients extraction oxygen in tissues and a-v difference on 02 began to exceed norm, and oxygen consumption has grown almost in 2 times. After VEMT a-v a difference on О and oxygen consumption were essentially above in group with complications. Under the influence of VEMT markecT stabilization of function of vegetative nervous systems (VNS. The number of complications made 39: intraoperation cardiovascular — 23, postoperative respiratory — 16. Clinically important connection (p=0,069 of perioperative complications with growth a-v differences on oxygen and a power interchanging have been received. Conclusion. Thus, the oxygen-energy exchange and the vegetative status can be referred to clinical functional operability determination.

  7. Control structures design for fossil power station units; Diseno de estructuras de control para unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel; Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    In this paper are designed an analyzed the control ties of a 300MW fossil unit at different operation levels. The design and analysis were developed on an operation range of 50% to 100% load. The main control ties were studied among which are the feedwater flow, the superheating zone temperatures and the generated output. The technique used for the design is the decomposition in singular values (DSV) of the plant transference matrix. This is a recent technique that permits finding the most important interactions among output-input variables, over a significative frequencies range for the transference matrix of the plant. For this purpose utilizes the control properties of the transference matrix, such as: control effort, output-input interaction and ruggedness with respect to uncertainties. The control structures obtained were tested in a digital model of a fossil plant unit. A comparison study of both structures (original and modified) showed enhancement in the performance of the power plant with modified structure. [Espanol] En este trabajo se disenan y analizan los lazos de control de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 MW, a diferentes niveles de operacion. El diseno y analisis se desarrollo sobre un rango de operacion de 50 a 100 por ciento de carga. Se estudiaron los principales lazos de control entre los que se encuentran el flujo de agua de alimentacion, las temperaturas de la zona de sobrecalentamiento y la potencia generada. La tecnica utilizada para el diseno es la descomposicion en valores singulares (DVS) de la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Esta es una tecnica reciente que permite encontrar las interacciones mas importantes entre variables entrada-salida, sobre un rango de frecuencias significativas para la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Utiliza para ello las propiedades de control de la matriz de transferencia, como son: esfuerzo de control, interaccion entrada-salida y robustez con respecto a incertidumbres. Las estructuras de control

  8. Cultural differences in crewmembers and mission control personnel during two space station programs. (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Kanas, Nick A; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav P; Gushin, Vadim I; Saylor, Stephanie A; Weiss, Daniel S; Marmar, Charles R


    Cultural differences among crewmembers and mission control personnel can affect long-duration space missions. We examine three cultural contrasts: national (American vs. Russian); occupational (crewmembers vs. mission control personnel); and organizational [Mir space station vs. International Space Station (ISS)]. The Mir sample included 5 American astronauts, 8 Russian cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel. The ISS sample included 8 astronauts, 9 cosmonauts, and 108 American and 20 Russian mission control personnel. Subjects responded to mood and group climate questions on a weekly basis. The ISS sample also completed a culture and language questionnaire. Crewmembers had higher scores on cultural sophistication than mission control personnel, especially American mission control. Cultural sophistication was not related to mood or social climate. Russian subjects reported greater language flexibility than Americans. Crewmembers reported better mood states than mission control, but both were in the healthy range. There were several Russian-American differences in social climate, with the most robust being higher work pressure among Americans. Russian-American social climate differences were also found in analyses of crew only. Analyses showed Mir-ISS differences in social climate among crew but not in the full sample. We found evidence for national, occupational, and organizational cultural differences. The findings from the Mir space station were essentially replicated on the ISS. Alterations to the ISS to make it a more user-friendly environment have still not resolved the issue of high levels of work pressure among the American crew.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem (United States)

    Williams, David E.


    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  10. Apparatus for controlling a central control point and its experimental operation at mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magilat, G.I.; Serebrov, L.M.; Sirotkin, A.A.


    The set of central control point (CCT) which has been manufactured in series since 1978 by the Makeyevskiy plant of mine automatics includes: gallery apparatus of control, power source, end blocks built into the panel of the combine machine operator, and knob control posts for the conveyor; terminal box. The CCP apparatus together with the apparatus of loudspeaker communication AS-3s guarantees: remote control of the combine starters, face conveyor and safety winch from the panel of the combine machine operators; remote emergency disengagement of the automatic feeder switch from the panel of the combine machine operater, from the control apparatus and from the users posts of communication on a longwall; remote control of three pumping stations from the control apparatus; remote control of the starters of face conveyor from the knob posts of the control at the upper or lower drive of the conveyors; reverse of the conveyor; selection of the point for controlling the starters of the safety winch and the reloaders; automatic supply of a warning signal before start-up of the combine, conveyor and safety winch with joint operation of the loudspeaker communication apparatus; zero-point protection and protection from loss of controllability during damage to the control circuits; automatic monitoring of safe (no more than 100 Ohm) magnitude of resistance of the grounding circuit; blocking excluding the possibility of simultaneous engagement of the conveyor with different control points. Its use with electrical equipment of mechanized complexes promotes an improvement in safe work in the longwall, reduction in idling in the face equipment, and in the final analysis, increase in productivity of the complexes.

  11. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  12. Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931 (United States)

    Dunn, Robert J. H.; Willett, Kate M.; Parker, David E.; Mitchell, Lorna


    HadISD is a sub-daily, station-based, quality-controlled dataset designed to study past extremes of temperature, pressure and humidity and allow comparisons to future projections. Herein we describe the first major update to the HadISD dataset. The temporal coverage of the dataset has been extended to 1931 to present, doubling the time range over which data are provided. Improvements made to the station selection and merging procedures result in 7677 stations being provided in version of this dataset. The selection of stations to merge together making composites has also been improved and made more robust. The underlying structure of the quality control procedure is the same as for HadISD.1.0.x, but a number of improvements have been implemented in individual tests. Also, more detailed quality control tests for wind speed and direction have been added. The data will be made available as NetCDF files at and updated annually.

  13. 75 FR 67784 - STP Nuclear Operating Company South Texas Project Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4... (United States)


    .... Mitigation measures, such as operational controls and practices, worker training, use of personal protective... impacts such as transportation, aesthetics, and air quality, and social impacts including demographics...

  14. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control (United States)

    ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Control, Plasma, and MHD; ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating, Current and Drive; ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics; ITER Physics Basis Editors


    Wall conditioning of fusion devices involves removal of desorbable hydrogen isotopes and impurities from interior device surfaces to permit reliable plasma operation. Techniques used in present devices include baking, metal film gettering, deposition of thin films of low-Z material, pulse discharge cleaning, glow discharge cleaning, radio frequency discharge cleaning, and in situ limiter and divertor pumping. Although wall conditioning techniques have become increasingly sophisticated, a reactor scale facility will involve significant new challenges, including the development of techniques applicable in the presence of a magnetic field and of methods for efficient removal of tritium incorporated into co-deposited layers on plasma facing components and their support structures. The current status of various approaches is reviewed, and the implications for reactor scale devices are summarized. Creation and magnetic control of shaped and vertically unstable elongated plasmas have been mastered in many present tokamaks. The physics of equilibrium control for reactor scale plasmas will rely on the same principles, but will face additional challenges, exemplified by the ITER/FDR design. The absolute positioning of outermost flux surface and divertor strike points will have to be precise and reliable in view of the high heat fluxes at the separatrix. Long pulses will require minimal control actions, to reduce accumulation of AC losses in superconducting PF and TF coils. To this end, more complex feedback controllers are envisaged, and the experimental validation of the plasma equilibrium response models on which such controllers are designed is encouraging. Present simulation codes provide an adequate platform on which equilibrium response techniques can be validated. Burning plasmas require kinetic control in addition to traditional magnetic shape and position control. Kinetic control refers to measures controlling density, rotation and temperature in the plasma core as

  15. JSC flight experiment recommendation in support of Space Station robotic operations (United States)

    Berka, Reginald B.


    The man-tended configuration (MTC) of Space Station Freedom (SSF) provides a unique opportunity to move robotic systems from the laboratory into the mainstream space program. Restricted crew access due to the Shuttle's flight rate, as well as constrained on-orbit stay time, reduces the productivity of a facility dependent on astronauts to perform useful work. A natural tendency toward robotics to perform maintenance and routine tasks will be seen in efforts to increase SSF usefulness. This tendency will provide the foothold for deploying space robots. This paper outlines a flight experiment that will capitalize on the investment in robotic technology made by NASA over the past ten years. The flight experiment described herein provides the technology demonstration necessary for taking advantage of the expected opportunity at MTC. As a context to this flight experiment, a broader view of the strategy developed at the JSC is required. The JSC is building toward MTC by developing a ground-based SSF emulation funded jointly by internal funds, NASA/Code R, and NASA/Code M. The purpose of this ground-based Station is to provide a platform whereby technology originally developed at JPL, LaRC, and GSFC can be integrated into a near flight-like condition. For instance, the Automated Robotic Maintenance of Space Station (ARMSS) project integrates flat targets, surface inspection, and other JPL technologies into a Station analogy for evaluation. Also, ARMSS provides the experimental platform for the Capaciflector from GSPC to be evaluated for its usefulness in performing ORU change out or other tasks where proximity detection is required. The use and enhancement of these ground-based SSF models are planned for use through FY-93. The experimental data gathered from tests in these facilities will provide the basis for the technology content of the proposed flight experiment.

  16. Heuristic Storage System Sizing for Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles Powered by Photovoltaic Charging Station


    Blasius, Erik; Federau, Erik; Janik, Przemyslaw; Leonowicz, Zbigniew


    This paper discusses the utilisation of PV systems for electric vehicles charging for transportation requirements of smart cities. The gap between PV power output and vehicles charging demand is highly variable. Therefore, there is a need for additional support from a public distribution grid or a storage device in order to handle the residual power. Long term measurement data retrieved from a charging station for 15 vehicles equipped with a PV system were used in the research. Low and high i...

  17. Wisconsin Public Service, Weston Generating Station; Petition to Object to Issuance of Title V Operating Permit (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Karnitsky


    Full Text Available The paper has reviewed main world tendencies in power consumption and power system structure. Main schemes of combined cycle gas turbines have been considered in the paper. The paper contains an operational analysis of CCGT blocks that are operating within the Belarusian energy system. The analysis results have been given in tables showing main operational indices of power blocks

  19. Application of a hazard and operability study method to hazard evaluation of a chemical unit of the power station. (United States)

    Habibi, E; Zare, M; Barkhordari, A; Mirmohammadi, Sj; Halvani, Ghh


    The aim of this study was to identify the hazards, evaluate their risk factors and determine the measure for promotion of the process and reduction of accidents in the chemical unit of the power station. In this case and qualitative study, HAZOP technique was used to recognize the hazards and problems of operations on the chemical section at power station. Totally, 126 deviations were documented with various causes and consequences. Ranking and evaluation of identified risks indicate that the majority of deviations were categorized as "acceptable" and less than half of that were "unacceptable". The highest calculated risk level (1B) related to both the interruption of acid entry to the discharge pumps and an increased density of the acid. About 27% of the deviations had the lowest risk level (4B). The identification of hazards by HAZOP indicates that it could, systemically, assess and criticize the process of consumption or production of acid and alkali in the chemical unit of power plant.

  20. Maintenance and resupply in the unpressurized environment - Design and operational concepts for the Space Station Freedom logistics carriers (United States)

    Creps, Gary M.; Ernst, Steven A.; Crawford, Robert D.


    A significant percentage of the maintenance tasks for Space Station Freedom are anticipated to be conducted in the unpressurized environment. The maintenance concept for this environment essentially involves the removal and replacement of relatively large orbital replacement units (ORUs). Major constraints will be the on-orbit availability of both crew time and spare ORUs. The challenge presented to the program will be the performance of unpressurized cargo resupply that provides maximum cargo-carrying capability (mass and volume) and flexibility (type and quantity), while minimizing the impact to maintenance task times. The design of the logistics carriers is a critical component for successful resupply and maintenance operations, and to the success of Space Station Freedom.

  1. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine (United States)

    Ray, R. B.


    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  2. A Pressure Control Method for Emulsion Pump Station Based on Elman Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan


    Full Text Available In order to realize pressure control of emulsion pump station which is key equipment of coal mine in the safety production, the control requirements were analyzed and a pressure control method based on Elman neural network was proposed. The key techniques such as system framework, pressure prediction model, pressure control model, and the flowchart of proposed approach were presented. Finally, a simulation example was carried out and comparison results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient and outperformed others.

  3. Migration strategies for service-enabling ground control stations for unmanned systems (United States)

    Kroculick, Joseph B.


    Future unmanned systems will be integrated into the Global Information Grid (GIG) and support net-centric data sharing, where information in a domain is exposed to a wide variety of GIG stakeholders that can make use of the information provided. Adopting a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach to package reusable UAV control station functionality into common control services provides a number of benefits including enabling dynamic plug and play of components depending on changing mission requirements, supporting information sharing to the enterprise, and integrating information from authoritative sources such as mission planners with the UAV control stations data model. It also allows the wider enterprise community to use the services provided by unmanned systems and improve data quality to support more effective decision-making. We explore current challenges in migrating UAV control systems that manage multiple types of vehicles to a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). Service-oriented analysis involves reviewing legacy systems and determining which components can be made into a service. Existing UAV control stations provide audio/visual, navigation, and vehicle health and status information that are useful to C4I systems. However, many were designed to be closed systems with proprietary software and hardware implementations, message formats, and specific mission requirements. An architecture analysis can be performed that reviews legacy systems and determines which components can be made into a service. A phased SOA adoption approach can then be developed that improves system interoperability.

  4. DSS-13 - Using an OSI process control standard for monitor and control. [Deep Space Network experimental station applying Open System interconnection (United States)

    Heuser, W. R.; Chen, Richard L.; Stockett, Michael H.


    The flexibility and robustness of a monitor and control (M&C) system are a direct result of the underlying inter-processor communications architecture. A new architecture for M&C at the Deep Space Communications Complexes has been developed based on the manufacturing message specification (MMS) process control standard of the open system interconnection (OSI) suite of protocols. This architecture has been tested both in a laboratory environment and under operational conditions at the Deep Space Network experimental station (DSS-13). The DSS-13 experience in the application of OSI standards to support M&C has been extremely successful. MMS meets the functional needs of the station and provides a level of flexibility and responsiveness previously unknown in that environment. The architecture is robust enough to meet current operational needs and flexible enough to provide a migration path for new subsystems. This paper describes the architecture of the DSS-13 M&C system, discuss how MMS was used and the requirements this imposed on other parts of the system, and provides results from systems and operational testing at DSS-13.

  5. High-Rate Communications Outage Recorder Operations for Optimal Payload and Science Telemetry Management Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Shell, Michael T.; McElyea, Richard M. (Technical Monitor)


    All International Space Station (ISS) Ku-band telemetry transmits through the High-Rate Communications Outage Recorder (HCOR). The HCOR provides the recording and playback capability for all payload, science, and International Partner data streams transmitting through NASA's Ku-band antenna system. The HCOR is a solid-state memory recorder that provides recording capability to record all eight ISS high-rate data during ISS Loss-of-Signal periods. NASA payloads in the Destiny module are prime users of the HCOR; however, NASDA and ESA will also utilize the HCOR for data capture and playback of their high data rate links from the Kibo and Columbus modules. Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center manages the HCOR for nominal functions, including system configurations and playback operations. The purpose of this paper is to present the nominal operations plan for the HCOR and the plans for handling contingency operations affecting payload operations. In addition, the paper will address HCOR operation limitations and the expected effects on payload operations. The HCOR is manifested for ISS delivery on flight 9A with the HCOR backup manifested on flight 11A. The HCOR replaces the Medium-Rate Communications Outage Recorder (MCOR), which has supported payloads since flight 5A.1.

  6. Influence of Trash-Barriering on Operation of Pumping Station with Wet-Pits


    Baoyun Qiu; Shuquan He; Shiji Chu; Xiaoli Feng


    Trash racks are set before inlet sumps of a pumping station with wet-pits in order to block trash. The flow fields before and behind the trash rack were numerically simulated and flow fields in the inlet sump were calculated using the simulated velocity distribution of the section behind the trash rack as the inlet boundary condition. Local head loss of trash-barriering increases with the increase of blockage ratio of the trash rack. When waterweeds block upper part of the trash rack, flow pa...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories land use permit for operations at Oliktok Alaska Long Range Radar Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros


    The property subject to this Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) is located at the Oliktok Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). The Oliktok LRRS is located at 70À 30 W latitude, 149À 53 W longitude. It is situated at Oliktok Point on the shore of the Beaufort Sea, east of the Colville River. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  8. Active Disturbance Rejection Station-Keeping Control of Unstable Orbits around Collinear Libration Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu


    Full Text Available An active disturbance rejection station-keeping control scheme is derived and analyzed for station-keeping missions of spacecraft along a class of unstable periodic orbits near collinear libration points of the Sun-Earth system. It is an error driven, rather than model-based control law, essentially accounting for the independence of model accuracy and linearization. An extended state observer is designed to estimate the states in real time by setting an extended state, that is, the sum of unmodeled dynamic and external disturbance. This total disturbance is compensated by a nonlinear state error feedback controller based on the extended state observer. A nonlinear tracking differentiator is designed to obtain the velocity of the spacecraft since only position signals are available. In addition, the system contradiction between rapid response and overshoot can be effectively solved via arranging the transient process in tracking differentiator. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is adequate for station-keeping of unstable Halo orbits in the presence of system uncertainties, initial injection errors, solar radiation pressure, and perturbations of the eccentric nature of the Earth's orbit. It is also shown that the closed-loop control system performance is improved significantly using our method comparing with the general LQR method.

  9. Methods for nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) control in fossil fuel power stations; Metodos para control de oxidos de nitrogeno (NO{sub x}) en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, Cesar A.; Huerta Espino, Mario [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    In this article the different existing methods for nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) control in fossil fuel power stations, mainly those related to operational parameters and to burners design, that show a decisive influence on the formation or destruction of the NO{sub x}, are delineated. Also, a review of the new technologies of low NO{sub x} generation burners and of their basic operational principles, is presented. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen los diversos metodos existentes para el control de oxidos de nitrogeno (NO{sub x}) en centrales termoelectricas, principalmente aquellos que tienen que ver con los parametros operativos y de diseno en quemadores, y que muestran una influencia decisiva en la formacion o destruccion de los NO{sub x}. Se presenta ademas una revision de las nuevas tecnologias de quemadores de baja produccion de NO{sub x} y sus principios basicos de operacion.

  10. Two-Level Control for Fast Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations with Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos


    This paper applies a hierarchical control for a fast charging station (FCS) composed of paralleled PWM rectifier and dedicated paralleled multiple flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs), in order to mitigate peak power shock on grid caused by sudden connection of electrical vehicle (EV) chargers....... Distributed DC-bus signaling (DBS) and method resistive virtual impedance are employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a centralized secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set point. The control system is able to realize the power...

  11. Packaging's Contribution for the Effectiveness of the Space Station's Food Service Operation (United States)

    Rausch, B. A.


    Storage limitations will have a major effect on space station food service. For example: foods with low bulk density such as ice cream, bread, cake, standard type potato chips and other low density snacks, flaked cereals, etc., will exacerbate the problem of space limitations; package containers are inherently volume consuming and refuse creating; and the useful observation that the optimum package is no package at all leads to the tentative conclusion that the least amount of packaging per unit of food, consistent with storage, aesthetics, preservation, cleanliness, cost and disposal criteria, is the most practical food package for the space station. A series of trade offs may have to be made to arrive at the most appropriate package design for a particular type of food taking all the criteria into account. Some of these trade offs are: single serve vs. bulk; conventional oven vs. microwave oven; nonmetallic aseptically vs. non-aseptically packaged foods; and comparison of aseptic vs. nonaseptic food packages. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Keep Out Zone On-Orbit Problems (United States)

    Williams, David E.


