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Sample records for static var compensator

  1. Application of static var compensator on large synchronous motors based on linear optimization control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, J.; Fath Abadi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of static var compensators, on an electrical distribution network containing two large synchronous motors, one of which is excited via a three-phase thyristor bridge rectifier. The second machine is excited via a diode bridge rectifier. Based on linear optimization control, the measurable feedback signals are applied to the control system loops of static var compensators and the excitation control loop of the first synchronous motor. The phase equations method was used to develop a computer program to model the distribution network. Computer results were obtained to demonstrate the system performance for some abnormal modes of operation. These results show that employing static var compensators based on the linear optimization control design for electrical distribution networks containing large synchronous motors is beneficial and may be considered a first stage of the system design

  2. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  3. The design and performance of Static Var Compensators for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, Karsten; Genton, Charles-Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Particle accelerators, and in particular synchrotrons, represent large cycling non-linear loads connected to the electrical distribution network. This paper discusses the typical design and performance of Static Var Compensators (SVCs) to obtain the excellent power quality levels required for particle accelerator operation.

  4. Performance of static var compensator control type thyristor controlled reactor and thyristor switched capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Josias M. de; Yung, Chou Shaw; Rose, Eber H; Pantoja, Antonio L.A. [ELETRONORTE, Belem, PA (Brazil); Fouesnant, Thomas; Boissier, Luc

    1994-12-31

    This paper has the objective of presenting the philosophy of Static Var Compensator (SVC) Control as well the necessary adjustments in the project of control system to guarantee suitable performance under different operating conditions. The verification on the performance of the SVC control has been done by Transient Network Analyzer (TNA/CEPEL) studies, commissioning tests and a factory tests. The SVC is the type of Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) and Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC). (author) 3 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Optimal Allocation of Static Var Compensator via Mixed Integer Conic Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaohu [ORNL; Shi, Di [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Wang, Zhiwei [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Huang, Junhui [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Wang, Xu [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2017-01-01

    Shunt FACTS devices, such as, a Static Var Compensator (SVC), are capable of providing local reactive power compensation. They are widely used in the network to reduce the real power loss and improve the voltage profile. This paper proposes a planning model based on mixed integer conic programming (MICP) to optimally allocate SVCs in the transmission network considering load uncertainty. The load uncertainties are represented by a number of scenarios. Reformulation and linearization techniques are utilized to transform the original non-convex model into a convex second order cone programming (SOCP) model. Numerical case studies based on the IEEE 30-bus system demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed planning model.

  6. Simulation of the Static VAR Compensator Culiacan Three Substation for the Analysis of Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coronel-Mercado Luis Enrique

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in the late 60’s the FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems have been and continue to be studied and implemented in all electrical networks around the world, becoming an essential element for stability, control and maximum exploitation of thereof. One of the most used FACTS devices is the Static VAR Compensator or SVC. In this work, the modeling in Simulink of the Static VAR Compensator installed at the substation Culiacán Tres (CUT belonging to CFE is presented. The SVC is the ability of ±100 MVAR and ABB brand. The modeling was performed to visually program in detail the different subsystems in Simulink such as the timing unit, the TSC (thyristor switched capacitor, TCR (thyristor controlled reactors, filters of the 5th and the 7th harmonic, the transformer bank, the control unit, distribution unit and the measurement unit. Data for major components were taken from data sheet and equipment manuals. ASPEN software was used in order to obtain Thevenin equivalent of the EPS to connect to them the SVC model to test the step and three-phase short circuit. The results of these tests were compared with test results of commissioning of the SVC.

  7. A static VAR compensator model for improved ride-through capability of wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, V.; Soebrink, K.

    2004-12-01

    Dynamic reactive compensation is associated with reactive power and voltage control of induction generator based wind turbines. With regard to wind power, application areas of dynamic reactive compensation can be improvement of the power quality and the voltage stability, the control of the reactive power exchange between the wind farm and the power grid in the wind farm connection point as well as improvement of the ride-through capability of the wind farm. This article presents a model of a Static VAR Compensator (SVC) with dynamic generic control that is a kind of dynamic reactive compensation device. The term 'generic' implies that the model is general and must cover a variety of the SVC units and their specific controls from different manufacturers. The SVC model with dynamic generic control is implemented by Eltra in the simulation tool Powerfactory and validated from the SVC model in the tool PSCAD/EMTDC. Implementation in the tool Powerfactory makes it possible to apply the SVC model with dynamic generic control in investigations of power system stability with regard to establishment of large wind farms without restrictions on the model size of the power grid. (Author)

  8. Nonlinear Robust Disturbance Attenuation Control Design for Static Var Compensator in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of designing an adaptive backstepping controller for nonlinear static var compensator (SVC system is addressed adopting two perspectives. First, instead of artificially assuming an upper bound or inequality scaling, the minimax theory is used to treat the external unknown disturbances. The system is insensitive to effects of large disturbances due to taking into account the worst case disturbance. Second, a parameter projection mechanism is introduced in adaptive control to force the parameter estimate within a prior specified interval. The proposed controller handles the nonlinear parameterization without compromising control smoothness and at the same time the parameter estimate speed is improved and the robustness of system is strengthened. Considering the short-circuit ground fault and mechanical power perturbation, a simulation study is carried out. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  9. Voltage stability index based optimal placement of static VAR compensator and sizing using Cuckoo search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, B.; Kumar, G. V. Nagesh; Chowdary, D. Deepak; Bharathi, M. Aruna; Patra, Stutee

    2017-07-01

    This paper furnish the new Metaheuristic algorithm called Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem with minimization of real power generation cost. The CSA is found to be the most efficient algorithm for solving single objective optimal power flow problems. The CSA performance is tested on IEEE 57 bus test system with real power generation cost minimization as objective function. Static VAR Compensator (SVC) is one of the best shunt connected device in the Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) family. It has capable of controlling the voltage magnitudes of buses by injecting the reactive power to system. In this paper SVC is integrated in CSA based Optimal Power Flow to optimize the real power generation cost. SVC is used to improve the voltage profile of the system. CSA gives better results as compared to genetic algorithm (GA) in both without and with SVC conditions.

  10. Coordinated setting of stabilizers for synchronous generators and static var compensators in multimachine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes Costa, A J.A.; Silva, A S; Freitas, F D [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1994-12-31

    Two distinct approaches for the coordinated setting of multimachine power system controllers are presented. The first strategy is based on the re-allocation of the poles related to the electromechanical modes of the system through decentralized control. The second method is a coordinated global procedure based on structurally constrained optimal control. Both approaches considered power system stabilizers and supplementary signals for static var compensators as the controllers to be adjusted. Other types of controllers, such as FACTS devices, can also be tuned by using the proposed techniques. A 13-machine, 77-bus power system which is based on the Brazilian South-Southeast interconnected network is employed to assess the performance of the proposed methods. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. Application of Static Var Compensator (SVC) With PI Controller for Grid Integration of Wind Farm Using Harmony Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshta, H. E.; Ali, A. A.; Saied, E. M.; Bendary, F. M.

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale integration of wind turbine generators (WTGs) may have significant impacts on power system operation with respect to system frequency and bus voltages. This paper studies the effect of Static Var Compensator (SVC) connected to wind energy conversion system (WECS) on voltage profile and the power generated from the induction generator (IG) in wind farm. Also paper presents, a dynamic reactive power compensation using Static Var Compensator (SVC) at the a point of interconnection of wind farm while static compensation (Fixed Capacitor Bank) is unable to prevent voltage collapse. Moreover, this paper shows that using advanced optimization techniques based on artificial intelligence (AI) such as Harmony Search Algorithm (HS) and Self-Adaptive Global Harmony Search Algorithm (SGHS) instead of a Conventional Control Method to tune the parameters of PI controller for SVC and pitch angle. Also paper illustrates that the performance of the system with controllers based on AI is improved under different operating conditions. MATLAB/Simulink based simulation is utilized to demonstrate the application of SVC in wind farm integration. It is also carried out to investigate the enhancement in performance of the WECS achieved with a PI Controller tuned by Harmony Search Algorithm as compared to a Conventional Control Method.

  12. Experience with Advanced Static VAR Compensators Operating on Wind Farms and in Laboratory in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    current with ensuing losses, the strong variationS also will cause varying inductive voltage losses in the supply with flicker as a consequence. With power electronic equipment it is possible to produce the reactive power on location and thus reduce the losses and voltage fluctuations in the grid....... This paper describes a 100 kvar power electronic reactive power compensator. The compensator was tested in a wind farm in Western Denmark. The electrical circuit and the working principle of the compensator are described and some survey data are shown. The paper also describes a 2x4 Mvar reactive power...

  13. Improving the Penetration of Wind Power with Dynamic Thermal Rating System, Static VAR Compensator and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashen Teh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewable energy sources, especially wind energy, has been on the rise throughout power systems worldwide. Due to this relatively new introduction, the integration of wind energy is often not optimized. Moreover, owing to the technical constraints and transmission congestions of the power network, most of the wind energy has to be curtailed. Due to various factors that influence the connectivity of wind energy, this paper proposes a well-organized posterior multi-objective (MO optimization algorithm for maximizing the connections of wind energy. In this regard, the dynamic thermal rating (DTR system and the static VAR compensator (SVC have been identified as effective tools for improving the loadability of the network. The propose MO algorithm in this paper aims to minimize: (1 wind energy curtailment, (2 operation cost of the network considering all investments and operations, also known as the total social cost, and (3 SVC operation cost. The proposed MO problem was solved using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II and it was tested on the modified IEEE reliability test system (IEEE-RTS. The results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed algorithm in aiding power system enhancement planning for integrating wind energy.

  14. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  15. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

  16. Simultaneous Robust Coordinated Damping Control of Power System Stabilizers (PSSs, Static Var Compensator (SVC and Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Power Oscillation Dampers (DFIG PODs in Multimachine Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zuo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential of utilizing doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind farms to improve power system damping performance and to enhance small signal stability has been proposed by many researchers. However, the simultaneous coordinated tuning of a DFIG power oscillation damper (POD with other damping controllers is rarely involved. A simultaneous robust coordinated multiple damping controller design strategy for a power system incorporating power system stabilizer (PSS, static var compensator (SVC POD and DFIG POD is presented in this paper. This coordinated damping control design strategy is addressed as an eigenvalue-based optimization problem to increase the damping ratios of oscillation modes. Both local and inter-area electromechanical oscillation modes are intended in the optimization design process. Wide-area phasor measurement unit (PMU signals, selected by the joint modal controllability/ observability index, are utilized as SVC and DFIG POD feedback modulation signals to suppress inter-area oscillation modes. The robustness of the proposed coordinated design strategy is achieved by simultaneously considering multiple power flow situations and operating conditions. The recently proposed Grey Wolf optimizer (GWO algorithm is adopted to efficiently optimize the parameter values of multiple damping controllers. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed coordinated design strategy are demonstrated through frequency-domain eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time-domain simulation studies in two modified benchmark test systems. Moreover, the dynamic response simulation results also validate the robustness of the recommended coordinated multiple damping controllers under various system operating conditions.

  17. Estudio del efecto del Compensador Estático de Reactivos en el problema de Flujo de Carga; Study of the effect of the Static Var Compensator on the Load Flow problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ruiz Porras

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consiste en estudiar, modelar y simular un Compensador Estático de Reactivos (SVC, para analizar el efecto del mismo en el problema de Flujo de Carga de un Sistema Eléctrico de Potencia (SEP. Se emplea un programa, de la literatura revisada, escrito en Matlab. Se presenta el modelo matemático del SVC que se emplea en el programa y que utiliza el concepto de susceptancia en derivación variable e incorpora el modelo del ángulo de disparo de los tiristores como variable de estado en la fórmula de Newton Raphson. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos en el flujo de carga, sin SVC, en los ensayos que se realizan con el sistema de 9 barras de la IEEE con los resultados alcanzado utilizando la versión académica del Simulador Power World. El SVC se emplea para controlar el valor de la tensión en una de las barras del caso estudio.  This work consists on studying, to model and to simulate a Static Vars Compensator (SVC, to analyze the effect of the same one in the Load Flow problem of an Electric Power System (SEP. A program is used, of the revised literature, written in Matlab. The mathematical model of the SVC is presented that is used in the program and that it uses the concept of susceptance variable shunt and it incorporates the model of the fire angle of the tiristores like state variable in Newton Raphson methods. The results obtained are compared in the load flow, without SVC, in the rehearsals that are carried out with the system of 9 bars of the IEEE with the reached results using the academic version of the Power World Simulator. The SVC is used to control the value of the voltage in one of the bars of the case study.

  18. To the issue of increasing efficiency of VAR compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of VAR compensation of variable loads. One of the most common non-symmetric non-linear power consumers are welding power sources. Time and duration of the work of these sources vary randomly. To compensate the consumption of reactive power on the basis of consumption data from the three-phase electricity meters is inefficient. Compensation devices power should be calculated taking into account the asymmetrical consumption/generation of reactive power per phase and changing consumption patterns. Thyristor-controlled reactor, thyristor-switched capacitors, hybrid VAR compensators, active compensators (STATCOMs, «dynamic capacitors» can be used as the VAR compensation devices. Thyristor-controlled reactors can provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they have high weight and size parameters and are additional sources of higher harmonics. Thyristor-switched capacitors provide stepwise adjustment of reactive power and are subject to the current higher harmonics. Hybrid VAR compensators make it possible to isolate capacitors from the higher harmonics and ensure smooth regulation, which is achieved by active filter introduction to the reactive power compensation devices based on thyristor-switched capacitors. However, this increases the cost of a compensator and complicates its control system. STATCOMs provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they are too expensive.Perspective direction in the development of effective VAR compensation devices is «dynamic capacitor». As a result of a feasibility study the prospects for further research of electrical grids power efficiency through the development of effective devices for VAR compensation have been established

  19. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  20. Combined short and long term rating of static Var system components for steady state and transient voltage support in a 500 kV power grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, L; Silva, A; Thorvaldsson, B [ABB Power Systems AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Gonzalez, R [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    One efficient way to improve the power transmission performance is to provide appropriate reactive power balance and control in the network. Reactive power compensation by means of static var compensation (SVC) and series compensation (SC) are well established ways to achieve such improvement. The SVC, which is a relatively new concept, has now been used successfully for more than 15 years in EHV systems. This paper discusses a more general type of shunt compensation, designated Static var System (SVS), which may include breaker switched capacitor banks and other special features besides conventional SVC technology. (author) 4 figs.

  1. Technology of VAr Compensators for Induction Generator Applications in Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zobaa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Many of today utility interconnected wind farms use induction generator (IG to convert the captured wind mechanical power into electricity. Induction generator has some advantages over the synchronous generator (SG. The main advantages are its robustness and its capability to be synchronized directly to the grid. The main disadvantage, however, is its dependency on the grid for supplying its own reactive power ‘VAr’. Whether fixed or adjustable VAr systems are connected across its terminal, IG must operate at unity power factor at the rated loading while the wind power varies. With supervised control and appropriate coordination, VAr can be used to the benefits of both the wind farm developer and the hosting utility. The incorporation of today adjustable reactive power compensators such as the Static VAr Compensation (SVC and Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM with IG are vital ingredient toward a successful penetration of wind energy in today distribution grid to ensure voltage stability during the steady state and transient periods.

  2. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  3. Mitigation of voltage fluctuations with an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, F [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Castanheira, A

    1997-04-01

    The installation of an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) to remedy a voltage flicker problem at the TIMEU sawmill in Fort Assiniboine, Alberta, was described. The TIMEU sawmill is a 980 kVA load at the end of a 25 kV feeder. Two older style J bar type saws, each driven by a 200 Hp motor, are used to operate the wood processing services. The sawing and chipping process resulted in the generation of significant voltage flicker on the 25 kV distribution system. The AVC provided cycle per cycle reactive compensation and voltage support; no further complaints of flicker were received.

  4. Mitigation of Voltage Swells by Static Series Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Hilmy; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Swells and overvoltages can cause overheating, tripping or even destruction of industrial equipment such as motor drives and control relays. This paper investigates the possibility of employing the Static Series Compensator (SSC) to mitigate voltage swells/overvoltages. In the case of voltage...... is lower than a predetermined voltage level, the active power is employed to charge the ESC to this voltage level; 2) otherwise, the overvoltage protection of the SSC must operate. This paper also applies an overvoltage protection scheme based on a combination of a dc resistor with a chopper and the valves...

  5. AN IMPROVED CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR «DYNAMIC CAPACITOR» VAR COMPENSATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Podnebennaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Modern approaches of VAR compensation are: using compensators with stepped regulation, STATCOMs, active power filters. Recently, more attention is paid to VAR compensator’s design based on the direct AC / AC converters, which are called dynamic capacitors. Methodology. The dynamic capacitor (D-CAP is the capacitor bank, which is connected to the mains through direct AC / AC buck converter. By varying the duty cycle of bidirectional switches, smooth control of reactive power can be achieved. However, in case of distorted mains voltage, D-CAP mains current will have a high THD. This is due to the fact that the D-CAP affects the frequency response of electric grid thus leading to the appearance of resonances. With non-sinusoidal mains voltage, capacitors are affected by harmonics. This reduces the reliability of the D-CAP, increasing the probability of their failure. To eliminate these drawbacks it is suggested to improve the D-CAP control system so that the input current of the dynamic capacitor is forced to be close to sinusoidal. This can be achieved if the duty cycle of the switching bi-directional switches is changed according to the proposed expression. Results. The research is done on a single-phase D-CAP with the proposed control system, its input current diagrams are shown. In contrast to the D-CAP with a constant duty cycle control, the resulting THD of its input current is much lower. Thus, the control system provides a form of the input current that is close to a sine wave. This reduces the influence of mains voltage harmonics on the D-CAP operation, increases its reliability and improves power quality. Originality. The proposed D-CAP control system ensures reliable operation with non-sinusoidal mains voltage. Practical value. Application of D-CAPs with the proposed control system allows for improved energy efficiency of electrical mains by providing VAR compensation and improving power quality.

  6. Coordination of baseload power plant group control with static reactive power compensator control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Szczerba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power sources in power system nodes: generators and static reactive power compensators, are controlled by control systems. Generators – by generator node group controllers, compensators – by voltage controllers. The paper presents issues of these control systems’ coordination and proposals for its implementation.

  7. Operation of static series compensator under distorted utility conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, H.; Nelsen, H.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments, carried out...... on a 10-kV SSC laboratory setup. Experimental results have shown the ability of the SSC to mitigate voltage dips and harmonics. It is also shown that the proposed controller has improved the transient performance of the SSC even under distorted utility conditions....

  8. Static synchronous compensator (Statcom) for dynamic reactive-compensation of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Soebrink, Kent

    2006-01-15

    This paper reviews the common control characteristics of a Statcom and presents the control strategies which may be applied for compensation of large wind farms. The Statcom's control and protection are modelled with the simulation tool Powerfactory (DigSilent). The analysis evaluates (i) a realistic test grid containing local wind turbines in the distribution network, and (ii) a large offshore windfarm connected to the transmission system. (Author)

  9. Static compensators using thyristor control with saturated or low-reactance linear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanawala, H L; Kelham, W O; Crawshaw, A W

    1982-01-01

    Alternative key components of variable static equipment for reactive power compensation and voltage control in a.c. transmission systems are saturated reactors (SR) and thyristor-controlled reactors (TCR). This paper reports some recent developments aimed at improving the performance and economy of both types of scheme. Advantages of using low-percentage reactance values in a TCR scheme are considered, and methods of dealing with the increased harmonic distortions and of employing transformer leakage reactance. The paper discusses the possibility of combining the advantages of 'external' thyristor control with the 'inherent' action of the harmonic-compensated SR, and the performance of a practical TCSR is presented.

