WorldWideScience

Sample records for static spherically symmetric

  1. Uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces admitted by spherically symmetric static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.

  2. Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A

    2013-01-01

    The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''

  3. Information entropy for static spherically symmetric black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Ji-Jian; Li Chuan-An

    2009-01-01

    By using the new equation of state density derived from the generalized uncertainty relation, the number of the quantum states near event horizon is obtained, with which then the information entropy of static spherically symmetric black holes has been discussed. It is found that the divergent integral of quantum states near the event horizon can be naturally avoided if using the new equation of state density without introducing the ultraviolet cut-off. The information entropy of black holes can be obtained precisely by the residue theorem, which is shown to be proportional to the horizon area. The information entropy of black holes obtained agrees with the Bechenstein-Hawking entropy when the suitable cutoff factor is adopted.

  4. Static spherically symmetric wormholes in f(R, T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, M.; Ahmad, Yasir [Institute Of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, COMSATS, Lahore (Pakistan); Waheed, Saira [Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we explore wormhole solutions in f(R, T) theory of gravity, where R is the scalar curvature and T is the trace of stress-energy tensor of matter. To investigate this, we consider a static spherically symmetric geometry with matter contents as anisotropic, isotropic, and barotropic fluids in three separate cases. By taking into account the Starobinsky f(R) model, we analyze the behavior of energy conditions for these different kinds of fluids. It is shown that the wormhole solutions can be constructed without exotic matter in few regions of space-time. We also give the graphical illustration of the results obtained and discuss the equilibrium picture for the anisotropic case only. It is concluded that the wormhole solutions with anisotropic matter are realistic and stable in this theory of gravity. (orig.)

  5. Information entropy for static spherically symmetric black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji-Jian, Jiang; Chuan-An, Li

    2009-01-01

    By using the new equation of state density derived from the generalized uncertainty relation, the number of the quantum states near event horizon is obtained, with which then the information entropy of static spherically symmetric black holes has been discussed. It is found that the divergent integral of quantum states near the event horizon can be naturally avoided if using the new equation of state density without introducing the ultraviolet cut-off. The information entropy of black holes can be obtained precisely by the residue theorem, which is shown to be proportional to the horizon area. The information entropy of black holes obtained agrees with the Bechenstein–Hawking entropy when the suitable cutoff factor is adopted. (general)

  6. Generalized transformations and coordinates for static spherically symmetric general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James M.; O'Leary, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    We examine a static, spherically symmetric solution of the empty space field equations of general relativity with a non-orthogonal line element which gives rise to an opportunity that does not occur in the standard derivations of the Schwarzschild solution. In these derivations, convenient coordinate transformations and dynamical assumptions inevitably lead to the Schwarzschild solution. By relaxing these conditions, a new solution possibility arises and the resulting formalism embraces the Schwarzschild solution as a special case. The new solution avoids the coordinate singularity associated with the Schwarzschild solution and is achieved by obtaining a more suitable coordinate chart. The solution embodies two arbitrary constants, one of which can be identified as the Newtonian gravitational potential using the weak field limit. The additional arbitrary constant gives rise to a situation that allows for generalizations of the Eddington-Finkelstein transformation and the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates.

  7. Generalized transformations and coordinates for static spherically symmetric general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James M; O'Leary, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    We examine a static, spherically symmetric solution of the empty space field equations of general relativity with a non-orthogonal line element which gives rise to an opportunity that does not occur in the standard derivations of the Schwarzschild solution. In these derivations, convenient coordinate transformations and dynamical assumptions inevitably lead to the Schwarzschild solution. By relaxing these conditions, a new solution possibility arises and the resulting formalism embraces the Schwarzschild solution as a special case. The new solution avoids the coordinate singularity associated with the Schwarzschild solution and is achieved by obtaining a more suitable coordinate chart. The solution embodies two arbitrary constants, one of which can be identified as the Newtonian gravitational potential using the weak field limit. The additional arbitrary constant gives rise to a situation that allows for generalizations of the Eddington-Finkelstein transformation and the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates.