    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system performance can be impacted by operations on ISS. This is especially important for the Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) and for the Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS) subsystems. It is also more important for Node 1 since it has become a convenient area for many crew tasks and for stowing hardware prior to Shuttle arrival. This paper will discuss the current requirements for ECLS keep out zones in Node 1; the issues with stowage in Node 1 during Increment 7 and how they impacted the keep out zone requirements; and the solution during Increment 7 and 8 for maintaining the keep out zones in Node 1.

  13. Program for the thermal design and simulation of the operation of a steam condenser for thermal and nuclear power stations and its application to the condenser at the Cofrentes nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Bartual, R.; Pallares Huici, E.

    A program is being developed for an IBM-PC or AT computer based on a calculation system which synthesises the heat transfer process which takes place in the steam condensors at conventional thermal power stations. The program incorporates a useful tool capable of representing characteristic operating curves for a given condensor. Describes its application to the steam condenser at the Cofrentes nuclear power station. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Crewmember and mission control personnel interactions during International Space Station missions. (United States)

    Kanas, Nick A; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav P; Boyd, Jennifer E; Gushin, Vadim I; Weiss, Daniel S; Saylor, Stephanie A; Kozerenko, Olga P; Marmar, Charles R


    Reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies from space analogue environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station have identified a number of psychosocial issues that can lead to problems during long-duration space missions. Three of these issues (time effects, displacement, leader role) were studied during a series of long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS). As in our previous Mir study, mood and group climate questions from the Profile of Mood States or POMS, the Group Environment Scale or GES, and the Work Environment Scale or WES were completed weekly by 17 ISS crewmembers (15 men, 2 women) in space and 128 American and Russian personnel in mission control. The results did not support the presence of decrements in mood and group cohesion during the 2nd half of the missions or in any specific quarter. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors in both crew and mission control subjects on all six questionnaire subscales tested. Crewmembers related cohesion in their group to the support role of their commander. For mission control personnel, greater cohesion was linked to the support role as well as to the task role of their leader. The findings from our previous study on the Mir Space Station were essentially replicated on board the ISS. The findings suggest a number of countermeasures for future on-orbit missions, some of which may not be relevant for expeditionary missions (e.g., to Mars).

  15. 46 CFR 196.85-1 - Magazine operation and control. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Magazine operation and control. 196.85-1 Section 196.85... OPERATIONS Magazine Control § 196.85-1 Magazine operation and control. (a) Keys to magazine spaces and magazine chests shall be kept in the sole control or custody of the Master or one delegated qualified...

  16. Leprosy control: perspectives & epidemiological and operational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo Gonçalves


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As a starting point, a vast variety of 200 technical papers and documents published during the ten years 1999-2008, from Brazilian and international organizations dedicated to the control of leprosy, was taken. A study was then undertaken to investigate its future evolutive possibilities by employing resources obtained from scenario analyses. DESIGN: The methodological reconstruction in use was of a qualitative nature, based on a bibliographic review and content analysis techniques. The latter were employed in a documental, categorical, contingent, frequency-based format, in compliance with appropriate and pertinent conditions. RESULTS: Nowadays, important elements on epidemiological and operational aspects have been regained, as well as respective perspectives. CONCLUSIONS: A projection is made towards the fact that the maintenance of the disease's present incidence levels constitute economic and sanitary challenges that confront issues ranging from the neoliberal model of global societal organization to specific competences of actions taken by health teams in the field.

  17. Information gathering, data reduction, and information dissemination for residential experiment station operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghurman, P.; Kern, E.C. Jr.


    The Residential Experiment Stations (RESs) of the Solar Photovoltaic Residential Project have been designed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Department of Energy sponsorship to develop residential photovoltaic systems and to disseminate information to the photovoltaic community, cognizant institutions and, ultimately, the public. The residential data systems are discussed that have been designed specifically for the RESs to gather and process the physical data required. The specific reports are covered which will be issued by the project and the contents of each report are listed. A sample format for each report is also presented. The appendices describe the quantities that will be measured at the Monitored Houses, Prototype Systems and Initial System Evaluation Experiments. They also include a description of the data processing.

  18. Operating experience from nuclear power stations in 1993. Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This contribution gives a comprehensive survey of the 1993 results of nuclear power plant operation in the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and Spain. There is information on safety-relevant occurrences, significant backfitting activities, and radioactivity emission throughout the year. After a general survey, individual reactor reports are presented, covering data compilations, illustrations, full-text information, and diagrams such as the annual operating diagram. (UA)

  19. General predictive control using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Rostgaard; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole


    This paper deals with two-discrete-time operators, the conventional forward shift-operator and the δ-operator. Both operators are treated in view of construction of suitable solutions to the Diophantine equation for the purpose of prediction. A general step-recursive scheme is presented. Finally...

  20. Optimization of the operating conditions of gas-turbine power stations considering the effect of equipment deterioration (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Kozhevnikov, A. I.


    In recent years in most power systems all over the world, a trend towards the growing nonuniformity of energy consumption and generation schedules has been observed. The increase in the portion of renewable energy sources is one of the important challenges for many countries. The ill-predictable character of such energy sources necessitates a search for practical solutions. Presently, the most efficient method for compensating for nonuniform generation of the electric power by the renewable energy sources—predominantly by the wind and solar energy—is generation of power at conventional fossil-fuel-fired power stations. In Russia, this problem is caused by the increasing portion in the generating capacity structure of the nuclear power stations, which are most efficient when operating under basic conditions. Introduction of hydropower and pumped storage hydroelectric power plants and other energy-storage technologies does not cover the demand for load-following power capacities. Owing to a simple design, low construction costs, and a sufficiently high economic efficiency, gas turbine plants (GTPs) prove to be the most suitable for covering the nonuniform electric-demand schedules. However, when the gas turbines are operated under varying duty conditions, the lifetime of the primary thermostressed components is considerably reduced and, consequently, the repair costs increase. A method is proposed for determination of the total operating costs considering the deterioration of the gas turbine equipment under varying duty and start-stop conditions. A methodology for optimization of the loading modes for the gas turbine equipment is developed. The consideration of the lifetime component allows varying the optimal operating conditions and, in some cases, rejecting short-time stops of the gas turbine plants. The calculations performed in a wide range of varying fuel prices and capital investments per gas turbine equipment unit show that the economic effectiveness can

  1. System for monitoring and controlling unit operations that include distillation


    Cypes, Stephen; Uhrich, M; Kolosov, Oleg; Carlson, Eric; Padowitz, David; Bennett, James; Matsiev, L


    Fluid sensor methods and systems adapted for monitoring and/or controlling distillation operations in fluidic systems, such as bath distillation operations or continuous distillation operations, are disclosed. Preferred embodiments are directed to process monitoring and/or process control for unit operations involving endpoint determination of a distillation, for example, as applied to a liquid-component-switching operation (e.g., a solvent switehing operation), a liquid-liquid separation ope...

  2. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey


    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  3. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel


    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...... power ancillary service to the overhead power system. In that sense, when the active power is not being extracted from the grid, FESS provides the power required to sustain the continuous charging process of PEV battery. A key characteristic of the whole control system is that it is able to work without...

  4. Operating experience with slurry-free operation with slip-free reheat of the FGD systems in Bayernwerk AG's Schwandorf power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietl, R.; Drechsler, D. (Bayernwerk, Munich (Germany))


    At Schwandorf Bayernwerk AG operate a coal-fired power station, Units B and C each have an electrical output of 100MW and Unit D has an output of 300MW. The fuel is Czechoslovakian hard brown coal. The flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants were retrofitted in two stages: Units C/D in 1988 and Unit B in 1989. The desulphurisation process is a wet, two-stage method with pulverised limestone as the reagent. This process is characterised by its high level of desulphurisation and optimum limestone utilisation for all operating states and high, fluctuating SO[sub 2] concentrations. Additives are not necessary. The end product is used as landfill.

  5. Integrated failure detection and management for the Space Station Freedom external active thermal control system (United States)

    Mesloh, Nick; Hill, Tim; Kosyk, Kathy


    This paper presents the integrated approach toward failure detection, isolation, and recovery/reconfiguration to be used for the Space Station Freedom External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS). The on-board and on-ground diagnostic capabilities of the EATCS are discussed. Time and safety critical features, as well as noncritical failures, and the detection coverage for each provided by existing capabilities are reviewed. The allocation of responsibility between on-board software and ground-based systems, to be shown during ground testing at the Johnson Space Center, is described. Failure isolation capabilities allocated to the ground include some functionality originally found on orbit but moved to the ground to reduce on-board resource requirements. Complex failures requiring the analysis of multiple external variables, such as environmental conditions, heat loads, or station attitude, are also allocated to ground personnel.

  6. 14 CFR 121.537 - Responsibility for operational control: Supplemental operations. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for operational control... § 121.537 Responsibility for operational control: Supplemental operations. (a) Each certificate holder... command and the director of operations are jointly responsible for the initiation, continuation, diversion...

  7. Public Service Company, Fort St. Vrain Station, Petition For Objection to Issuance of Operating Permit (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. Kerr-McGee Frederick Station, Petition to Object to Title V Operating Permit (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Petition Requesting the Administrator Object to Goldendale Generating Station Title V Operating Permit (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Petition Requesting the Administrator Object to Title V Operating Permit for Gateway Generating Station (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Order Denying Petition to Object to Operating Permit for Maui Electric Co., Ltd., Maalaea Generating Station (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Parametric Optimization of Control Systems Pumping Station by the Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Dounaev


    Full Text Available Now the frequency regulation with its well-known advantages is becoming more popular for using in electric drives. One of these systems is the system of liquid flow stabilization for pumping station of the second flood, which is discussed at the article. There are functional elements of the system: the frequency converter, the induction motor, pump set, check valve, part of the pipeline between the flow sensors and PID controller. In this case are used PID controller with universal input and RS-485 OWEN TRM101.The article tries to solve the main problem, which is to set optimal controller settings. The article presents a mathematical model of the system, built on the basis of transfer functions. The specific values of the parameters for Bratsk pumping station of the second flood are found.To solve the problem of parametric optimization for control of pumping station authors use a genetic algorithm, which allows us to use different quality criteria. A set of parameters for the genetic algorithm is represented, as well as a method of selection and a method of the transition between generations. The problem of parametric optimization was solved by quadratic integral criterion and by the criterion, composed of direct measures of quality (regulation time and the overshoot. The PID controller optimal values of adjustable parameters were obtained both for considered criteria and for their corresponding transient processes. Comparative analysis of results was produced. When proving the optimality of the obtained settings for the quadratic criterion the proximity of the gradient components of the target functional to zero is demonstrated. In the case of a criterion based on a direct measure of quality, is presented a picture of convergence of adjustable parameters to the same value when run with different starting points.It is presented that the use of a criterion based on a direct measure of quality, can significantly reduce the overshoot with a

  13. An operating environment for control systems on transputer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, H.G.; Schoute, Albert L.; Wijbrans, K.C.J.; Wijbrans, K.C.J.


    The article describes an operating environment for control systems. The environment contains the basic layers of a distributed operating system. The design of this operating environment is based on the requirements demanded by controllers which can be found in complex control systems. Due to the

  14. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.


    controllers. Local controllers implement these functions, which include PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, battery charging/discharging control, voltage control of DC bus for high-frequency inverter, and onboard battery charging control. By optimizing and matching parameters of transmitting......In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...

  15. Multiple-Station Range Target System Operations Manual, Annex 2: Flying Target System Operations and Maintenance Reference Manual (United States)


    in. music wire, threaded) "Expanded scale voltmeter used for measuring receiver and transmitter battery voltages " 12V DC battery and battery charger...32 oz (Iid) oS zt (%id) ENDURANCC AT MAX SPEED 30m 30min 14 min SPEED 35-110 MPH 40-95 MPH 15-75 MPH PAYLOAD 20 I1s 15 rs 6 Ibo CONTROL RANGE 15 km...100 MPH 15490 MPH PAYLOAD 25 Ibo 20 I#b 6 Ibm CONTR0L RANGE 18 km 3 km 2 km Figure A-6. Su-25 Frogfoot. A-3 , ,i SPECIFICATIONS C 15SU 17(3 C17SU 17(3

  16. Operation and control software for APNEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J.H.; Storm, B.H. Jr.; Ahearn, J. [Lockheed-Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States)] [and others


    The human interface software for the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components (LMSC) Active/Passive Neutron Examination & Analysis System (APENA) provides a user friendly operating environment for the movement and analysis of waste drums. It is written in Microsoft Visual C++ on a Windows NT platform. Object oriented and multitasking techniques are used extensively to maximize the capability of the system. A waste drum is placed on a loading platform with a fork lift and then automatically moved into the APNEA chamber in preparation for analysis. A series of measurements is performed, controlled by menu commands to hardware components attached as peripheral devices, in order to create data files for analysis. The analysis routines use the files to identify the pertinent radioactive characteristics of the drum, including the type, location, and quantity of fissionable material. At the completion of the measurement process, the drum is automatically unloaded and the data are archived in preparation for storage as part of the drum`s data signature. 3 figs.

  17. Hydrogen and Hydrogen/Natural Gas Station and Vehicle Operations - 2006 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort; Donald Karner; Roberta Brayer


    This report is a summary of the operations and testing of internal combustion engine vehicles that were fueled with 100% hydrogen and various blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (HCNG). It summarizes the operations of the Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which produces, compresses, and dispenses hydrogen fuel. Other testing activities, such as the destructive testing of a CNG storage cylinder that was used for HCNG storage, are also discussed. This report highlights some of the latest technology developments in the use of 100% hydrogen fuels in internal combustion engine vehicles. Reports are referenced and WWW locations noted as a guide for the reader that desires more detailed information. These activities are conducted by Arizona Public Service, Electric Transportation Applications, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  18. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  19. Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly


    General Electric (GE) has developed an approach whereby native mercury reduction on fly ash can be improved by optimizing the combustion system. This approach eliminates carbon-rich areas in the combustion zone, making the combustion process more uniform, and allows increasing carbon content in fly ash without significant increase in CO emissions. Since boiler excess O{sub 2} can be also reduced as a result of optimized combustion, this process reduces NO{sub x} emissions. Because combustion optimization improves native mercury reduction on fly ash, it can reduce requirements for activated carbon injection (ACI) when integrated with sorbent injection for more efficient mercury control. The approach can be tailored to specific unit configurations and coal types for optimal performance. This report describes results of a U.S. DOE sponsored project designed to evaluate the effect of combustion conditions on 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and integrate combustion optimization for improved mercury and NO{sub x} reduction with ACI. The technology evaluation took place in Lee Station Unit 3 located in Goldsboro, NC and operated by Progress Energy. Unit 3 burns a low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal and is a 250 MW opposed-wall fired unit equipped with an ESP with a specific collection area of 249 ft{sup 2}/kacfm. Unit 3 is equipped with SO{sub 3} injection for ESP conditioning. The technical goal of the project was to evaluate the technology's ability to achieve 70% mercury reduction below the baseline emission value of 2.9 lb/TBtu, which was equivalent to 80% mercury reduction relative to the mercury concentration in the coal. The strategy to achieve the 70% incremental improvement in mercury removal in Unit 3 was (1) to enhance 'naturally' occurring fly ash mercury capture by optimizing the combustion process and using duct humidification to reduce flue gas temperatures at the ESP inlet, and (2) to use ACI in front of the ESP to further

  20. Model Based Predictive Control of AUVs for Station Keeping in a Shallow Water Wave Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riedel, Jeffery s; Healey, Anthony J


    .... In shallow water AUV operations, where large hydrodynamic forces are developed due to waves, knowledge of the sea is critical to allow for the design of a control system that will enable the vehicle...

  1. The Next Generation of Ground Operations Command and Control; Scripting in C no. and Visual Basic (United States)

    Ritter, George; Pedoto, Ramon


    Scripting languages have become a common method for implementing command and control solutions in space ground operations. The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL), the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Scripting Language Processor (SLP), and the Spacecraft Control Language (SCL) offer script-commands that wrap tedious operations tasks into single calls. Since script-commands are interpreted, they also offer a certain amount of hands-on control that is highly valued in space ground operations. Although compiled programs seem to be unsuited for interactive user control and are more complex to develop, Marshall Space flight Center (MSFC) has developed a product called the Enhanced and Redesign Scripting (ERS) that makes use of the graphical and logical richness of a programming language while offering the hands-on and ease of control of a scripting language. ERS is currently used by the International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) Cadre team members. ERS integrates spacecraft command mnemonics, telemetry measurements, and command and telemetry control procedures into a standard programming language, while making use of Microsoft's Visual Studio for developing Visual Basic (VB) or C# ground operations procedures. ERS also allows for script-style user control during procedure execution using a robust graphical user input and output feature. The availability of VB and C# programmers, and the richness of the languages and their development environment, has allowed ERS to lower our "script" development time and maintenance costs at the Marshall POIC.

  2. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume II, reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986, to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators. The technical issues discussed most extensively were: man/machine interfaces, component interfaces, thermal gradients of startup and cooldown and the need for an accurate industry database for trend analysis of the diesel generator system.

  3. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  4. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to...

  5. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations (United States)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.


    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  6. Explore the Underground Subway Station Smoke Control System Design%地铁地下车站防排烟系统设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the actual situation of the underground subway station, introduces the importance of the subway smoke control system, described the composition, design criteria and operating mode metro station smoke control system, while the smoke control system for common issues analysis and made recommendations accordingly.%结合地铁地下车站的实际情况,介绍了地铁防排烟系统的重要性,阐述了地铁车站防排烟系统的组成、设计标准和运行模式,同时,对防排烟系统的常见问题进行了分析,并提出了相应建议。

  7. Influence of Compressor Station Waste-Heat Recovery Section on Operational Efficiency of Gas Turbine Drive with Isobaric Heat Supply and Regenerative Heat Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk


    Full Text Available The possibility to utilize existing secondary energy resources for heat supply of an industrial enterprise has been proposed on the basis of the analysis on operation of compressor stations of a cross-country gas pipe-line. The paper considers an influence of waste heat recovery section on operational efficiency of gas turbine drive with regenerative heat utilization.

  8. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez


    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... with dedicated paralleled flywheel-based energy storage system. The distributed DC-bus signaling method is employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a distributed secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set-point through a dynamic...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  9. 49 CFR 227.113 - Noise operational controls. (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees. § 227.113 Noise operational controls. (a) Railroads may use noise operational controls at any sound level to reduce exposures to levels below those required by Table A-1 of appendix A of...

  10. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated...

  11. Lighting Quality Affects Eyestrain of Operators at Sorting Station in Beverage Industry (United States)

    Anizar; Erwin


    This study observes sorters’ performance in two beverage industries whose job is to separate defect products found. Sorters observe bottles quality and beverage quality continuously, therefore requiring more focused eyes which makes eyes’ load heavier. Sorters’ eyestrain causes more defect products pass the selection. In this study, measurement is conducted toward ilumintation, operators’ time response, and defect products that pass the selection. Measurement is hold in 2 beverage industries for four days with four measurements per day, twice in the morning and twice in the afternoon. Ilumination is measured with 4 in 1 environmental meter in grid 1m x 1m, while operators’ time response is measured with Flicker Fusion. Illuminance is generally higher in the morning than in the evening, but still under the standard of Indonesia. Overall, sorters’ time response is higher in the morning than in the afternoon. Higher time response shows that operators experiencing lower fatigue than lower time response. The sorting duration also affects operators’ time response and defect products which pass the selection.

  12. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M.; Markel, T.


    The growing, though still nascent, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market currently operates primarily via level 1 and level 2 charging in the United States. Fast chargers are still a rarity, but offer a confidence boost to oppose 'range anxiety' in consumers making the transition from conventional vehicles to PEVs. Because relatively no real-world usage of fast chargers at scale exists yet, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a simulation to help assess fast charging needs based on real-world travel data. This study documents the data, methods, and results of the simulation run for multiple scenarios, varying fleet sizes, and the number of charger ports. The grid impact of this usage is further quantified to assess the opportunity for integration of renewables; specifically, a high frequency of fast charging is found to be in demand during the late afternoons and evenings coinciding with grid peak periods. Proper integration of a solar array and stationary battery thus helps ease the load and reduces the need for new generator construction to meet the demand of a future PEV market.