  10. Evaluation of compensation in breast radiotherapy: a planning study using multiple static fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Ellen M.; Johnson, Ursula; Shentall, Glyn; Evans, Philip M.; Neal, Anthony J.; Yarnold, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A method that uses electronic portal imaging to design intensity-modulated beams for compensation in breast radiotherapy was implemented using multiple static fields in a planning study. We present the results of the study to verify the algorithm, and to assess improvements to the dosimetry. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients were imaged with computed tomography (CT) and on a treatment unit using an electronic portal imager. The portal imaging data were used to design intensity-modulated beams to give an ideal dose distribution in the breast. These beams were implemented as multiple static fields added to standard wedged tangential fields. Planning of these treatments was performed on a commercial treatment planning system (Target 2, IGE Medical Systems, Slough, U.K.) using the CT data for each patient. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the plans with and without multileaf collimator (MLC) compensation was carried out. This work has been used as the basis for a randomized clinical trial investigating whether improvements in dosimetry are correlated with the reduction of long-term side effects from breast radiotherapy. Results: The planning analysis showed a mean increase in target volume receiving 95-105% of prescribed dose of 7.5% (range -0.8% to 15.9%) when additional MLC compensation was applied. There was no change to the minimum dose for all 14 patient data sets. The change in the volume of breast tissue receiving over 105% of prescribed dose, when applying MLC compensation, was between -1.4% and 11.9%, with positive numbers indicating an improvement. These effects showed a correlation with breast size; the larger the breast the greater the amount of improvement. Conclusions: The method for designing compensation for breast treatments using an electronic portal imager has been verified using planning on CT data for 14 patients. An improvement was seen in planning when applying MLC compensation and this effect was greater the larger the

  11. Damping Inter-area Oscillations using Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) has the ability to emulate a reactance in series with the connected transmission line. When fed with some supplementary signals from the connected system, SSSC is able to participate in the power system inter-area oscillation damping by changing...... the compensated reactance. This paper analyses the influence of SSSC on power system small signal stability. A SSSC damping controller scheme is presented and discussed. In DIgSILENT PowerFactory software, modal analysis and time-domain simulation are conducted in a single-machine infinite bus system model...... and a four-machine two-area test system model to verify and improve the damping controller scheme....

  12. Power flow control for transmission networks with implicit modeling of static synchronous series compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, S.; Jurado, F.; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an implicit modeling of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) in Newton–Raphson load flow method. The algorithm of load flow is based on the revised current injection formulation. The developed model of SSSC is depended on the current injection approach. In this model...... will be in the mismatches vector. Finally, this modeling solves the problem that happens when the SSSC is only connected between two areas. Numerical examples on the WSCC 9-bus, IEEE 30-bus system, and IEEE 118-bus system are used to illustrate the feasibility of the developed SSSC model and performance of the Newton–Raphson...

  13. Design of a Control Scheme for Distribution Static Synchronous Compensators with Power-Quality Improvement Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Roncero-Sànchez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric power systems are among the greatest achievements of the last century. Today, important issues, such as an ever-increasing demand, the flexible and reliable integration of distributed generation or a growth in disturbing loads, must be borne in mind. In this context, smart grids play a key role, allowing better efficiency of power systems. Power electronics provides solutions to the aforementioned matters, since it allows various energy sources to be integrated into smart grids. Nevertheless, the design of the various control schemes that are necessary for the correct operation of the power-electronic interface is a very important issue that must always be taken into consideration. This paper deals with the design of the control system of a distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM based on flying-capacitor multilevel converters. The control system is tailored to compensate for both voltage sags by means of reactive-power injection and voltage imbalances caused by unbalanced loads. The design of the overall control is carried out by using the root-locus and frequency-response techniques, improving both the transient response and the steady-state error of the closed-loop system. Simulation results obtained using PSCADTM/EMTDCTM (Manitoba Hydro International Ltd., Commerce Drive, Winnipeg, MB, Canada show the resultant voltage regulation.

  14. stability analysis of a three-phase solid-state var compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... solid-state devices (bipolar junction transistor (BJT), insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), gate-turn- off thyristor (GTO) and power MOSFET has elim- inated these problems. The voltage source inverter. (VSI) employing any one of these devices is an efficient equipment for reactive power compensation or ...

  15. modeling and analysis of a three-phase solid-state var compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is done by increasing the phase-shift angle, δ and more active power will flow to the .... ∆iq + ido∆δ. ] (16) δ. V. Vqo. Vdo δ. vAδ. Avd. Avq. 3.2. Transfer function of the compensator. Figure 3 is the phasor diagram of the perturbed system, where the inverter output voltage E is taken as the reference phasor with the ac ...

  16. Static synchronous compensator with superconducting magnetic energy storage for high power utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Marcelo G.; Mercado, Pedro E.; Watanabe, Edson H.

    2007-01-01

    Power systems security in the case of contingencies is ensured by maintaining adequate 'short-term generation reserve'. This reserve must be appropriately activated by means of the primary frequency control (PFC). Because the generation is an electro-mechanical process, the primary control reserve controllability is not as fast as required, especially by modern power systems. Since the new improvements achieved on the conventional control methods have not been enough to satisfy the high requirements established, the necessity of enhancing the performance of the PFC has arisen. At present, the new energy storage systems (ESS) are a feasible alternative to store excess energy for substituting for the primary control reserve. In this way, it is possible to combine this new ESS with power converter based flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS). This allows an effective exchange of active power with the electric grid and, thus, enhances the PFC. This paper presents an improved PFC scheme incorporating a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) coupled with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. A detailed full model and a control algorithm based on a decoupled current control strategy of the enhanced compensator are proposed. The integrated STATCOM/SMES controller topology includes three level, multi-pulse, voltage source inverters (VSI) with phase control and incorporates a two quadrant, three level, dc-dc chopper as the interface between the STATCOM and the SMES coil. A novel three level control scheme is proposed by using concepts of instantaneous power in the synchronous rotating d-q reference frame. The dynamic performance of the presented control algorithms is evaluated through digital simulation performed by using SimPowerSystems of SIMULINK/MATLAB T M , and technical analysis is performed to obtain conclusions about the benefits of using SMES devices in the PFC of the electric system. Presently, a laboratory scale prototype device based on

  17. Shunt PWM advanced var compensators based on voltage source inverters for Facts applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Pedro G; Misaka, Isamu; Watanabe, Edson H [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    Increased attention has been given to improving power system operation. This paper presents modeling, analysis and design of reactive shunt power compensators based on PWM-Voltage Source Inverters (Pulse Width Modulation -Voltage Source Inverters). (Pulse Width Modulation - Voltage Source Inverters). The control algorithm is based on new concepts of instantaneous active and reactive power theory. The objective is to show that with a small capacitor in the side of a 3-phase PWM-VSI it is possible to synthesize a variable reactive (capacitive or inductive) device. Design procedures and experimental results are presented. The feasibility of this method was verified by digital simulations and measurements on a small scale model. (author) 9 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Tapchanger controls : use and abuse in volt/var management (line drop compensation applications)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, E.T. [Beckwith Electric Company Inc., Largo, FL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Traditional line drop compensation (LDC) is a feature that has been included in virtually every automatic tapchanger control for over 50 years. This function was designed to accommodate a specific distribution system application that differs from most applications in today's power systems. The application and setting of the LDC function must consider the overall control operation of the distribution system during emergency or contingency system configurations as well as additional control function interactions. This paper discussed several of these considerations and described a second type of LDC philosophy offered in a few modern controls. With the LDC-Z method, the control setting method and the response to distribution system equipment switching can be quite different. The paper discussed the basic control features and operation including the traditional RX LDC in both normal operating and abnormal distribution system conditions including unexpected system voltage results occurring on present power systems from LDC misuse. It also presented a description of the LDC-Z method and how settings are determined. The more appropriate applications for each method were described. The paper also identified the most common method of providing backup protection against LDC overcompensation for both LDC RX and LDC-Z methods and its importance. A description of LDC applicability for different system configurations and conditions including paralleled transformers, reverse power situations, network and distributed generation applications as well as the use of LDC RX settings to attempt to provide emergency transformer paralleling control were also provided. It was concluded that the relatively new LDC-Z compensation was better applied in many substation applications and automatic system equipment operations could result in different system operating conditions. 11 figs.

  19. Influencing Power Flow and Transient Stability by Static Synchronous Series Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Imran Azim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present world, modern power system networks, being a complicated combination of generators, transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers and other devices, are more vulnerable to various types of faults causing stability problems. Among these faults, transient fault is believed to be a major disturbance as it causes large damage to a sound system within a certain period of time. Therefore, the protection against transient faults, better known as transient stability control is one of the major considerations for the power system engineers. This paper presents the control approach in the transmission line during transient faults by means of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC in order to stabilize Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB system.  In this paper, SSSC is represented by variable voltage injection associated with the transformer leakage reactance and the voltage source. The comparative results depict that the swing curve of a system increases monotonically after the occurrence of transient faults However, SSSC is effective enough to make it stable after a while.

  20. Voltage Analysis Improvement of 150 kV Transmission Subsystem Using Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, P. A.; Hakim, D. L.; Sucita, T.

    2018-02-01

    In this research, testing improvements to the distribution voltage electricity at 150 kV transmission subsystem Bandung Selatan and New Ujungberung using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology. One of them is by doing the control of active and reactive power through the power electronics equipment Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM). The subsystem is tested because it has a voltage profile are relatively less well when based on the IEEE / ANSI C.84.1 (142.5 - 157.5 kV). This study was conducted by analyzing the Newton-Raphson power flow on the simulator DigSilent Power Factory 15 to determine the profile of the voltage (V) on the system. Bus which has the lowest voltage to be a reference in the installation of STATCOM. From this research is known that the voltage on the conditions of the existing bus 28, as many as 21-23 still below standard buses (142.5 kV), after the installation is done using STATCOM, voltage on the buses improved by increasing the number of tracks that follow the standard / is in the range 142.5 kV -157.5 kV as many as 23-27 buses or 78.6% - 96%, with the optimum mounting on a bus Rancaekek STATCOM II with a capacity of 300 MVA.

  1. Flight calibration of compensated and uncompensated pitot-static airspeed probes and application of the probes to supersonic cruise vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, L. D.; Washington, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Static pressure position error calibrations for a compensated and an uncompensated XB-70 nose boom pitot static probe were obtained in flight. The methods (Pacer, acceleration-deceleration, and total temperature) used to obtain the position errors over a Mach number range from 0.5 to 3.0 and an altitude range from 25,000 feet to 70,000 feet are discussed. The error calibrations are compared with the position error determined from wind tunnel tests, theoretical analysis, and a standard NACA pitot static probe. Factors which influence position errors, such as angle of attack, Reynolds number, probe tip geometry, static orifice location, and probe shape, are discussed. Also included are examples showing how the uncertainties caused by position errors can affect the inlet controls and vertical altitude separation of a supersonic transport.

  2. A novel current mode controller for a static compensator utilizing Goertzel algorithm to mitigate voltage sags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, E.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We proposed a new current control method for STATCOM. → The current control method maintains a fixed switching frequency. → It also produces fewer harmonics compared to conventional hysteresis method. → A new voltage dip (sag) detection method was used in STATCOM. → The control method can mitigate voltage sag in each phase separately. -- Abstract: Static compensator (STATCOM) has been widely proposed for power quality and network stability improvement. It is easily connected in parallel to the electric network and has many advantages for electrical grids. It can improve network stability; power factor, power transfer rating and can avoid some disturbances such as sags and swells. Most of STATCOM controllers are based on voltage controllers that are based on balanced d-q transform. However, they are not thorough solutions for network disturbances since in most cases single-phase disturbances occur in electrical networks that cannot be avoided by the conventional controllers. Voltage mode controllers are also not capable of responding fast enough to the changes expected of a network system. This paper proposes a new current mode controller to overcome the mentioned problem. The approach uses a fixed frequency current controller to maintain voltage levels in voltage sags (dips). This approach is also simple and can be easily implemented by digitally. It has superior performance over conventional methods in terms of harmonic reduction in STATCOM output current. Another important factor for STATCOM effectiveness in sag mitigation is its sag detection method. This paper also introduces a new sag detection method based on Goertzel algorithm which is both effective and simple for practical applications. The simulation results presented illustrate the superiority of the proposed controller and sag detection algorithm to be utilized in the STATCOM.

  3. The effect of static cyclotorsion compensation on refractive and visual outcomes using the Schwind Amaris laser platform for the correction of high astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Toliou, Georgia; Padroni, Sara; Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Kolli, Sai

    2011-06-01

    To compare the refractive and visual outcomes using the Schwind Amaris excimer laser in patients with high astigmatism (>1D) with and without the static cyclotorsion compensation (SCC) algorithm available with this new laser platform. 70 consecutive eyes with ≥1D astigmatism were randomized to treatment with compensation of static cyclotorsion (SCC group- 35 eyes) or not (control group- 35 eyes). A previously validated optimized aspheric ablation algorithm profile was used in every case. All patients underwent LASIK with a microkeratome cut flap. The SCC and control group did not differ preoperatively, in terms of refractive error, magnitude of astigmatism or in terms of cardinal or oblique astigmatism. Following treatment, average deviation from target was SEq +0.16D, SD±0.52 D, range -0.98 D to +1.71 D in the SCC group compared to +0.46 D, SD±0.61 D, range -0.25 D to +2.35 D in the control group, which was statistically significant (p<0.05). Following treatment, average astigmatism was 0.24 D (SD±0.28 D, range -1.01 D to 0.00 D) in the SCC group compared to 0.46 D (SD±0.42 D, range -1.80 D to 0.00 D) in the control group, which was highly statistically significant (p<0.005). There was no statistical difference in the postoperative uncorrected vision when the aspheric algorithm was used although there was a trend to increased number of lines gained in the SCC group. This study shows that static cyclotorsion is accurately compensated for by the Schwind Amaris laser platform. The compensation of static cyclotorsion in patients with moderate astigmatism produces a significant improvement in refractive and astigmatic outcomes than when not compensated. Copyright © 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel single-phase phase space-based voltage mode controller for distributed static compensator to improve voltage profile of distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Abdollah; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Farhoodnea, Masoud; Zayandehroodi, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new phase space based voltage mode controller for D-STATCOM was proposed. • The proposed compensator was tested to mitigate voltage disturbances in distribution systems. • Voltage fluctuation, voltage sag and voltage swell are considered to evaluate the performance of the proposed compensator. - Abstract: Distribution static synchronous compensator (D-STATCOM) has been developed and attained a great interest to compensate the power quality disturbances of distribution systems. In this paper, a novel single-phase control scheme for D-STATCOM is proposed to improve voltage profile at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The proposed voltage mode (VM) controller is based on the phase space algorithm, which is able to rapidly detect and mitigate any voltage deviations from reference voltage including voltage sags and voltage swells. To investigate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed compensator, a system is modeled using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results approve the capability of the proposed VM controller to provide a regulated and disturbance-free voltage for the connected loads at the PCC

  5. THE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION IN ELECTRIC POWER LOSSES IN ELECTRIC NETWORK OF RAILWAY JUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Bondar; I. L. Bondar

    2009-01-01

    In this work the generalized mathematical model of an electrical network of the electrified railway junction is proposed. An estimation of influence of static var compensators installation on electric power losses in a network is executed on the basis of given model.

  6. An improved phase-locked loop method for automatic resonance frequency tracing based on static capacitance broadband compensation for a high-power ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui-juan; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wu, Han-fu

    2012-02-01

    The phase-locked loop (PLL) method is widely used for automatic resonance frequency tracing (ARFT) of high-power ultrasonic transducers, which are usually vibrating systems with high mechanical quality factor (Qm). However, a heavily-loaded transducer usually has a low Qm because the load has a large mechanical loss. In this paper, a series of theoretical analyses is carried out to detail why the traditional PLL method could cause serious frequency tracing problems, including loss of lock, antiresonance frequency tracing, and large tracing errors. The authors propose an improved ARFT method based on static capacitance broadband compensation (SCBC), which is able to address these problems. Experiments using a generator based on the novel method were carried out using crude oil as the transducer load. The results obtained have demonstrated the effectiveness of the novel method, compared with the conventional PLL method, in terms of improved tracing accuracy (±9 Hz) and immunity to antiresonance frequency tracing and loss of lock.

  7. Dimensional verification and location of the reactive static compensator in 220 kV; Verificacion del dimensionamiento y ubicacion del compensador estatico de reactivos en 220 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Krekeler, Ubaldo [Administracion Nacional de Electricidad (ANDE), Asuncion (Paraguay)]. E-mail: ufernandez@ieee.org; Cardozo Sanchez, Freddy [Mirant Americas (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a determination verification of the compensation range and the location of reactive static compensator (RSC) in 220 kV. The verification is accomplished by analyses of the RSC effects in relation to the losses, loading and system voltage stability. The needed compensation range is investigated in full details, whereas that the required conversion level is directly related to this range. It is concluded that the RSC installation, foreseen for 2002, might be postponed for 2005/10 still without reinforcements in 500 kV. The Limpio substation seems to be the more suitable location in relation to the most analysed cases.

  8. Enhancement of load frequency stabilization effect of superconducting magnetic energy storage by static synchronous series compensator based on H ∞ control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai; Taeratanachai, Chanin; Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Mitani, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the load frequency stabilization effect of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in an interconnected power system is restricted to its located area. The SMES almost has no frequency stabilization effect in another interconnected area. To enhance the frequency stabilization effect of SMES, the static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) can be applied as an auxiliary device. The SSSC can be used as an energy transfer device of the SMES to stabilize the frequency in another interconnected area. The proposed technique not only introduces a sophisticated frequency stabilization in deregulated power systems but also offers a smart energy management control of SMES. In addition, to take the robust stability of the controlled power system against system uncertainties into account, the H ∞ control is used to design robust frequency stabilizers of the SMES and SSSC. Simulation results in a two area interconnected power system confirm the high robustness of the frequency stabilizers SMES and SSSC against load disturbances and system uncertainties

  9. Estimation of reactive power sources dynamic limits for Volt / VAr control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco Alvarado, Juan Jose

    2013-01-01

    A generic model of capacity curves is obtained from the theoretical capacity curves of the distribution generators and reactive compensation elements. The obtained generic model is structured in a simplified method of points, taking eight strategic points of two detailed curves of a generator and through a series of interpolations, achieving the estimation of limits of capacity of delivery / consumption of the generator. The theory of electric generation elements and reactive power compensation is reviewed. The curves of capacity 'Reactive Power / Active Power' are achieved for different values of tension: from wind generators with complete converter and doubly fed, photovoltaic generators with inverter and synchronous generators. The 'Reactive Power / Line Tension' capacity curves are acquired from static var compensators (SVC). The generic limits of generators and SVC are estimated from the capacity curves [es

  10. Dynamic Performance of the ITER Reactive Power Compensation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhicai; Fu Peng; Xu Liuwei

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic performance of a reactive power compensation (RPC) system for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) power supply is presented. Static var compensators (SVCs) are adopted to mitigate voltage fluctuation and reduce the reactive power down to a level acceptable for the French/European 400 kV grid. A voltage feedback and load power feedforward controller for SVC is proposed, with the feedforward loop intended to guarantee short response time and the feedback loop ensuring good dynamics and steady characteristics of SVC. A mean filter was chosen to measure the control signals to improve the dynamic response. The dynamic performance of the SVC is verified by simulations using PSCAD/EMTDC codes.