  8. Spherical spacelike geometries in static spherically symmetric spacetimes: Generalized Painlevè–Gullstrand coordinates, foliation, and embedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, M.M., E-mail: akbar@utdallas.edu

    2017-06-10

    It is well known that static spherically symmetric spacetimes can admit foliations by flat spacelike hypersurfaces, which are best described in terms of the Painlevè–Gullstrand coordinates. The uniqueness and existence of such foliations were addressed earlier. In this paper, we prove, purely geometrically, that any possible foliation of a static spherically symmetric spacetime by an arbitrary codimension-one spherical spacelike geometry, up to time translation and rotation, is unique, and we find the algebraic condition under which it exists. This leads us to what can be considered as the most natural generalization of the Painlevè–Gullstrand coordinate system for static spherically symmetric metrics, which, in turn, makes it easy to derive generic conclusions on foliation and to study specific cases as well as to easily reproduce previously obtained generalizations as special cases. In particular, we note that the existence of foliation by flat hypersurfaces guarantees the existence of foliation by hypersurfaces whose Ricci curvature tensor is everywhere non-positive (constant negative curvature is a special case). The study of uniqueness and the existence concurrently solves the question of embeddability of a spherical spacelike geometry in one-dimensional higher static spherically symmetric spacetimes, and this produces known and new results geometrically, without having to go through the momentum and Hamiltonian constraints.

  9. Spherically symmetric static spacetimes in vacuum f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2011-01-01

    We show that Schwarzschild geometry remains as a vacuum solution for those four-dimensional f(T) gravitational theories behaving as ultraviolet deformations of general relativity. In the gentler context of three-dimensional gravity, we also find that the infrared-deformed f(T) gravities, like the ones used to describe the late cosmic speed up of the Universe, have as the circularly symmetric vacuum solution a Deser-de Sitter or a Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli-like spacetime with an effective cosmological constant depending on the infrared scale present in the function f(T).

  10. Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vagnozzi, Sunny; Zerbini, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering, in addition, a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such a potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which are traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials, which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild space-time. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter. (paper)

  11. All static spherically symmetric perfect-fluid solutions of Einstein's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, Kayll

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm based on the choice of a single monotone function (subject to boundary conditions) is presented which generates all regular static spherically symmetric perfect-fluid solutions of Einstein's equations. For physically relevant solutions the generating functions must be restricted by nontrivial integral-differential inequalities. Nonetheless, the algorithm is demonstrated here by the construction of an infinite number of previously unknown physically interesting exact solutions

  12. Newton gauge cosmological perturbations for static spherically symmetric modifications of the de Sitter metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Vélez, Camilo; Enea Romano, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Static coordinates can be convenient to solve the vacuum Einstein's equations in presence of spherical symmetry, but for cosmological applications comoving coordinates are more suitable to describe an expanding Universe, especially in the framework of cosmological perturbation theory (CPT). Using CPT we develop a method to transform static spherically symmetric (SSS) modifications of the de Sitter solution from static coordinates to the Newton gauge. We test the method with the Schwarzschild de Sitter (SDS) metric and then derive general expressions for the Bardeen's potentials for a class of SSS metrics obtained by adding to the de Sitter metric a term linear in the mass and proportional to a general function of the radius. Using the gauge invariance of the Bardeen's potentials we then obtain a gauge invariant definition of the turn around radius. We apply the method to an SSS solution of the Brans-Dicke theory, confirming the results obtained independently by solving the perturbation equations in the Newton gauge. The Bardeen's potentials are then derived for new SSS metrics involving logarithmic, power law and exponential modifications of the de Sitter metric. We also apply the method to SSS metrics which give flat rotation curves, computing the radial energy density profile in comoving coordinates in presence of a cosmological constant.

  13. Compact invariant sets of the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter we obtain results concerning compact invariant sets of the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) equations with help of studies of its localization. Let a be a cosmological constant and s be another parameter entering into these equations which is used for considering the physical time as a temporal variable, with s=1, while s=-1 is used for considering the physical time as a spatial variable. We show that in case s=1; a 0 the set of all compact invariant sets consists of two equilibrium points only. Further, we state that in cases s=-1; a 0 there are only two equilibrium points and there are no periodic orbits. In addition, we prove that in the last two cases there are neither homoclinic orbits nor heteroclinic orbits as well.