  13. Planning for organization development in operations control centers. (United States)


    The first step in a proposed program of organization development (OD) was to assess organizational processes within the : Technical Operations Services (TechOps) Operations Control Centers (OCCs). The aim of the OD program was to : improve effectiven...

  14. An Assessment of the International Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Process Economics (United States)

    Perry J. L.; Cole, H. E.; El-Lessy, H. N.


    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System includes equipment speci.cally designed to actively remove trace chemical contamination from the cabin atmosphere. In the U.S. on-orbit segment, this function is provided by the trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS) located in the atmosphere revitalization subsystem rack housed in the laboratory module, Destiny. The TCCS employs expendable adsorbent beds to accomplish its function leading to a potentially signi.cant life cycle cost over the life of the ISS. Because maintaining the TCCSs proper can be logistically intensive, its performance in .ight has been studied in detail to determine where savings may be achieved. Details of these studies and recommendations for improving the TCCS s process economics without compromising its performance or crew health and safety are presented and discussed.

  15. Coastal meteorological and water temperature data from National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) and Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) stations of the NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) is a network of long-term water level stations operated and maintained by CO-OPS. NWLON stations are located on...

  16. Frequency Control for Island Operation of Bornholm Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran


    This paper presents a coordinated control strategy of a battery energy storage system (BESS) and distributed generation (DG) units for the island operation of the Danish island of Bornholm. The Bornholm power system is able to transit from the grid connected operation with the Nordic power system...... the primary frequency control and the DG units are used to provide the secondary frequency control. As such, the proposed control scheme can strike a balance of the frequency control speed and the energy used from the BESS for the frequency control support. The real-time model of the Bornholm power system...... to the isolated island operation. In order to ensure the secure island operation, the coordinated control of the BESS and the DG has been proposed to stabilize the frequency of the system after the transition to the island operation. In the proposed coordinate control scheme, the BESS is used to provide...

  17. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures (United States)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.


    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  18. Adaptive Impedance Controller for a Robot Astronaut to Climb Stably in a Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wei


    Full Text Available Maintaining stability is a significant challenge during the control of a robot astronaut while climbing with human-like dual-arm action in a space station. This challenge is caused by conflicting force generated by dynamic internal forces in the closed chain during dual-arm climbing. In general, an impedance controller is suitable for solving this problem. However, the conflicting force in the rigid closed chain is stored in the virtual spring of the impedance controller (especially in microgravity, where even small disturbances cause a significant change in robot astronaut movements. As such, it is difficult to select suitable control parameters for the stable climbing of a robot astronaut. This paper proposes an adaptive algorithm to optimize the impedance controller parameters. This eliminates conflicting force disturbances, with one arm in compliance with the motion of the other. It provides scope for achieving stable motion without the need for precise control parameters. Finally, the stability of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by Lyapunov theory using a robot called ASTROBOT. The experimental results show the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Intelligent Control and Operation of Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad

    loops is developed to establish coordinated control of widely distributed loads and generations. Moreover, a heterogeneous communication network is integrated to the HCA for enabling control and communication within each control loop of the HCA. In particular, each control loop of the HCA is designed...... of the controllable loads, local generation, and distribution network are done in the second stage. Transportation loads, namely EV, and heating loads, namely HP and EWH, are modeled as controllable loads, whereas the solar PV is modeled as local generation. Control strategies are developed to realize various DR...... network imposes potential problems. In particular, limited dispatchability of the RESs on top of intermittent generation is creating key scientific challenges to the research community. On the other hand, increased trends of electrifying heating, transportation and gas sectors have resulted in new...

  20. Development of control system in abdominal operating ROV


    Zhang, Weikang; WANG Guanxue; Xu, Guohua; Liu, Chang; Shen, Xiong


    In order to satisfy all the requirements of Unmanned Underwater Vehicle(UUV)recovery tasks, a new type of abdominal operating Remote Operated Vehicle(ROV) was developed. The abdominal operating ROV is different from the general ROV which works by a manipulator, as it completes the docking and recovery tasks of UUVs with its abdominal operating mechanism. In this paper, the system composition and principles of the abdominal operating ROV are presented. We then propose a framework for a control...

  1. Fatigue in U.S. Astronauts Onboard the International Space Station: Environmental Factors, Operational Impacts, and Implementation of Countermeasures (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Moomaw, R. C.; Johnston, S. L.


    Since 2000, US astronauts have been supporting missions up to a six month duration on the International Space Station (ISS). Crewmembers have experienced fatigue for reasons similar to military deployments. Astronauts experience psychological stressors such as heavy workloads, extended duty periods, circadian misalignment, inadequate/ineffective sleep, and loss of the environmental cues of a gravity environment. Complicating the psychological stressors are environmental factors; distracting background noise, unexpected and variable mission schedules, unfavorable thermal control, elevated CO2 levels, and an unusual sleep environment with schedules that impinge on pre-sleep periods. Physiological contributors to poor sleep and fatigue include a cephalad fluid shift and back pain. Restful sleep is further challenged due to a lack of gravity-related proprioceptive cues and need for restraints. The term "space fog" has been used by astronauts to describe a phenomenon of forgetfulness, slowed reaction time and transient confusion while trying to complete tasks. There is a distinct temporal correlation with arrival on the Space Station and the onset of slowed cognitive skills and a spontaneous resolution that may take up to 6 weeks. The Genesis of this phenomenon may be chronic fatigue secondary to transitioning from a planar environment to a 360deg microgravity perspective. Recently, countermeasures to improve sleep duration and quality in astronauts on the ISS have been instituted with moderate degrees of success as measured by self-reaction time (psychomotor vigilance task testing), actigraphy, and subjective reports. Judicious use of stimulants and hypnotics, light therapy, controlled sleep periods and sleep shifting and reducing ambient CO2 levels are a few of the most promising countermeasures being used in space to improve sleep and reduce fatigue.

  2. Exposure of Polymer Film Thermal Control Materials on the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) (United States)

    Dever, Joyce; Miller, Sharon; Messer, Russell; Sechkar, Edward; Tollis, Greg


    Seventy-nine samples of polymer film thermal control (PFTC) materials have been provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) for exposure to the low Earth orbit environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). MISSE is a materials flight experiment sponsored by the Air Force Research Lab/Materials Lab and NASA. This paper will describe background, objectives, and configurations for the GRC PFTC samples for MISSE. These samples include polyimides, fluorinated polyimides, and Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) with and without second-surface metallizing layers and/or surface coatings. Also included are polyphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO) and a polyarylene ether benzimidazole (TOR-LM). On August 16, 2001, astronauts installed passive experiment carriers (PECs) on the exterior of the ISS in which were located twenty-eight of the GRC PFTC samples for 1-year space exposure. MISSE PECs for 3-year exposure, which will contain fifty-one GRC PFTC samples, will be installed on the ISS at a later date. Once returned from the ISS, MISSE GRC PFTC samples will be examined for changes in optical and mechanical properties and atomic oxygen (AO) erosion. Additional sapphire witness samples located on the AO exposed trays will be examined for deposition of contaminants.

  3. Boiler Control Systems Theory of Operation Manual. (United States)


    through linkage to the One Master Controller of this tipe and one power fuel and air cositrollers. This po-wer unit can- also ad. unit can control the...directly vides a quick check of systenm performance and per. indicates level. Available for use in electric or pneu . mits checking transmitting systemn

  4. Enhanced Engine Control for Emergency Operation (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.


    C-MAPSS40k engine simulation has been developed and is available to the public. The authenticity of the engine performance and controller enabled the development of realistic enhanced control modes through controller modification alone. Use of enhanced control modes improved stability and control of an impaired aircraft. - Fast Response is useful for manual manipulation of the throttles - Use of Fast Response improved stability as part of a yaw rate feedback system. - Use of Overthrust shortened takeoff distance, but was generally useful in flight, too. Initial lack of pilot familiarity resulted in discomfort, especially with yaw rate feedback, but that was the only drawback, overall the pilot found the enhanced modes very helpful.

  5. Trace Contaminant Control for the International Space Station's Node 1- Analysis, Design, and Verification (United States)

    Perry, J. L.


    Trace chemical contaminant generation inside crewed spacecraft cabins is a technical and medical problem that must be continuously evaluated. Although passive control through materials selection and active control by adsorption and catalytic oxidation devices is employed during normal operations of a spacecraft, contaminant buildup can still become a problem. Buildup is particularly troublesome during the stages between the final closure of a spacecraft during ground processing and the time that a crewmember enters for the first time during the mission. Typically, the elapsed time between preflight closure and first entry on orbit for spacecraft such as Spacelab modules was 30 days. During that time, the active contamination control systems are not activated and contaminants can potentially build up to levels which exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) specified by NASA toxicology experts. To prevent excessively high contamination levels at crew entry, the Spacelab active contamination control system was operated for 53 hours just before launch.

  6. Albuquerque Air Traffic Control Tower Operations Analysis. (United States)


    because they are con- sidered essential to the object of this report. i1 Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report NO. 2. Government Accession No... TELCO SPEAKER 10. VIDEO MAP SELECTOR PANEL 2. OVERHEAD LIGHT 11. FAA RADIO JACK 3. LIGHT SWITCH 12. TELCO DIAL AND KEYPACK 4. FAA COMMUNICATIONS...PANELS 13. RADAR DISPLAY/CONTROLS 5. DIGITAL CLOCK 14. ARTS TRACKBALL 6. ANALOG ALTIMETER 15. ALPHANUMERIC KEYBOARD 7. RADAR BEACON CONTROL PANEL 16. TELCO

  7. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station (United States)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.


    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  8. Design of Air Traffic Control Operation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation for a different aircraft, based on the specific aircraft data that can be incorporated in the model and the equations of motions which can be consequently solved. The aircraft flight design involves various technical steps and requires the use of sophisticated software having modeling and simulation capabilities. Within the flight simulation model, the aerodynamic model can be regarded as the most complex and most important. With appropriate aerodynamic modeling the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft's center of gravity can be numerically solved with accuracy. These forces and moments are further used to solve the equations of motion. The development of control and computing technology makes it possible for advanced flight control strategy. The advanced control techniques tend to make the control design and their implementation much more complicated with more control loops or channels; in this line, the autopilot of modern aircrafts includes a variety of automatic control systems that aid and support the flight navigation, flight management, and perform the enhancing and/or augmenting of the stability characteristics of the airplane. Therefore in this context it is very important to choose the dynamic that will satisfy the performance and robustness specifications.

  9. Surface Charging Controlling of the Chinese Space Station with Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Wang, Xianrong; Qin, Xiaogang; Yang, Shengsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Chengxuan; Chen, Yifeng; Shi, Liang; Tang, Daotan; Xie, Kan


    A highly charged manned spacecraft threatens the life of an astronaut and extravehicular activity, which can be effectively reduced by controlling the spacecraft surface charging. In this article, the controlling of surface charging on Chinese Space Station (CSS) is investigated, and a method to reduce the negative potential to the CSS is the emission electron with a hollow cathode plasma contactor. The analysis is obtained that the high voltage (HV) solar array of the CSS collecting electron current can reach 4.5 A, which can be eliminated by emitting an adequate electron current on the CSS. The theoretical analysis and experimental results are addressed, when the minimum xenon flow rate of the hollow cathode is 4.0 sccm, the emission electron current can neutralize the collected electron current, which ensures that the potential of the CSS can be controlled in a range of less than 21 V, satisfied with safety voltage. The results can provide a significant reference value to define a flow rate to the potential controlling programme for CSS.

  10. Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. Loros


    The Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System provides supervisory control, monitoring, and selected remote control of primary and secondary repository operations. Primary repository operations consist of both surface and subsurface activities relating to high-level waste receipt, preparation, and emplacement. Secondary repository operations consist of support operations for waste handling and treatment, utilities, subsurface construction, and other selected ancillary activities. Remote control of the subsurface emplacement operations, as well as, repository performance confirmation operations are the direct responsibility of the system. In addition, the system monitors parameters such as radiological data, air quality data, fire detection status, meteorological conditions, unauthorized access, and abnormal operating conditions, to ensure a safe workplace for personnel. Parameters are displayed in a real-time manner to human operators regarding surface and subsurface conditions. The system performs supervisory monitoring and control for both important to safety and non-safety systems. The system provides repository operational information, alarm capability, and human operator response messages during emergency response situations. The system also includes logic control to place equipment, systems, and utilities in a safe operational mode or complete shutdown during emergency response situations. The system initiates alarms and provides operational data to enable appropriate actions at the local level in support of emergency response, radiological protection response, evacuation, and underground rescue. The system provides data communications, data processing, managerial reports, data storage, and data analysis. This system's primary surface and subsurface operator consoles, for both supervisory and remote control activities, will be located in a Central Control Center (CCC) inside one of the surface facility buildings. The system

  11. Operation and Control of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    This work explores the control of biodiesel production via an enzymatic catalyst. The process involves the transesterification of oils/fats with an alcohol (usually methanol or ethanol), using enzymatic catalysts to generate mono-alkyl esters (the basis of biodiesel) and glycerol as by-product...... is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process designs, which do not use the full potential of the catalysts in a cost-efficient way. Furthermore is it unclear what process variables need to be monitored and controlled to ensure optimal economics....... Critical to the project is to develop a control methodology to optimize the productivity of biodiesel production (e.g. the dosing of alcohol to minimize catalyst deactivation, minimization of waste and delivering consistent product quality meeting specifications). For production of biodiesel (BD) via...

  12. Contamination Control for Scientific Drilling Operations. (United States)

    Kallmeyer, J


    Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. As contamination cannot be avoided, it has to be tracked to identify those parts of the drill core that were not infiltrated by the drill fluid. This is done by the addition of tracer compounds. A great variety of tracers is available, and the choice depends on many factors. This review will first explain the basic principles of drilling before presenting the most common tracers and discussing their strengths and weaknesses. The final part of this review presents a number of key questions that have to be addressed in order to find the right tracer for a particular drilling operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lefebvre


    Full Text Available Temperature gradients in the upper layers of the snow pack are of importance for studying the emissivity properties of the snow surface with respect to microwaves used in remote sensing as well as for the heat and mass transfer in snow thickness. Gradients drive the initial snow microstructure metamorphisms that probably influence the firn properties in regard to air molecules fractionation and the air bubble enclosure process at close-off depths. As a contribution to investigation of these problems and following J.-M. Barnola initiative, we developed an autonomous recording system to monitor the temperature of the upper layers of the snow pack. The instrument was built to be autonomous and to be continuously operating within environmental conditions of the Antarctic plateau and the polar night. The apparatus which monitors temperature from the first 10 mof snow by 15 sensors of a «temperature grape» was set at Vostok station during 55th Russian Antarctic Expedition within the frame of the French Russian collaboration (GDRI Vostok. From the available hourly measurements over the first year, we present preliminary results on the thermal diffusive properties of the snow pack as well as some character of the temperature variations on the Antarctic plateau.

  14. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.


    Full Text Available It is studied the model of the heat pump station controllable loop of an intermediate heat-transfer agent for the use in wineries. There are demonstrated transients after the disturbing action of the temperature on the input of cooling jacket of the fermentation stirred tank. There are compared different control laws of the object.

  16. Controlling high speed automated transport network operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Feijter, R.


    This thesis presents a framework for the control of automated guided vehicles (AGVs). The framework implements the transport system as a community of cooperating agents. Besides the architecture and elements of the framework a wide range of infrastructure scene templates is described. These scene

  17. Investigation on sense of control parameters for joystick interface in remote operated container crane application (United States)

    Abdullah, U. N. N.; Handroos, H.


    Introduction: This paper presents the study of sense of control parameters to improve the lack of direct motion feeling through remote operated container crane station (ROCCS) joystick interface. The investigations of the parameters in this study are important to develop the engineering parameters related to the sense of control goal in the next design process. Methodology: Structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain the user experience data from thirteen remote container crane operators from two international terminals. Then, interview analysis, task analysis, activity analysis and time line analysis were conducted to compare and contrast the results from interviews and observations. Results: Four experience parameters were identified to support the sense of control goal in the later design improvement of the ROCC joystick interface. The significance of difficulties to control, unsynchronized movements, facilitate in control and decision making in unexpected situation as parameters to the sense of control goal were validated by' feedbacks from operators as well as analysis. Contribution: This study provides feedback directly from end users towards developing a sustainable control interface for ROCCS in specific and remote operated off-road vehicles in general.

  18. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah


    Full Text Available Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic of the earth station and the satellite power systems using ModelSim PE 6.6 simulator tool. Integration between MATLAB and VHDL is used to save execution time of computation. The results shows that a good agreement between MATLAB and VHDL and a fast/flexible feed forward NN which is capable of dealing with floating point arithmetic operations; minimum number of CLB slices; and good speed of performance. FPGA synthesis results are obtained with view RTL schematic and technology schematic from Xilinix tool. Minimum number of utilized resources is obtained by using Xilinix VERTIX5.

  19. 21 CFR 111.117 - What quality control operations are required for equipment, instruments, and controls? (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for equipment, instruments, and controls? 111.117 Section 111.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.117 What quality control operations...

  20. Modeling and Control for Islanding Operation of Active Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Saleem, Arshad


    to stabilize the frequency. Different agents are defined to represent different resources in the distribution systems. A test platform with a real time digital simulator (RTDS), an OPen Connectivity (OPC) protocol server and the multi-agent based intelligent controller is established to test the proposed multi...... are able to operate in is-landing operation mode intentionally or unintentionally. In order to smooth the transition from grid connected operation to islanding operation for distribution systems with DG, a multi-agent based controller is proposed to utilize different re-sources in the distribution systems...

  1. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry


    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  2. Test and Evaluation Station (TESt) - A Control System for the ALICE-HMPID Liquid Distribution Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Maatta, E; CERN. Geneva; Swoboda, Detlef; Lecoeur, G


    The sub-detectors and systems in the ALICE experiment [1] are of various types. However, during physics runs, all devices necessary for the operation of the detector must be accessible and controllable through a common computer interface. Throughout all other periods each sub-detector requires maintenance, upgrading or test operation. To this end, an access independant of other sub-detectors must be guaranteed. These basic requirements impose a fair number of constraints on the architecture and components of the Detector Control System (DCS). The purpose of the TESt project consisted in the construction of a stand alone unit for a specific sub-system of an ALICE detector in order to gain first experience with commercial products for detector control. Although the control system includes only a small number of devices and is designed for a particular application, it covers nevertheless all layers of a complete system and can be extended or used in different applications. The control system prototype has been...

  3. Decomposing Objectives and Functions in Power System Operation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Lind, Morten


    The introduction of many new energy solutions requires the adaptation of classical operation paradigms in power systems. In the standard paradigm, a power system is some equivalent of a synchronous generators, a power line and an uncontrollable load. This paradigm has been challenged by a diverse...... mix of challenges posed by renewable energy sources, demand response technologies and smartgrid concepts, affecting all areas of power system operation. Both, new control modes and changes in market design are required. This paper presents a mean-ends perspective to the analysis of the control...... structures and operation paradigms in present power systems. In a top-down approach, traditional frequency- and area-control mechanisms are formalized. It is demonstrated that future power system operation paradigms with different generation control modes and controllable demand can be modeled in a coherent...

  4. Estimating cancer risk in relation to tritium exposure from routine operation of a nuclear-generating station in Pickering, Ontario. (United States)

    Wanigaratne, S; Holowaty, E; Jiang, H; Norwood, T A; Pietrusiak, M A; Brown, P


    Evidence suggests that current levels of tritium emissions from CANDU reactors in Canada are not related to adverse health effects. However, these studies lack tritium-specific dose data and have small numbers of cases. The purpose of our study was to determine whether tritium emitted from a nuclear-generating station during routine operation is associated with risk of cancer in Pickering, Ontario. A retrospective cohort was formed through linkage of Pickering and north Oshawa residents (1985) to incident cancer cases (1985-2005). We examined all sites combined, leukemia, lung, thyroid and childhood cancers (6-19 years) for males and females as well as female breast cancer. Tritium estimates were based on an atmospheric dispersion model, incorporating characteristics of annual tritium emissions and meteorology. Tritium concentration estimates were assigned to each cohort member based on exact location of residence. Person-years analysis was used to determine whether observed cancer cases were higher than expected. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine whether tritium was associated with radiation-sensitive cancers in Pickering. Person-years analysis showed female childhood cancer cases to be significantly higher than expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.38). The issue of multiple comparisons is the most likely explanation for this finding. Cox models revealed that female lung cancer was significantly higher in Pickering versus north Oshawa (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.23-4.46) and that tritium was not associated with increased risk. The improved methodology used in this study adds to our understanding of cancer risks associated with low-dose tritium exposure. Tritium estimates were not associated with increased risk of radiationsensitive cancers in Pickering.