  11. An introduction to reactive power compensation for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigim, K.A.; Cairo Univ., Giza; Zobaa, A.F.; El Amin, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarises the refereed contributions of seven articles reviewed for publication in the IJETP - Special Issue on 'Reactive compensation for wind farms'. The main goal of the special issue is to provide a forum to exchange information on the reactive power compensation requirements for wind farms and introducing possible price mechanisms for today's deregulated power industry. Uncompensated reactive power causes stress on the hosting utility grid as well as added expenses, which create in difficulties for power purchasing agreements from independent wind energy producers. Wind power producers need to comply with the hosting utility grid interconnection standards, e.g., voltage and frequency, as well as to provide controllable active and reactive sources of power. Active power supply is mainly dependent on the potential of wind power produced and the turbine design. Reactive power demand on the other hand depends on the conversion devices and the recovered power quantity fed to the grid. Static Var Compensators (SVC), Unified Power Quality Conditioners (UPQC), Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFC), and the Distributed Static Synchronous Compensators (DSTATCOM) are all new emerging devices aimed at regulating the reactive power requirements. The excellent controllability of these devices has paved the way to flexible and dynamic controllers that are capable of regulating the flow of active and reactive power components. These devices are now suggested for the control of the reactive power requirement of wind generators. Studies have demonstrated acceptable voltage stabilisation results. This has increased the penetration level of wind power into existing distribution networks in many countries. (Author)

  12. Electronic tissue compensation achieved with both dynamic and static multileaf collimator in eclipse treatment planning system for Clinac 6 EX and 2100 CD Varian linear accelerators: Feasibility and dosimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinhikar Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC and static multileaf collimator (SMLC, along with three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D TPS, open the possibility of tissue compensation. A method using electronic tissue compensator (ETC has been implemented in Eclipse 3-D TPS (V 7.3, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA at our center. The ETC was tested for head and neck conformal radiotherapy planning. The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of DMLC and SMLC in head and neck field irradiation for delivering homogeneous dose in the midplane at a pre-defined depth. In addition, emphasis was given to the dosimetric aspects in commissioning ETC in Eclipse. A Head and Neck Phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, USA was used for the dosimetric verification. Planning was carried out for both DMLC and SMLC ETC plans. The dose calculated at central axis by eclipse with DMLC and SMLC was noted. This was compared with the doses measured on machine with ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD. The calculated isodose curves and profiles were compared with the measured ones. The dose profiles along the two major axes from Eclipse were also compared with the profiles obtained from Amorphous Silicon (AS500 Electronic portal imaging device (EPID on Clinac 6 EX machine. In uniform dose regions, measured dose values agreed with the calculated doses within 3%. Agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in the dose gradient zone was within 3 mm. The isodose curves and the profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measured curves and profiles. The measured and the calculated dose profiles along the two major axes were flat for both DMLC and SMLC. The dosimetric verification of ETC for both the linacs demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the ETC treatment modality for achieving uniform dose distributions. Therefore, ETC can be used as a tool in head and neck treatment planning optimization for improved dose uniformity.

  13. An EMTDC Model of a Three Level four MVAR Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the dynamic characteristics of a three level ±4mvar solid state var compensator which is built and will be used for dynamic reactive power compensation in a wind farm. An investigation has been carried out of the influence of the compensator reactor, the DC intermediate voltage...

  14. Reactive power compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  15. Reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  16. An introduction to reactive power compensation for wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigim, K.A. [Waterloo Univ., Ont. (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering; Zobaa, A.F.; El Amin, I. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The paper summarises the refereed contributions of seven articles reviewed for publication in the IJETP - Special Issue on 'Reactive compensation for wind farms'. The main goal of the special issue is to provide a forum to exchange information on the reactive power compensation requirements for wind farms and introducing possible price mechanisms for today's deregulated power industry. Uncompensated reactive power causes stress on the hosting utility grid as well as added expenses, which create in difficulties for power purchasing agreements from independent wind energy producers. Wind power producers need to comply with the hosting utility grid interconnection standards, e.g., voltage and frequency, as well as to provide controllable active and reactive sources of power. Active power supply is mainly dependent on the potential of wind power produced and the turbine design. Reactive power demand on the other hand depends on the conversion devices and the recovered power quantity fed to the grid. Static Var Compensators (SVC), Unified Power Quality Conditioners (UPQC), Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFC), and the Distributed Static Synchronous Compensators (DSTATCOM) are all new emerging devices aimed at regulating the reactive power requirements. The excellent controllability of these devices has paved the way to flexible and dynamic controllers that are capable of regulating the flow of active and reactive power components. These devices are now suggested for the control of the reactive power requirement of wind generators. Studies have demonstrated acceptable voltage stabilisation results. This has increased the penetration level of wind power into existing distribution networks in many countries. (Author)

  17. Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var Compensator (SSVC) ... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home ... The problems associated with the flow of reactive power in transmission and distribution lines are well known.

  18. Application of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow response of the conventional traditional methods for improving power system performance creates the need for adoption of advanced control technologies such ... Newton-Raphson-based power flow equations describing the steady state ...

  19. FUZZY LOGIC STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR (FLSTATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Mataram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan teknik fuzzy membawa perubahan yang signifikan khusus pada perhitungan dan analisis sistem konvensional. Peranan peralatan FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System untuk memperbaiki kualitas tegangan dari pembangkit menuju beban sangat besar. STATCOM merupakan peralatan paling berpengaruh untuk memperbaiki tegangan pada jaringan transmisi tenaga listrik. Pembahasan pada penelitian ini dikhususkan pada FLSTATCOM. Model Fuzzy Logic dengan dua input digunakan sebagai pengontrol IGBT, sehingga mampu meningkatkan unjuk kerja STATCOM konvensional. Sistem Single Machine Infinite Bus menjadi sistem uji coba penggunaan FLSTATCOM.Hasil simulasi menggunakan simulink MATLAB, diperoleh nilai tegangan pada tiap sisi terima tanpa menggunakan STATCOM menghasilkan tegangan sebesar 217,3 kV, menggunakan STATCOM menghasilkan tegangan sebesar 220 kV, dan penggunaan FLSTATCOM mampu meningkatkan tegangan menjadi 228,9 kV (5,34%

  20. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  1. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  2. Application of superconducting coils to VAR control in electric power systems: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1979-11-01

    During the last eight years, static VAR-control systems with thyristor-controlled, room-temperature reactors have been used in electrical systems for voltage control and system stabilization. In this proposal, we describe a new static VAR-control system that uses an asymmetrically controlled Graetz bridge and a superconducting dc coil. Preliminary studies indicate that the proposed system will have lower overall losses and that its capital cost and electrical characteristics are comparable to those of a conventional system. Three- and four-year programs for developing the electronic circuitry and superconducting coils for VAR control, culminating in the installation and testing of an approx. 40-MVAR system, are proposed

  3. Model-Based Throttle Control using Static Compensators and Pole Placement Commande des gaz basée sur un modèle utilisant des compensateurs statiques et un placement de pôles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomasson A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern spark ignited engines, the throttle is controlled by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU, which gives the ECU direct control of the air flow and thereby the engine torque. This puts high demands on the speed and accuracy of the controller that positions the throttle plate. The throttle control problem is complicated by two strong nonlinear effects, friction and limp-home torque. This paper proposes the use of two, simultaneously active, static compensators to counter these effects and approximately linearize the system. A PID controller is designed for the linearized system, where pole placement is applied to design the PD controller and a gain scheduled I-part is added for robustness against model errors. A systematic procedure for generating compensator and controller parameters from open loop experiments is also developed. The controller performance is evaluated both in simulation, on a throttle control benchmark problem, and experimentally. A robustness investigation pointed out that the limp-home position is an important parameter for the controller performance, this is emphasized by the deviations found in experiments. The proposed method for parameter identification achieves the desired accuracy. Au sein des moteurs à allumage commandé modernes, les gaz sont régulés par le boîtier de commande électronique (ECU; Electronic Control Unit, qui permet la régulation directe par l’ECU du flux d’air et ainsi du couple moteur. Cela conduit à des exigences élevées quant à la vitesse et à la précision du régulateur qui positionne le papillon des gaz. Le problème de commande des gaz est compliqué par deux forts effets non linéaires, le frottement et le couple de mode de secours (“limp-home”. Cet article propose l’utilisation de deux compensateurs statiques, actifs simultanément, pour contrer ces effets et linéariser approximativement le système. Un régulateur PID est conçu pour le système linéarisé, où un

  4. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  5. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  6. Aeromagnetic Compensation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprstek, T.; Lee, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic data is one of the most widely collected types of data in exploration geophysics. With the continuing prevalence of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in everyday life there is a strong push for aeromagnetic data collection using UAVs. However, apart from the many political and legal barriers to overcome in the development of UAVs as aeromagnetic data collection platforms, there are also significant scientific hurdles, primary of which is magnetic compensation. This is a well-established process in manned aircraft achieved through a combination of platform magnetic de-noising and compensation routines. However, not all of this protocol can be directly applied to UAVs due to fundamental differences in the platforms, most notably the decrease in scale causing magnetometers to be significantly closer to the avionics. As such, the methodology must be suitably adjusted. The National Research Council of Canada has collaborated with Aeromagnetic Solutions Incorporated to develop a standardized approach to de-noising and compensating UAVs, which is accomplished through a series of static and dynamic experiments. On the ground, small static tests are conducted on individual components to determine their magnetization. If they are highly magnetic, they are removed, demagnetized, or characterized such that they can be accounted for in the compensation. Dynamic tests can include measuring specific components as they are powered on and off to assess their potential effect on airborne data. The UAV is then flown, and a modified compensation routine is applied. These modifications include utilizing onboard autopilot current sensors as additional terms in the compensation algorithm. This process has been applied with success to fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms, with both a standard manned-aircraft magnetometer, as well as a new atomic magnetometer, much smaller in scale.

  7. Creative compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, D.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs

  8. Losses compensation; Compensation des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One mission of RTE (Electric Power Transportation), is to watch over the losses compensation resulting from the power transport on the electric power network. Since january 2001, RTE makes good the electric losses by the purchase of energy. To choose the marketers, a consultation has been realized by RTE. This document presents the rules concerning these losses compensation. (A.L.B.)

  9. Creative compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll, D

    1994-09-19

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs.

  10. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  11. ESTIMATING RISK ON THE CAPITAL MARKET WITH VaR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The two basic questions that every investor tries to answer before investment are questions about predicting return and risk. Risk and return are generally considered two positively correlated sizes, during the growth of risk it is expected increase of return to compensate the higher risk. The quantification of risk in the capital market represents the current topic since occurrence of securities. Together with estimated future returns it represents starting point of any investment. In this study it is described the history of the emergence of VaR methods, usefulness in assessing the risks of financial assets. Three main Value at Risk (VaR methodologies are decribed and explained in detail: historical method, parametric method and Monte Carlo method. After the theoretical review of VaR methods it is estimated risk of liquid stocks and portfolio from the Croatian capital market with historical and parametric VaR method, after which the results were compared and explained.

  12. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  13. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  14. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  15. Improvement of the dynamic response of the ITER Reactive Power Compensation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finotti, Claudio; Gaio, Elena; Song, Inho; Tao, Jun; Benfatto, Ivone

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The slow response reasons of the classic ITER Reactive Power Compensation (RPC) control are explained. • The dynamic behaviors of the ac/dc converter and of the RPC are characterized. • New control concept to speed up the RPC response is developed. • Good performance of the new RPC control is verified even during fast transient conditions. - Abstract: The ITER ac/dc conversion system can absorb a total active and reactive power up to 500 MW and 950 Mvar, respectively. The Reactive Power Compensation (RPC) system is rated for a nominal power of 750 Mvar necessary to comply with the allowable reactive power limit value from the grid of 200 Mvar. This system is currently under construction and is based on Static Var Compensation technology with Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) and Tuned Filters. The RPC has to minimize the demand of reactive power from the grid; its control is based on a feed-forward method, where the corrective input is the measurement of the reactive power consumption of the ac/dc converters, derived from the 50 Hz component of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the three-phase voltages and currents. The delay introduced by the FFT calculation and the slow response of the TCR could make the response speed of the RPC not sufficient to face fast variations of the reactive power demand and therefore in this paper a new controller of the RPC able to overcome this shortcoming is proposed and evaluated. It is based on the calculation of the predicted consumption of the reactive power by using the voltage reference signals coming from the Plasma Control System and the measurements of the dc current of the ac/dc converters and of the 66 kV busbar voltage, and on the speed up of the RPC control by introducing a lead–lag transfer function.

  16. Improvement of the dynamic response of the ITER Reactive Power Compensation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finotti, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.finotti@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Gaio, Elena [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Song, Inho; Tao, Jun; Benfatto, Ivone [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The slow response reasons of the classic ITER Reactive Power Compensation (RPC) control are explained. • The dynamic behaviors of the ac/dc converter and of the RPC are characterized. • New control concept to speed up the RPC response is developed. • Good performance of the new RPC control is verified even during fast transient conditions. - Abstract: The ITER ac/dc conversion system can absorb a total active and reactive power up to 500 MW and 950 Mvar, respectively. The Reactive Power Compensation (RPC) system is rated for a nominal power of 750 Mvar necessary to comply with the allowable reactive power limit value from the grid of 200 Mvar. This system is currently under construction and is based on Static Var Compensation technology with Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) and Tuned Filters. The RPC has to minimize the demand of reactive power from the grid; its control is based on a feed-forward method, where the corrective input is the measurement of the reactive power consumption of the ac/dc converters, derived from the 50 Hz component of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the three-phase voltages and currents. The delay introduced by the FFT calculation and the slow response of the TCR could make the response speed of the RPC not sufficient to face fast variations of the reactive power demand and therefore in this paper a new controller of the RPC able to overcome this shortcoming is proposed and evaluated. It is based on the calculation of the predicted consumption of the reactive power by using the voltage reference signals coming from the Plasma Control System and the measurements of the dc current of the ac/dc converters and of the 66 kV busbar voltage, and on the speed up of the RPC control by introducing a lead–lag transfer function.

  17. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  18. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  19. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  20. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  1. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would

  2. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salz, H.; Wiezorek, T.; Scheithauer, M.; Kleen, W.; Schwedas, M.; Wendt, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation with intensity-modulated fields is possible with static as well as dynamic methods. In our university hospital, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators was prepared and used for the first time for patient irradiation in July 2001. The compensators consist of a mixture of tin granulate and wax, which is filled in a milled negative mould. The treatment planning is performed with Helax-TMS (MDS Nordion). An additional software is used for editing the modulation matrix ('Modifix'). Before irradiation of the first patient, extensive measurements have been carried out in terms of quality assurance of treatment planning and production of compensators. The results of the verification measurements have shown that IMRT with compensators possesses high spatial and dosimetric exactness. The calculated dose distributions are applied correctly. The accuracy of the calculated monitor units is normally better than 3%; in small volumes, further dosimetric inaccuracies between calculated and measured dose distributions are mostly less than 3%. Therefore, the compensators contribute to the achievement of high-level IMRT even when apparatuses without MLC are used. This paper describes the use of the IMRT with compensators, presents the limits of this technology, and discusses the first practical experiences. (orig.) [de

  3. DGA-based VAR rescheduling for transmission loss reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India); Taylor, G.A. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Brunel Inst. of Power Systems; Reddy, J.B.V. [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Science and Technology; Naeem, M.H. [Multimedia Univ. (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Power losses in power transmission lines can be minimized by adjusting transformer taps and switchable VAR sources. Optimal power flow (OPF) is a static, nonlinear, multi-objective optimization challenge in which the optimal settings of control variables must be determined for minimizing the cost of generation, emissions, transmission losses and voltage and power flow deviations. OPF is important in power system operation because a small savings per hour can mean a large annual savings. This paper presented a method to reduce transmission power losses using a Differential Genetic Algorithm (DGA) for VAR rescheduling. The New England 39-bus power system was used as a test case. Power losses were minimized by changing the tap settings of various transformers and by varying the injected reactive power. The paper showed that certain buses in the system can improve the voltage profile and reduce transmission losses through reactive power injections from capacitor banks. In this study, minimum reactive power output of generators was maintained at zero to ensure that the generators did not draw reactive power. The DGA was shown to produce better results than the Conventional Genetic Algorithm in terms of power loss minimization. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  4. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  5. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  6. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; 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Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  7. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, R.A. Jr; Gliebe, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload. 7 figs

  8. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  9. 'Static' octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leander, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Certain nuclei can be described as having intrinsic shapes with parity breaking static moments. The rationale for this description is discussed, spectroscopic models are outlined and their consequences are compared with experiment. (orig.)

  10. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  11. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g s ) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, g s , and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm -2 s -1 ), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm -2 s -1 ), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  13. Developing fair compensation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousdale, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of finding an effective way to incorporate Aboriginal values into the process of developing fair compensation structures was discussed. This paper discusses pricing intangible values using dollars, but it was emphasized that 'values' are whatever are important to us. Therefore, in order to achieve fair compensation, creative alternatives that are value-focused should be pursued. In addition to the more straight-forward monetary compensation, compensation could also be about avoiding losses, mitigating adverse impacts, achieving better communication, and promoting cultural understanding. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  14. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  15. Compensation of deformations in 3D cone beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbat, L.; Roux, S.; Roux, S.; Grangeat, P.

    2006-01-01

    In dynamic tomography, the measured objects or organs are no-longer supposed to be static in the scanner during the acquisition but are supposed to move or to be deformed. Our approach is the analytic deformation compensation during the reconstruction. Our work concentrates on 3-dimensional cone beam tomography. We introduce a new large class of deformations preserving the 3-dimensional cone beam geometry. We show that deformations from this class can be analytically compensated. We present numerical experiments on phantoms showing the compensation of these deformations in 3-dimensional cone beam tomography. (authors)

  16. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  17. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  18. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  19. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  20. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  1. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We derive the optimal compensation contract in a principal–agent setting in which outcome is used to provide incentives for both effort and risky investments. To motivate investment, optimal compensation entails rewards for high as well as low outcomes, and it is increasing at the mean outcome...

  2. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  3. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...

  4. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  5. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new co...

  6. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  7. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  8. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  9. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  10. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  11. The Static Quantum Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, inclu...

  12. Development of a commercially viable piezoelectric force sensor system for static force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Luo, Xinwei; Liu, Jingcheng; Li, Min; Qin, Lan

    2017-09-01

    A compensation method for measuring static force with a commercial piezoelectric force sensor is proposed to disprove the theory that piezoelectric sensors and generators can only operate under dynamic force. After studying the model of the piezoelectric force sensor measurement system, the principle of static force measurement using a piezoelectric material or piezoelectric force sensor is analyzed. Then, the distribution law of the decay time constant of the measurement system and the variation law of the measurement system’s output are studied, and a compensation method based on the time interval threshold Δ t and attenuation threshold Δ {{u}th} is proposed. By calibrating the system and considering the influences of the environment and the hardware, a suitable Δ {{u}th} value is determined, and the system’s output attenuation is compensated based on the Δ {{u}th} value to realize the measurement. Finally, a static force measurement system with a piezoelectric force sensor is developed based on the compensation method. The experimental results confirm the successful development of a simple compensation method for static force measurement with a commercial piezoelectric force sensor. In addition, it is established that, contrary to the current perception, a piezoelectric force sensor system can be used to measure static force through further calibration.

  13. Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Dinç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense M. Dinç & S. Doğu (Lamiaceae, a new variety from Aksaray in Central Anatolia, is described and illustrated. The new variety is similar to the typical one in its calyx teeth uncinate at tip and subequal to the tube with conspicious midvein. It is readily distinguished from var. pruinosum by its general appearance, indumentum, and floral organ pigmentation. The map showing the distributions of the varieties was given.

  14. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  15. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  16. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  17. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  18. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogliati, Joshua J.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2010-01-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  19. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive

  20. The static pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, Conrad L [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1958-07-01

    In a pinch, the outward diffusion of plasma due to collisions can be balanced by the inward drift resulting from ExB, where E is the applied electric field and B the magnetic field. From the equation expressing the balance of these two effects, together with the pressure balance equation, one obtains the perpendicular conductivity, which is about one-half of the classical parallel conductivity. This result has been applied to the problem of a static pinch under the assumptions: 1) there is an applied longitudinal (B{sub z}) magnetic field; 2) the plasma is isothermal; 3) the solution depends only on the radial coordinate.

  1. TRACKING CONTROL FOR A HYDRAULIC DRIVE WITH A PRESSURE COMPENSATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Aranovskiy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A problem of tracking control is considered for a hydraulic drive with a pressure compensator that is widespread in the equipment of heavy-duty machines. Method. The control problem is solved by means of a switching sliding-mode controller coupled with static nonlinear compensation and desired velocity feedforward. Main Results. Mathematical model of a hydraulic drive is given in view of the pressure compensator presence. Traditional model of a hydraulic drive is formulated for a system with a spool valve; purpose and principles of operation of the pressure compensator in hydraulic systems are described, and the extended model is presented illustrating compensator contribution to overall system dynamics. It is shown that the obtained model has an input static nonlinearity; the nonlinearity cancellation method is proposed giving the possibility for injection of a desired velocity feedforward term. The control law is chosen as a switching one and two chattering attenuation methods are studied: equivalent control estimation via filtering and sign function integration. Experimental studies are performed at a forestry hydraulic crane prototype and illustrate high tracking accuracy achieved for typical crane motions. Practical Significance. The results are suitable for heavy-duty hydraulic machines automation in construction, road building and forestry.