  14. All the Four-Dimensional Static, Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.; Youm, D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the explicit form for all the four-dimensional, static, spherically symmetric solutions in (4+n)-d Abelian Kaluza-Klein theory by performing a subset of SO(2,n) transformations corresponding to four SO(1,1) boosts on the Schwarzschild solution, supplemented by SO(n)/SO(n-2) transformations. The solutions are parametrized by the mass M, Taub-NUT charge a, and n electric rvec Q and n magnetic rvec P charges. Nonextreme black holes (with zero Taub-NUT charge) have either the Reissner-Nordstroem or Schwarzschild global space-time. Supersymmetric extreme black holes have a null or naked singularity, while nonsupersymmetric extreme ones have a global space-time of extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  15. Non-Existence of Black Hole Solutionsfor a Spherically Symmetric, Static Einstein-Dirac-Maxwell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Smoller, Joel; Yau, Shing-Tung

    We consider for j=1/2, 3/2,... a spherically symmetric, static system of (2j+1) Dirac particles, each having total angular momentum j. The Dirac particles interact via a classical gravitational and electromagnetic field. The Einstein-Dirac-Maxwell equations for this system are derived. It is shown that, under weak regularity conditions on the form of the horizon, the only black hole solutions of the EDM equations are the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions. In other words, the spinors must vanish identically. Applied to the gravitational collapse of a "cloud" of spin-1/2-particles to a black hole, our result indicates that the Dirac particles must eventually disappear inside the event horizon.

  16. Asymptotic properties of spherically symmetric, regular and static solutions to Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronstrom, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the asymptotic properties of solutions to Yang-Mills equations with the gauge group SU(2), for spherically symmetric, regular and static potentials. It is known, that the pure Yang-Mills equations cannot have nontrivial regular solutions which vanish rapidly at space infinity (socalled finite energy solutions). So, if regular solutions exist, they must have non-trivial asymptotic properties. However, if the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions is non-trivial, then the fact must be explicitly taken into account in constructing the proper action (and energy) for the theory. The elucidation of the appropriate surface correction to the Yang-Mills action (and hence the energy-momentum tensor density) is one of the main motivations behind the present study. In this paper the author restricts to the asymptotic behaviour of the static solutions. It is shown that this asymptotic behaviour is such that surface corrections (at space-infinity) are needed in order to obtain a well-defined (classical) theory. This is of relevance in formulating a quantum Yang-Mills theory

  17. New definition of complexity for self-gravitating fluid distributions: The spherically symmetric, static case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, L.

    2018-02-01

    We put forward a new definition of complexity, for static and spherically symmetric self-gravitating systems, based on a quantity, hereafter referred to as complexity factor, that appears in the orthogonal splitting of the Riemann tensor, in the context of general relativity. We start by assuming that the homogeneous (in the energy density) fluid, with isotropic pressure is endowed with minimal complexity. For this kind of fluid distribution, the value of complexity factor is zero. So, the rationale behind our proposal for the definition of complexity factor stems from the fact that it measures the departure, in the value of the active gravitational mass (Tolman mass), with respect to its value for a zero complexity system. Such departure is produced by a specific combination of energy density inhomogeneity and pressure anisotropy. Thus, zero complexity factor may also be found in self-gravitating systems with inhomogeneous energy density and anisotropic pressure, provided the effects of these two factors, on the complexity factor, cancel each other. Some exact interior solutions to the Einstein equations satisfying the zero complexity criterium are found, and prospective applications of this newly defined concept, to the study of the structure and evolution of compact objects, are discussed.

  18. Cyclic and heteroclinic flows near general static spherically symmetric black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ayyesha K.; Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology(NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alberta (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the Michel-type accretion onto a static spherically symmetric black hole. Using a Hamiltonian dynamical approach, we show that the standard method employed for tackling the accretion problem has masked some properties of the fluid flow. We determine new analytical solutions that are neither transonic nor supersonic as the fluid approaches the horizon(s); rather, they remain subsonic for all values of the radial coordinate. Moreover, the three-velocity vanishes and the pressure diverges on the horizon(s), resulting in a flow-out of the fluid under the effect of its own pressure. This is in favor of the earlier prediction that pressure-dominant regions form near the horizon. This result does not depend on the form of the metric and it applies to a neighborhood of any horizon where the time coordinate is timelike. For anti-de Sitter-like f(R) black holes we discuss the stability of the critical flow and determine separatrix heteroclinic orbits. For de Sitter-like f(R) black holes, we construct polytropic cyclic, non-homoclinic, physical flows connecting the two horizons. These flows become non-relativistic for Hamiltonian values higher than the critical value, allowing for a good estimate of the proper period of the flow. (orig.)