  5. Development of Sub-optimal Airway Protocols for the International Space Station (ISS) by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) (United States)

    Polk, James D.; Parazynski, Scott; Kelly, Scott; Hurst, Victor, IV; Doerr, Harold K.


    Airway management techniques are necessary to establish and maintain a patent airway while treating a patient undergoing respiratory distress. There are situations where such settings are suboptimal, thus causing the caregiver to adapt to these suboptimal conditions. Such occurrences are no exception aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a result, the NASA flight surgeon (FS) and NASA astronaut cohorts must be ready to adapt their optimal airway management techniques for suboptimal situations. Based on previous work conducted by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) and other investigators, the MOST had members of both the FS and astronaut cohorts evaluate two oral airway insertion techniques for the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) to determine whether either technique is sufficient to perform in suboptimal conditions within a microgravity environment. Methods All experiments were conducted in a simulated microgravity environment provided by parabolic flight aboard DC-9 aircraft. Each participant acted as a caregiver and was directed to attempt both suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques following a preflight instruction session on the day of the flight and a demonstration of the technique by an anesthesiologist physician in the simulated microgravity environment aboard the aircraft. Results Fourteen participants conducted 46 trials of the suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques. Overall, 43 of 46 trials (94%) conducted were properly performed based on criteria developed by the MOST and other investigators. Discussion The study demonstrated the use of airway management techniques in suboptimal conditions relating to space flight. Use of these techniques will provide a crew with options for using the ILMA to manage airway issues aboard the ISS. Although it is understood that the optimal method for patient care during space flight is to have both patient and caregiver restrained, these techniques provide a needed backup should conditions not present

  6. Bacterial control through contamination control in operating theatres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luscuere, P.G.


    Nowadays Operating Theatres (OT's) are well established for normai surgical use in modernised world. The application of downflow systems is some 20 years old and besides incremental improvements the concept is stil) the same as from the start. The two most common concepts are based on filtered air


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Lopašovský


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was control of operational hygiene in fast-food restaurants. Control was carried out in three fast food restaurants. Samples were collected from ten sampling places, in cycles of morning, afternoon and evening. Sanitation process was also controlled in each operation. Grown colonies of microorganisms were counted after incubation in a thermostat. Samples were collected using a 3M ® plates PetrifilmTM - modern detection methods. Presence of coliform bacteria was determined by this method. In the first operation 1 sample from 30 sampling places did not meet the prescribed value according to standard. In the second operation 5 samples from 30 sampling places did not meet prescribed value according to the standard. In the third operation 2 samples from 30 sampling places did not meet the prescribed values.

  8. Distributed Command/Control Impacts on NAS Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Command and Control (C2) activities abound in the NAS, and significantly influence daily operations and overall NAS efficiency. Since C2 effects are so prominent,...

  9. Team processes in airway facilities operations control centers. (United States)


    In October 2000, the Airway Facilities organization plans to transition the National Airspace System (NAS) monitoring responsibilities to three regional Operations Control Centers (OCCs). Teams in these facilities will be different from those that cu...

  10. Data mining of air traffic control operational errors (United States)


    In this paper we present the results of : applying data mining techniques to identify patterns and : anomalies in air traffic control operational errors (OEs). : Reducing the OE rate is of high importance and remains a : challenge in the aviation saf...

  11. Fire Extinguisher Control System Provides Reliable Cold Weather Operation (United States)

    Branum, J. C.


    Fast acting, pneumatically and centrally controlled, fire extinguisher /firex/ system is effective in freezing climates. The easy-to-operate system provides a fail-dry function which is activated by an electrical power failure.

  12. Randomised control trial on immediate post-operative outcomes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomised control trial on immediate post-operative outcomes on patients done either closure or non-closure of peritoneum at caesarean delivery at the Kenyatta national hospital. M Mutua, JG Wanyoike, N Kihara, JB Oyieke ...

  13. Intelligent cruise control field operational test. Volume I, Technical report (United States)


    This document reports on a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). The main goal of the work is to characterize safety and comfort issues that are fundamental to human inte...

  14. Intelligent cruise control field operational test : interim report (United States)


    This interim document reports on a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). The overarching goal of the work is to characterize safety and comfort issues that are fundamenta...

  15. The VEPP-2000 Collider Control System: Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Senchenko, A I; Lysenko, A P; Rogovsky, Yu A; Shatunov, P Yu


    The VEPP-2000 collider was commissioned and operated successfully in 2010-2013. During the operation the facility underwent continuous updates and experience in maintenance was acquired. Strong cooperation between the staff of the accelerator complex and the developers of the control system proved effective for implementing the necessary changes in a short time.

  16. Studies on submarine control for periscope depth operations


    Tolliver, John V.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Requirements for submarine periscope depth operations have been increased by integration with carrier battle groups, littoral operations, and contributions to joint surveillance. Improved periscope depth performance is therefore imperative. Submarine control personnel rely on a large number of analog gauges and indications. An integrated digital display system could enhance the ergonomics of the human control interface and display add...

  17. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours among bus operators. (United States)

    Escoto, K H; French, S A


    Urban bus operators are an occupational group with high rates of overweight and obesity. Understanding methods bus operators use for weight control may be important; there may be increased risk for these workers to engage in less healthy weight management behaviours due to stressful working conditions. To examine the prevalence of unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours used by bus operators and examine associations between use of unhealthy weight control behaviours and work-related and sociodemographic variables. Bus operators from four different transit garages were invited to complete a self-administered survey; height and weight were measured by research staff. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours, work hours, work schedule and social support were measured with self-report items on the employee survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate associations. Nearly 60% of bus operators endorsed at least one unhealthy method; over 50% reported skipping meals, 30% fasted and 10% reported taking diet pills in the past year. Bus operator gender, race, body mass index status and hours worked per week showed significant associations with using at least one unhealthy weight control behaviour. Worksite interventions should emphasize the benefit of healthy eating and physical activity but should also address the use of less healthy methods for weight control for individuals employed in transportation occupations.

  18. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 2: Data Management System/Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (United States)


    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution 16-19 Jan. 1990. The purpose of the workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 2 consists of the technology discipline sections for the Data Management System and the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the invited papers.

  19. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midriem Mirdanies


    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  20. Capacity of Commune Health Stations in Chi Linh District, Hai Duong Province, for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. (United States)

    Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen; Thi My Anh, Bui; Nguyen Ngoc, Nguyen; Minh Diem, Dang; Duy Kien, Vu; Bich Phuong, Tran; Quynh Anh, Tran; Van Minh, Hoang


    The primary health care system in Vietnam has been playing an important role in prevention and control of diseases. This study aimed to describe the capacity of commune health stations in Chi Linh district, Hai Duong province for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). A mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative approaches) approach was applied to collect data in 20 commune health stations. The participants, including health workers, stakeholders, and patients with NCDs, were selected for the study. The findings reported that the main activities of prevention and control of NCDs at commune health stations (CHSs) still focused on information-education-community (IECs), unqualified for providing screening, diagnosis, and treatments of NCDs. The capacity for prevention and control of NCDs in CHSs was inadequate to provide health care services related to prevention and control of NCDs and unmet with the community's demands. In order to ensure the role and implementation of primary care level, there is an urgent need to improve the capacity of CHSs for prevention and control of NCDs, particularly a national budget for NCDs prevention and control, the essential equipment and medicines recommended by the World Health Organization should be provided and available at the CHSs.

  1. Leadership Challenges in ISS Operations: Lessons Learned from Junior and Senior Mission Control Personnel (United States)

    Clement, James L.; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Saylor, Stephanie A.; Kanas, Nick


    The International Space Station (ISS) is operated by a multi-national, multi-organizational team that is dispersed across multiple locations, time zones, and work schedules. At NASA, both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the leadership challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to examine the major leadership challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount them. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and to the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which responses are consistent across the junior and senior samples. Further, we compare the issues identified by our interview survey to those identified by a standardized questionnaire survey of mission control personnel and a contrasting group of space station crewmembers. We studied a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior ISS controllers. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of 13 American astronauts, 17 Russian cosmonauts, and 150 U.S. and 36 Russian mission control personnel supporting the ISS or Mir space stations. The interview data showed that the survey respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Interview data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. The questionnaire data showed that the US mission

  2. Mitigating the Long term Operating Extreme Load through Active Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand


    blade azimuth location are shown to affect the extreme blade load magnitude during operation in normal turbulence wind input. The simultaneously controlled operation of generator torque variation and pitch variation at low blade pitch angles is detected to be responsible for very high loads acting...... on the blades. Through gain scheduling of the controller (modifications of the proportional Kp and the integral Ki gains) the extreme loads are mitigated, ensuring minimum instantaneous variations in the power production for operation above rated wind speed. The response of the blade load is examined...

  3. Improvements to Controls Over Cash Are Needed at Army Disbursing Stations in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (United States)


    and receipt for cash and vouchers on hand. Reporting Structure of the Army’s Disbursing Stations in Kuwait The Army disbursing station at Camp...Statements • Cash Collection Voucher (SF 1131) • Check Registers • Currency Exchange Record (DD Form 2664) • Daily Agent Accountability Summary (DD Form 2665...and Inventory (DA 5513) • Safe Combination Change Ledger • Security Container Check Sheet (SF 702) • Specimen Signatures (TFS Form 3023) • Staff

  4. Control Theory Perspective of Effects-Based Thinking and Operations: Modelling "Operations" as a Feedback Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Philip S


    This paper explores operations that involve effects-based thinking (EBT) using Control Theory techniques in order to highlight the concept's fundamental characteristics in a simple and straightforward manner...

  5. Pelvic Floor Disorders 6 Months after Attempted Operative Vaginal Delivery According to the Fetal Head Station: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ducarme

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of the fetal head station at attempted operative vaginal delivery (aOVD, and specifically midpelvic or low aOVD, on urinary incontinence (UI, anal incontinence (AI, and perineal pain at 6 months.Prospective cohort study.1941 women with singleton term fetuses in vertex presentation with midpelvic or low aOVD between 2008 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital.Symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI using the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire, and symptoms of anal incontinence (AI severity using Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI were assessed 6 months after aOVD. We measured the association between midpelvic or low aOVD and symptoms of UI, AI, and perineal pain at 6 months using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics, and risk factors of UI and AI, with adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI.The study included 907 women (46.7% who responded to the questionnaire; 18.4% (167/907 had midpelvic aOVD, and 81.6% (740/907 low; and none of women with symptoms of UI (26.6%, and 22.4%, respectively; p = 0.31, AI (15.9%, and 21.8%; p = 0.09, the FISI score, and perineal pain (17.2%, and 12.7%; p = 0.14 differed significantly between groups. The same was true for stress, urge, and mixed-type UI, severe UI and difficulty voiding. Compared with low pelvic aOVD, the aORs for symptoms of UI in midpelvic aOVD were 0.70 (0.46-1.05 and AI 1.42 (0.85-2.39. Third- and fourth-degree tears were a major risk factor of symptoms of UI (aOR 3.08, 95% CI 1.35-7.00 and AI (aOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.43-8.39.Neither symptoms of urinary nor anal incontinence differed at 6 months among women who had midpelvic and low pelvic aOVD. These findings are reassuring and need further studies at long-term to confirm these short-term data.

  6. Intelligent command and control systems for satellite ground operations (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.


    The Georgia Tech portion of the Intelligent Control Center project includes several complementary activities. Two major activities entail thesis level research; the other activities are either support activities or preliminary explorations (e.g., task analyses) to support the research. The first research activity is the development of principles for the design of active interfaces to support monitoring during real-time supports. It is well known that as the operator's task becomes less active, i.e., more monitoring and less active control, there is concern that the operator will be less involved and less able to rapidly identify anomalous or failure situations. The research project to design active monitoring interfaces is an attempt to remediate this undesirable side-effect of increasingly automated control systems that still depend ultimately on operator supervision. The second research activity is the exploration of the use of case-based reasoning as a way to accumulate operator experience and make it available in computational form.

  7. Space Station data management system architecture (United States)

    Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.


    Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

  8. EMCS (Energy Monitoring and Control Systems) Operator Training Manual (United States)


    the air system, if smoke is detected. Smoke detectors may also be used to operate central air systems in special smoke control modes, when the air...areas. These smoke control systems can be extremely complicated and sophisticated. Most central fan systems have the capability of providing varied

  9. Post operative pain control in inguinal hernia repair: comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Post-operative pain control is a key factor in surgery. It greatly increases patient satisfaction, and influences the hospital stay period. Local wound infiltration has often been used to control postoperative pain following hernia surgery, with the use of the conventional local anesthetics like Lidocaine or ...

  10. On the unboundedness of control operators for bilinear systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to study the classes of unbounded linear control operators which ensure the existence and uniqueness of the mild and strong solutions of certain bilinear control systems. By an abstract approach, similar to that adopted by Weiss [18], we obtain a connection between these classes and those ...

  11. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems (United States)

    Chen, Hong


    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  12. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  13. NASA philosophy concerning space stations as operations centers for construction and maintenance of large orbiting energy systems (United States)

    Freitag, R. F.


    Future United States plans for manned space-flight activities are summarized, emphasizing the long-term goals of achieving permanent occupancy and limited self-sufficiency in space. NASA-sponsored studies of earth-orbiting Space Station concepts are reviewed along with lessons learned from the Skylab missions. Descriptions are presented of the Space Transportation System, the Space Construction Base, and the concept of space industrialization (the processing and manufacturing of goods in space). Future plans for communications satellites, solar-power satellites, terrestrial observations from space stations, and manned orbital-transfer vehicles are discussed.

  14. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station (United States)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber


    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

  15. Microbiological Characterization and Concerns of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Wieland, Paul O.


    Since January 1999, the chemical the International Space Station Thermal Control System (IATCS) and microbial state of (ISS) Internal Active fluid has been monitored by analysis of samples returned to Earth. Key chemical parameters have changed over time, including a drop in pH from the specified 9.5 +/- 0.5 ta = 58.4, an increase in the level of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved nickel (Ni) in the fluid, and a decrease in the phosphate (PO,) level. In addition, silver (AS) ion levels in the fluid decreased rapidly as Ag deposited on internal metallic surfaces of the system. The lack of available Ag ions coupled with changes in the fluid chemistry has resulted in a favorable environment for microbial growth. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria have increased from less than 10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/l00 mL to l0(exp 6) to l0(exp 7) CFUs/100 mL. The increase of the microbial population is of concern because uncontrolled microbiological growth in the IATCS can contribute to deterioration in the performance of critical components within the system and potentially impact human health if opportunistic pathogens become established and escape into the cabin atmosphere. Micro-organisms can potentially degrade the coolant chemistry; attach to surfaces and form biofilms; lead to biofouling of filters, tubing, and pumps; decrease flow rates; reduce heat transfer; initiate and accelerate corrosion; and enhance mineral scale formation. The micro- biological data from the ISS IATCS fluid, and approaches to addressing the concerns, are summarized in this paper.

  16. The Catalog of Event Data of the Operational Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) Stations at the National Data Buoy Center (United States)

    Bouchard, R.; Locke, L.; Hansen, W.; Collins, S.; McArthur, S.


    Events. NDBC maintains the non-geophysical Events in order to maintain the continuity of the time series records. In 2007, NDBC compiled all DART Events that occurred while under NDBC's operational control and made an assessment on their validity. The NDBC analysts performed the assessment using the characteristics of the data time series, triggering criteria, and associated seismic events. The compilation and assessments are catalogued in a NDBC technical document. The Catalog also includes a listing of the one-hour, high-resolution data, retrieved remotely from the BPRs that are not available on the web pages. The Events are classified by their triggering mechanism and listed by station location and, for those Events associated with geophysical triggers, they are listed by their associated seismic events. The Catalog provides researchers with a valuable tool in locating, assessing, and applying near real-time DART data to tsunami research and will be updated following DART Events. A link to the published Catalog can be found on the NDBC DART website, Reference: [1] Gower, J. and F. González (2006), U.S. Warning System Detected the Sumatra Tsunami, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(10), 105-112.

  17. Real-time monitoring and operational control of drinking-water systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos; Pérez, Ramon; Cembrano, Gabriela; Quevedo, Joseba; Escobet, Teresa


    This book presents a set of approaches for the real-time monitoring and control of drinking-water networks based on advanced information and communication technologies. It shows the reader how to achieve significant improvements in efficiency in terms of water use, energy consumption, water loss minimization, and water quality guarantees. The methods and approaches presented are illustrated and have been applied using real-life pilot demonstrations based on the drinking-water network in Barcelona, Spain. The proposed approaches and tools cover: • decision-making support for real-time optimal control of water transport networks, explaining how stochastic model predictive control algorithms that take explicit account of uncertainties associated with energy prices and real demand allow the main flow and pressure actuators—pumping stations and pressure regulation valves—and intermediate storage tanks to be operated to meet demand using the most sustainable types of source and with minimum electricity costs;...

  18. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre


    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During

  19. Gaze Behavior While Operating a Complex Instrument Control Task. (United States)

    Kalicinski, Michael; Steinberg, Fabian; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar


    The recent developments of technology in almost all areas of industrial processing, workplace, smart homes, mobility, media, and communication change humans' everyday life environment and behavioral responses in numerous ways. Our main objective in this study was to determine whether subjects' operator performance in a complex sensorimotor task is associated with their gaze behavior. In two experiments subjects operated a complex control task. To this end they watched multiple displays, made strategic decisions, and used multiple actuators to maximize their virtual earnings from operating a virtual power plant. In Experiment 1 we compared gaze behavior during the tasks with respect to operator performance in two different age groups (young vs. old), and in Experiment 2 in two different gravity conditions (normal vs. microgravity). We found gaze pattern changed in older subjects as well as in microgravity. Older adults and subjects in microgravity looked longer at areas that are less relevant for task success. Most importantly, these changes in gaze pattern accounted for the effects of age and microgravity and on total earnings in the instrument-control task. In conclusion, age- and gravity-related changes of gaze behavior show a similar pattern. Gaze behavior seems to play an important role in complex control tasks and might predict alterations of operational performance. Kalicinski M, Steinberg F, Dalecki M, Bock O. Gaze behavior while operating a complex instrument control task. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(7):646-651.

  20. A state-of-the-art report on software operation structure of the digital control computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Kee; Lee, Kyung Hoh; Joo, Jae Yoon; Jang, Yung Woo; Shin, Hyun Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    CANDU Nuclear Power Plants including Wolsong 1 and 2/3/4 are controlled by a real-time plant control computer system. This report was written to provide an overview on the station control computer software which belongs to one of the most advanced real-time computing application area, along with the Fuel Handling Machine design concepts. The combination of well designed control computer and Fuel Handling Machine allow changing fuel bundles while the plant is in operation. Design methodologies and software structure are discussed along with the interface between the two systems. 29 figs., 2 tabs., 20 refs. (Author).

  1. Operational predictive optimal control of Barcelona water transport network


    Pascual, J.; Romera, J.; Puig, V.; Cembrano, G.; Creus, R.; Minoves, M.