  2. 1D-Var temperature retrievals from microwave radiometer and convective scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Martinet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the potential of ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR for providing accurate temperature retrievals by combining convective scale numerical models and brightness temperatures (BTs. A one-dimensional variational (1D-Var retrieval technique has been tested to optimally combine MWR and 3-h forecasts from the French convective scale model AROME. A microwave profiler HATPRO (Humidity and Temperature PROfiler was operated during 6 months at the meteorological station of Bordeaux (Météo France. MWR BTs were monitored against simulations from the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator 2 radiative transfer model. An overall good agreement was found between observations and simulations for opaque V-band channels but large errors were observed for channels the most affected by liquid water and water vapour emissions (51.26 and 52.28 GHz. 1D-Var temperature retrievals are performed in clear-sky and cloudy conditions using a screening procedure based on cloud base height retrieval from ceilometer observations, infrared radiometer temperature and liquid water path derived from the MWR observations. The 1D-Var retrievals were found to improve the AROME forecasts up to 2 km with a maximum gain of approximately 50 % in root-mean-square-errors (RMSE below 500 m. They were also found to outperform neural network retrievals. A static bias correction was proposed to account for systematic instrumental errors. This correction was found to have a negligible impact on the 1D-Var retrievals. The use of low elevation angles improves the retrievals up to 12 % in RMSE in cloudy-sky in the first layers. The present implementation achieved a RMSE with respect to radiosondes within 1 K in clear-sky and 1.3 K in cloudy-sky conditions for temperature.

  3. Enthalpy–entropy compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enthalpy–entropy compensation is the name given to the correlation sometimes observed between the estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction obtained from temperature-dependence data. Although the mainly artefactual nature of this correlation has been known for many years, the subject enjoys periodical ...

  4. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  5. Teacher Compensation and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in the conceptualization of schooling over time from an organizational perspective. Explores how compensation systems might be better designed to match alternative organizational designs, considering scientific management, effective schools, content-driven schooling, and high standards/high involvement schools as organizational…

  6. (statcom) in synchronous compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    with fast response and low cost for stabilizing electricity grid power and voltage. ... The conventional and modified Newton-Raphson-based power flow equations .... The control of the reactive power exchange between .... because of its faster rate of convergence and accuracy ..... compensator, North American Power System.

  7. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  8. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyan, S., E-mail: suren.vasilyan@tu-ilmenau.de; Froehlich, Th. [Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  9. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  10. Static electricity: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Rita M.

    1991-11-01

    The major concern with static electricity is its discharging in a flammable atmosphere which can explode and cause a fire. Textile materials can have their electrical resistivity decreased by the addition of antistatic finishes, imbedding conductive particles into the fibres or by adding metal fibers to the yarns. The test methods used in the studies of static electricity include measuring the static properties of materials, of clothed persons, and of the ignition energy of flammable gases. Surveys have shown that there is sparse evidence for fires definitively being caused by static electricity. However, the 'worst-case' philosophy has been adopted and a static electricity safety code is described, including correct grounding procedures and the wearing of anti-static clothing and footwear.

  11. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...... the effects of capital liberalization on the determination of money, income, prices, and interest rates in a small open economy...

  12. Numerical Predictions of Static-Pressure-Error Corrections for a Modified T-38C Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    but the more modern work of Latif et al . [11] demonstrated that compensated Pitot-static probes can be simulated accurately for subsonic and...what was originally estimated from CFD simulations in Bhamidipati et al . [3] by extracting the static-pressure error in front of the production probe...Aerodynamically Compensating Pitot Tube,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 25, No. 6, 1988, pp. 544–547. doi:10.2514/3.45620 [11] Latif , A., Masud, J., Sheikh, S. R., and

  13. Center for Worker's Compensation Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the NIOSH Center for Workers’ Compensation Studies (CWCS) is to use workers’ compensation data and systems to improve workplace safety and health....

  14. Addressing inadequate compensation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-12

    Aug 12, 2016 ... The issue LSLAs raise a number of concerns regarding compensation, including ... at a meeting with traders in Lamu, Kenya, where a new port is planned. ... compensation and a fair share of benefits and risks in land deals.

  15. Structuring competitive physician compensation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kim; Turcotte, Claire

    2010-12-01

    When developing and reviewing their physician compensation programs, healthcare organizations should: Understand the market data. Test outcomes of incentive plans for fair market value. Check total compensation for fair market value and reasonableness.

  16. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  17. Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation

  18. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Schmuecking, Michael; Aebersold, Daniel; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations

  19. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  20. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...

  1. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  2. Fukushima: liability and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, Japan endured one of the worst natural disasters in its history when a massive earthquake struck the Pacific coast of the country and was followed by a tsunami which led to considerable loss of lives. It also led to a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Soon afterwards, the operator of the plant, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), assumed responsibility and liability for the nuclear accident. On 28 April 2011, TEPCO established a dedicated contact line to provide consulting services for financial compensation related to the damage caused

  3. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VAR IPP-IPC Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Pérez Monsalve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the relationship of the two main Price indicators in the Colombian economy, the IPP and the IPC. For this purpose, we identified the theory comprising both indexes to then develop a vector autoregressive model, which shows the reaction to shocks both in itself as in the other variable, whose impact continues propagating in the long term. Additionally, the work presents a simulation of the VAR model through the Monte Carlo method, verifying the coincidence in distributions of probability and volatility levels, as well as the existence correlation over time

  5. Regulation System for the 18 kV/90 Mvar Compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Burdet, G

    2001-01-01

    Two 18 kV/90 Mvar static compensators are involved to stabilise the voltage, filter the harmonics and compensate the reactive power generated by the power converters used to supply the SPS accelerator magnets. The in-house hardware and software used by the regulation systems, difficult to maintain and upgrade, shall be renovated. Industrial solution based on PLC will be implemented. This paper describes the future system and its integration to the Electrical Network Supervisor.

  6. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  7. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  9. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  10. Een nieuwe naam voor Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutermann, W.; Mennema, J.

    1983-01-01

    The name Arenaria serpyllifoiia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd is illegitimate, because of the existence of the earlier non-synonymous A. serpyllifolia0 macrocarpa Godron. As on the level of variety no other name is available, we call the taxon A renaria serpylli/olia L. var. Iloydn (Jord.) Gutermann et

  11. Whiplash and the compensation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B

    2011-12-01

    Review article. To explain why the evidence that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes is not compelling, either in general, or in the specific case of whiplash. There is a common view that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes ("the compensation hypothesis"), despite the presence of important, and unresolved sources of bias. The empirical evidence on this question has ramifications for the design of compensation schemes. Using studies on whiplash, this article outlines the methodological problems that impede attempts to confirm or refute the compensation hypothesis. Compensation studies are prone to measurement bias, reverse causation bias, and selection bias. Errors in measurement are largely due to the latent nature of whiplash injuries and health itself, a lack of clarity over the unit of measurement (specific factors, or "compensation"), and a lack of appreciation for the heterogeneous qualities of compensation-related factors and schemes. There has been a failure to acknowledge and empirically address reverse causation bias, or the likelihood that poor health influences the decision to pursue compensation: it is unclear if compensation is a cause or a consequence of poor health, or both. Finally, unresolved selection bias (and hence, confounding) is evident in longitudinal studies and natural experiments. In both cases, between-group differences have not been addressed convincingly. The nature of the relationship between compensation-related factors and health is unclear. Current approaches to testing the compensation hypothesis are prone to several important sources of bias, which compromise the validity of their results. Methods that explicitly test the hypothesis and establish whether or not a causal relationship exists between compensation factors and prolonged whiplash symptoms are needed in future studies.

  12. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  13. The pH-static enzyme sensor: design of the pH control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, B.H.; van der Schoot, Bart H.; Voorthuijzen, Hans; Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet

    1990-01-01

    The pH-static enzyme sensor offers a solution to the buffer dependency of ISFET-based enzyme sensors. A continuous coulometric titration of the reaction products keeps the pH in the enzymatic membrane at a constant level. This paper presents an automatic system to control the compensating current

  14. Evaluation of the sensor properties of the pH-static enzyme sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, B.H.; van der Schoot, Bart H.; Bergveld, Piet

    1990-01-01

    The pH-static enzyme sensor consists of a chemical sensor-actuator system covered with a thin enzyme-entrapping membrane. By the electrochemical generation of protons or hydroxyl ions, pH changes induced by the conversion of a substrate by the enzymatic reaction are compensated. The pH inside the

  15. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  16. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  17. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and not allowed, to do. The second issue was that a fully static analysis was never a realistic possibility, because Java , the programming langauge...scale to large programs it had to handle essentially all of the features of Java and could also be used as a general-purpose analysis engine. The...static analysis of imperative languages. • A framework for adding specifications about the behavior of methods, including methods that were

  18. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  19. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  20. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  1. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  2. Takeovers and (Excess) CEO Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  3. Takeovers and (excess) CEO compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  4. Changing Conceptions of Employee Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Hayes, Linda J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses many differing forms of incentive compensation systems that are being used in today's organizations. The review traces the roots of bonus compensation from individual piece-work plans through the adoption of organization-wide gain sharing plans to the growing recognition of open-book management. Reasons for the…

  5. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  6. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  7. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid......Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  8. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favier, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.favier@epfl.ch [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Habert, Guillaume [Institute for Construction and Infrastructure Management, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Roussel, Nicolas [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); D' Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste [Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Indusrtrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI), ParisTech, PSL Research University, Soft Matter Sciences and Engineering Laboratory SIMM, CNRS UMR 7615, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2.

  9. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  10. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Driga, M.D.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  11. Stabilized thermally compensated mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, C. III; Tobin, R.D.; Bergstreser, N.E.; Heinz, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally compensated mirror is described that is formed by a laminated structure. The structure is comprised of a front plate having a reflective front surface and having a plurality of grooves formed in the rear surface for conducting coolant fluid in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface, a rear plate having coolant inlet and coolant outlet openings extending therethrough, a minimum temperature plate interposed between said front and rear plates and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution passageways coupled to receive coolant fluid from said coolant inlet and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a minimum temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, a temperature stabilization plate interposed between said front plate and said minimum temperature plate and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution channels coupled to receive said coolant fluid after said coolant fluid has passed in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a uniform temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, and means for circulating said coolant fluid through said structure in a predetermined path. (U.S.)

  12. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  13. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Skew quad compensation at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.

    1977-10-01

    Rotational and focal effects of solenoids used in PEP detectors will cause severe perturbations of machine beam optics and must be corrected. Ordinarily this would be accomplished by the addition of compensating solenoids and adjustment of insertion quadrupole strengths. It has been found that an arbitrary cross plane coupling representing the effects of solenoids and/or skew quads in any combination can be synthesized (or compensated) exactly using a quartet of skew quads combined with other erect transport elements in a wide variety of configurations. Specific skew quad compensating systems for PEP have been designed and are under study by PEP staff. So far no fundamental flaws have been discovered. In view of that, PEP management has tentatively authorized the use of such a system in the PEP-4, PEP-9 experiments and proposes to leave the question open ''without prejudice'' for other experiments. Use of skew quad compensation involves an imponderable risk, of course, simply because the method is new and untested. But in addition to providing the only known method for dealing with skew quad perturbations, skew quad compensation, as an alternate to compensating solenoids, promises to be much cheaper, to require much less power and to occupy much less space in the IR's. The purpose of this note is to inform potential users of the foregoing situation and to explain skew quad compensation more fully. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. A primer for workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Spengler, Dan M; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-07-01

    A physician's role within a workers' compensation injury extends far beyond just evaluation and treatment with several socioeconomic and psychological factors at play compared with similar injuries occurring outside of the workplace. Although workers' compensation statutes vary among states, all have several basic features with the overall goal of returning the injured worker to maximal function in the shortest time period, with the least residual disability and shortest time away from work. To help physicians unfamiliar with the workers' compensation process accomplish these goals. Review. Educational review. The streamlined review addresses the topics of why is workers' compensation necessary; what does workers' compensation cover; progression after work injury; impairment and maximum medical improvement, including how to use the sixth edition of American Medical Association's (AMA) Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment (Guides); completion of work injury claim after impairment rating; independent medical evaluation; and causation. In the "no-fault" workers' compensation system, physicians play a key role in progressing the claim along and, more importantly, getting the injured worker back to work as soon as safely possible. Physicians should remain familiar with the workers' compensation process, along with how to properly use the AMA Guides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  18. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGRs) on the oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria var. manilensis were assessed. Under laboratory conditions, at the highest tested dose rate of 300 ppm, the percent mortality and molt inhibition after two weeks for the five tested ...

  19. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  20. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  1. Results of application of automatic computation of static corrections on data from the South Banat Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Slavka; Stojanovic, Vojislav

    2017-04-01

    Due to the continuous development of the seismic acquisition and processing method, the increase of the signal/fault ratio always represents a current target. The correct application of the latest software solutions improves the processing results and justifies their development. A correct computation and application of static corrections represents one of the most important tasks in pre-processing. This phase is of great importance for further processing steps. Static corrections are applied to seismic data in order to compensate the effects of irregular topography, the difference between the levels of source points and receipt in relation to the level of reduction, of close to the low-velocity surface layer (weathering correction), or any reasons that influence the spatial and temporal position of seismic routes. The refraction statics method is the most common method for computation of static corrections. It is successful in resolving of both the long-period statics problems and determining of the difference in the statics caused by abrupt lateral changes in velocity in close to the surface layer. XtremeGeo FlatironsTM is a program whose main purpose is computation of static correction through a refraction statics method and allows the application of the following procedures: picking of first arrivals, checking of geometry, multiple methods for analysis and modelling of statics, analysis of the refractor anisotropy and tomography (Eikonal Tomography). The exploration area is located on the southern edge of the Pannonian Plain, in the plain area with altitudes of 50 to 195 meters. The largest part of the exploration area covers Deliblato Sands, where the geological structure of the terrain and high difference in altitudes significantly affects the calculation of static correction. Software XtremeGeo FlatironsTM has powerful visualization and tools for statistical analysis which contributes to significantly more accurate assessment of geometry close to the surface

  2. Altitude Compensating Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Jones, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dual-bell nozzle (fig. 1) is an altitude-compensating nozzle that has an inner contour consisting of two overlapped bells. At low altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle operates in mode 1, only utilizing the smaller, first bell of the nozzle. In mode 1, the nozzle flow separates from the wall at the inflection point between the two bell contours. As the vehicle reaches higher altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle flow transitions to mode 2, to flow full into the second, larger bell. This dual-mode operation allows near optimal expansion at two altitudes, enabling a higher mission average specific impulse (Isp) relative to that of a conventional, single-bell nozzle. Dual-bell nozzles have been studied analytically and subscale nozzle tests have been completed.1 This higher mission averaged Isp can provide up to a 5% increase2 in payload to orbit for existing launch vehicles. The next important step for the dual-bell nozzle is to confirm its potential in a relevant flight environment. Toward this end, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) have been working to develop a subscale, hot-fire, dual-bell nozzle test article for flight testing on AFRC's F15-D flight test bed (figs. 2 and 3). Flight test data demonstrating a dual-bell ability to control the mode transition and result in a sufficient increase in a rocket's mission averaged Isp should help convince the launch service providers that the dual-bell nozzle would provide a return on the required investment to bring a dual-bell into flight operation. The Game Changing Department provided 0.2 FTE to ER42 for this effort in 2014.

  3. What Constitutes Fair Compensation for Unfair Dismissal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Generally the monetary compensation is perceived to be a solatium. 19 .... compensation for non-patrimonial loss in the context of an unfair labour practice. 41 .... awards of compensation where a person's dignity is impaired in the course of an.

  4. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  5. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  6. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C.; Narvaez, Gabriel A.; Perez, Leandro R.R.; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administrat...

  8. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  9. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  10. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  11. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  12. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...

  13. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R.; Dehghani, M.H.; Zangeneh, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  14. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R. [Shahid Bahonar University, Department of Physics, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, M.H. [Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, M.K. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  15. Static Analysis of Functional Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the static analysis of programs in the functional programming language Miranda is described based on two graph models. A new control-flow graph model of Miranda definitions is presented, and a model with four classes of caligraphs. Standard software metrics are applicable to these

  16. ETHOD OF COMPENSATING LOADS FOR SOLVING OF ANISOTROPIC MEDIUM PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Koreneva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The work applies the method of compensating loads (MCL for solution of statics and vibrations problems of plates with cylindrical anisotropy. For receiving of basic and compensating solutions Nielsen’s equation is used. The solution expressed in terms of Bessel functions is obtained. Such way can be used in con-sideration of symmetric, antisymmetric and unsymmetric flexure of orthotropic circular plates resting on an elastic Winkler’s subgrade. The similar method can be also utilized for examination of the symmetric vibrations of the orthotropic circular plates as well as for the cases of vibrations with one or a few nodal diameters. The solutions are obtained in closed form in terms of the cylindrical functions.

  17. Stability-index based method for optimal Var planning in distribution feeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamouda, Abdellatif; Zehar, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Optimal Var planning is modelled using heuristic methods. → Capacitor sizes and location are determined by a two stage method. → Capacitor locations are determined using nodes stability-indices. → Their sizes are calculated subject to a new constraint on the branches reactive currents. → The solution is fast and leads to better results without over compensation. -- Abstract: The problem of the reactive energy optimal planning can be solved in a fast and efficient way using heuristic techniques. The latter reduce the number of the control variables to be determined and lead to a near global optimal solution. The capacitor appropriate locations are firstly determined by decisive indices then, their optimal sizes are calculated. In this paper a stability-index based method is presented. The nodes stability-indices are calculated for identifying the most sensitive nodes to be candidate for receiving near optimal standard capacitors that, reduce the feeder power losses, improve the voltage profile and maximise the economic saving (objective function). In this multi-objective optimisation problem, the commonly used voltage constraint is substituted by a new constraint on the branch reactive currents. This new constraint, allows overcoming the over compensation phenomenon by setting positive branch reactive currents. The solution is further improved by regulating the source node voltage. The proposed approach has been tested on several feeder examples and its effectiveness has been demonstrated through comparative studies. The obtained results have shown that the proposed approach leads to a promising and feasible solution.

  18. Stability-index based method for optimal Var planning in distribution feeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamouda, Abdellatif, E-mail: a_hamouda1@yahoo.f [QUERE Laboratory, Optics and Mechanics Institut, University Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Zehar, Khaled [QUERE Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Bahrain, Isa Town (Bahrain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Optimal Var planning is modelled using heuristic methods. {yields} Capacitor sizes and location are determined by a two stage method. {yields} Capacitor locations are determined using nodes stability-indices. {yields} Their sizes are calculated subject to a new constraint on the branches reactive currents. {yields} The solution is fast and leads to better results without over compensation. -- Abstract: The problem of the reactive energy optimal planning can be solved in a fast and efficient way using heuristic techniques. The latter reduce the number of the control variables to be determined and lead to a near global optimal solution. The capacitor appropriate locations are firstly determined by decisive indices then, their optimal sizes are calculated. In this paper a stability-index based method is presented. The nodes stability-indices are calculated for identifying the most sensitive nodes to be candidate for receiving near optimal standard capacitors that, reduce the feeder power losses, improve the voltage profile and maximise the economic saving (objective function). In this multi-objective optimisation problem, the commonly used voltage constraint is substituted by a new constraint on the branch reactive currents. This new constraint, allows overcoming the over compensation phenomenon by setting positive branch reactive currents. The solution is further improved by regulating the source node voltage. The proposed approach has been tested on several feeder examples and its effectiveness has been demonstrated through comparative studies. The obtained results have shown that the proposed approach leads to a promising and feasible solution.

  19. Compensative hypertrophy of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Several measurement methods are available to practitioners to reveal a compensative hypertrophy. Mensuration of the kidney has the advantage of simplicity but is in fact an unreliable and inaccurate method. Separate clearances in their traditional form have never entered into routine use because of the disadvantages of ureteral catheterism. The use of radioactive tracers avoids this drawback, but clearances calculated in this way are only valid in the absence of obstructive urinary disorders. Solutions have been proposed, but the values obtained are no longer identical with the clearances. The Hg uptake test quantifies quite accurately the function of each kidney. From the results obtained a complete compensative hypertrophy developed on a healthy kidney and an incomplete compensative hypertrophy developed on the diseased kidney have been described. In each of these situations the degree to which compensative hypertrophy develops seems to be fixed at a given level peculiar to each patient [fr

  20. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  1. CEO Compensation and Disclosure Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weijia; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between CEO compensation and disclosure policy related to corporate governance information within S&P 500 index. Our sample consists of 456 companies for the period from 2005 to 2015. Most previous researchers mainly put their attention on various corporate governance characteristics such as board size, board independence, and executive ownership when analysing CEO compensation. Our paper extends the previous study by dividing corporate governance into...