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Static Spherically Symmetric Field Equations in Rastall Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradpour, Hooman; Salako, Ines G.

    2016-01-01

    The restrictions on the Rastall theory due to application of the Newtonian limit to the theory are derived. In addition, we use the zero-zero component of the Rastall field equations as well as the unified first law of thermodynamics to find the Misner-Sharp mass content confined to the event horizon of the spherically symmetric static spacetimes in the Rastall framework. The obtained relation is calculated for the Schwarzschild and de-Sitter back holes as two examples. Bearing the obtained relation for the Misner-Sharp mass in mind together with recasting the one-one component of the Rastall field equations into the form of the first law of thermodynamics, we obtain expressions for the horizon entropy and the work term. Finally, we also compare the thermodynamic quantities of system, including energy, entropy, and work, with their counterparts in the Einstein framework to have a better view about the role of the Rastall hypothesis on the thermodynamics of system.

  20. Compact invariant sets of the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E., E-mail: konst@citedi.m [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)

    2010-04-05

    In this Letter we obtain results concerning compact invariant sets of the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) equations with help of studies of its localization. Let a be a cosmological constant and s be another parameter entering into these equations which is used for considering the physical time as a temporal variable, with s=1, while s=-1 is used for considering the physical time as a spatial variable. We show that in case s=1; a<0 the location of any compact invariant set is described by some system of linear inequalities. Then we prove that in case s=1; a>0 the set of all compact invariant sets consists of two equilibrium points only. Further, we state that in cases s=-1; a<0 and s=-1; a>0 there are only two equilibrium points and there are no periodic orbits. In addition, we prove that in the last two cases there are neither homoclinic orbits nor heteroclinic orbits as well.

  1. Existence and stability of circular orbits in general static and spherically symmetric spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junji; Liu, Jiawei; Liu, Xionghui; Mo, Zhongyou; Pang, Xiankai; Wang, Yaoguang; Yang, Nan

    2018-02-01

    The existence and stability of circular orbits (CO) in static and spherically symmetric (SSS) spacetime are important because of their practical and potential usefulness. In this paper, using the fixed point method, we first prove a necessary and sufficient condition on the metric function for the existence of timelike COs in SSS spacetimes. After analyzing the asymptotic behavior of the metric, we then show that asymptotic flat SSS spacetime that corresponds to a negative Newtonian potential at large r will always allow the existence of CO. The stability of the CO in a general SSS spacetime is then studied using the Lyapunov exponent method. Two sufficient conditions on the (in)stability of the COs are obtained. For null geodesics, a sufficient condition on the metric function for the (in)stability of null CO is also obtained. We then illustrate one powerful application of these results by showing that three SSS spacetimes whose metric function is not completely known will allow the existence of timelike and/or null COs. We also used our results to assert the existence and (in)stabilities of a number of known SSS metrics.

  2. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  3. Weak-field limit of Kaluza-Klein models with spherically symmetric static scalar field. Observational constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuk, Alexander [The International Center of Future Science of the Jilin University, Changchun City (China); Odessa National University, Astronomical Observatory, Odessa (Ukraine); Chopovsky, Alexey; Fakhr, Seyed Hossein [Odessa National University, Astronomical Observatory, Odessa (Ukraine); Shulga, Valerii [The International Center of Future Science of the Jilin University, Changchun City (China); Institut of Radio Astronomy of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine); Wei, Han [The International Center of Future Science of the Jilin University, Changchun City (China)