    This paper describes the application of model-based predictive control (MPC) techniques to the supervisory flow management in large-scale drinking water networks including a telemetry/telecontrol system. MPC is used to generate flow control strategies (set-points for the regulatory controllers) from the sources to the consumer areas to meet future demands, optimizing performance indexes associated to operational goals such as economic cost, safety storage volumes in the network and smoothness...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith


    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  3. Safe Model Predictive Control Formulations Ensuring Process Operational Safety


    Albalawi, Fahad Ali


    Model predictive control (MPC) is an advanced control strategy widely used in the process industries and beyond. Therefore, industry is interested in the development of MPC formulations that can enhance safety, reliability, and economic profitability of chemical processes. Motivated by these considerations, this dissertation focuses on the development of methods for integrating process operational safety and process economics within model predictive control system designs. To accomplish these...

  4. The control operator for the optimal control model of higher order ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control operator of the Extended Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for the control of two- dimensional higher order non-dispersive waves was constructed in the paper. Explicit expressions of each elements, Ri,j , of the operator, R, were computed. These elements are useful for the implementation of the Optimal Control ...

  5. Raising the AIQ of the Space Station (United States)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald


    Expert systems and robotics technologies are to be significantly advanced during the Space Station program. Artificial intelligence systems (AI) on the Station will include 'scars', which will permit upgrading the AI capabilities as the Station evolves to autonomy. NASA-Ames is managing the development of the AI systems through a series of demonstrations, the first, controlling a single subsystem, to be performed in 1988. The capabilities being integrated into the first demonstration are described; however, machine learning and goal-driven natural language understanding will not reach a prototype stage until the mid-1990s. Steps which will be taken to endow the computer systems with the ability to move from heuristic reasoning to factual knowledge, i.e., learning from experience, are explored. It is noted that the development of Space Station expert systems depends on the development of experts in Station operations, which will not happen until the Station has been used extensively by crew members.

  6. Control methods to improve non-linear HVAC system operations (United States)

    Phalak, Kaustubh Pradeep

    The change of weather conditions and occupancy schedules makes heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems heavily dynamic. The mass and thermal inertia, nonlinear characteristics and interactions in HVAC systems make the control more complicated. As a result, some conventional control methods often cannot provide desired control performance under variable operating conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop control methods to improve the control performance of HVAC systems. This study focuses on optimizing the airflow-pressure control method of air side economizers, identifying robust building pressurization controls, developing a control method to control outdoor air and building pressure in absence of flow and pressure sensors, stabilizing the cooling coil valve operation and, return fan speed control. The improvements can be achieved by identifying and selecting a method with relatively linear performance characteristics out of the available options, applying fans rather than dampers to control building pressure, and improving the controller's stability range using cascade control method. A steady state nonlinear network model, for an air handling unit (AHU), air distribution system and conditioned space, is applied to analyze the system control performance of air-side economizers and building pressurization. The study shows that traditional controls with completely interlinked outdoor air, recirculated air, relief air dampers have the best control performance. The decoupled relief damper control may result in negative building static pressure at lower outdoor airflow ratio and excessively positive building static pressure at higher outdoor airflow ratio. On the other hand, return fan speed control has a better controllability on building pressurization. In absence of flow and pressure sensors fixed interlinked damper and linear return fan speed tracking control can maintain constant outside air ratio and positive building pressure. The

  7. Development of control system in abdominal operating ROV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Weikang


    Full Text Available In order to satisfy all the requirements of Unmanned Underwater Vehicle(UUVrecovery tasks, a new type of abdominal operating Remote Operated Vehicle(ROV was developed. The abdominal operating ROV is different from the general ROV which works by a manipulator, as it completes the docking and recovery tasks of UUVs with its abdominal operating mechanism. In this paper, the system composition and principles of the abdominal operating ROV are presented. We then propose a framework for a control system in which the integrated industrial reinforced computer acts as a surface monitor unit, while the PC104 embedded industrial computer acts as the underwater master control unit and the other drive boards act as the driver unit. In addition, the dynamics model and a robust H-infinity controller for automatic orientation in the horizontal plane were designed and built. Single tests, system tests and underwater tests show that this control system has good real-time performance and reliability, and it can complete the recovery task of a UUV. The presented structure and algorithm could have reference significance to the control system development of mobile robots, drones, and biomimetic robot.

  8. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko


    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  9. Decomposing Objectives and Functions in Power System Operation and Control


    Heussen, Kai; Lind, Morten


    The introduction of many new energy solutions requires the adaptation of classical operation paradigms in power systems. In the standard paradigm, a power system is some equivalent of a synchronous generators, a power line and an uncontrollable load. This paradigm has been challenged by a diverse mix of challenges posed by renewable energy sources, demand response technologies and smartgrid concepts, affecting all areas of power system operation. Both, new control modes and changes in market ...

  10. The manned space-laboratories control centre - MSCC. Operational functions and its implementation (United States)

    Brogl, H.; Kehr, J.; Wlaka, M.

    This paper describes the functions of the MSCC during the operations of the Columbus Attached Laboratory and the Free Flying Laboratory as part of the In-Orbit-Infrastructure Ground Segment. For the Attached Laboratory, MSCC payload operations coordination for European experiments within the Attached Laboratory and elsewhere on the Space Station Freedom will be explained. The Free Flying Laboratory will be operated and maintained exclusively from the MSCC during its 30 years lifetime. Several operational scenarios will demonstrate the role of the MSCC during routine - and servicing operations: of main importance are the servicing activities of the Attached Laboratory and the Free Flyer at the Space Station as well as servicing of the Free Flyer by the European Space Plane Hermes. The MSCC will have complex operational-, communications-and management interfaces with the IOI Ground Segment, the Space Station User community and with the international partners. Columbus User Support Centres will be established in many European member states, which have to be coordinated by the MSCC to ensure the proper reception of the scientific data and to provide them with quick access to their experiments in space. For operations planning and execution of experiments in the Attached Laboratory, a close cooperation with the Space Station control authorities in the USA will be established. The paper will show the development of the MSCC being initially used for the upcoming Spacelab Mission D-2 (MSCC Phase-1) and later upgraded to a Columbus dedicated control centre (MSCC Phase-2). For the initial construction phase the establishing of MSCC requirements, the philosophie used for the definition of the 'basic infrastructure' and key features of the installed facilities will be addressed. Resulting from Columbus and D-2 requirements, the sizing of the building with respect to controlrooms, conference rooms, office spare and simulation high-bay areas will be discussed. The defined 'basic

  11. Flight operations control center lessons learned for the delta clipper experimental rocket (United States)

    Voglewede, Steven D.; Brown, Kevin R.


    This paper summarizes the lessons learned from the operations of the Flight Operations Control Center (FOCC) for the NASA Delta Clipper Experimental (DC-X) single-stage rocket. Also, observations and suggested future enhancements are described for the FOCC Real-Time Data System (RTDS), its components, ground support equipment interfaces, and the FOCC itself. The objective of the FOCC was to streamline flight control operations to more closely resemble the flight deck of a commercial airliner. For the advanced configuration of DC-X and the DC-XA, the FOCC was modified into a physically isolated ground "cockpit" occupied by the flight manager and deputy flight manager, who serve as the ground-based pilot and copilot for the experimental single-stage rocket. The third member of the flight crew, the ground systems manager, operates the vehicle fueling and high-pressure gas loading systems from a separate ground support station on the request of the flight manager. This arrangement was a direct result of lessons learned from the earlier DC-X program. The Real-Time Data System (RTDS), which includes three-dimensional monitoring, color-coded graphical displays and various cockpit controls is highlighted. Lessons learned from the DC-X ground-based application software use, FOCC development, and ground support equipment operations are also discussed. The original Delta Clipper (DC-X) program, completed in July 1995, demonstrated that the cost of traditional rocket launch operations could be substantially reduced through rapid prototyping development, ground automation, and vehicle built-in health monitoring. The new DC-XA FOCC design emphasizes reduced operating costs to meet the overall program goal of providing low-cost affordable access to space in the future.

  12. Developing operator capacity estimates for supervisory control of autonomous vehicles. (United States)

    Cummings, M L; Guerlain, Stephanie


    This study examined operators' capacity to successfully reallocate highly autonomous in-flight missiles to time-sensitive targets while performing secondary tasks of varying complexity. Regardless of the level of autonomy for unmanned systems, humans will be necessarily involved in the mission planning, higher level operation, and contingency interventions, otherwise known as human supervisory control. As a result, more research is needed that addresses the impact of dynamic decision support systems that support rapid planning and replanning in time-pressured scenarios, particularly on operator workload. A dual screen simulation that allows a single operator the ability to monitor and control 8, 12, or 16 missiles through high level replanning was tested on 42 U.S. Navy personnel. The most significant finding was that when attempting to control 16 missiles, participants' performance on three separate objective performance metrics and their situation awareness were significantly degraded. These results mirror studies of air traffic control that demonstrate a similar decline in performance for controllers managing 17 aircraft as compared with those managing only 10 to 11 aircraft. Moreover, the results suggest that a 70% utilization (percentage busy time) score is a valid threshold for predicting significant performance decay and could be a generalizable metric that can aid in manning predictions. This research is relevant to human supervisory control of networked military and commercial unmanned vehicles in the air, on the ground, and on and under the water.

  13. Multilayer Control for Inverters in Parallel Operation without Intercommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Ming; Hu, Haibing; Xing, Yan


    In this paper, a multilayer control is proposed for inverters able to operate in parallel without intercommunications. The first control layer is an improved droop method that introduces power proportional terms into the conventional droop scheme, letting both active and reactive power to be shared...... among the inverters. The second layer is designed to compensate the voltage deviations caused by the mentioned droop control, thus improving the load-voltage regulation of the system. The third layer is a quasi-synchronization control aiming to roughly adjust the angle of the inverter to be close...... to the common ac bus. This layer ensures that the phase difference of each inverter inside a limited margin with the help of the phase signal sensed from the common ac bus. The principle of operation of the control scheme has been analyzed in detail. A small-signal model has been developed in order to study...

  14. [Interventional multidimodal hybrid unit: from pre-operative planning to immediate post-operative control]. (United States)

    Scolozzi, P; Schouman, T


    Computer assisted surgery has rapidly developed over the last decade, essentially due to the development of navigation and 3D virtual surgical planning and image fusion technologies. The recent introduction of intra-operative cone-beam CT scan (CBCT), which integrates flat panel technology, allows for high resolution bone imaging, the quality and accuracy of which is similar to the one obtained by conventional spiral CT scan. The combination of these two technologies in a "hybrid" operating unit enables the convergence of the pre-, intra- and post-operative steps in a linear computer-assisted processing chain, which optimises surgery accuracy, predictability and patient outcomes while potentially reducing costs, operating times and need for further surgical revision. The "hybrid" unit includes: 1) the operating room (65 m(2)) equipped with horizontal laminar-flow, a mobile monoplane ceiling suspended C-arm CBCT scan system with a flat panel detector, a wireless navigation system, and an interactive wall-mount touch screen 2) the control room (18 m(2)) separated from the operating room by an X-ray lead protective glass window, including two separate computer workstations for 3D image integration and processing 3) the scrub room (17 m(2)) with two separate stainless steel surgical wash-basins. The intra-operative protocol includes the following steps: 1) elaboration of the patient specific pre-operative computed planning and simulation based on pre-operatively and/or intra-operatively acquired patient images 2) intra-operative navigational guidance setting 3) surgical procedure 4) intra-operative 3D CT imaging 5) suture. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Boiler operation with adaptive control; Kesselbetrieb mit adaptiver Fuehrungsregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blens, Christian; Schreiber, Michael; Voss, Alexander [EUtech Scientific Engineering GmbH, Aachen (Germany)


    With EUcontrol, EUtech Scientific engineering GmbH (Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany) developed an adaptive control for the optimized operation of a large steam generator. Superior regulations undertake the tasks of process optimization for the increase of availability and efficiency as well as for the control and reduction of emissions. Changing boundary conditions on different time scales constantly are identified and considered in the adaptive modelling. Like that, it is possible to operate a boiler constantly in an optimal instrument range. Thus, optimization goals and boundary conditions can be formulated flexibly and adapted rapidly to the operational requirements. EUcontrol is designed to serve different interfaces to the control technology and is suitable for the optimization of already existing plants.

  16. Operational and Strategic Controlling Tools in Microenterprises - Case Study (United States)

    Konsek-Ciechońska, Justyna


    Globalisation and increasing requirements of the environment cause the executives and supervisors to search for more and more perfect solutions, allowing them to streamline and improve the effectiveness of company operations. One of such tools, used more and more often, is controlling, the role of which has substantially increased in the recent years. It is already implemented not only in large companies with foreign capital, but also in increasingly smaller entities, which begin to notice the positive effects of the implications of the principles and tools of controlling - both operational and strategic. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the practical side of controlling tools that can be used for the purposes of operations conducted by microenterprises.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Globalisation and increasing requirements of the environment cause the executives and supervisors to search for more and more perfect solutions, allowing them to streamline and improve the effectiveness of company operations. One of such tools, used more and more often, is controlling, the role of which has substantially increased in the recent years. It is already implemented not only in large companies with foreign capital, but also in increasingly smaller entities, which begin to notice the positive effects of the implications of the principles and tools of controlling - both operational and strategic. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the practical side of controlling tools that can be used for the purposes of operations conducted by microenterprises.

  18. 21 CFR 111.110 - What quality control operations are required for laboratory operations associated with the... (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for laboratory operations associated with the production and process control system? 111.110 Section 111.110 Food... OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control...

  19. Feasibility of touch-less control of operating room lights. (United States)

    Hartmann, Florian; Schlaefer, Alexander


    Today's highly technical operating rooms lead to fairly complex surgical workflows where the surgeon has to interact with a number of devices, including the operating room light. Hence, ideally, the surgeon could direct the light without major disruption of his work. We studied whether a gesture tracking-based control of an automated operating room light is feasible. So far, there has been little research on control approaches for operating lights. We have implemented an exemplary setup to mimic an automated light controlled by a gesture tracking system. The setup includes a articulated arm to position the light source and an off-the-shelf RGBD camera to detect the user interaction. We assessed the tracking performance using a robot-mounted hand phantom and ran a number of tests with 18 volunteers to evaluate the potential of touch-less light control. All test persons were comfortable with using the gesture-based system and quickly learned how to move a light spot on flat surface. The hand tracking error is direction-dependent and in the range of several centimeters, with a standard deviation of less than 1 mm and up to 3.5 mm orthogonal and parallel to the finger orientation, respectively. However, the subjects had no problems following even more complex paths with a width of less than 10 cm. The average speed was 0.15 m/s, and even initially slow subjects improved over time. Gestures to initiate control can be performed in approximately 2 s. Two-thirds of the subjects considered gesture control to be simple, and a majority considered it to be rather efficient. Implementation of an automated operating room light and touch-less control using an RGBD camera for gesture tracking is feasible. The remaining tracking error does not affect smooth control, and the use of the system is intuitive even for inexperienced users.

  20. Discomfort analysis in computerized numeric control machine operations. (United States)

    Muthukumar, Krishnamoorthy; Sankaranarayanasamy, Krishnasamy; Ganguli, Anindya Kumar


    The introduction of computerized numeric control (CNC) technology in manufacturing industries has revolutionized the production process, but there are some health and safety problems associated with these machines. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of postural discomfort in CNC machine operators, and the relationship of this discomfort to the display and control panel height, with a view to validate the anthropometric recommendation for the location of the display and control panel in CNC machines. The postural discomforts associated with CNC machines were studied in 122 male operators using Corlett and Bishop's body part discomfort mapping, subject information, and discomfort level at various time intervals from starting to end of a shift. This information was collected using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA. Neck discomfort due to the positioning of the machine displays, and shoulder and arm discomfort due to the positioning of controls were identified as common health issues in the operators of these machines. The study revealed that 45.9% of machine operators reported discomfort in the lower back, 41.8% in the neck, 22.1% in the upper-back, 53.3% in the shoulder and arm, and 21.3% of the operators reported discomfort in the leg. Discomfort increased with the progress of the day and was highest at the end of a shift; subject age had no effect on patient tendency to experience discomfort levels.

  1. Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) for Operation in Extreme Environments (United States)

    McKinney, Colin M.; Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Some, Rafi; Sirota, Allen; Kopf, Ted; Stern, Ryan; Hunter, Don


    This paper presents an extreme environment capable Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) module suitable for operation with a distributed architecture of future spacecraft systems. This motor controller is designed to be a bus-based electronics module capable of operating a single Brushless DC motor in extreme space environments: temperature (-120 C to +85 C required, -180 C to +100 C stretch goal); radiation (>;20K required, >;100KRad stretch goal); >;360 cycles of operation. Achieving this objective will result in a scalable modular configuration for motor control with enhanced reliability that will greatly lower cost during the design, fabrication and ATLO phases of future missions. Within the heart of the DMC lies a pair of cold-capable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that enable its miniaturization and operation in extreme environments. The ASICs are fabricated in the IBM 0.5 micron Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process and are comprised of Analog circuitry to provide telemetry information, sensor interface, and health and status of DMC. The FPGA contains logic to provide motor control, status monitoring and spacecraft interface. The testing and characterization of these ASICs have yielded excellent functionality in cold temperatures (-135 C). The DMC module has demonstrated successful operation of a motor at temperature.

  2. Fuzzy optimization in hydrodynamic analysis of groundwater control systems: Case study of the pumping station "Bezdan 1", Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub


    Full Text Available A groundwater control system was designed to lower the water table and allow the pumping station “Bezdan 1” to be built. Based on a hydrodynamic analysis that suggested three alternative solutions, multicriteria optimization was applied to select the best alternative. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method was used, based on triangular fuzzy numbers. An assessment of the various factors that influenced the selection of the best alternative, as well as fuzzy optimization calculations, yielded the “weights” of the alternatives and the best alternative was selected for groundwater control at the site of the pumping station “Bezdan 1”. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-176022, TR-33039 i br. III-43004

  3. Single Operator Control of Multiple UAS: A Supervisory Delegation Approach (United States)

    Shively, Jay


    This presentation will be given as part of the UAS EXCOM Science and Research Panel's (SARP) workshop on multiple UAS controlled by a single operator. Participants were asked to identify public use cases for multiple UAS control and identify research, policy and technical gaps in those operations. The purpose of this workshop is to brainstorm, categorize and prioritize those use canses and gaps. Here, I will discuss research performed on this topic when I worked for the Army and on-going work within the division and a NATO working group on Human-Autonomy Teaming.

  4. A Structure-graph Approach to Diagnosis and Control Reconfiguration Design - exemplified by Station-keeping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens


    This paper addresses the design process of diagnosis and fault-tolerant control when a system should operate despite multiple failures in sensors or actuators. Graph-theory based analysis of system's structure is demonstrated to be a unique design methodology that can cope with the diagnosis design...... for systems of high complexity, and also analyse the cases of cascaded or multiple faults. The paper demonstrates the design method on a ship with three actuators: two shafts with CP propellers and a bow thruster, and navigation instruments: global position sensors (GPS), inertial navigation units...... and conventional gyros to provide ship motion information. A salient feature of the design method is shown to be the ability to analyse cases where one or more faults have occurred and rapidly determine where in the faulty system reconfigurability, diagnosability and controllability are retained....

  5. Distributed Bus Signaling Control for a DC Charging Station with Multi Paralleled Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos


    Fast charging stations (FCS) will become an essential part of future transportation systems with an increasing number of electrical vehicles. However, since these FCS plugs have power ratings of up to 100 kW, serious stress caused by large number of FCS could threaten the stability of the main po...

  6. Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (United States)


    contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or promotional purposes. Ci- tation of trade names does not constitute an...route to handle the extreme flows and merging several existing flow paths are recommended to be ad- dressed in future improvement at the Station

  7. Risk based methods for optimised operation of power stations - a pilot study; Riskbaserade metoder foer optimerad drift av kraftvaermeverk - en foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnars, Jens; Gustavsson, Fredrik [Det Norske Veritas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Methods for risk based planning and management of maintenance and operation of mechanical components in power stations have been studied. Risk based methods may be utilised for analysis of the risk level with reference to both safety and economy of the plant. The methods can be an important tool for planning and optimisation of the annual investment in different types of maintenance actions, with the purpose of improving long term profitability. The risk based planning can include: selection of components, inspection intervals, coverage, planning of time for replacement/repair of components, and selection of operation conditions. The first part of the report is a general survey and description of risk based methods for analyse of mechanical components. Some problems specific to power stations are discussed. Application of quantitative RBI is illustrated for the water system in steam boiler number 5 at Aabyverket. The possibilities to decrease inspection costs or increase availability also for power stations is obvious, and is expected to result in competitive advantages. The use and understanding of quantitative reliability methods are a necessary and essential part of any RBI assessment.