  2. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...

  3. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  4. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  5. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  6. Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-03-31

    if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing

  7. Static and Dynamic Membrane Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While originally P systems were defined to contain multiset rewriting rules, it turned out that considering different types of rules may produce important results, such as increasing the computational power of the rules. This paper focuses on factoring out the concept of a membrane structure out of various P system models with the goal of providing useful formalisations. Both static and dynamic membrane structures are considered.

  8. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those hours...

  9. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to the...

  10. Motion-compensated processing of image signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In a motion-compensated processing of images, input images are down-scaled (scl) to obtain down-scaled images, the down-scaled images are subjected to motion- compensated processing (ME UPC) to obtain motion-compensated images, the motion- compensated images are up-scaled (sc2) to obtain up-scaled

  11. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  12. Crime victims‘ right to compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.

  13. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations......, and another in which the cointegrating relations are estimated recursively from a likelihood function, where the short-run parameters have been concentrated out. We suggest graphical procedures based on recursively estimated eigenvalues to evaluate the constancy of the long-run parameters in the model...

  14. A Pedagogical Model of Static Friction

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, Galen T.

    2015-01-01

    While dry Coulombic friction is an elementary topic in any standard introductory course in mechanics, the critical distinction between the kinetic and static friction forces is something that is both hard to teach and to learn. In this paper, I describe a geometric model of static friction that may help introductory students to both understand and apply the Coulomb static friction approximation.

  15. In-Flight Pitot-Static Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V. (Inventor); Cunningham, Kevin (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A GPS-based pitot-static calibration system uses global output-error optimization. High data rate measurements of static and total pressure, ambient air conditions, and GPS-based ground speed measurements are used to compute pitot-static pressure errors over a range of airspeed. System identification methods rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals.

  16. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  17. Network compensation for missing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    1991-01-01

    A network learning translation invariance algorithm to compute interpolation functions is presented. This algorithm with one fixed receptive field can construct a linear transformation compensating for gain changes, sensor position jitter, and sensor loss when there are enough remaining sensors to adequately sample the input images. However, when the images are undersampled and complete compensation is not possible, the algorithm need to be modified. For moderate sensor losses, the algorithm works if the transformation weight adjustment is restricted to the weights to output units affected by the loss.

  18. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  19. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  20. Static stars : Some mathematical curiosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.B.

    1977-01-01

    The equations of structure of static Newtonian and general relativistic stars are investigated. By using Lie group theory, it is shown that, in each case, the condition that there should exist a simple ''homologous'' family of similar solutions necessitates precisely those equations of state for the stellar matter that are usually invoked by means of extraneous physical arguments. In the relativistic case, a diagram which depicts these families is drawn, using the qualitative theory of differential equations. This vividly exhibits the nature of the general solutions, and the exceptional character of the Misner--Zapolsky solution. This diagram is contrasted with similar ones obtained by Chandrasekhar in the Newtonian case

  1. Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus

    Dynamic programming languages are highly popular and widely used. Java- Script is often called the lingua franca of the web and it is the de facto standard for client-side web programming. On the server-side the PHP, Python and Ruby languages are prevalent. What these languages have in common...... with static type systems, such as Java and C# , but the same features are rarely available for dynamic languages such as JavaScript. The aim of this thesis is to investigate techniques for improving the tool- support for dynamic programming languages without imposing any artificial restrictions...... of new dataflow analysis techniques to tackle the nature of dynamic programming languages....

  2. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  3. A Novel Control Algorithm for Static Series Compensators by Use of PQR Instantaneous Power Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Hyosung; Sul, Seung-Ki

    2004-01-01

    in coordinates is very simple and clear, has better steady state and dynamic performance. The controlled variables in coordinates are then inversely transformed to the original coordinates without time delay, generating control signals to SSCs. The control algorithm can be used for various kinds of SSCs...

  4. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  6. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  7. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  8. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites:

  9. Ongoing transients in carbonate compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is acidifying the oceans. Over the next 2000 years, this will modify the dissolution and preservation of sedimentary carbonate. By coupling new formulas for the positions of the calcite saturation horizon, zsat, the compensation depth, zcc, and the snowline, zsnow, to a

  10. Strategic Design of Teacher Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the national focus on revitalizing the teacher evaluation and support/development process, as well as the current economic downturn, many school districts are reviewing how teachers are compensated. While a few courageous districts have completely upended current structures, most districts are undertaking changes that leave the most…

  11. Optimal compensation for neuron loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David GT; Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-01-01

    The brain has an impressive ability to withstand neural damage. Diseases that kill neurons can go unnoticed for years, and incomplete brain lesions or silencing of neurons often fail to produce any behavioral effect. How does the brain compensate for such damage, and what are the limits of this compensation? We propose that neural circuits instantly compensate for neuron loss, thereby preserving their function as much as possible. We show that this compensation can explain changes in tuning curves induced by neuron silencing across a variety of systems, including the primary visual cortex. We find that compensatory mechanisms can be implemented through the dynamics of networks with a tight balance of excitation and inhibition, without requiring synaptic plasticity. The limits of this compensatory mechanism are reached when excitation and inhibition become unbalanced, thereby demarcating a recovery boundary, where signal representation fails and where diseases may become symptomatic. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12454.001 PMID:27935480

  12. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed

  13. Hubble expansion in static spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossler, Otto E.; Froehlich, Dieter; Movassagh, Ramis; Moore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit. It is described quantitatively. A bent in the Hubble-like line is predictably implied. The main underlying assumption is Price's Principle (PI 3 ). If the theory is sound, the greatest remaining problem in cosmology becomes the origin of hydrogen. Since Blandford's jet production mechanism for quasars is too weak, a generalized Hawking radiation hidden in the walls of cosmic voids is invoked. A second prediction is empirical: slow pattern changes in the cosmic microwave background. A third is ultra-high redshifts for Giacconi quasars. Bruno's eternal universe in the spirit of Augustine becomes a bit less outlandish

  14. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  15. Load-Following Voltage Controller Design for a Static Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Onbasioglou, Fetiye O.; Metzger, John D.

    2000-01-01

    The reliability of static space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) could be improved through the use of backup devices in addition to shunt regulators, as currently proposed for load following. Shunt regulator failure leading to reactor shutdown is possible, as is the possible need to deliver somewhat higher power level to the load than originally expected. A backup system is proposed in SNPSs to eliminate the possibility of a single-point failure in the shunt regulators and to increase the overall system power delivery capability despite changing mission needs and component characteristics. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of such a backup device for voltage regulation in static SNPSs that is capable of overcoming system variations resulting from operation at different power levels. A dynamic compensator is designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery method. The resulting compensators are gain scheduled using the SNPS electric power as the scheduling variable, resulting in a nonlinear compensator. The performance of the gain-scheduled compensator is investigated extensively using an SNPS simulator. The simulations demonstrate the effects of the fuel temperature reactivity coefficient variations on the load-following capabilities of the SNPS. Robustness analysis results demonstrate that the proposed controller exhibits significant operational flexibility, and it can be considered for long-term space mission requiring significant levels of autonomy

  16. [Static posturography versus clinical tests in elderly people with vestibular pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño-Cortés, Miguel A; Martín-Sanz, Eduardo; Barona-de Guzmán, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Balance can be quantified by clinical tests and through instrumental studies. The objective of this paper is to determine the correlation between static posturography and 4 clinical tests of balance in elderly people with vestibular disorders and to identify its capability to discriminate the groups studied. 60 patients with vestibular disorders and 60 healthy subjects performed 4 clinical tests (one leg standing with opened eyes, Timed Up and Go, Tinetti and Berg tests) and a static posturography analysis (NedSVE/IBV system) under 4 conditions: Romberg Test, Eyes Open (REO), Romberg Test, Eyes Closed (REC), Romberg Test on Foam with Eyes Open (RFEO), and Romberg Test on Foam with Eyes Closed (RFEC). RFEO correlated best with the clinical tests and RFEC was the worst. RFEO distinguished between healthy individuals and decompensated patients. RFEO gave the best information about postural balance in the elderly. RFEC was not useful. Static posturography can be useful to distinguish vestibular compensation status.

  17. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  18. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  19. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  20. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  1. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  2. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  3. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  4. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  5. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  6. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  7. Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria and mycorrhizal on Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare ([Dierbach] D'Arcy and Eshbaugh) germination under stressing abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Castellanos-Cervantes, T; García-Hernández, José Luís; Tarazòn-Herrera, Mario Antonio; Moreno Medina, Salomòn; Gerlach Barrera, Luis Ernesto

    2010-08-01

    Capsicum annuum var. aviculare to Tarahumara and Papago Indians and farmers of Sonora desert is a promising biological and commercial value as a natural resource from arid and semiarid coastal zones. Traditionally, apply synthetic fertilizers to compensate for soil nitrogen deficiency. However, indiscriminate use of these fertilizers might increase salinity. The inoculation by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represents an alternative as potential bio fertilizer resources for salty areas. Seeds ecotypes from four areas of Sonora desert (Mazocahui, Baviacora, Arizpe, La Tortuga), in order to inoculate them with one species of PGPB and AMF. Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB and AMF growth factors measured on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length, and produced biomass (fresh and dry matter). The results indicated that from four studied ecotypes, Mazocahui was the most outstanding of all, showing the highest germination under saline and non-saline conditions. However, the PGPB and AMF influenced the others variables evaluated. This study is the first step to obtain an ideal ecotype of C. a. var. aviculare, which grows in the northwest of México and promoting this type of microorganisms as an efficient and reliable biological product. Studies of the association of PGPB and AMF with the C. a. var. aviculare-Mazocahui ecotype are recommended to determine the extent to which these observations can be reproduced under field conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  9. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  10. A static world model. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundman, S.

    1981-01-01

    The static particle model of Part I requires creation of ether proportional to the energy of the particle. It is shown that this ether creation leads to gravitation and a forever expanding universe in agreement with the large-number hypothesis. The age, mass and size of the universe are calculated from atomic constants and G. The model predicts scale-invariance with different scales for gravitational matter, nucleons and electrons. This leads to a fine structure constant decreasing very slowly with time. For each scale there is a different type of dynamic balance governing the expansion of the universe. The model indicates that the universe was initially densely packed with (tau) leptons. It suggests a program for calculating the gravitational constant and the muon-electron mass ratio from other universal constants. Tentative numerological derivation gives these quantities with a higher accuracy than has been achieved experimentally. (Auth.)

  11. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS... allowable under paragraph (a) of this section must be reduced by— (1) All compensation made available to the... under § 136.235. Government Revenues ...

  12. Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokemoto, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform were closely related. Nuclear damage compensation cost should be part of generation cost of nuclear power. Extend of nuclear damage compensation was limited by compensation standard of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) following guidelines of Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation. TEPCO had already paid compensation of about two trillion yen until now, which was only a part of total damage compensation cost. TEPCO had been provided more than 3.4 trillion yen by Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Cooperation, which would be put back by nuclear operators including TEPCO. TEPCO could obtain present raising funds and try to reconstruct business with restart of nuclear power, which might disturb energy reform. Present nuclear damage compensation scheme had better be reformed with learning more from Minamata disease case in Japan. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  14. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantum electrodynamics with compensating current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechler, A [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej

    1974-01-01

    A formulation of quantum electrodynamics is proposed in which all the propagators and field operators are gauge invariant. It is based on an old idea of Heisenberg and Euler which consists in the introduction of the linear integrals of potentials as arguments of the exponential functions. This method is generalized by an introduction of the so-called ''compensating currents'', which ensure local, i.e. in every point of space-time, charge conservation. The linear integral method is a particular case of that proposed in this paper. As the starting point we use quantum electrodynamics with a non-zero, small photon mass (Proca theory). It is shown that, due to the presence of the compensating current, the theory is fully renormalizable in Hilbert space with positive definite scalar product. The problem of the definition of the current operator is also briefly discussed.

  16. Static and transient beam loading of a synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    In a synchrotron, when the beam induced current is comparable to the driver current, the RF cavity is subjected to beam loading perturbation and corrective steps have to be implemented to regain beam stability. In this paper, the static and transient beam loading will be studied. We first discuss the static beam loading, which includes the cavity detuning condition, the stability condition, and the generator power dissipation. The beam current induced beam phase deviation is used as criterion to study the transient beam loading. The upgraded and the old AGS RF system parameters are used as an example to demonstrate how to choose cavity and generator parameters to satisfy the stability requirements under the beam loading. The dynamic models for the beam loading with beam control, and the beam loading with fast power amplifier feedback are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the beam phase and radial feedbacks alone are insufficient for the transient beam loading compensation, but the fast power amplifier feedback can provide effective correction on the beam loading. The limitation of the fast feedback and the beam loading with tuning and AVC loops are also discussed

  17. Executive compensation: a calibration approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ivilina Popova; Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    We use a version of the Grossman and Hart principal-agent model with 10 actions and 10 states to produce quantitative predictions for executive compensation. Performance incentives derived from the model are compared with the performance incentives of 350 firms chosen from a survey by Michael Jensen and Kevin Murphy. The results suggest both that the model does a reasonable job of explaining the data and that actual incentives are close to the optimal incentives predicted by theory.

  18. Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Hersch

    2011-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...

  19. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  20. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  1. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Static equilibrium, charged metallic body, potential energy, projected gradient method. ... television, radio, internet, microwave ovens, mobile telephones, satellite communication systems, radar systems, electrical motors, electrical.

  2. 23 CFR 751.15 - Just compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Just compensation. 751.15 Section 751.15 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.15 Just compensation. (a) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the... nonconforming junkyard as provided in § 751.11 must pertain at the time of the taking or removal in order to...

  3. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modules...

  4. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  5. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  6. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT General Procedure § 136.113 Other compensation. A... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113...

  7. The battle over workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, J N

    2000-01-01

    Faced with lower profits and rapidly increasing premium costs in the 1980s, insurers and employer organizations cleverly parlayed the public perception of worker fraud and abuse in the workers' compensation system (that they helped to create) into massive legislative changes. Over the last decade, state legislators and governors, Republican and Democrat alike, have jumped on this bandwagon, one that workers and their allies have dubbed the workers' compensation "deform" movement. Alleging a "game plan" and a calculated campaign on the part of insurers and employers, the author looks at the major components of changes that were made, examines the elements of workers' compensation over which employers and insurers have gained control, and discusses Newt Gingrich's efforts to capitalize on employer and insurer fervor over the system. This campaign whistled through the country until it goaded the labor movement, injured workers, the trial bar, and others in Ohio in 1997 to organize themselves to stand up to employers by defeating the deform law through a ballot initiative. The article details that battle and suggests that similar voices can be achieved through a return to grassroots organizing and mobilization.

  8. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  9. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  10. 38 CFR 21.3023 - Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. 21.3023 Section 21.3023 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Child; age 18. A child who...

  11. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  12. Research on the compensation of laser launch optics to improve the performance of the LGS spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Yuning; Tian, Donghe; Zheng, Quan; Lin, Xudong; Wang, Liang; Yang, Qingyun

    2018-02-01

    To improve the beam quality of the uplink laser, a 37 channel piezo-ceramic deformable mirror was inserted into the laser launch optics to compensate the static aberrations. An interferometer was used as the calibration light source as well as the wavefront sensor to perform closed-loop correction for the moment. About 0.38λ root mean square (rms) aberrations, including the deformable mirror's initial figure error, were compensated, and the residual error was less than 0.07λ rms. Field observations with a 2 m optical telescope demonstrated that the peak intensity value of the laser guide star (LGS) spot increased from 5650 to 7658, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) size reduced from 4.07 arcseconds to 3.52 arcseconds. With the compensation, an improved guide star spot can be obtained, which is crucial for the adaptive optics systems of ground-based large telescopes.

  13. Hysteresis Compensation of Piezoresistive Carbon Nanotube/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite-Based Force Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sik Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a preliminary study on the hysteresis compensation of a piezoresistive silicon-based polymer composite, poly(dimethylsiloxane dispersed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs, to demonstrate its feasibility as a conductive composite (i.e., a force-sensitive resistor for force sensors. In this study, the potential use of the nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS as a force sensor is evaluated for the first time. The experimental results show that the electrical resistance of the CNT/PDMS composite changes in response to sinusoidal loading and static compressive load. The compensated output based on the Duhem hysteresis model shows a linear relationship. This simple hysteresis model can compensate for the nonlinear frequency-dependent hysteresis phenomenon when a dynamic sinusoidal force input is applied.

  14. Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Sofo, Jorge O.; Cole, Milton W.; Velegol, Darrell; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2005-01-01

    A cluster consisting of many atoms or molecules may be considered, in some circumstances, to be a single large molecule with a well-defined polarizability. Once the polarizability of such a cluster is known, one can evaluate certain properties--e.g. the cluster's van der Waals interactions, using expressions derived for atoms or molecules. In the present work, we evaluate the static polarizability of a cluster using a microscopic method that is exact within the linear and dipolar approximations. Numerical examples are presented for various shapes and sizes of clusters composed of identical atoms, where the term 'atom' actually refers to a generic constituent, which could be any polarizable entity. The results for the clusters' polarizabilities are compared with those obtained by assuming simple additivity of the constituents' atomic polarizabilities; in many cases, the difference is large, demonstrating the inadequacy of the additivity approximation. Comparison is made (for symmetrical geometries) with results obtained from continuum models of the polarizability. Also, the surface effects due to the nonuniform local field near a surface or edge are shown to be significant

  15. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  16. Automatic error compensation in dc amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longden, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    When operational amplifiers are exposed to high levels of neutron fluence or total ionizing dose, significant changes may be observed in input voltages and currents. These changes may produce large errors at the output of direct-coupled amplifier stages. Therefore, the need exists for automatic compensation techniques. However, previously introduced techniques compensate only for errors in the main amplifier and neglect the errors induced by the compensating circuitry. In this paper, the techniques introduced compensate not only for errors in the main operational amplifier, but also for errors induced by the compensation circuitry. Included in the paper is a theoretical analysis of each compensation technique, along with advantages and disadvantages of each. Important design criteria and information necessary for proper selection of semiconductor switches will also be included. Introduced in this paper will be compensation circuitry for both resistive and capacitive feedback networks

  17. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  18. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  19. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  20. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  1. Estimation and Compensation of aberrations in Spatial Light Modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Augusto; Castaneda, Roman

    2011-01-01

    The spatial light modulator (SLM) Holoeye LC-R720 is based on LCoS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) technology. Due to the induced curvatures on the silicon plate by the production process, there are static aberrations in the wave-fronts modified by the SLM. In order to calculate the aberrated wave-front we used phase-shifting interferometry, an optimization algorithm for far field propagation, and the geometric characterization of the focal spot along the caustic. Zernike polynomials were used for expanding and comparing the wave-fronts. The aberration compensation was carried out by displaying the conjugated transmittance on the SLM. The complexity of the experimental setup and the requirements of the digital processing of each estimation method were comparatively analyzed.

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  3. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  4. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  5. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  6. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  8. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  9. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  10. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  11. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  12. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  13. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  14. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  16. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  18. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  19. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  20. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  1. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  2. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  3. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  4. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  5. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  6. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  7. Multi-qubit compensation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y; Merrill, J T; Brown, K R

    2010-01-01

    The Hamiltonian control of n qubits requires precision control of both the strength and timing of interactions. Compensation pulses relax the precision requirements by reducing unknown but systematic errors. Using composite pulse techniques designed for single qubits, we show that systematic errors for n-qubit systems can be corrected to arbitrary accuracy given either two non-commuting control Hamiltonians with identical systematic errors or one error-free control Hamiltonian. We also examine composite pulses in the context of quantum computers controlled by two-qubit interactions. For quantum computers based on the XY interaction, single-qubit composite pulse sequences naturally correct systematic errors. For quantum computers based on the Heisenberg or exchange interaction, the composite pulse sequences reduce the logical single-qubit gate errors but increase the errors for logical two-qubit gates.