    2017-11-15

    In a multidimensional Kaluza-Klein model with Ricci-flat internal space, we study the gravitational field in the weak-field limit. This field is created by two coupled sources. First, this is a point-like massive body which has a dust-like equation of state in the external space and an arbitrary parameter Ω of equation of state in the internal space. The second source is a static spherically symmetric massive scalar field centered at the origin where the point-like massive body is. The found perturbed metric coefficients are used to calculate the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter γ. We define under which conditions γ can be very close to unity in accordance with the relativistic gravitational tests in the solar system. This can take place for both massive or massless scalar fields. For example, to have γ ∼ 1 in the solar system, the mass of scalar field should be μ >or similar 5.05 x 10{sup -49} g ∝ 2.83 x 10{sup -16} eV. In all cases, we arrive at the same conclusion that to be in agreement with the relativistic gravitational tests, the gravitating mass should have tension: Ω = -1/2. (orig.)

  4. Spherically symmetric charged compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-08-15

    In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)

  5. Stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha; Lake, Kayll

    2002-01-01

    The stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells (and wormholes) to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations about static equilibrium is examined. This work generalizes and systematizes previous studies and explores the consequences of including the cosmological constant. The approach shows how the existence (or not) of a domain wall dominates the landscape of possible equilibrium configurations

  6. New method for determining the light travel time in static, spherically symmetric spacetimes. Calculation of the terms of order G3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, Bernard; Teyssandier, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    A new iterative method for calculating the travel time of a photon as a function of the spatial positions of the emitter and the receiver in the field of a static, spherically symmetric body is presented. The components of the metric are assumed to be expressible in power series in m/r, with m being half the Schwarzschild radius of the central body and r a radial coordinate. The procedure exclusively works for a light ray which may be described as a perturbation in powers of G of a Minkowskian null geodesic, with G being the Newtonian gravitational constant. It is shown that the expansion of the travel time of a photon along such a ray only involves elementary integrals whatever the order of approximation. An expansion of the impact parameter in power series of G is also obtained. The method is applied to explicitly calculate the perturbation expansions of the light travel time and the impact parameter up to the third order. The full expression yielding the terms of order G 3 is new. This expression confirms the existence of a third-order enhanced term when the emitter and the receiver are in conjunction relative to the central body. This term is shown to be necessary for determining the post-Newtonian parameter γ at a level of accuracy of 10 −8 with light rays grazing the Sun. (paper)

  7. Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipankar, R.

    1977-12-01

    Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat

  8. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  9. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.

    2007-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis

  10. The inverse spatial Laplacian of spherically symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Karan; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2017-01-01

    We derive the inverse spatial Laplacian for static, spherically symmetric backgrounds by solving Poisson’s equation for a point source. This is different from the electrostatic Green function, which is defined on the four dimensional static spacetime, while the equation we consider is defined on the spatial hypersurface of such spacetimes. This Green function is relevant in the Hamiltonian dynamics of theories defined on spherically symmetric backgrounds, and closed form expressions for the solutions we find are absent in the literature. We derive an expression in terms of elementary functions for the Schwarzschild spacetime, and comment on the relation of this solution with the known Green function of the spacetime Laplacian operator. We also find an expression for the Green function on the static pure de-Sitter space in terms of hypergeometric functions. We conclude with a discussion of the constraints of the electromagnetic field. (paper)

  11. Static solutions with spherical symmetry in f(T) theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tower

    2011-01-01

    The spherically symmetric static solutions are searched for in some f(T) models of gravity theory with a Maxwell term. To do this, we demonstrate that reconstructing the Lagrangian of f(T) theories is sensitive to the choice of frame, and then we introduce a particular frame based on the conformally Cartesian coordinates. In this particular frame, the existence conditions of various solutions are presented. Our results imply that only a limited class of f(T) models can be solved in this frame. For more general models, the search for spherically symmetric static solutions is still an open and challenging problem, hopefully solvable in other frames.

  12. Exact solutions of the spherically symmetric multidimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete orthonormalised energy eigenfunctions and the energy eigenvalues of the spherically symmetric isotropic harmonic oscillator in N dimensions, are obtained through the methods of separation of variables. Also, the degeneracy of the energy levels are examined. KEY WORDS: - Schrödinger Equation, Isotropic ...