  8. Note: Wide-operating-range control for thermoelectric coolers (United States)

    Peronio, P.; Labanca, I.; Ghioni, M.; Rech, I.


    A new algorithm for controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric cooler is proposed. Unlike a classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control, which computes the bias voltage from the temperature error, the proposed algorithm exploits the linear relation that exists between the cold side's temperature and the amount of heat that is removed per unit time. Since this control is based on an existing linear relation, it is insensitive to changes in the operating point that are instead crucial in classic PID control of a non-linear system.

  9. Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco)


    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure


    The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 min...

  10. System for controlling the operating temperature of a fuel cell (United States)

    Fabis, Thomas R.; Makiel, Joseph M.; Veyo, Stephen E.


    A method and system are provided for improved control of the operating temperature of a fuel cell (32) utilizing an improved temperature control system (30) that varies the flow rate of inlet air entering the fuel cell (32) in response to changes in the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32). Consistent with the invention an improved temperature control system (30) is provided that includes a controller (37) that receives an indication of the temperature of the inlet air from a temperature sensor (39) and varies the heat output by at least one heat source (34, 36) to maintain the temperature of the inlet air at a set-point T.sub.inset. The controller (37) also receives an indication of the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) and varies the flow output by an adjustable air mover (33), within a predetermined range around a set-point F.sub.set, in order to maintain the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) at a set-point T.sub.opset.

  11. Kerr-McGee Gathering, LLC, Frederick Compressor Station; Order Granting Petition for Objection to Title V Operating Permit (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at

  12. High Level Control Applications for SOLEIL Commissioning and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Nadolski, Laurent S; Ho, Katy; Leclercq, Nicolas; Ounsy, Majid; Petit, Sylvain


    The SOLEIL control system, namely TANGO developed in collaboration with ESRF, is now mature and stable. TANGO has also been chosen now by several other laboratories. High-level control applications implemented in the control room for the storage ring, the two transfer lines, and the booster will be described in this paper. Three kinds of tools for commissioning are used. First the generic TANGO tools (alarms, simple graphical control applications), which allow us to control in a simple way any TANGO Device Server. Secondly a Matlab Middle Layer (adapted from ALS and SPEAR3): Matlab is fully interconnected with TANGO; it is used primarily for writing Physics control applications. Finally Globalscreen, a commercial SCADA software devoted for building operation applications has been selected (panels for controlling or displaying setpoint, readback values, status of equipments). In addition an overview of the historical and short-term databases for the accelerators will be given. They have been developed in house...

  13. Multilayer control for inverters in parallel operation without signal interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Ming; Hu, Haibing; Xing, Yan


    A multilayer control is proposed for inverters with wireless parallel operation in this paper. The control is embedded in every inverter respectively and consists of three layers. The first layer is based on an improved droop method, which shares the active and reactive power in each module...... in order to ensure all the paralleled inverters keeping in phase. The operational principle and implementation are analyzed in details. A prototype, configured by two paralleled inverters, is set up. Experimental results verify the validity of the proposed control....... by adjusting the phase and amplitude of the output voltage respectively. The second layer is to compensate the droop voltage caused by the droop control and thus improve the load regulation performance of the inverter. The third layer limits the phase deviation between the inverter and the shared ac bus...

  14. Robots for Field Operations with Comprehensive Multilayer Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Claes Lund Dühring; Griepentrog, H. W.; Paraforos, D. S.


    Today research within agricultural technology focuses beside productivity and operation costs mainly on increasing the resource efficiency of crop production. Autonomous machines have the potential to significantly contribute to this by utilizing more multi-factorial real-time sensing and embedding...... artificial intelligence. A multilayer controller has successfully been implemented on two outdoor machines with various implements to conduct several agricultural applications in autonomous mode. Future work has to be conducted to achieve a more integrated and flexible implement control....

  15. Selective analysis of power plant operation on the Hudson River with emphasis on the Bowline Point Generating Station. Volume 1. [Effects on striped bass population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Christensen, S. G.


    A comprehensive study of the effects of power plant operation on the Hudson River was conducted. The study included thermal, biological, and air quality effects of existing and planned electrical generating stations. This section on thermal impacts presents a comprehensive mathematical modeling and computer simulation study of the effects of heat rejection from the plants. The overall study consisted of three major parts: near-field analysis; far-field analysis; and zone-matched near-field/far-field analysis. Near-field analyses were completed for Roseton, Danskammer, and Bowline Point Generating Stations, and near-field dilution ratios range from a low of about 2 for Bowline Point and 3 for Roseton to a maximum of 6 for both plants. The far-field analysis included a critical review of existing studies and a parametric review of operating plants. The maximum thermal load case, based on hypothetical 1974 river conditions, gives the daily maximum cross-section-averaged and 2-mile-segment-averaged water temperatures as 83.80/sup 0/F in the vicinity of the Indian Point Station and 83.25/sup 0/F in the vicinity of the Bowline Station. This maximum case will be significantly modified if cooling towers are used at certain units. A full analysis and discussion of these cases is presented. A study of the Hudson River striped bass population is divided into the following eight subsections: distribution of striped bass eggs, larvae, and juveniles in the Hudson River; entrainment mortality factor; intake factor; impingement; effects of discharges; compensation; model estimates of percent reduction; and Hudson River striped bass stock.

  16. Modeling of the spatial state of the ionosphere using regular definitions of the VTEC identifier at the network of continuously operating GNSS stations of Ukraine (United States)

    Yankiv-Vitkovska, Liubov; Dzhuman, Bogdan


    Due to the wide application of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the development of the modern GNSS infrastructure moved the monitoring of the Earth's ionosphere to a new methodological and technological level. The peculiarity of such monitoring is that it allows conducting different experimental studies including the study of the ionosphere directly while using the existing networks of reference GNSS stations intended for solving other problems. The application of the modern GNSS infrastructure is another innovative step in the ionospheric studies as such networks allow to conduct measurements continuously over time in any place. This is used during the monitoring of the ionosphere and allows studying the global and regional phenomena in the ionosphere in real time. Application of a network of continuously operating reference stations to determine numerical characteristics of the Earth's ionosphere allows creating an effective technology to monitor the ionosphere regionally. This technology is intended to solve both scientific problems concerning the space weather, and practical tasks such as providing coordinates of the geodetic level accuracy. For continuously operating reference GNSS stations, the results of the determined ionization identifier TEC (Total Electron Content). On the one hand, this data reflects the state of the ionosphere during the observation; on the other hand, it is a substantial tool for accuracy improvement and reliable determination of coordinates of the observation place. Thus, it was decided to solve a problem of restoring the spatial position of the ionospheric state or its ionization field according to the regular definitions of the TEC identifier, i.e. VTEC (Vertical TEC). The description below shows one of the possible solutions that is based on the spherical cap harmonic analysis method for modeling VTEC parameter. This method involves transformation of the initial data to a spherical cap and construction of model using

  17. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josh A. Salmond


    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  18. Operational controlling - a tool of translating strategy into action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available . Enterprises have a lot of problems with realization their strategic aims in the fast changing and competitive business arena from many years. Effective execution of strategic plan needs its translating into action, task results and indicators of everyday activities. The success on the market is attainable by communicating strategic and operating goals on the each level of organizational structure and their connecting with budget of units or employee motivation. The scorecards balancing in finance, customer, process and development perspectives is very useful for pointing - what do we control with? or - what do we have to achieve? But doesn't answer to question about ways of enterprise managing. Main aim of the article is proving that operational controlling system is a essential tool for translating strategy into action. The Balanced Scorecard methodology should to take into consideration system and process connection of enterprise with procurement, co-operation or distribution supply chain also.

  19. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU


    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  20. SILEX ground segment control facilities and flight operations (United States)

    Demelenne, Benoit; Tolker-Nielsen, Toni; Guillen, Jean-Claude


    The European Space Agency is going to conduct an inter orbit link experiment which will connect a low Earth orbiting satellite and a Geostationary satellite via optical terminals. This experiment has been called SILEX (Semiconductor Inter satellite Link Experiment). Two payloads have been built. One called PASTEL (PASsager de TELecommunication) has been embarked on the French Earth observation satellite SPOT4 which has been launched successfully in March 1998. The future European experimental data relay satellite ARTEMIS (Advanced Relay and TEchnology MISsion), which will route the data to ground, will carry the OPALE terminal (Optical Payload Experiment). The European Space Agency is responsible for the operation of both terminals. Due to the complexity and experimental character of this new optical technology, the development, preparation and validation of the ground segment control facilities required a long series of technical and operational qualification tests. This paper is presenting the operations concept and the early results of the PASTEL in orbit operations.

  1. MIMO Self-Tuning Control of Chemical Process Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, L.; Jørgensen, S. B.; Goldschmidt, L.


    The problem of selecting a feasible model structure for a MIMO self-tuning controller (MIMOSC) is addressed. The dependency of the necessary structure complexity in relation to the specific process operating point is investigated. Experimental results from a fixed-bed chemical reactor are used...

  2. Fault tolerant wind turbine production operation and shutdown (Sustainable Control)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engelen, T.; Schuurmans, J.; Kanev, S.; Dong, J.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Hayashi, Y.


    Extreme environmental conditions as well as system failure are real-life phenomena. Especially offshore, extreme environmental conditions and system faults are to be dealt with in an effective way. The project Sustainable Control, a new approach to operate wind turbines (Agentschap NL, grant

  3. Protection and Resource Control in Distributed Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.; Tanenbaum, Andrew S.


    Local networks often consist of a cable snaking through a building with sockets in each room into which users can plug their personal computers. Using such a network for building a coherent distributed or network operating system is difficult because the system administrators have no control over

  4. The character of harms: operational challenges in control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sparrow, Malcolm K


    ... approach which he terms "the sabotage of harms." The book explores the institutional arrangements and decision-frameworks necessary to support this emerging operational model. Written for reflective practitioners charged with risk-control responsibilities across the public, private, and non-governmental sectors, The Character ...

  5. Response Times of Operators in a Control Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, Jens; Skanborg, Preben Zacho

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night...

  6. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.


    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  7. CNC Turning Center Advanced Operations. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-332. (United States)

    Skowronski, Steven D.; Tatum, Kenneth

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to introduce the student to the operations and functions of a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 presents course expectations and syllabus, covers safety precautions, and describes the CNC turning center components, CNC…

  8. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system. (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah


    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  9. Upgrade of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) for long term operation on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebelsmeyer, K. [Ist Physics Institute RWTH Aachen, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Schultz von Dratzig, A., E-mail: [Ist Physics Institute RWTH Aachen, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Wlochal, M. [Ist Physics Institute RWTH Aachen, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P. [INFN-Sezione di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Battiston, R. [Universita Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Becker, R.; Becker, U. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bertucci, B. [Universita Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Bollweg, K. [NASA, JSC Houston, 2101 NASA Road One, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Burger, J.D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cadoux, F. [DPNC, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Choutko, V. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Duranti, M. [Universita Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Gargiulo, C. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Guandalini, C. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Haino, S. [INFN-Sezione di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Ionica, M. [Universita Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); and others


    Following the decision to maintain the International Space Station (ISS) on orbit until at least 2020 (possibly until 2028) the AMS collaboration decided to correspondingly extend the lifetime of the experiment. Since the limited amount of helium used to cool the superconducting magnet allowed for only a limited run time of the experiment, a change from the superconducting magnet to the permanent magnet used in AMS-01 became necessary. Due to the lower magnetic field, to maintain the resolution the silicon tracker also had to be reconfigured with the installation of a silicon plane on the top of the experiment and a new plane above the electromagnetic calorimeter.

  10. A feasibility assessment of installation, operation and disposal options for nuclear reactor power system concepts for a NASA growth space station (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.; Heller, Jack A.


    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational disposition, and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide the feasibility of each combination.

  11. Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator (United States)

    Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.


    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that

  12. New Operator Assistance Features in the CMS Run Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J.M.; et al.


    During Run-1 of the LHC, many operational procedures have been automated in the run control system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. When detector high voltages are ramped up or down or upon certain beam mode changes of the LHC, the DAQ system is automatically partially reconfigured with new parameters. Certain types of errors such as errors caused by single-event upsets may trigger an automatic recovery procedure. Furthermore, the top-level control node continuously performs cross-checks to detect sub-system actions becoming necessary because of changes in configuration keys, changes in the set of included front-end drivers or because of potential clock instabilities. The operator is guided to perform the necessary actions through graphical indicators displayed next to the relevant command buttons in the user interface. Through these indicators, consistent configuration of CMS is ensured. However, manually following the indicators can still be inefficient at times. A new assistant to the operator has therefore been developed that can automatically perform all the necessary actions in a streamlined order. If additional problems arise, the new assistant tries to automatically recover from these. With the new assistant, a run can be started from any state of the sub-systems with a single click. An ongoing run may be recovered with a single click, once the appropriate recovery action has been selected. We review the automation features of CMS Run Control and discuss the new assistant in detail including first operational experience.

  13. Analysis of mental workload of electrical power plant operators of control and operation centers. (United States)

    Vitório, Daiana Martins; Masculo, Francisco Soares; Melo, Miguel O B C


    Electrical systems can be categorized as critical systems where failure can result in significant financial loss, injury or threats to human life. The operators of the electric power control centers perform an activity in a specialized environment and have to carry it out by mobilizing knowledge and reasoning to which they have adequate training under the terms of the existing rules. To reach this there is a common mental request of personnel involved in these centers due the need to maintain attention, memory and reasoning request. In this sense, this study aims to evaluate the Mental Workload of technical workers of the Control Centers of Electrical Energy. It was undertaken a research on operators control centers of the electricity sector in Northeast Brazil. It was used for systematic observations, followed by interview and application of the instrument National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index known as NASA-TLX. As a result there will be subsidies for an assessment of mental workload of operators, and a contribution to improving the processes of managing the operation of electric utilities and the quality of workers.

  14. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.


    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  15. Microgrids and distributed generation systems: Control, operation, coordination and planning (United States)

    Che, Liang

    Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) which include distributed generations (DGs), distributed energy storage systems, and adjustable loads are key components in microgrid operations. A microgrid is a small electric power system integrated with on-site DERs to serve all or some portion of the local load and connected to the utility grid through the point of common coupling (PCC). Microgrids can operate in both grid-connected mode and island mode. The structure and components of hierarchical control for a microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) are discussed and analyzed. Case studies would address the reliable and economic operation of IIT microgrid. The simulation results of IIT microgrid operation demonstrate that the hierarchical control and the coordination strategy of distributed energy resources (DERs) is an effective way of optimizing the economic operation and the reliability of microgrids. The benefits and challenges of DC microgrids are addressed with a DC model for the IIT microgrid. We presented the hierarchical control strategy including the primary, secondary, and tertiary controls for economic operation and the resilience of a DC microgrid. The simulation results verify that the proposed coordinated strategy is an effective way of ensuring the resilient response of DC microgrids to emergencies and optimizing their economic operation at steady state. The concept and prototype of a community microgrid that interconnecting multiple microgrids in a community are proposed. Two works are conducted. For the coordination, novel three-level hierarchical coordination strategy to coordinate the optimal power exchanges among neighboring microgrids is proposed. For the planning, a multi-microgrid interconnection planning framework using probabilistic minimal cut-set (MCS) based iterative methodology is proposed for enhancing the economic, resilience, and reliability signals in multi-microgrid operations. The implementation of high-reliability microgrids

  16. The control of operational risk in nuclear power plant operations - Some cross-cultural perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchard, A.; Rochlin, G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))


    The operation of nuclear power plants requires the management of a complex technology under exacting performance and safety criteria. Organizations operating nuclear power plants are faced with the challenge of simultaneously meeting technical, organizational, and social demands, striving toward perfection in a situation where learning by trial and error can be too costly. In this process, they interact with regulatory bodies who seek to help minimize operational risk by imposing and upholding safety standards. The character of this interaction differs in various countries, as does the larger cultural setting. The study generally pursued the question of how organizations operating complex and demanding technologies adapt to such requirements and circumstances, and how they can succeed in delivering nearly error-free performance. One aspect of this study includes the comparison of organizational and cultural environments for nuclear power plant operations in the US, France, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland. The research involved in-depth, continuous observations on location and interviews with plant personnel, especially control operators, at one plant in each country.

  17. 75 FR 3622 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz... (United States)


    ... entities that sell or lease these devices must display a consumer disclosure at the point of sale or lease... disclosure at the point of sale or lease informing consumers of the conditions that apply to the operation of... point of sale or lease informing consumers of the conditions that apply to the operation of wireless...

  18. National Ignition Facility Control and Information System Operational Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, C D; Beeler, R G; Bowers, G A; Carey, R W; Fisher, J M; Foxworthy, C B; Frazier, T M; Mathisen, D G; Lagin, L J; Rhodes, J J; Shaw, M J


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Livermore, California, is the world's highest-energy laser fusion system and one of the premier large scale scientific projects in the United States. The system is designed to setup and fire a laser shot to a fusion ignition or high energy density target at rates up to a shot every 4 hours. NIF has 192 laser beams delivering up to 1.8 MJ of energy to a {approx}2 mm target that is planned to produce >100 billion atm of pressure and temperatures of >100 million degrees centigrade. NIF is housed in a ten-story building footprint the size of three football fields as shown in Fig. 1. Commissioning was recently completed and NIF will be formally dedicated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29, 2009. The control system has 60,000 hardware controls points and employs 2 million lines of control system code. The control room has highly automated equipment setup prior to firing laser system shots. This automation has a data driven implementation that is conducive to dynamic modification and optimization depending on the shot goals defined by the end user experimenters. NIF has extensive facility machine history and infrastructure maintenance workflow tools both under development and deployed. An extensive operational tools suite has been developed to support facility operations including experimental shot setup, machine readiness, machine health and safety, and machine history. The following paragraphs discuss the current state and future upgrades to these four categories of operational tools.

  19. Using Web 2.0 (and Beyond?) in Space Flight Operations Control Centers (United States)

    Scott, David W.


    Word processing was one of the earliest uses for small workstations, but we quickly learned that desktop computers were far more than e-typewriters. Similarly, "Web 2.0" capabilities, particularly advanced search engines, chats, wikis, blogs, social networking, and the like, offer tools that could significantly improve our efficiency at managing the avalanche of information and decisions needed to operate space vehicles in realtime. However, could does not necessarily equal should. We must wield two-edged swords carefully to avoid stabbing ourselves. This paper examines some Web 2.0 tools, with an emphasis on social media, and suggests which ones might be useful or harmful in real-time space operations co rnotl environments, based on the author s experience as a Payload Crew Communicator (PAYCOM) at Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) and on discussions with other space flight operations control organizations and centers. There is also some discussion of an offering or two that may come from beyond the current cyber-horizon.

  20. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices (United States)

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Fruk, Ljiljana; Hung, Yu-Chueh


    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Automated space vehicle control for rendezvous proximity operations (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.


    Rendezvous during the unmanned space exploration missions, such as a Mars Rover/Sample Return will require a completely automatic system from liftoff to docking. A conceptual design of an automated rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking system is being implemented and validated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The emphasis is on the progress of the development and testing of a prototype system for control of the rendezvous vehicle during proximity operations that is currently being developed at JSC. Fuzzy sets are used to model the human capability of common sense reasoning in decision making tasks and such models are integrated with the expert systems and engineering control system technology to create a system that performs comparably to a manned system.