  8. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo; Tsuneya, Tsubokawa; Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe

    1999-01-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10 33 to 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 . Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  9. Self compensating fire detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholin, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A device employing ionization principles for fire detection disclosing a configuration which allows compensation for adverse effects due to the flow of the gas through the device or due to the accumulation of dust and dirt therein. The detecting device includes two ionization chambers, each having a first member, such as a cylindrically shaped cup, having first and second conductive surface portions. Each chamber also incudes a second member, such as a circular, electrode disc having two conductive surface portions. There is disposed in each chamber a radioactive source for ionizing the gas in the volumes intervening between respective pairs of surfaces. The area dimensions of the respective pairs of surfaces, the interventing volumes and the distances there between, and the relative orientation of the respective pairs are calculated and placed such that the ionization currents flowing between pairs of conductive surfaces are substantially equal and orthogonal to each other

  10. Weight compensation characteristics of Armeo®Spring exoskeleton: implications for clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bonnie E; Evans, Emily K; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2017-02-17

    Armeo®Spring exoskeleton is widely used for upper extremity rehabilitation; however, weight compensation provided by the device appears insufficiently characterized to fully utilize it in clinical and research settings. Weight compensation was quantified by measuring static force in the sagittal plane with a load cell attached to the elbow joint of Armeo®Spring. All upper spring settings were examined in 5° increments at the minimum, maximum, and two intermediate upper and lower module length settings, while keeping the lower spring at minimum. The same measurements were made for minimum upper spring setting and maximum lower spring setting at minimum and maximum module lengths. Weight compensation was plotted against upper module angles, and slope was analyzed for each condition. The Armeo®Spring design prompted defining the slack angle and exoskeleton balance angle, which, depending on spring and length settings, divide the operating range into different unloading and loading regions. Higher spring tensions and shorter module lengths provided greater unloading (≤6.32 kg of support). Weight compensation slope decreased faster with shorter length settings (minimum length = -0.082 ± 0.002 kg/°; maximum length = -0.046 ± 0.001 kg/°) independent of spring settings. Understanding the impact of different settings on the Armeo®Spring weight compensation should help define best clinical practice and improve fidelity of research.

  11. Inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm for low-cost modular manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a necessary mean to realize the accurate motion control of the manipulator which uses end-effector pose correction method and compensation method. In this article, first, we established the kinematic model and error model of the modular manipulator (WUST-ARM, and then we discussed the measurement methods and precision of the inertial measurement unit sensor. The inertial measurement unit sensor is mounted on the end-effector of modular manipulator, to get the real-time pose of the end-effector. At last, a new inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm is proposed. By applying this algorithm in the pose compensation experiment of modular manipulator which is composed of low-cost rotation joints, the results show that the inertial measurement unit can obtain a higher precision when in static state; it will accurately feedback to the control system with an accurate error compensation angle after a brief delay when the end-effector moves to the target point, and after compensation, the precision errors of roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle are reached at 0.05°, 0.01°, and 0.27° respectively. It proves that this low-cost method provides a new solution to improve the end-effector pose of low-cost modular manipulator.

  12. Robotic motion compensation for applications in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy today, on account of improvements in treatment procedures over the last 60 years, allows precise treatment of static tumors inside the human body. However, irradiation of moving tumors is still a challenging task as moving tumors often leave the treatment beam and the radiation dose delivered to the tumor reduces simultaneously increasing that on healthy tissue. This research work aims to push the frontiers of radiation therapy in order to enable precise treatment of moving tumors with focus on research and development of a unique real-time system enabling active motion compensation through robotic means to compensate tumor motion. During treatment, patients lie on a treatment couch which is normally used for static position corrections of patient set-up errors prior to radiation treatment. The treatment couch used, called HexaPOD, is a parallel manipulator with six degrees of freedom which can precisely position heavy loads inside a small region. Despite the HexaPOD not initially built with dynamics in mind, it is used in this work for sustained motion compensation by moving patients such that tumors stay precisely located at the center of the treatment beam during the complete course of treatment. In order to realize real-time tumor motion compensation by means of the HexaPOD, several challenges need to be addressed. Real-time aspects are covered by the adoption of a hard real-time operation system in combination with measurement and estimation of latencies of all physical quantities in the compensation system such as tumor or breathing position measurements. Accurate timing information is respected consistently in the whole system and all software-induced latencies are adaptively compensated for. This requires knowledge of future tumor positions from predictors. Several predictors for breathing and tumor motion predictions are proposed and evaluated in terms of a variety of different performance metrics. Extensions to prediction algorithms are

  13. Robotic motion compensation for applications in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Christian

    2013-07-22

    Radiation therapy today, on account of improvements in treatment procedures over the last 60 years, allows precise treatment of static tumors inside the human body. However, irradiation of moving tumors is still a challenging task as moving tumors often leave the treatment beam and the radiation dose delivered to the tumor reduces simultaneously increasing that on healthy tissue. This research work aims to push the frontiers of radiation therapy in order to enable precise treatment of moving tumors with focus on research and development of a unique real-time system enabling active motion compensation through robotic means to compensate tumor motion. During treatment, patients lie on a treatment couch which is normally used for static position corrections of patient set-up errors prior to radiation treatment. The treatment couch used, called HexaPOD, is a parallel manipulator with six degrees of freedom which can precisely position heavy loads inside a small region. Despite the HexaPOD not initially built with dynamics in mind, it is used in this work for sustained motion compensation by moving patients such that tumors stay precisely located at the center of the treatment beam during the complete course of treatment. In order to realize real-time tumor motion compensation by means of the HexaPOD, several challenges need to be addressed. Real-time aspects are covered by the adoption of a hard real-time operation system in combination with measurement and estimation of latencies of all physical quantities in the compensation system such as tumor or breathing position measurements. Accurate timing information is respected consistently in the whole system and all software-induced latencies are adaptively compensated for. This requires knowledge of future tumor positions from predictors. Several predictors for breathing and tumor motion predictions are proposed and evaluated in terms of a variety of different performance metrics. Extensions to prediction algorithms are

  14. Static potentials from an extended gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.; Helayel Neto, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Static potentials derived from the inclusion of more than one vector field in a single simple group are calculated. A confinement mechanism including colourful unphysical particle is discussed. (Author) [pt

  15. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  16. Static Deadlock Detection in MPI Synchronization Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Xue, Liao; Xiao-Xin, He; Zhi-Hua, Fan

    2007-01-01

    It is very common to use dynamic methods to detect deadlocks in MPI programs for the reason that static methods have some restrictions. To guarantee high reliability of some important MPI-based application software, a model of MPI synchronization communication is abstracted and a type of static method is devised to examine deadlocks in such modes. The model has three forms with different complexity: sequential model, single-loop model and nested-loop model. Sequential model is a base for all ...

  17. Static quarks with improved statistical precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Morte, M.; Duerr, S.; Molke, H.; Heitger, J.

    2003-09-01

    We present a numerical study for different discretisations of the static action, concerning cut-off effects and the growth of statistical errors with Euclidean time. An error reduction by an order of magnitude can be obtained with respect to the Eichten-Hill action, for time separations up to 2 fm, keeping discretization errors small. The best actions lead to a big improvement on the precision of the quark mass M b and F B s in the static approximation. (orig.)

  18. Statics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the most important formulas and more than 160 completely solved problems from Statics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Equilibrium - Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, Centroids - Support Reactions - Trusses - Beams, Frames, Arches - Cables - Work and Potential Energy - Static and Kinetic Friction - Moments of Inertia.

  19. Static Members of Classes in C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The C# language is object-oriented, which is why the declared member data must be part of a class. Thus, there is no possibility to declare certain variables that can be accessed from anywhere within the application, as it happens, for example, with global variables at the C language level. Making this work in C# is possible through static members of the class. Declaring a class implies defining some of its member data that later receive values when creating each object. A static member of the class can be interpreted as belonging only to the class, not to the objects subsequently created, which means that for the non-static data, there are as many children as there were objects created, while for the static ones there is only one copy, regardless of the number of created objects. In this regard, this paper presents the main aspects that characterize these abstract concepts of object oriented programming in general and C# language in particular, detailing how to develop an application that includes both static and non-static members. At the same time, particularities in the mirror for the two types of data, restrictions on use and potential limitations are presented.

  20. Image-based motion compensation for high-resolution extremities cone-beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Cao, Q.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Zbijewski, W.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) of the extremities provides high spatial resolution, but its quantitative accuracy may be challenged by involuntary sub-mm patient motion that cannot be eliminated with simple means of external immobilization. We investigate a two-step iterative motion compensation based on a multi-component metric of image sharpness. Methods: Motion is considered with respect to locally rigid motion within a particular region of interest, and the method supports application to multiple locally rigid regions. Motion is estimated by maximizing a cost function with three components: a gradient metric encouraging image sharpness, an entropy term that favors high contrast and penalizes streaks, and a penalty term encouraging smooth motion. Motion compensation involved initial coarse estimation of gross motion followed by estimation of fine-scale displacements using high resolution reconstructions. The method was evaluated in simulations with synthetic motion (1-4 mm) applied to a wrist volume obtained on a CMOS-based CBCT testbench. Structural similarity index (SSIM) quantified the agreement between motion-compensated and static data. The algorithm was also tested on a motion contaminated patient scan from dedicated extremities CBCT. Results: Excellent correction was achieved for the investigated range of displacements, indicated by good visual agreement with the static data. 10-15% improvement in SSIM was attained for 2-4 mm motions. The compensation was robust against increasing motion (4% decrease in SSIM across the investigated range, compared to 14% with no compensation). Consistent performance was achieved across a range of noise levels. Significant mitigation of artifacts was shown in patient data. Conclusion: The results indicate feasibility of image-based motion correction in extremities CBCT without the need for a priori motion models, external trackers, or fiducials.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  2. From Static Output Feedback to Structured Robust Static Output Feedback: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sadabadi , Mahdieh ,; Peaucelle , Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the vast literature on static output feedback design for linear time-invariant systems including classical results and recent developments. In particular, we focus on static output feedback synthesis with performance specifications, structured static output feedback, and robustness. The paper provides a comprehensive review on existing design approaches including iterative linear matrix inequalities heuristics, linear matrix inequalities with rank constraints, methods with ...

  3. 38 CFR 3.351 - Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension...

  4. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  5. Static inverter with synchronous output waveform synthesized by time-optimal-response feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernick, A.; Stechschulte, D. L.; Shireman, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Time-optimal-response 'bang-bang' or 'bang-hang' technique, using four feedback control loops, synthesizes static-inverter sinusoidal output waveform by self-oscillatory but yet synchronous pulse-frequency-modulation (SPFM). A single modular power stage per phase of ac output entails the minimum of circuit complexity while providing by feedback synthesis individual phase voltage regulation, phase position control and inherent compensation simultaneously for line and load disturbances. Clipped sinewave performance is described under off-limit load or input voltage conditions. Also, approaches to high power levels, 3-phase arraying and parallel modular connection are given.

  6. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    .... APHIS-2011-0004] RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... interim rule that amended the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible... are required to be destroyed in order to prevent the spread of plum pox. The interim rule also...

  7. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation... that amount required to accomplish the activities for which the claim was paid. Real or Personal...

  8. Multiple Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Data for a sample of UK companies over the period 2003-2006 are analyzed using a variety of econometric methods. We find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant.

  9. Compensation of oscillation coupling induced by solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for construction of various schemes of oscillation coupling compensation, induced by solenoids in charged particle storage rings, are described. Peculiarities of magnetic structure, enabling to localize oscillation coupling in wide energy range are discussed. Results of calculation of compensation schemes for design of NR-2000 storage ring spin rotation are presented

  10. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  11. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  12. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  13. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  14. Adjustable static and dynamic actuation of clamped-guided beams using electrothermal axial loads

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha

    2018-02-14

    The paper presents adjustable static and dynamic actuations of in-plane clamped-guided beams. The structures, of variable stiffness, can be used as highly tunable resonators and actuators. Axial loads are applied through electrothermal U-shaped and flexure beams actuators stacked near the edges of curved (arch) beams. The electrothermal actuators can be configurred in various ways to adjust as desired the mechanical stiffness of the structures; thereby controlling their deformation stroke as actuators and their operating resonance frequency as resonators. The experimental and finite element results demonstrate the flexibility of the designs in terms of static displacements and resonance frequencies of the first and second symmetric modes of the arches. The results show considerable increase in the resonance frequency and deflection of the microbeam upon changing end actuation conditions, which can be promising for low voltage actuation and tunable resonators applications, such as filters and memory devices. As case studies of potential device configurations of the proposed design, we demonstrate eight possibilities of achieving new static and dynamic behaviors, which produce various resonance frequencies and static displacement curves. The ability to actively shift the entire frequency response curve of a device is desirable for several applications to compensate for in-use anchor degradations and deformations. As an example, we experimentally demonstrate using the device as a resonant logic gate, with active resonance tuning, showing fundamental 2-bit logic functions, such as AND,XOR, and NOR.

  15. Adjustable static and dynamic actuation of clamped-guided beams using electrothermal axial loads

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha; Tella, Sherif Adekunle; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents adjustable static and dynamic actuations of in-plane clamped-guided beams. The structures, of variable stiffness, can be used as highly tunable resonators and actuators. Axial loads are applied through electrothermal U-shaped and flexure beams actuators stacked near the edges of curved (arch) beams. The electrothermal actuators can be configurred in various ways to adjust as desired the mechanical stiffness of the structures; thereby controlling their deformation stroke as actuators and their operating resonance frequency as resonators. The experimental and finite element results demonstrate the flexibility of the designs in terms of static displacements and resonance frequencies of the first and second symmetric modes of the arches. The results show considerable increase in the resonance frequency and deflection of the microbeam upon changing end actuation conditions, which can be promising for low voltage actuation and tunable resonators applications, such as filters and memory devices. As case studies of potential device configurations of the proposed design, we demonstrate eight possibilities of achieving new static and dynamic behaviors, which produce various resonance frequencies and static displacement curves. The ability to actively shift the entire frequency response curve of a device is desirable for several applications to compensate for in-use anchor degradations and deformations. As an example, we experimentally demonstrate using the device as a resonant logic gate, with active resonance tuning, showing fundamental 2-bit logic functions, such as AND,XOR, and NOR.

  16. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  17. Compensation of Disadvantages in University Examination Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Quapp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Active social participation of disabled people is one of the major tasks of modern society. That also includes access to the academic community by higher education. Universities all over the world work hard to give handicapped students a chance to graduate. In this context, compensation of disadvantages in examination procedures is an important matter. But, also chronic illness may impair the student's examination performance. To ensure equal examination opportunities for all students, responsible university officials must be creative to find individual compensation solutions. The paper analyzes examination regulations at universities in different countries and offers solutions to compensate disabled and chronic ill students' disadvantages. It discusses the necessity of compensation for different types of disability and chronic illness. Finally, an overview of current German case law and solutions for compensation problems are provided.

  18. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  19. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  20. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  1. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  2. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  3. An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

    1994-01-01

    A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans.

  4. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  5. Does CEO compensation impact patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingbola, Kunle; van den Berg, Herman A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between CEO compensation and patient satisfaction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to determine what impact hospital CEO compensation has on hospital patient satisfaction. The analyses in this study were based on data of 261 CEO-hospital-year observations in a sample of 103 nonprofit hospitals. A number of linear regressions were conducted, with patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and CEO compensation as the independent variable of interest. Controlling variables included hospital size, type of hospital, and frequency of adverse clinical outcomes. CEO compensation does not significantly influence hospital patient satisfaction. Both patient satisfaction and CEO compensation appear to be driven primarily by hospital size. Patient satisfaction decreases, while CEO compensation increases, with the number of acute care beds in a hospital. In addition, CEO compensation does not even appear to moderate the influence of hospital size on patient satisfaction. There are several limitations to this study. First, observations of CEO-hospital-years in which annual nominal CEO compensation was below $100,000 were excluded, as they were not publicly available. Second, this research was limited to a three-year range. Third, this study related the compensation of individual CEOs to a measure of performance based on a multitude of patient satisfaction surveys. Finally, this research is restricted to not-for-profit hospitals in Ontario, Canada. The findings seem to suggest that hospital directors seeking to improve patient satisfaction may find their efforts frustrated if they focus exclusively on the hospital CEO. The findings highlight the need for further research on how CEOs may, through leading and supporting those hospital clinicians and staff that interact more closely with patients, indirectly enhance patient satisfaction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no research has examined the relationship between

  6. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  7. 42 CFR 413.102 - Compensation of owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definitions—(1) Compensation. Compensation means the total benefit received by the owner for the services he... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation of owners. 413.102 Section 413.102... § 413.102 Compensation of owners. (a) Principle. A reasonable allowance of compensation for services of...

  8. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  9. Self Organization in Compensated Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-03-01

    In partially compensated semiconductor (PCS) Fermi level is pinned to donor sub-band. Due to positional randomness and almost isoenergetic hoppings, donor-spanned electronic subsystem in PCS forms fluid-like highly mobile collective state. This makes PCS playground for pattern formation, self-organization, complexity emergence, electronic neural networks, and perhaps even for origins of life, bioevolution and consciousness. Through effects of impact and/or Auger ionization of donor sites, whole PCS may collapse (spinodal decomposition) into microblocks potentially capable of replication and protobiological activity (DNA analogue). Electronic screening effects may act in RNA fashion by introducing additional length scale(s) to system. Spontaneous quantum computing on charged/neutral sites becomes potential generator of informationally loaded microstructures akin to "Carl Sagan Effect" (hidden messages in Pi in his "Contact") or informational self-organization of "Library of Babel" of J.L. Borges. Even general relativity effects at Planck scale (R.Penrose) may affect the dynamics through (e.g.) isotopic variations of atomic mass and local density (A.A.Berezin, 1992). Thus, PCS can serve as toy model (experimental and computational) at interface of physics and life sciences.

  10. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  11. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  12. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  13. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  14. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  15. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  16. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  17. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  18. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  19. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  20. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  1. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  2. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  3. METODE VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE (VAR DALAM PERAMALAN JUMLAH WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA KE BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJOK GDE SAHITYAHUTTI RANANGGA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to model and to forecast the number of foreign tourists (Australia, China, and Japan arrival to Bali using vector autoregressive (VAR method. The estimated of VAR model obtained to forecast the number of foreign tourists to Bali is the sixth order VAR (VAR(6.We used multivariate least square method to estimate the VAR(6’s parameters.The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in this model were as follows 6.8% in predicting the number of Australian tourists, 15.9% in predicting the number of Chinese tourists, and 9% in predicting the number of Japanese tourists. The prediction of Australian, Chinese, and Japanese tourists arrival to Bali for July 2017 to December 2017 tended  to experience up and downs that were not too high compared to the previous months.

  4. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  5. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  6. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  8. Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Noel A.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…

  9. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  10. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  11. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  12. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  13. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  14. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  15. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  16. Sawja: Static Analysis Workshop for Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Laurent; Barré, Nicolas; Besson, Frédéric; Demange, Delphine; Jensen, Thomas; Monfort, Vincent; Pichardie, David; Turpin, Tiphaine

    Static analysis is a powerful technique for automatic verification of programs but raises major engineering challenges when developing a full-fledged analyzer for a realistic language such as Java. Efficiency and precision of such a tool rely partly on low level components which only depend on the syntactic structure of the language and therefore should not be redesigned for each implementation of a new static analysis. This paper describes the Sawja library: a static analysis workshop fully compliant with Java 6 which provides OCaml modules for efficiently manipulating Java bytecode programs. We present the main features of the library, including i) efficient functional data-structures for representing a program with implicit sharing and lazy parsing, ii) an intermediate stack-less representation, and iii) fast computation and manipulation of complete programs. We provide experimental evaluations of the different features with respect to time, memory and precision.

  17. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    . This dissertation describes the design and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assist programmers in finding bugs in code during development. We describe the design of a static analysis tool for JavaScript, built using the monotone framework. This analysis infers detailed type information......Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools. One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scripting in the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poor tool support compared to other languages...... about programs. This information can be used to detect bugs such as null pointer dereferences and unintended type coercions. The analysis is sound, enabling it to prove the absence of certain program errors. JavaScript is usually run within the context of the browser and the DOM API. The major...

  18. On the geometric phenomenology of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shankar; Merin, A P; Nitsure, Nitin

    2017-09-06

    In this note we introduce a hierarchy of phase spaces for static friction, which give a graphical way to systematically quantify the directional dependence in static friction via subregions of the phase spaces. We experimentally plot these subregions to obtain phenomenological descriptions for static friction in various examples where the macroscopic shape of the object affects the frictional response. The phase spaces have the universal property that for any experiment in which a given object is put on a substrate fashioned from a chosen material with a specified nature of contact, the frictional behaviour can be read off from a uniquely determined classifying map on the control space of the experiment which takes values in the appropriate phase space.

  19. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  20. Static Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.

    1979-01-01

    The static Einstein--Maxwell field equations are investigated in the presence of both electric and magnetic fields. The sources or bodies are assumed to be of finite size and to not affect the connectivity of the associated space. Furthermore, electromagnetic and metric fields are assumed to have reasonable differentiabilities. It is then proved that the electric and magnetic field vectors are constant multiples of one another. Moreover, the static Einstein--Maxwell equations reduce to the static magnetovac case. If, furthermore, the variational derivation of the Einstein--Maxwell equations is assumed, then both the total electric and magnetic charge of each body must vanish. As a physical consequence it is pointed out that if a suspended magnet be electrically charged then it must experience a purely general relativistic torque

  1. Utility of the Static-99 and Static-99R With Latino Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguízamo, Alejandro; Lee, Seung C; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Calkins, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    The predictive validity of the Static-99 measures with ethnic minorities in the United States has only recently been assessed with mixed results. We assessed the predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-99R with a sample of Latino sex offenders ( N = 483) as well as with two subsamples (U.S.-born, including Puerto Rico, and non-U.S.-born). The overall sexual recidivism rate was very low (1.9%). Both the Static-99 measures were able to predict sexual recidivism for offenders born in the United States and Puerto Rico, but neither was effective in doing so for other Latino immigrants. Calibration analyses ( N = 303) of the Static-99R were consistent with the literature and provided support for the potential use of the measure with Latinos born in the United States and Puerto Rico. These findings and their implications are discussed as they pertain to the assessment of Latino sex offenders.

  2. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marion; Hathaway, Marianne J; Cartwright, Megan M; Gose, Severin O; Narum, David L; Smith, Joseph D

    2009-06-29

    VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36%) were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  3. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  4. Thermal effects in static friction: thermolubricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, A; Bortolani, V; Santoro, G; Brigazzi, M

    2008-10-01

    We present a molecular dynamics analysis of the static friction between two thick slabs. The upper block is formed by N2 molecules and the lower block by Pb atoms. We study the effects of the temperature as well as the effects produced by the structure of the surface of the lower block on the static friction. To put in evidence the temperature effects we will compare the results obtained with the lower block formed by still atoms with those obtained when the atoms are allowed to vibrate (e.g., with phonons). To investigate the importance of the geometry of the surface of the lower block we apply the external force in different directions, with respect to a chosen crystallographic direction of the substrate. We show that the interaction between the lattice dynamics of the two blocks is responsible for the strong dependence of the static friction on the temperature. The lattice dynamics interaction between the two blocks strongly reduces the static friction, with respect to the case of the rigid substrate. This is due to the large momentum transfer between atoms and the N2 molecules which disorders the molecules of the interface layer. A further disorder is introduced by the temperature. We perform calculations at T = 20K which is a temperature below the melting, which for our slab is at 50K . We found that because of the disorder the static friction becomes independent of the direction of the external applied force. The very low value of the static friction seems to indicate that we are in a regime of thermolubricity similar to that observed in dynamical friction.

  5. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645 ns 'mini' bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have <1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1%/ms. This places a significant design burden on the current transformer; such a design is almost impossible to achieve. Extremely large expensive cores are needed to meet the low droop, while leakage inductance increases with size, thereby reducing the achievable rise time. In this paper, I discuss a digital compensation approach [M. Kesselman, Spallation neutron source beam current monitor electronics, PAC2001 June 18-22, 2001, Chicago, IL.] that extends the lower cut-off frequency of the current transformer, optimized for high frequency response, so that it can be used in this application with improvements in droop of the order of 1000:1. Transformer saturation (current-time product) is a separate issue and the transformer must be designed to handle the current-time product of the signal to assure it does not saturate

  6. Static measurements at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed Nahar Bin Syed Hussin Shabuddin; Sharifuldin Bin Salleh, Mohd Amin; Harasawa, Susumu

    1985-06-01

    Static measurements at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) were made to study the variation of its fuel temperature with reactor power. Some constants that relate power to fuel temperature behaviour were also determined. These constants are reflective of the coolling characteristics in the reactor core. Comparison was also made between the negative temperature coefficient of reactivity obtained from these measurements to those published in the Safety Analysis Report, SAR. The differences between these values are attributable to a delayed effect found in static measurements but not included in the SAR calculation which consider the prompt effect only.

  7. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  8. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  9. de Sitter relativity in static charts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotaescu, Ion I. [West University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2018-02-15

    The relative geodesic motion in static (and spherically symmetric) local charts on the (1 + 3)-dimensional de Sitter spacetimes is studied in terms of conserved quantities. The Lorentzian isometries are derived, relating the coordinates of the local chart of a fixed observer with the coordinates of a mobile chart considered as the rest frame of a massive particle freely moving on a timelike geodesic. The time dilation and Lorentz contraction are discussed pointing out some notable features of the de Sitter relativity in static charts. (orig.)

  10. Towards Compensation Correctness in Interactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cátia; Ferreira, Carla

    One fundamental idea of service-oriented computing is that applications should be developed by composing already available services. Due to the long running nature of service interactions, a main challenge in service composition is ensuring correctness of failure recovery. In this paper, we use a process calculus suitable for modelling long running transactions with a recovery mechanism based on compensations. Within this setting, we discuss and formally state correctness criteria for compensable processes compositions, assuming that each process is correct with respect to failure recovery. Under our theory, we formally interpret self-healing compositions, that can detect and recover from failures, as correct compositions of compensable processes.

  11. Inductive voltage compensation in superconducting magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.; Goddard, J.S.; Shen, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper details several techniques of inductive voltage compensation developed for quench detection in superconducting magnet systems with multiple coils and power supplies, with particular application for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF). Sources of noise, their magnitudes, and the sensitivity required for normal zone detection to avoid damage to the magnets are discussed. Two passive compensation schemes (second difference and central difference) are introduced and illustrated by parameters of LCTF; these take advantage of coil symmetries and other system characteristics. An active compensation scheme based on current rate input fom pickup coils and utilizing theory on ac loss voltage for calibration was tested, and the experimental setup and test results are discussed

  12. Health Insurance Costs and Employee Compensation: Evidence from the National Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Priyanka

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the relationship between rising health insurance costs and employee compensation. I estimate the extent to which total compensation decreases with a rise in health insurance costs and decompose these changes in compensation into adjustments in wages, non-health fringe benefits, and employee contributions to health insurance premiums. I examine this relationship using the National Compensation Survey, a panel dataset on compensation and health insurance for a sample of establishments across the USA. I find that total hourly compensation reduces by $0.52 for each dollar increase in health insurance costs. This reduction in total compensation is primarily in the form of higher employee premium contributions, and there is no evidence of a change in wages and non-health fringe benefits. These findings show that workers are absorbing at least part of the increase in health insurance costs through lower compensation and highlight the importance of examining total compensation, and not just wages, when examining the relationship between health insurance costs and employee compensation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Leishmaniasis transmission focus in El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Luis Alberto

    2006-10-01

    The epidemiological characteristics and the importance of the Lutzomyia species present in a leishmaniasis focus in the village El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Department of Bolivar, Colombia, are described. To obtain a preliminary assessment of leishmaniasis transmission in the village of El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar. Epidemiological data were analyzed and sandflies were collected with CDC traps and on protected human volunteers in the village of El Hobo. Sero prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was evaluated using indirect inmunofluorescence (IFAT). Nine Lutzomyia species were collected: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L. cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri. The species of greater importance based on their implication in the transmission of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis were L. gomezi, and L. evansi respectively. Specimens of L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri are reported for the first time for the Department of Bolivar. The sero prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was 36%. According to the epidemiological records, in 2002 the municipality of Carmen de Bolivar presented a 40% increase in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and an 80% increase in canine visceral leishmaniasis as compared to 2001, due to the outbreak in the village of El Hobo. The results indicate that the village of El Hobo is an area of potential risk for transmission of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. Wave optics modeling of real-time holographic wavefront compensation systems using OSSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Margarita A.; Guthals, Dennis M.; Logan, Jerry D.

    2005-08-01

    OSSim (Optical System Simulation) is a wave-optics, time-domain simulation toolbox with both optical and data processing components developed for adaptive optics (AO) systems. Diffractive wavefront control elements have recently been added that accurately model optically and electrically addressed spatial light modulators as real time holographic (RTH) devices in diffractive wavefront control systems. The developed RTH toolbox has found multiple applications for a variety of Boeing programs in solving problems of AO system analysis and design. Several complex diffractive wavefront control systems have been modeled for compensation of static and dynamic aberrations such as imperfect segmented primary mirrors and atmospheric and boundary layer turbulence. The results of OSSim simulations of RTH wavefront compensation show very good agreement with available experimental data.

  15. A molecular epidemiological study of var gene diversity to characterize the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in humans in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito.We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1% var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences.Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population exists.

  16. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  17. The risks and rewards of setting physician compensation internally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jen

    2013-01-01

    To establish physician compensation internally, finance leaders should: Educate decision makers on basic regulatory guidance and valuation theory. Determine fair market value. Consider using a compensation calculator.

  18. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  19. Defense Contract Audit Agency Compensation Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) assists the administrative contracting officer in accomplishing that responsibility by determining whether the contractor's compensation system is sound, reliable, consistently applied, and results...

  20. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  1. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  2. Integrated open source mine workers compensation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Mine Workers Compensation System developed by the CSIR and Molepe Consulting for the South African Department of Health. Mining activities increase the risk of certain occupational lung diseases. South African legislation...

  3. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-22

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  4. voltage compensation using artificial neural network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Offor Theophilos

    Simulation results showed that DVR is effective in compensating for ... shutdown of heavy equipment, switching operations etc, ... station were carried out in MatLab 2013 application. ... semiconductor in a pulse width modulation (PWM).

  5. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of spectrum changes in a photon beam due to a brass compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custidiano, E.R., E-mail: ernesto7661@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Valenzuela, M.R., E-mail: meraqval@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Dumont, J.L., E-mail: Joseluis.Dumont@elekta.com [Elekta CMS Software, St.Louis, MO (United States); McDonnell, J., E-mail: josemc@express.com.ar [Cumbres Institute, Riobamba 1745, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rene, L, E-mail: luismrene@gmail.com [Radiotherapy Center, Crespo 953, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rodriguez Aguirre, J.M., E-mail: juakcho@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the changes in the incident spectrum when a poly-energetic photon beam passes through a static brass compensator. The simulated photon beam spectrum was evaluated by comparing it against the incident spectra. We also discriminated the changes in the transmitted spectrum produced by each of the microscopic processes. (i.e. Rayleigh scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production). The results show that the relevant process in the energy range considered is the Compton Effect, as expected for composite materials of intermediate atomic number and energy range considered.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of spectrum changes in a photon beam due to a brass compensator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custidiano, E.R.; Valenzuela, M.R.; Dumont, J.L.; McDonnell, J.; Rene, L; Rodriguez Aguirre, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the changes in the incident spectrum when a poly-energetic photon beam passes through a static brass compensator. The simulated photon beam spectrum was evaluated by comparing it against the incident spectra. We also discriminated the changes in the transmitted spectrum produced by each of the microscopic processes. (i.e. Rayleigh scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production). The results show that the relevant process in the energy range considered is the Compton Effect, as expected for composite materials of intermediate atomic number and energy range considered.

  8. Analysis of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, Rafael R; Rahneberg, Ilko; Fröhlich, Thomas; Hilbrunner, Falko; Theska, René

    2017-01-01

    An analytical model that considers the static behaviour of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation (EMFC) is presented. With this model, adjustment strategies for the stiffness and tilt sensitivity of EMFC weighing cells are derived. These parameters are known as limiting factors for the achievable sensitivity and measurement uncertainty respectively. In order to obtain the analytical equations of the system, linear and rigid-body behaviour is assumed. The results obtained with the model are compared with results from multi-body simulations. It is shown that, for the considered model, an optimum design that eliminates the tilt sensitivity of the weighing cell while minimizing its stiffness exists. (paper)

  9. Quasi-static ensemble variational data assimilation: a theoretical and numerical study with the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Anthony; Bocquet, Marc; Gratton, Serge

    2018-04-01

    The analysis in nonlinear variational data assimilation is the solution of a non-quadratic minimization. Thus, the analysis efficiency relies on its ability to locate a global minimum of the cost function. If this minimization uses a Gauss-Newton (GN) method, it is critical for the starting point to be in the attraction basin of a global minimum. Otherwise the method may converge to a local extremum, which degrades the analysis. With chaotic models, the number of local extrema often increases with the temporal extent of the data assimilation window, making the former condition harder to satisfy. This is unfortunate because the assimilation performance also increases with this temporal extent. However, a quasi-static (QS) minimization may overcome these local extrema. It accomplishes this by gradually injecting the observations in the cost function. This method was introduced by Pires et al. (1996) in a 4D-Var context. We generalize this approach to four-dimensional strong-constraint nonlinear ensemble variational (EnVar) methods, which are based on both a nonlinear variational analysis and the propagation of dynamical error statistics via an ensemble. This forces one to consider the cost function minimizations in the broader context of cycled data assimilation algorithms. We adapt this QS approach to the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS), an exemplar of nonlinear deterministic four-dimensional EnVar methods. Using low-order models, we quantify the positive impact of the QS approach on the IEnKS, especially for long data assimilation windows. We also examine the computational cost of QS implementations and suggest cheaper algorithms.

  10. INTRODUCTION AND STATIC ELECTRICITY, VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME, PART OF A TWO-VOLUME SET, PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERS UNITS ON (1) STATIC ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL CHARGES, (2) COULOMB'S LAW, (3) DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGE AND FLOW OF CURRENT, (4) DIFFERENCE OF POTENTIAL, (5) BATTERIES AND CIRCUITS, (6) RESISTANCE AND RESISTORS, (7) POTENTIAL DIVIDER AND WHEATSTONE…

  11. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state...

  12. Static Analysis of XML Transformations in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    of XML documents to be defined, there are generally no automatic mechanisms for statically checking that a program transforms from one class to another as intended. We introduce Xact, a high-level approach for Java using XML templates as a first-class data type with operations for manipulating XML values...

  13. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity mech...

  14. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  15. Static timing analysis for nanometer designs

    CERN Document Server

    Bhasker, J

    2009-01-01

    Covers topics such as cell timing and power modeling; interconnect modeling and analysis, delay calculation, crosstalk, noise and the chip timing verification using static timing analysis. For each of these topics, this book provides a theoretical background as well as detailed examples to elaborate the concepts.

  16. Device measures static friction of magnetic tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, P. T.

    1967-01-01

    Device measures the coefficient of static friction of magnetic tape over a range of temperatures and relative humidities. It uses a strain gage to measure the force of friction between a reference surface and the tape drawn at a constant velocity of approximately 0.0001 inch per second relative to the reference surface.

  17. The static gravitational field near spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.

    1980-01-01

    A static solution to Einstein's equations, which is asymptotically flat near spatial infinity, is shown to be asymptotically Schwarzschildian. As an application of this result a technical lemma on the existence of asymptotically flat harmonic coordinates near infinity is proved. (author)

  18. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zeyang; Qin Gan; Hu Lingzhi; Li Songjian; Xu Nanyang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: djf@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-05-12

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  19. Static electromagnetic properties of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, W.K.

    1986-03-01

    Static electric monopole and quadrupole matrix elements, which are related to the mean square radius and quadrupole moment respectively, are derived for giant resonances of arbitrary multipolarity. The results furnish information on the size and shape of the nucleus in the excited giant states. (author)

  20. A Progression of Static Equilibrium Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Kutzner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although simple architectural structures like bridges, catwalks, cantilevers, and Stonehenge have been integral in human societies for millennia, as have levers and other simple tools, modern students of introductory physics continue to grapple with Newton's conditions for static equilibrium. As formulated in typical introductory physics…

  1. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  2. Model of the static universe within GR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbanovski, V. V.; Tarasova, A. S.; Salimova, A. S.; Bilinskaya, G. V.; Sumbulov, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Within GR, the problems of the Robertson-Walker universe are discussed. The approach based on transition to a nondiagonal line element is suggested. Within the considered approach, the static universe model is investigated. The possibility of constructing scenarios without an initial singularity and “exotic” matter is discussed. Accordance of the given model to the properties of the observable universe is discussed.

  3. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S [Physics Department, Auckland University, 38 Princes Street, Auckland (New Zealand); Hunerbein, S von [Acoustics Department, Newton Building, University of Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed.

  4. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S; Hunerbein, S von

    2008-01-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed

  5. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  6. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we developed a simple numerical scheme to determine the static equilibrium configuration of charged metallic bodies by minimizing the potential energy function. The method developed has some advantages; it combines the general theory and the physical meanings nested in the mathematical model and this ...

  7. A novel virus-like particle based vaccine platform displaying the placental malaria antigen VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø

    2015-01-01

    , this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA. This study demonstrates that the described Avi-L1 VLP-platform may serve as a versatile system for facilitating optimal VLP......SA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however...

  8. iVAR: a program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series using vector autoregressive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces iVAR, an R program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series on the basis of vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We conducted a simulation study to compare iVAR with three methods for handling missing data: listwise deletion, imputation with sample means and variances, and multiple imputation ignoring time dependency. The results showed that iVAR produces better estimates for the cross-lagged coefficients than do the other three methods. We demonstrate the use of iVAR with an empirical example of time series electrodermal activity data and discuss the advantages and limitations of the program.

  9. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlicek, V.; Pokorny, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper

  10. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlíček, V.; Pokorný, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  11. Radiotherapy dose compensation for lung patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyaratna, N.; Arnold, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a more homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume from compensated anterior and posterior fields while the healthy lung is spared by de-weighting the lateral fields. A compensation computation which used linear iterations to compute the most homogeneous dose distribution across the target volume was applied to produce optimum compensator designs. The equivalent tissue-air ratio (E-TAR) inhomogeneity correction was applied for the computations using a GE target series 11 planning computer. The compensators designed were tested for accuracy in a modified water/lung phantom using a scanning diode and an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters. A comparison has been made between the compensated and uncompensated plans for the first nine patients who we have treated with this technique. The dose profiles produced by the computation agreed with the prediction of the computed isodose plans to within ± 2% at the target depth. The thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-measured results in the anthropomorphic phantom agreed with the planning computer within ± 3%. A comparison of nine compensated plans of radiotherapy patients for large-volume targets in the lung region showed a maximum variation in the target to be 19% uncompensated versus 10% compensated. By providing compensated treatment fields from anterior and posterior treatment portals, a homogeneous dose that conforms well to the target volume is provided. As an added bonus, this enables the lateral lung fields to be significantly de-weighted and the healthy lung is spared considerable dose. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М.Galynovskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of models of three-phase-to-single-phase rotary reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators in a circuit simulation system is analyzed. It is shown that combined control mode of opposite-connected thyristors may result in the exciter armature winding short circuits both at the thyristor feed-forward and lagging current delay angles. It must be taken into consideration when developing brushless compensator excitation systems.

  13. Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Garen, John E

    1994-01-01

    The empirical literature on executive compensation generally fails to specify a model of executive pay on which to base hypotheses regarding its determinants. In contrast, this paper analyzes a simple principal-agent model to determine how well it explains variations in CEO incentive pay and salaries. Many findings are consistent with the basic intuition of principle-agent models that compensation is structured to trade off incentives with insurance. However, statistical significance for some...