  2. New operator assistance features in the CMS Run Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Jean-Marc Olivier; Branson, James; Brummer, Philipp Maximilian; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Contescu, Cristian; Craigs, Benjamin Gordon; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, Marc; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan F; Gigi, Dominique; Michail Gładki; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Janulis, Mindaugas; Jimenez Estupinan, Raul; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrova, Petia; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Simelevicius, Dainius; Zejdl, Petr; Vougioukas, M.


    The Run Control System of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is a distributed Java web application running on Apache Tomcat servers. During Run-1 of the LHC, many operational procedures have been automated. When detector high voltages are ramped up or down or upon certain beam mode changes of the LHC, the DAQ system is automatically partially reconfigured with new parameters. Certain types of errors such as errors caused by single-event upsets may trigger an automatic recovery procedure. Furthermore, the top-level control node continuously performs cross-checks to detect sub-system actions becoming necessary because of changes in configuration keys, changes in the set of included front-end drivers or because of potential clock instabilities. The operator is guided to perform the necessary actions through graphical indicators displayed next to the relevant command buttons in the user interface. Through these indicators, consistent configuration of CMS is ensured. However, manually following t...

  3. Expert systems in power substation operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme Moutinho; Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    With digital technology being increasingly adopted in power substations (SE), perspectives are created for integration of supervision, control and protection systems in addition to making its process automation feasible. Once a SE is digitalized, the systems which previously were implemented physically will be able to be implemented by means of computer programs (software), allowing the expansion of its scope of operation. Studies and research performed at the international level have pointed to the utilization of Expert Systems (ES) as a more suitable alternative for representation and solution of the operation and control problems, especially those which do not have an established theory, which are provided with diagnosis characteristics and that associate themselves with fuzzy data and information. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  4. 78 FR 45990 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to... (United States)


    ... Authority of Georgia, and the City of Dalton, Georgia (the licensee); for construction and operation of the... No. ML13121A421, the Commission finds that: A. The exemption is authorized by law; B. the exemption...

  5. The Movement Control Battalions Role in Airfield Operations (United States)


    assisted the local authorities with developing a prior-permis- sion-required management system for aircraft. Because the maximum number of aircraft on the...received a sec- ond MCT, the 609th MCT, which assumed duties for control of all car - go operations at RIA. Airfield Improvements Because of the increased...remaining during takeoff and landing. Before the runway was improved, landing aircraft would immediately apply full brakes . Through flexibility and adapta

  6. Performance analysis of gas purging operation in volume control tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Chung, Chang Kyu; Lim, Duck Jae; Kim, Eun Kee [Korea Power Engineering Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Volume Control Tank (VCT) is designed to provide for control of hydrogen concentration in the coolant and the means for the removal of radioactive gases by purging the accumulated gases in the tank. NRC notified the licensees that the charging pump with the minimum bypass line could be damaged by the gas binding in the suction piping. It is caused by the evolution of hydrogen gas at the point where the local pressure is less than the saturated pressure. The purging operation results in the pressure reduction of the VCT. The computer code is developed to evaluate the capacities and set points of the pressure regulating valves which are installed on the gas control system of the VCT. In order to exclude the hydrogen evolution during the purging operation with the supply capacity of 20 SCFM, the set points of the regulating valves for nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas shall not be higher than 45 psig and 30 psig, respectively. The capacities shall be more than 25 SCFM for nitrogen gas and 55 SCFM for hydrogen gas to get the adjustable set point of 20 through 50 psig. To minimize the purging time and the wasted gas mass during the purging operation, the set point shall be reduced as low as possible within this set point range.

  7. Flexible operation strategy for environment control system in abnormal supply power condition (United States)

    Liping, Pang; Guoxiang, Li; Hongquan, Qu; Yufeng, Fang


    This paper establishes an optimization method that can be applied to the flexible operation of the environment control system in an abnormal supply power condition. A proposed conception of lifespan is used to evaluate the depletion time of the non-regenerative substance. The optimization objective function is to maximize the lifespans. The optimization variables are the allocated powers of subsystems. The improved Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm is adopted to obtain the pareto optimization frontier with the constraints of the cabin environmental parameters and the adjustable operating parameters of the subsystems. Based on the same importance of objective functions, the preferred power allocation of subsystems can be optimized. Then the corresponding running parameters of subsystems can be determined to ensure the maximum lifespans. A long-duration space station with three astronauts is used to show the implementation of the proposed optimization method. Three different CO2 partial pressure levels are taken into consideration in this study. The optimization results show that the proposed optimization method can obtain the preferred power allocation for the subsystems when the supply power is at a less-than-nominal value. The method can be applied to the autonomous control for the emergency response of the environment control system.

  8. On the first partial licence (new) for operation of the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station. Zur ersten Teilgenehmigung (neu) fuer Muelheim-Kaerlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The local governments of the towns of Mayen and Neuwied and the public utilities of Neuwied (Stadtwerke Neuwied GmbH) had brought an action before a court, claiming annulment of the 1st partial licence (new), of July 20, 1990. This action suspended the effect of the partial licence in accordance with section 80, sub-sec. (1) VwGO, so that the nuclear power station could not resume operation. An application for immediate enforcement of the operating licence, filed by the nuclear power plant operator under section 80, sub-sec. 2, no. 4 VwGO, which would have permitted operation despite the partial licence involved in litigation, was dismissed by the land government. The Higher Administrative Court of Rhineland/Polatinate in Koblenz decided for an annulment of the 1st partial licence (new) of July 20, 1990 (judgement of May 24, 1991, full statement given in the article). An appeal to the higher court was lodged by the power plant operator, RWE Energie AG, from the judgement that did not grant leave for an appeal. OVG Rheinland/Pfalz, decision of May 24, 1991. AZ: 7C 11749/90. OVG (subject to appeal). (orig./HP).

  9. An improved droop control method for multi-terminal VSC-HVDC converter stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yue; Duan, Guozhao


    of smart grids. However, it is still a problem to control the converter to achieve the function of each AC system sharing the reserve capacity of the entire network. This paper proposes an improved control strategy based on the slope control of the DC voltage and AC frequency (V-f slope control), in which...... the virtual inertia is introduced. This method can ensure that each AC sub-system shares the primary frequency control function. Additionally, with the new control method, it is easy to apply the secondary frequency control method of traditional AC systems to AC/DC hybrid systems to achieve the steady control...... of the DC voltage and AC frequency of the whole system. Most importantly, the new control method is better than the traditional control method in terms of dynamic performance. In this paper, a new control method is proposed, and the simulation model has been established in Matlab/Simulink to verify...

  10. Environmental Control and Life Support Integration Strategy for 6-Crew Operations Stephanie Duchesne (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.


    The International Space Station (ISS) crew compliment has increased in size from 3 to 6 crew members . In order to support this increase in crew on ISS, the United States on-orbit Segment (USOS) has been outfitted with a suite of regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware including an Oxygen Generation System(OGS), Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), and a Water Recovery System (WRS). The WRS includes the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). With this additional life support hardware, the ISS has achieved full redundancy in its on-orbit life support system between the USOS and Russian Segment (RS). The additional redundancy created by the Regenerative ECLS hardware creates the opportunity for independent support capabilities between segments, and for the first time since the start of ISS, the necessity to revise Life Support strategy agreements. Independent operating strategies coupled with the loss of the Space Shuttle supply and return capabilities in 2010 offer new and unique challenges. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ISS Life Support hardware strategy in support of 6-Crew on ISS, as well as the continued work that is necessary to ensure the support of crew and ISS Program objectives through the life of station.

  11. Environmental Control and Life Support Integration Strategy for 6-Crew Operations (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Tressler, Chad H.


    The International Space Station (ISS) crew complement has increased in size from 3 to 6 crew members. In order to support this increase in crew on ISS, the United States on-orbit Segment (USOS) has been outfitted with a suite of regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware including an Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), and a Water Recovery System (WRS). The WRS includes the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). With this additional life support hardware, the ISS has achieved full redundancy in its on-orbit life support system between the t OS and Russian Segment (RS). The additional redundancy created by the Regenerative ECLS hardware creates the opportunity for independent support capabilities between segments, and for the first time since the start of ISS, the necessity to revise Life Support strategy agreements. Independent operating strategies coupled with the loss of the Space Shuttle supply and return capabilities in 2010 offer new and unique challenges. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ISS Life Support hardware strategy in support of 6-Crew on ISS, as well as the continued work that is necessary to ensure the support of crew and ISS Program objectives through the life of station

  12. Frequency control in electrical system mathematical modeling and operation control problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Veprik


    Full Text Available To improve the performance of primary data processing algorithms when determining frequency in problems of mathematical modeling and operation control of electrical systems, it is proposed to represent discrete instantaneous values of operating mode parameters by their generalized vectors.

  13. Space Station fluid management logistics (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.


    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  14. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations... Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. The following requirements apply during all well-workover operations with the tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...

  15. Petition to Object to the Eastern Kentucky Power Coop. William C. Dale Power Station, Ford, Kentucky, Title V Operating Permit (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system (United States)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu


    Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

  17. Standard formatted data units-control authority operations (United States)


    The purpose of this document is to illustrate a Control Authority's (CA) possible operation. The document is an interpretation and expansion of the concept found in the CA Procedures Recommendation. The CA is described in terms of the functions it performs for the management and control of data descriptions (metadata). Functions pertaining to the organization of Member Agency Control Authority Offices (MACAOs) (e.g., creating and disbanding) are not discussed. The document also provides an illustrative operational view of a CA through scenarios describing interaction between those roles involved in collecting, controlling, and accessing registered metadata. The roles interacting with the CA are identified by their actions in requesting and responding to requests for metadata, and by the type of information exchanged. The scenarios and examples presented in this document are illustrative only. They represent possible interactions supported by either a manual or automated system. These scenarios identify requirements for an automated system. These requirements are expressed by identifying the information to be exchanged and the services that may be provided by a CA for that exchange.

  18. Evaluation of Real-time operating systems for FGC controls

    CERN Document Server

    Chalas, Konstantinos


    Power Converter Control for various experiments at CERN, is con- ducted using a machine called Function Generator Controller. The cur- rent generation of FGCs being deployed is FGC3. A certain number of FGCs require very fast and precise control, and for these systems, there is uncertainty of whether the existing hardware will be able to provide the level of determinism required. I have worked in the CCS section as a summer student on a project to study the potential of ARM-based CPUs to provide a real time behaviour fit for a future high-performance FGC4. In this paper, i will present the results of my research into real-time vari- ants of Linux and other real-time operating systems on two different ARM CPUs.

  19. Hierarchical Control for Optimal and Distributed Operation of Microgrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan

    The distributed generation, storage and consumption, as well as the sustainability consideration prompt a revolution to the existing electric power grid. Microgrids (MG) concept has been proposed to liberate the operation of each distribution system fraction, forming in that way a flexible......, a discrete-time domain modeling method is proposed to establish an accurate system level model. Taking into account the different sampling times of real world plant, digital controller and communication devices, the system is modeled with these three parts separately, and with full consideration...... and performance with the proposed control schemes and modeling methods, experimental and hardware-in-the-loop simulation studies are conducted in the intelligent MG lab. The successful realization of online optimization and distributed control functions is expected to be able to provide guidance for real world...

  20. Computing an operating parameter of a unified power flow controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.


    A Unified Power Flow Controller described herein comprises a sensor that outputs at least one sensed condition, a processor that receives the at least one sensed condition, a memory that comprises control logic that is executable by the processor; and power electronics that comprise power storage, wherein the processor causes the power electronics to selectively cause the power storage to act as one of a power generator or a load based at least in part upon the at least one sensed condition output by the sensor and the control logic, and wherein at least one operating parameter of the power electronics is designed to facilitate maximal transmittal of electrical power generated at a variable power generation system to a grid system while meeting power constraints set forth by the electrical power grid.

  1. 77 FR 6601 - Facility Operating License Amendment From Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC.; Nine Mile Point... (United States)


    ... nozzle hydraulic reaction forces during normal operation. ] The material change does not affect the... storage media. Participants may not submit paper copies of their filings unless they seek an exemption in..., such as social security numbers, home addresses, or home phone numbers in their filings, unless an NRC...

  2. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management (United States)

    Daniels, James


    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  3. Study of operational risk-based configuration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W E [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States); Samanta, P K; Kim, I S [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    This report studies aspects of a risk-based configuration control system to detect and control plant configurations from a risk perspective. Configuration control, as the term is used here, is the management of component configurations to achieve specific objectives. One important objective is to control risk and safety. Another is to operate efficiently and make effective use of available resources. PSA-based evaluations are performed to study configuration to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability for two plants. Some equipment configurations can cause large core-melt frequency and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. The insights from this evaluation are used to develop the framework for an effective risk-based configuration control system. The focal points of such a system and the requirements for tools development for implementing the system are defined. The requirements of risk models needed for the system, and the uses of plant-specific data are also discussed. 18 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. 78 FR 50455 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Changes to... (United States)


    ... the Chemical Volume Control System AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Exemption and..., located in Burke County, Georgia. The amendment requests changes that modify the Chemical and Volume Control System (CVS), including changes to information located in Tier 1 Tables 2.3.2- 1 and 2.3.2-2, and...

  5. Operations of electric taxis to serve advance reservations by trip chaining: Sensitivity analysis on network size, customer demand and number of charging stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang


    Full Text Available This research investigated the performance of an Electric Taxi (ET fleet that catered solely for customers with advance reservations. In a previously related research, a customized Paired Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Window and Charging Station (PPDPTWCS had been formulated to solve for the minimum number of taxis that would serve a fixed set of customer demand. The concept behind this fleet optimization was to chain multiple customer trips and trips to Charging Stations (CSs to form a route and assigned to a taxi driver. In this paper the sensitivity of the ET fleet’s operations with respect to network sizes, customer demand densities and number of CSs have been investigated. It also analyzed the market shares of the CSs and the occupancy of a CS over time. The results showed that, (1 the expansion of network size or the increase in customer demand density led to increase in fleet size, number of trips to the CSs and maximum occupancies at the CSs but these performance measures grew at different rates; (2 when the network size and number of CSs were fixed, an increase in customer demand density led to a better utilization of taxis in terms of more customers served per taxi and higher average revenue per taxi; (3 given the same network size and demand density, the ET fleet’s performance was relatively insensitive to the number of CSs; and (4 the usage of individual CS was affected by the number of CS and their locations; and (5 when all the ETs were fully charged at the beginning of the same shift hour, they visited the CSs in bunches when their batteries were about to run out. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the operations of the ET fleet and the CSs. They could be used for making better decisions in the planning of ET operations.

  6. HadISD: a quality-controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973--2011

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Robert J H; Thorne, Peter W; Woolley, Emma V; Durre, Imke; Dai, Aiguo; Parker, David E; Vose, Russ E; 10.5194/cp-8-1649-2012


    [Abridged] This paper describes the creation of HadISD: an automatically quality-controlled synoptic resolution dataset of temperature, dewpoint temperature, sea-level pressure, wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover from global weather stations for 1973--2011. The full dataset consists of over 6000 stations, with 3427 long-term stations deemed to have sufficient sampling and quality for climate applications requiring sub-daily resolution. As with other surface datasets, coverage is heavily skewed towards Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. The dataset is constructed from a large pre-existing ASCII flatfile data bank that represents over a decade of substantial effort at data retrieval, reformatting and provision. These raw data have had varying levels of quality control applied to them by individual data providers. The work proceeded in several steps: merging stations with multiple reporting identifiers; reformatting to netCDF; quality control; and then filtering to form a final dataset. Particular attent...

  7. Research on ISFLA-Based Optimal Control Strategy for the Coordinated Charging of EV Battery Swap Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Huang


    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid, electric vehicles (EVs could be a good measure against energy shortages and environmental pollution. A main way of energy supply to EVs is to swap battery from the swap station. Based on the characteristics of EV battery swap station, the coordinated charging optimal control strategy is investigated to smooth the load fluctuation. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA is an optimization method inspired by the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking food. An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA with the reflecting method to deal with the boundary constraint is proposed to obtain the solution of the optimal control strategy for coordinated charging. Based on the daily load of a certain area, the numerical simulations including the comparison of PSO and ISFLA are carried out and the results show that the presented ISFLA can effectively lower the peak-valley difference and smooth the load profile with the faster convergence rate and higher convergence precision.

  8. Space Environment Factors Affecting the Performance of International Space Station Materials: The First Two Years of Flight Operations (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Peldey, Michael; Mayeaux, Brian; Milkatarian, Ronald R.; Golden, John; Boeder, paul; Kern, John; Barsamian, Hagop; Alred, John; Soares, Carlos; hide


    In this paper, the natural and induced space environment factors affecting materials performance on ISS are described in some detail. The emphasis will be on ISS flight experience and the more significant design and development issues of the last two years. The intent is to identify and document the set of space environment factors, affecting materials, that are producing the largest impacts on the ISS flight hardware verification and acceptance process and on ISS flight operations. Orbital inclination (S1.6 ) and altitude (nominal3S0 km to 400 km altitude) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and subsystems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, and solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation, as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays (1,2). The high latitude orbital environment also exposes external surfaces to significantly less well-defined or predictable fluxes of higher energy trapped electrons and auroral electrons (3 ,4). The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. Environment factors induced by ISS flight operations include ram-wake effects, magnetic induction voltages arising from flight through Earth's magnetic field, hypergolic thruster plume impingement from proximity operations of visiting vehicles, materials outgassing, venting and dumping of fluids, ISS thruster operations, as well as specific electrical power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (S-7). ISS must fly in a very limited number of approved flight attitudes leading to location specific environmental exposures and extreme local thermal environments (8). ISS is a large vehicle and produces a deep wake structure from which both ionospheric plasma and neutrals (atomic oxygen) are largely excluded (9-11). At high

  9. Scandinavia. ''Experience from operating a 70 MPa hydrogen refuelling station in Oslo''. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.


    As part of the H2MOVES Scandinavia project H2 Logic were to construct a large scale hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) in Oslo providing hydrogen for FCEV's from Daimler and Hyundai in the project. The effort has provided extensive results and lessons learned across the entire process from site selection, HRS design and manufacturing to the final installation and operation. An extensive site screening of more than 30 sites in Oslo was firstly conducted to identify the most optimal location for the HRS. A suitable site was identified at the research organisation SINTEF in Gaustad in the western part of Oslo. The location was strategically well located with regards to the other HRS's in the city ensuring good refuelling coverage in Oslo. The HRS was manufactured, installed and operated by H2 Logic based on the company's H2Station technology. The HRS provides 70MPa refuelling in accordance with the SAE J2601, and operation results have confirmed refuelling times consistently below four minutes for a full tank. The HRS includes onsite electrolysis production providing a 20kg/day base load supply, with potentially additional trucking-in of hydrogen up to a total capacity of 200kg/day. The installation of the HRS took in total 10 days, from arrival at site, until first refuelling was conducted. This included local inspection by third parties and authorities as well as several days of hydrogen production and compression to reach the necessary refuelling pressure. Before opening a refuelling recommendation process was successfully conducted by Daimler. The HRS opened on 21st November 2011 and has been operated for 13,5 months during the remainder project period (ending December 2012). The HRS is expected to continue operation beyond the project. Below are shown the major operation results from the HRS during the project: 1) 701 kg dispensed; 2) 313 refueling's conducted; 3) Average availability of 97% during first half of 2012; 4) 53% of all down

  10. Simplified programming and control of automated radiosynthesizers through unit operations. (United States)

    Claggett, Shane B; Quinn, Kevin M; Lazari, Mark; Moore, Melissa D; van Dam, R Michael


    Many automated radiosynthesizers for producing positron emission tomography (PET) probes provide a means for the operator to create custom synthesis programs. The programming interfaces are typically designed with the engineer rather than the radiochemist in mind, requiring lengthy programs to be created from sequences of low-level, non-intuitive hardware operations. In some cases, the user is even responsible for adding steps to update the graphical representation of the system. In light of these unnecessarily complex approaches, we have created software to perform radiochemistry on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer with the goal of being intuitive and easy to use. Radiochemists were consulted, and a wide range of radiosyntheses were analyzed to determine a comprehensive set of basic chemistry unit operations. Based around these operations, we created a software control system with a client-server architecture. In an attempt to maximize flexibility, the client software was designed to run on a variety of portable multi-touch devices. The software was used to create programs for the synthesis of several 18F-labeled probes on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer, with [18F]FDG detailed here. To gauge the user-friendliness of the software, program lengths were compared to those from other systems. A small sample group with no prior radiosynthesizer experience was tasked with creating and running a simple protocol. The software was successfully used to synthesize several 18F-labeled PET probes, including [18F]FDG, with synthesis times and yields comparable to literature reports. The resulting programs were significantly shorter and easier to debug than programs from other systems. The sample group of naive users created and ran a simple protocol within a couple of hours, revealing a very short learning curve. The client-server architecture provided reliability, enabling continuity of the synthesis run even if the computer running the client software failed. The architecture enabled

  11. Control of a deareador level of a thermoelectric power station using modern control techniques; Control de nivel de un deareador de una central termoelectrica utilizando tecnicas de control moderno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Estrada, Jose Israel


    The present work shows the implementation of the scheme of predictive control IMC (Internal Model Control) in order to control the level of the deareador of a combined cycle thermoelectric power station of (C.C.T.S.). The implementation has the purpose of looking for alternative strategies of control to the classic ones (PID`s) that more efficiently control the variables of interest, in addition to getting into the new control techniques of control. Following the philosophy of predictive control IMC the form to applying this technique is shown, as well as the implementation of this type of controllers. A comparison of predictive control IMC is made with the scheme of conventional control (three control elements PID`s ) used at present to control the level of the deareador in the Combined Cycle Thermoelectric Power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Mexico and of Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra la implementacion del esquema de control predictivo IMC (Control con Modelo Interno) con el objeto de controlar el nivel del deareador de una Central Termoelectrica de Ciclo Combinado (C.T.C.C.). La implementacion tiene la finalidad de buscar estrategias de control alternas a las clasicas (PID`s) que controlen mas eficientemente la variable de interes, ademas de incursionar en las nuevas tecnicas de control. Siguiendo la filosofia del control predictivo IMC se muestra la forma de aplicar esta tecnica, asi como la implementacion de este tipo de controladores. Se hace una comparacion del control predictivo IMC con el esquema de control convencional (control de tres elementos PID`s) utilizando actualmente para controlar el nivel del deareador en las centrales termoelectricas de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y de Gomez Palacio, Durango en Mexico.