  14. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  15. Compensation for Combat Deaths: Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    through the courts for deaths resulting from other parties’ negligence or criminal behavior; a key difference between the tort system and many other...funding facilities that function outside of the tort system— for example, workers’ compensation programs for workplace fatalities and the Victims...receive $100,000 if the 10-percent risk of a loss of $100,000 actually came to pass. Tort law generally uses an ex post approach to compensation and

  16. Reactive power compensation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Just, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the

  17. Environmental change, phenotypic plasticity, and genetic compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F

    2005-10-01

    When a species encounters novel environmental conditions, some phenotypic characters may develop differently than in the ancestral environment. Most environmental perturbations of development are likely to reduce fitness, and thus selection would usually be expected to favor genetic changes that restore the ancestral phenotype. I propose the term "genetic compensation" to refer to this form of adaptive evolution. Genetic compensation is a subset of genetic accommodation and the reverse of genetic assimilation. When genetic compensation has occurred along a spatial environmental gradient, the mean trait values of populations in different environments may be more similar in the field than when representatives of the same populations are raised in a common environment (i.e., countergradient variation). If compensation is complete, genetic divergence between populations may be cryptic, that is, not detectable in the field. Here I apply the concept of genetic compensation to three examples involving carotenoid-based sexual coloration and then use these and other examples to discuss the concept in a broader context. I show that genetic compensation may lead to a cryptic form of reproductive isolation between populations evolving in different environments, may explain some puzzling cases in which heritable traits exposed to strong directional selection fail to show the expected evolutionary response, and may complicate efforts to monitor populations for signs of environmental deterioration.

  18. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0 ± 28.3) and (225.0 ± 21.2) µg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0 ± 2.0) µg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0 ± 1.0) µg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

  19. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  20. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  1. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  2. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  3. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-15

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa  The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cloning of the Repertoire of Individual Plasmodium falciparum var Genes Using Transformation Associated Recombination (TAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christoph D.; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J.; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member. PMID:21408186

  5. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  6. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  7. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  8. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  9. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  10. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  11. Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Trevor J.; Taleff, Eric M.; Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joe; Williamson, Rodney

    The solidification microstructure of a laboratory-scale Nickel alloy 718 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot was analyzed. The cylindrical, 210-mm-diameter ingot was sectioned along a plane bisecting it length-wise, and this mid-plane surface was ground and etched using Canada's reagent to reveal segregation contrast. Over 350 photographs were taken of the etched mid-plane surface and stitched together to form a single mosaic image. Image data in the resulting mosaic were processed using a variety of algorithms to extract quantities such as primary dendrite orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of location. These quantities were used to calculate pool shape and solidification rate during solidification using existing empirical relationships for Nickel Alloy 718. The details and outcomes of this approach, along with the resulting comparison to experimental processing conditions and computational models, are presented.

  12. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-10-23

    Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  13. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  14. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...... advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes...

  15. Occurrence of pathotypes of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (Jones Boerema in the Olsztyn district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaves and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Investigated isolates of P. medicaginis var. pinodella differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophytic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominated. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of P. medicaginis var. pinodella six pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 3 were dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  16. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes......, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...

  17. Static, dynamic balance and functional performance in subjects with and without plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiseane Aguiar Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Plantar fasciitis (PF is characterized by non-inflammatory degeneration and pain under the heel, and is one of the most common foot complaints. The compensations and adjustments made to decrease the discomfort caused by the disease are clinical findings and can be a factor that contributes to impaired balance and decreased functional performance. Objective: To compare functional performance as well as static and dynamic balance among subjects with and without PF. Methods: The sample consisted of 124 subjects of both sexes aged 20-60 years. Participants were divided into two groups: a bilateral PF group (PFG; n = 62 and a control group (CG, n = 62. The following outcomes were analyzed: static and dynamic balance (using functional tests and functional performance (using a questionnaire. We used Student’s t test for independent samples to compare variables between the groups. The alpha error was set at 0.05. Results: Subjects with PF showed greater impairment in their overall dynamic balance performance (p < 0.001 than the control group, except for left posteromedial movement (p = 0.19. The CG showed showed better functional performance (p < 0.001 than the PF group. There was no difference between groups for the variable static balance on stable (p = 0.160 and unstable surfaces (p = 0.085. Conclusion: Subjects with PF displayed smaller reach distances in the overall Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT, demonstrating a deficit in dynamic balance and functional performance when compared with healthy subjects.

  18. [Cyclorotation of the eye in wavefront-guided LASIK using a static eyetracker with iris recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, T; Kühne, C; Cichocki, M; Strenger, A

    2007-01-01

    Centration of the ablation zone decisively influences the result of wavefront-guided LASIK. Cyclorotation of the eye occurs as the patient changes from the sitting position during aberrometry to the supine position during laser surgery and may lead to induction of lower and higher order aberrations. Twenty patients (40 eyes) underwent wavefront-guided LASIK (B&L 217z 100 excimer laser) with a static eyetracker driven by iris recognition (mean preoperative SE: -4.72+/-1.45 D; range: -1.63 to -7.00 D). The iris patterns of the patients' eyes were memorized during aberrometry and after flap creation. The mean absolute value of the measured cyclorotation was -1.5+/-4.2 degrees (range: -11.0 to 6.9 degrees ). The mean cyclorotation was 3.5+/-2.7 masculine (range: 0.1 to 11.0 degrees ). In 65% of all eyes cyclorotation was >2 masculine. A static eyetracker driven by iris recognition demonstrated that cyclorotation of up to 11 degrees may occur in myopic and myopic astigmatic eyes when changing from a sitting to a supine position. Use of static eyetrackers with iris recognition may provide a more precise positioning of the ablation profile as they detect and compensate cyclorotation.

  19. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B.M.G. Spini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these crosses, in the F2 generation, 612 plants with inflorescence like gaillon and 48 plants with inflorescence like cauliflower were obtained, in a proportion similar to 15:1, implying that 2 pairs of genes entered into formation of the cauliflower inflorescence type. In order to study flower color, 339 plants were analyzed: 274 presented white flowers and 65, yellow flowers, denoting that this caracter is determined by 1 pair of genes, white being dominant over yellow; white flowers had a slighly higher adaptive value in our population. The characteristic waxy leaf showed a proportion of 3 waxy plants for 1 not waxy, indicating the action of one pair of genes.A couve-flor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis é um vegetal anual e tem seu cultivo no Brasil limitado às regiões Sul e Sudeste, com pequena produção no Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Uma variedade de couve da China, "kaai laan" ou "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produz sementes em altas temperaturas e, portanto, é apta a produzir sementes no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Gaillon e couve-flor foram cruzados. Foram feitos 55 cruzamentos usando 10 plantas de gaillon como mãe e 4 plantas de couve-flor como doadores de pólen. Desses cruzamentos, na geração F2, 612 plantas com inflorescência tipo gaillon e 48 plantas com inflorescência tipo couve-flor foram obtidas, em proporção similar a 15:1, demonstrando que 2 pares de genes estão envolvidos na formação da inflorescência em couve

  20. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  1. 28 CFR 104.21 - Filing for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form.” A claim shall be deemed “filed” for... filing either a “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form,” the claim shall be..., when a Claims Evaluator determines that both the Eligibility Form and either a Personal Injury...

  2. 20 CFR 211.2 - Definition of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 211.2 Section 211.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.2 Definition of compensation. (a) The term compensation means any form...

  3. 50 CFR 296.4 - Claims eligible for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compensation. (a) Claimants. Damage or loss eligible for Fund compensation must be suffered by a commercial fisherman. (b) Damage or loss of fishing gear. Damage or loss is eligible for Fund compensation if it was... is not eligible for Fund compensation: (1) If the damage or loss was caused by the negligence or...

  4. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency and indemnity compensation. This term means a monthly payment made by...

  5. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  6. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  7. On static and radiative space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conformal constraint equations on space-like hypersurfaces are discussed near points which represent either time-like or spatial infinity for an asymptotically flat solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations. In the case of time-like infinity a certain 'radiativity condition' is derived which must be satisfied by the data at that point. The case of space-like infinity is analysed in detail for static space-times with non-vanishing mass. It is shown that the conformal structure implied here on a slice of constant Killing time, which extends analytically through infinity, satisfies at spatial infinity the radiativity condition. Thus to any static solution exists a certain 'radiative solution' which has a smooth structure at past null infinity and is regular at past time-like infinity. A characterization of these solutions by their 'free data' is given and non-symmetry properties are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Static magnetotherapy for the treatment of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Yao Y; Tsai, Fong Y

    2008-01-01

    Magnets have been used for centuries to treat a number of physical disorders. The vast majority of research, however, on static magnet therapy for insomnia has been confined to the auricular type of therapy, with publications limited to Chinese journals. Most of these studies have depended on the subjective self-assessment of participants rather than objective scientific measurements. In this study, the authors report the positive preliminary results of insomnia treatment using pillows with embedded magnets, magnetic insoles and TriPhase bracelets. The analysis is based on objective actigraphic and polysomnographic data. A theory of accelerated transition from wakefulness to sleep is proposed to explain the process of insomnia relief through low-strength static magnetic fields. Analysis by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used to further investigate the theory.

  9. Defining Compensable Injury in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research provides a core social good by enabling medical progress. In the twenty-first century alone, this includes reducing transmission of HIV/AIDS, developing innovative therapies for cancer patients, and exploring the possibilities of personalized medicine. In order to continue to advance medical science, research relies on the voluntary participation of human subjects. Because research is inherently uncertain, unintended harm is an inevitable part of the research enterprise. Currently, injured research participants in the United States must turn to the “litigation lottery” of the tort system in search of compensation. This state of affairs fails research participants, who are too often left uncompensated for devastating losses, and makes the United States an outlier in the international community. In spite of forty years’ worth of Presidential Commissions and other respected voices calling for the development of a no-fault compensation system, no progress has been made to date. One of the reasons for this lack of progress is the failure to develop a coherent ethical basis for an obligation to provide compensation for research related injuries. This problem is exacerbated by the lack of a clear definition of “compensable injury” in the biomedical research context. This article makes a number of important contributions to the scholarship in this growing field. To begin, it examines compensation systems already in existence and concludes that there are four main definitional elements that must be used to define “compensable injury.” Next, it examines the justifications that have been put forth as the basis for an ethical obligation to provide compensation, and settles on retrospective nonmaleficence and distributive and compensatory justice as the most salient and persuasive. Finally, it uses the regulatory elements and the justifications discussed in the first two sections to develop a well-rounded definition of “compensable injury

  10. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krengel Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  11. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  12. A field theoretic model for static friction

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyaeh, I.; Rouhani, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a field theoretic model for friction, where the friction coefficient between two surfaces may be calculated based on elastic properties of the surfaces. We assume that the geometry of contact surface is not unusual. We verify Amonton's laws to hold that friction force is proportional to the normal load.This model gives the opportunity to calculate the static coefficient of friction for a few cases, and show that it is in agreement with observed values. Furthermore we show that the ...

  13. Calibration of a pitot-static rake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    A five-element pitot-static rake was tested to confirm its accuracy and determine its suitability for use at Langley during low-speed tunnel calibration primarily at full-scale tunnel. The rake was tested at one airspeed of 74 miles per hour (33 meters per second) and at pitch and yaw angles of 0 to + or - 20 degrees in 4 deg increments.

  14. Predicting environmental restoration activities through static simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.L.; King, D.A.; Wilkins, M.L.; Forward, M.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses a static simulation model that predicts several performance measures of environmental restoration activities over different remedial strategies. Basic model operation consists of manipulating and processing waste streams via selecting and applying remedial technologies according to the strategy. Performance measure prediction is possible for contaminated soil, solid waste, surface water, groundwater, storage tank, and facility sites. Simulations are performed for the U.S. Department of Energy in support of its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

  15. Static nuclear polarisation and polarised targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeringa, W.

    1984-12-01

    Recent progress and status of statically polarised nuclear targets are reviewed. Special attention is given to polarised 1 H and 3 He. An important quantity in the determination of the target polarisation is the thermal gradient over the target sample. The dependence of this gradient on heat input, sample geometry, and thermal conductivity of the sample is discussed. Possibilities of performing experiments with proton beams are indicated. (orig.) [de

  16. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    1 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits ...Lexicon And Rules William Snavely 2 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material

  17. Temperature compensation and entrainment in circadian rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenstein, C; Heiland, I; Schuster, S

    2012-01-01

    To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24 h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles. (paper)

  18. Engineering Compensations in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Micahel; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure in such a......Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this paper, we introduce an engineering approach and an environment to deal with advanced...... compensations based on forward recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. A contract-based approach is being used, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We...

  19. Research methods of simulate digital compensators and autonomous control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kudryashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of the present stage of development of the production is the need to control and regulate a large number of process parameters, the mutual influence on each other that when using single-circuit systems significantly reduces the quality of the transition process, resulting in significant costs of raw materials and energy, reduce the quality of the products. Using a stand-alone digital control system eliminates the correlation of technological parameters, to give the system the desired dynamic and static properties, improve the quality of regulation. However, the complexity of the configuration and implementation of procedures (modeling compensators autonomous systems of this type, associated with the need to perform a significant amount of complex analytic transformation significantly limit the scope of their application. In this regard, the approach based on the decompo sition proposed methods of calculation and simulation (realization, consisting in submitting elements autonomous control part digital control system in a series parallel connection. The above theoretical study carried out in a general way for any dimension systems. The results of computational experiments, obtained during the simulation of the four autonomous control systems, comparative analysis and conclusions on the effectiveness of the use of each of the methods. The results obtained can be used in the development of multi-dimensional process control systems.

  20. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, Alexandra; Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  1. Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A.A. Eaton in Schoorl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swolfs, Aart G.

    1996-01-01

    A giant form of the Northamerican Equisetum hyemale var. affine has been planted a decade ago near the coast, where it has naturalized since. It is suggested that other Northamerican introductions of this extremely variable taxon may have remained unnoticed.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  3. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image

  4. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  5. GABAergic systems in the vestibular nucleus and their contribution to vestibular compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliddon, Catherine M; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    GABA and the GABAA and GABAB receptors play a pivotal role in the coordination of the central vestibular pathways. The commissural inhibition, which exists between the two vestibular nucleus complexes (VNCs) and which is responsible for enhancing the dynamic sensitivity of VNC neurons to head acceleration, is known to be substantially mediated by GABA acting on GABAA and GABAB receptors. After unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD), the large asymmetry in spontaneous resting activity between the two VNCs is reinforced and exacerbated by the GABAergic interaction between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. Although it has been suggested that reduced GABAergic inhibition of the ipsilateral VNC may be partially responsible for the recovery of resting activity that underlies vestibular compensation of the static symptoms of UVD, at present there are few data available to test this hypothesis systematically. There is some evidence that GABA concentrations change in the ipsilateral VNC during the development of compensation; however, it is unclear whether these changes relate to GABA release or to metabolic pools of GABA. Most biochemical studies of GABA receptors have been conducted at the gene expression level. Therefore, it is unclear whether changes in the receptor protein also occur, although the most recent data suggest that changes in GABAA and GABAB receptor density in the VNC are unlikely. The few radioligand binding data relate to GABAA receptors with benzodiazepine binding sites only. A decrease in the sensitivity of ipsilateral VNC neurons from compensated animals to GABA receptor agonists has been reported; however, these studies have employed brainstem slices and therefore the functional identity of the neurons involved has been unclear. Although it seems likely that some changes in central GABAergic systems accompany the recovery of resting activity in the ipsilateral VNC during the development of vestibular compensation, at the present stage

  6. Influence of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta) on mice leukocytes increase

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Jony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beetroot is a flavonoid-containing Mediterranean plant used for food and medicinal purposes. Objectives: To determine the influence of Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract consumption in increasing albino mice leukocytes. Design: Experimental study. Setting: School N° 1182 bioterium. Biologic material: Twenty male Balb/c albino mice weighing 24 g average. Interventions: Two groups of ten mice each were formed; the experimental group received Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract at 250...

  7. Characterization of flavonoids in Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Min; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Ke-Di; Qiao, Xue; Li, Bei-Jia; Cheng, Jun; Feng, Jie; Guo, De-An; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima is a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of gynecological diseases. An HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was established for the rapid separation and characterization of bioactive flavonoids in M. nitida var. hirsutissima. A total of 32 flavonoids were detected, of which 14 compounds were unambiguously characterized by comparing their retention time, UV, and MS spectra with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based o...

  8. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  9. Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.

    1988-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH 3 ) 4 ) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h ∼ 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Incomplete and imperfect information for sales compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Valeanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales force compensation represents the fix and / or variable payment by the company. To compensate agents based on the results, the company set a goal which is brought to their attention through the compensation plan. Applying the model of moral hazard, where the agent behavior cannot be verified, it cannot be specified in the contract what is the expected behavior of the agent. In order to make an offer to contract principal should know the effort that the agent will submit it to define the payment and the contract is determined optimally in trade between the two conflicting objectives of the two participants in the contract. Although agent behavior cannot be verified, the result of this behavior should be measurable at the end of the contract so that the employer may make the contract contingent on effort commission agent for sale of which is measured by the amount of earnings to the company.

  11. 'Compensation neurosis': a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weighill, V E

    1983-01-01

    This review examines the literature on psychological reactions, often referred to as 'compensation neurosis', which occur after an accident and which are thought to be produced or maintained by a compensation claim. Theories and research are examined. The area is complicated and research so far is limited in scope and design. Few accident cases involve compensation claims and the incidence of psychological difficulties across the whole range of cases is unknown. Researchers have considered a number of background factors--severity of injury, pre-existing neurotic traits, social class, sex and age--but there has been little investigation of attitudinal, family, social and employment factors or of progress of the condition and follow-up after settlement. The review identifies a major research need for more adequate screening and sampling of cases and for more systematic investigation of personal and family factors.

  12. Software compensation in Particle Flow reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Lan Tran, Huong; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The Particle Flow approach to calorimetry requires highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analog energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in Particle Flow reconstruct...

  13. Institutional directors and board compensation: Spanish evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix López-Iturriaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We address the influence of directors who represent institutional investors in three aspects of board compensation policies: level of compensation, composition, and performance sensitivity. We differentiate pressure-sensitive directors (i.e., with business links and pressure-resistant directors (i.e., without business links. Our results show that pressure-resistant directors decrease total board compensation and its fixed proportion, whereas they increase the variable proportion of total remuneration and the pay-for-performance sensitivity. By contrast, pressure-sensitive directors offer the opposite results. These findings are consistent with the view that institutional investors are not a homogeneous group and that pressure-resistant directors fulfill a more thorough monitoring role.

  14. Compensation: Will it provide a waste site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Offering an attractive compensation package to persuade a community to voluntarily accept an otherwise undesirable facility may work in some cases, but it's not likely to work for high-level nuclear-waste disposal. The public perception of the risks involved and the public distrust of the institutions responsible for managing those risks are just too great. Much of the controversy stems from public perceptions that the site-selection process itself is unfair. Resentment builds when this occurs, and offers of compensation come to be labeled bribes or blood money. The driving force behind current nuclear-waste policy is intergenerational equity - the moral concept that the generation that produced the waste should dispose of it, permanently. Regardless of the moral appeal, doubts have been raised about the technical feasibility of this approach. Alternatives featuring intergenerational monetary compensation may better honor the commitment hor-ellipsis and reduce pressure to try to do what may be impossible

  15. Reexamining workers' compensation: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2012-06-01

    Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a human rights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exact eigenstates and open-quotes trivialityclose quotes of λ(var-phi *var-phi)2 theory in the Feshbach-Villars formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darewych, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The complex scalar (Klein-Gordon) quantum field theory (QFT) with a λ(var-phi * var-phi) 2 interaction is considered in the Feshbach-Villars formulation. It is shown that exact few-particle eigenstates of the QFT Hamiltonian can be obtained. The resulting relativistic few-body equations correspond to Klein-Gordon particles interacting via delta-function, or open-quotes contact,close quotes potentials. Momentum-space solutions of the two-body equation yield a open-quotes trivialclose quotes unity S matrix. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  18. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  19. The effect of extract of Punica granatum var. pleniflora for treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-06-01

    Herbal drugs are considered alternative agents and have been used for several years around the world. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common problems recognized by dentists and skin specialists. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. In our experiment, the alcoholic and water extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora, P. granatum var. Sweet Alak, and P. granatum var. Saveh Black were tested on minor RAS. The study was carried out using the double-blind method. The study population consisted of 210 participants, of whom 69 were females (32%) and 141 were males (68%). In addition to checking several factors, the pain and the degree of the participant's satisfaction had been determined based on visual analog scale. Data analysis was done in the form of a nonparametric method using Kruskal-Wallis test and SPSS version 20 software. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniflora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor RAS. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniflora and P. granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum varpleniflora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.

  20. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.