  12. Modelling, Design and Robust Control of a Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Govinda García-Valdovinos


    Full Text Available Underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs play an important role in a number of shallow and deep-water missions for marine science, oil and gas extraction, exploration and salvage. In these applications, the motions of the ROV are guided either by a human pilot on a surface support vessel through an umbilical cord providing power and telemetry, or by an automatic pilot. In the case of automatic control, ROV state feedback is provided by acoustic and inertial sensors and this state information, along with a controller strategy, is used to perform several tasks such as station-keeping and auto-immersion/heading, among others. In this paper, the modelling, design and control of the Kaxan ROV is presented: i The complete six degrees of freedom, non linear hydrodynamic model with its parameters, ii the Kaxan hardware/software architecture, iii numerical simulations in Matlab/Simulink platform of a model-free second order sliding mode control along with ocean currents as disturbances and thruster dynamics, iv a virtual environment to visualize the motion of the Kaxan ROV and v experimental results of a one degree of freedom underwater system.

  13. Simulation of the control systems of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station; Simulacion de los sistemas de control de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjona L, Marco Antonio; Rodriguez Lozano, Saul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    In this article, the control systems modeled in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station (CNLV) simulator, are presented. A functional description of each one of them is given and the way they were modeled for their simulation in real time, is also described. [Espanol] En este articulo, se presentan los sistemas de control modelados en el simulador de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV). Se da una descripcion funcional de cada uno de ellos y se describe la forma en que fueron modelados para su simulacion en tiempo real.

  14. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network (United States)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio


    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett


    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  16. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  17. Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station (United States)

    Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.


    This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

  18. Air Pollution Monitoring and Control System for Subway Stations Using Environmental Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Sik Kim


    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Seoul uses more energy than any other area in South Korea due to its high population density. It also has high emissions of air pollutants. Since an individual usually spends most of his/her working hours indoors, the ambient air quality refers to indoor air quality. In particular, PM10 concentration in the underground areas should be monitored to preserve the health of commuters in the subway system. Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation measure several air pollutants regularly. In this study, the accuracy of an instrument for PM measurement using the light scattering method was improved with the help of a linear regression analysis technique to continuously measure the PM10 concentrations in subway stations. In addition, an air quality monitoring system based on environmental sensors was implemented to display and record the data of PM10, CO2, temperature, and humidity. Through experimental studies, we found that ventilation fans could improve air quality and decrease PM10 concentrations in the tunnels effectively by increasing the air flow rate.

  19. Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from International Space Station (CCISS)- Heart Rate and Activity (United States)

    Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Blaber, A. P.; Arbeille, Ph.; Zuj, K. A.; Greaves, D. K.


    CCISS is a project to study the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses of astronauts before, during and after long-duration (>60-day) stays on the International Space Station. The CCISS experiments consist of three phases that are designed to achieve an integrated examination of components responsible for return of blood to the heart, the pumping of blood from the heart and the distribution to the vascular territories including the brain. In this report the data are obtained from the 24-h monitoring of physical activity (Actiwatch on wrist and ankle) and of heart rate (Holter monitor). The data show clear patterns of change in physical activity from predominantly leg-based on Earth to relatively little activity of the ankles with maintained or increased activity of the wrists on ISS. Both on Earth and on ISS the largest changes in heart rate occur during the periods of leg activity. Average heart rate was changed little during the periods of minimal activity or of sleep in comparisons of Earth with in-flight recording both within the first two weeks of flight and the last two weeks. These data clearly show the importance of monitoring heart rate and physical activity simultaneously and show that attempts to derive indicators of autonomic activity from spectral analysis of heart rate variability should not be performed in the absence of knowledge of both variables.

  20. Review of control techniques for inverters parallel operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Alaa; Ortjohann, Egon [South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences/Division Soest, Luebecker Ring 2, 59494 Soest (Germany); Morton, Danny [The University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton (United Kingdom); Omari, Osama (The Arab American University, Jenin, Palestine)


    This paper presents state-of-the-art review of control methods applied currently to parallel power electronic inverters. Different system architectures, their modes of operation, management and control strategies will be analyzed; advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. Though, it is not easy to give a general view at the state of the art for the research area since it is rapid and going in different directions, this paper will focus on the main streams. This paper will start by briefly reviewing the current trends in power supply systems and the increasing importance for including power electronic devices. Next, the different techniques to parallel inverters suggested in the literature will be checked. These can be categorized to the following main approaches: master/slave control techniques, current/power sharing control techniques, and frequency/voltage droop control techniques. Finally, based on the reviewed state of the art, the study concludes by comparing the different approaches reported. In addition, their weaknesses and strengths are strained. (author)

  1. Fire Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  2. Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) quality control of solar radiation data on the Gangneung-Wonju National University radiation station (United States)

    Zo, Il-Sung; Jee, Joon-Bum; Kim, Bu-Yo; Lee, Kyu-Tae


    Gangneung-Wonju National University (GWNU) radiation station has been collecting data on global, direct, and diffuse solar radiation since 2011. We conducted a quality control (QC) assessment of GWNU data collected between 2012 and 2014, using procedures outlined by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The QC process involved the comparison of observations, the correction of observational equipment, the examination of physically possible limits, and the comparative testing of observations and model calculations. Furthermore, we performed a shading check of the observational environment around the GWNU solar station. For each solar radiation element (observed every minute), we performed a QC check and investigated any flagged problems. 98.31% of the data were classified as good quality, while the remaining 1.69% were flagged as bad quality based on the shading check and comparison tests. We then compared the good-quality data to the global solar radiation data observed at the Gangwon Regional Office of Meteorology (GROM). After performing this comparison, the determination coefficient (R2; 0.98) and standard deviation (SD; 0.92 MJ m-2) increased compared to those computed before the QC check (0.97 and 1.09 MJ m-2). Even considering the geographical differences and weather effects between the two stations, these results are statistically significant. However, we also confirmed that the quality of the GROM data deteriorated in relation to weather conditions because of poor maintenance. Hence, we conclude that good-quality observational data rely on the maintenance of both observational equipment and the surrounding environment under optimal conditions.

  3. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements? (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.130 What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements? Quality control operations for returned dietary...

  4. JWST Wavefront Sensing and Control: Operations Plans, Demonstrations, and Status (United States)

    Perrin, Marshall; Acton, D. Scott; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Knight, J. Scott; Myers, Carey; Stark, Chris; JWST Wavefront Sensing & Control Team


    After JWST launches and unfolds in space, its telescope optics will be aligned through a complex series of wavefront sensing and control (WFSC) steps to achieve diffraction-limited performance. This iterative process will comprise about half of the observatory commissioning time (~ 3 out of 6 months). We summarize the JWST WFSC process, schedule, and expectations for achieved performance, and discuss our team’s activities to prepare for an effective & efficient telescope commissioning. During the recently-completed OTIS cryo test at NASA JSC, WFSC demonstrations showed the flight-like operation of the entire JWST active optics and WFSC system from end to end, including all hardware and software components. In parallel, the same test data were processed through the JWST Mission Operations Center at STScI to demonstrate the readiness of ground system components there (such as the flight operations system, data pipelines, archives, etc). Moreover, using the Astronomer’s Proposal Tool (APT), the entire telescope commissioning program has been implemented, reviewed, and is ready for execution. Between now and launch our teams will continue preparations for JWST commissioning, including further rehearsals and testing, to ensure a successful alignment of JWST’s telescope optics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.


    Full Text Available A diagram of the heat pump station (HPS for the central heat supply station of the district heating system, which gets the power from the CHP plant is examined. A block diagram of the control of the system and compressor pressure control system are examined. The description of the control laws of evaporator at the variable heat load of the HPS and control laws of the gas cooler taking into account the goal of achieving the maximum of COP of HPS is shown as well.

  6. LabVIEW interface with Tango control system for a multi-technique X-ray spectrometry IAEA beamline end-station at Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, P.M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Bogovac, M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Sghaier, H. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Institut Superieur d’Informatique et de Mathematiques de Monastir (ISIMM), Departement de technologie, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Leani, J.J. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); IFEG – CONICET, Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Migliori, A.; Padilla-Alvarez, R. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Czyzycki, M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Osan, J. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Environmental Physics Department, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Kaiser, R.B. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); and others


    A new synchrotron beamline end-station for multipurpose X-ray spectrometry applications has been recently commissioned and it is currently accessible by end-users at the XRF beamline of Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste. The end-station consists of an ultra-high vacuum chamber that includes as main instrument a seven-axis motorized manipulator for sample and detectors positioning, different kinds of X-ray detectors and optical cameras. The beamline end-station allows performing measurements in different X-ray spectrometry techniques such as Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (µXRF), Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (TXRF), Grazing Incidence/Exit X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (GI-XRF/GE-XRF), X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR), and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). A LabVIEW Graphical User Interface (GUI) bound with Tango control system consisted of many custom made software modules is utilized as a user-friendly tool for control of the entire end-station hardware components. The present work describes this advanced Tango and LabVIEW software platform that utilizes in an optimal synergistic manner the merits and functionality of these well-established programming and equipment control tools. - Highlights: • A new methodology for control of a synchrotron beamline end-station is shown. • The new control system comprises a novel binding of Tango control system with LabVIEW interface. • The reliability of the control system is demonstrated by examples of analytical applications.

  7. Automatic Weather Station (AWS Program operated by the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the 2012-2013 field season: Challenges and Successes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Lazzara


    Full Text Available This report reviews 2012-2013 field season activities of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS program, summarizes the science that these sites are supporting, and outlines the factors that impact the number of AWS sites serviced in any given field season. The 2012-2013 austral summer season was unusual in the AWS network history. Challenges encountered include, but are not limited to, warmer than normal conditions in the Ross Island area impacting airfield operations, changes to logistical procedures, and competition for shared resources. A flexible work plan provides the best means for taking on these challenges while maximizing AWS servicing efforts under restricted conditions and meeting the need for routine servicing that maintaining an autonomous observing network demands.

  8. Industrial hygiene and control technology assessment of ion implantation operations. (United States)

    Ungers, L J; Jones, J H


    Ion implantation is a process used to create the functional units (pn junctions) of integrated circuits, photovoltaic (solar) cells and other semiconductor devices. During the process, ions of an impurity or a "dopant" material are created, accelerated and imbedded in wafers of silicon. Workers responsible for implantation equipment are believed to be at risk from exposure to both chemical (dopant compounds) and physical (ionizing radiation) agents. In an effort to characterize the chemical exposures, monitoring for chemical hazards was conducted near eleven ion implanters at three integrated circuit facilities, while ionizing radiation was monitored near four of these units at two of the facilities. The workplace monitoring suggests that ion implantation operators routinely are exposed to low-level concentrations of dopants. Although the exact nature of dopant compounds released to the work environment was not determined, area and personal samples taken during normal operating activities found concentrations of arsenic, boron and phosphorous below OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) for related compounds; area samples collected during implanter maintenance activities suggest that a potential exists for more serious exposures. The results of badge dosimetry monitoring for ionizing radiation indicate that serious exposures are unlikely to occur while engineering controls remain intact. All emissions were detected at levels unlikely to result in exposures above the OSHA standard for the whole body (1.25 rems per calendar quarter). The success of existing controls in preventing worker exposures is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the differential exposures likely to be experienced by operators and maintenance personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Fatigue in U.S. Astronauts Onboard the International Space Station: Environmental factors, Operational Impacts, and Implementation of Countermeasures (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Moomaw, R. C.; Johnston, S. L.


    Crewmembers have experienced fatigue for reasons similar to military deployments. Astronauts experience psychological stressors such as: heavy workloads, extended duty periods, circadian misalignment, inadequate/ineffective sleep, distracting background noise, unexpected and variable mission schedules, unfavorable thermal control, unusual sleep environment with schedules that impinge on pre-sleep periods.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein


    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Network-aware scalable video monitoring system for emergency situations with operator-managed fidelity control (United States)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos


    In emergency situations, the ability to remotely monitor unfolding events using high-quality video feeds will significantly improve the incident commander's understanding of the situation and thereby aids effective decision making. This paper presents a novel, adaptive video monitoring system for emergency situations where the normal communications network infrastructure has been severely impaired or is no longer operational. The proposed scheme, operating over a rapidly deployable wireless mesh network, supports real-time video feeds between first responders, forward operating bases and primary command and control centers. Video feeds captured on portable devices carried by first responders and by static visual sensors are encoded in H.264/SVC, the scalable extension to H.264/AVC, allowing efficient, standard-based temporal, spatial, and quality scalability of the video. A three-tier video delivery system is proposed, which balances the need to avoid overuse of mesh nodes with the operational requirements of the emergency management team. In the first tier, the video feeds are delivered at a low spatial and temporal resolution employing only the base layer of the H.264/SVC video stream. Routing in this mode is designed to employ all nodes across the entire mesh network. In the second tier, whenever operational considerations require that commanders or operators focus on a particular video feed, a `fidelity control' mechanism at the monitoring station sends control messages to the routing and scheduling agents in the mesh network, which increase the quality of the received picture using SNR scalability while conserving bandwidth by maintaining a low frame rate. In this mode, routing decisions are based on reliable packet delivery with the most reliable routes being used to deliver the base and lower enhancement layers; as fidelity is increased and more scalable layers are transmitted they will be assigned to routes in descending order of reliability. The third tier

  12. Robust 2DOF controller applied to station keeping of offshore platform in deep-water environment; Controlador 2DOF robusto aplicado ao posicionamento de plataformas offshore em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Filho, Alvaro M. [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Ramon R.; Gomes, Afonso C.D.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia


    In this paper an Automatic Station Keeping System is developed for a thruster assisted moored drilling semi-submersible platform operating in deep water environment. A single-input-single-output two degree of freedom controller (2DOF) is designed using a polynomial approach and its performance is compared with the classic PID solution. The controller parameters are tuned through frequency techniques in order to obtain a robust performance. Computational simulations are presented to illustrate the results. (author) 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: alvaro at

  13. FOCU:S--future operator control unit: soldier (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.


    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.

  14. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.


    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  15. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark; Wilkins, Kim; Johnson, Robert; Sass, Jared; Youney, Justin


    An intelligent autonomous control capability has been developed and is currently being validated in ground cryogenic fluid management operations. The capability embodies a physical architecture consistent with typical launch infrastructure and control systems, augmented by a higher level autonomous control (AC) system enabled to make knowledge-based decisions. The AC system is supported by an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability that detects anomalies, diagnoses causes, determines effects, and could predict future anomalies. AC is implemented using the concept of programmed sequences that could be considered to be building blocks of more generic mission plans. A sequence is a series of steps, and each executes actions once conditions for the step are met (e.g. desired temperatures or fluid state are achieved). For autonomous capability, conditions must consider also health management outcomes, as they will determine whether or not an action is executed, or how an action may be executed, or if an alternative action is executed instead. Aside from health, higher level objectives can also drive how a mission is carried out. The capability was developed using the G2 software environment ( augmented by a NASA Toolkit that significantly shortens time to deployment. G2 is a commercial product to develop intelligent applications. It is fully object oriented. The core of the capability is a Domain Model of the system where all elements of the system are represented as objects (sensors, instruments, components, pipes, etc.). Reasoning and decision making can be done with all elements in the domain model. The toolkit also enables implementation of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), which are represented as root cause trees. FMEA's are programmed graphically, they are reusable, as they address generic FMEA referring to classes of subsystems or objects and their functional relationships. User interfaces for integrated awareness by

  16. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper. (United States)

    Hill, William R.; And Others


    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  17. Validation of a Numerical Model for the Prediction of the Annoyance Condition at the Operator Station of Construction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Carletti


    Full Text Available It is well-known that the reduction of noise levels is not strictly linked to the reduction of noise annoyance. Even earthmoving machine manufacturers are facing the problem of customer complaints concerning the noise quality of their machines with increasing frequency. Unfortunately, all the studies geared to the understanding of the relationship between multidimensional characteristics of noise signals and the auditory perception of annoyance require repeated sessions of jury listening tests, which are time-consuming. In this respect, an annoyance prediction model was developed for compact loaders to assess the annoyance sensation perceived by operators at their workplaces without repeating the full sound quality assessment but using objective parameters only. This paper aims at verifying the feasibility of the developed annoyance prediction model when applied to other kinds of earthmoving machines. For this purpose, an experimental investigation was performed on five earthmoving machines, different in type, dimension, and engine mechanical power, and the annoyance predicted by the numerical model was compared to the annoyance given by subjective listening tests. The results were evaluated by means of the squared value of the correlation coefficient, R2, and they confirm the possible applicability of the model to other kinds of machines.

  18. Model Predictive Control of Offshore Power Stations With Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Chan, Richard; Li, Xiangan


    Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator to increase the energy conversion efficiency. Results show a potential reduction of frequency drop up to 40%for a step in the load set-point of 4 MW, compared to proportional–integral control systems. Fuel savings in the range of 2–3% are also expected by optimizing on...... control (MPC) coupled with a steady-state performance optimizer has been developed in the SIMULINK language and is documented in the paper. The test case is the regulation of a power system serving an oil and gas platform in the Norwegian Sea. One of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic...

  19. Cluster Control of Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected to a Common HVDC Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Rapp, C. Andrea


    In this paper a coordinated control for cluster of offshore WPPs connected to the same HVDC connection is being implemented and analyzed. The study is targeting two cases as; coordination of reactive power flow between HVDC converter and the WPP cluster while providing offshore AC grid voltage co...

  20. On-station verification of the use of soybean trap-crop for the control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted at Samaru, Nigeria for a two year-period (1997 and 1998 rainy seasons) to verify the use of two soybean varieties (TGX 1019-2EB and TGX 1440-1E) as trap-crops for the control of Striga hermonthica in maize. Results showed that sole hybrid maize variety, Oba super 1, supported significantly ...