  13. Spherically symmetric self-similar universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, C C [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada)

    1979-10-01

    A spherically symmetric self-similar dust-filled universe is considered as a simple model of a hierarchical universe. Observable differences between the model in parabolic expansion and the corresponding homogeneous Einstein-de Sitter model are considered in detail. It is found that an observer at the centre of the distribution has a maximum observable redshift and can in principle see arbitrarily large blueshifts. It is found to yield an observed density-distance law different from that suggested by the observations of de Vaucouleurs. The use of these solutions as central objects for Swiss-cheese vacuoles is discussed.

  14. Geometrodynamics of spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Taves, Tim; Maeda, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    We derive the Hamiltonian for spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity using the geometrodynamics approach pioneered by Kuchar (1994 Phys. Rev. D 50 3961) in the context of four-dimensional general relativity. When written in terms of the areal radius, the generalized Misner-Sharp mass and their conjugate momenta, the generic Lovelock action and Hamiltonian take on precisely the same simple forms as in general relativity. This result supports the interpretation of Lovelock gravity as the natural higher dimensional extension of general relativity. It also provides an important first step towards the study of the quantum mechanics, Hamiltonian thermodynamics and formation of generic Lovelock black holes. (fast track communication)

  15. Spherically symmetric solutions of general second-order gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, B.

    1988-01-01

    The general second-order gravity theory, whose Lagrangian includes higher powers of the curvature, is considered in arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that spherically symmetric solutions are static, except in certain, special, unphysical cases. Spherically symmetric solutions are found and classified. Each theory's solutions fall into a number of distinct branches, which may represent finite space with two singular boundaries, or an asymptotically either flat or (anti--)de Sitter space with one singular boundary. A theory may contain at most one branch of solutions in which all singularities are hidden by event horizons. Such horizons generally emit Hawking radiation, though in certain cases the horizon may have zero temperature. Black holes do not necessarily radiate away all their mass: they may terminate in a zero-temperature black hole, a naked singularity, or a hot black hole in equilibrium with a ''cosmological'' event horizon. The thermodynamics of black-hole solutions is discussed; entropy is found to be an increasing function of horizon area, and the first law is shown to hold

  16. No nonminimally coupled massless scalar hair for spherically symmetric neutral black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide a remarkably compact proof that spherically symmetric neutral black holes cannot support static nonminimally coupled massless scalar fields. The theorem is based on causality restrictions imposed on the energy-momentum tensor of the fields near the regular black-hole horizon.

  17. Non-integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinyan, S.G.; Prokhorenko, E.V.; Savvidy, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations is studied using the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam method. The phase space of this system is shown to have no quasi-periodic motion specific for integrable systems. In particular, the well-known Wu-Yang static solution is unstable, so its vicinity in phase is the stochasticity region

  18. Initial value formulation for the spherically symmetric dust solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    1990-01-01

    An initial value formulation for the dust solution with spherical symmetry is given explicitly in which the initial distributions of dust and its velocity on an initial surface are chosen to be the initial data. As special cases, the Friedmann universe, the Schwarzschild solution in comoving coordinates, and a spherically symmetric and radially inhomogeneous cosmological model are derived

  19. Spherically symmetric Einstein-aether perfect fluid models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coley, Alan A.; Latta, Joey [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Leon, Genly [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4950, Valparaíso (Chile); Sandin, Patrik, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.ca, E-mail: genly.leon@ucv.cl, E-mail: patrik.sandin@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: lattaj@mathstat.dal.ca [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric cosmological models in Einstein-aether theory with a tilted (non-comoving) perfect fluid source. We use a 1+3 frame formalism and adopt the comoving aether gauge to derive the evolution equations, which form a well-posed system of first order partial differential equations in two variables. We then introduce normalized variables. The formalism is particularly well-suited for numerical computations and the study of the qualitative properties of the models, which are also solutions of Horava gravity. We study the local stability of the equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical system corresponding to physically realistic inhomogeneous cosmological models and astrophysical objects with values for the parameters which are consistent with current constraints. In particular, we consider dust models in (β−) normalized variables and derive a reduced (closed) evolution system and we obtain the general evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous Kantowski-Sachs models using appropriate bounded normalized variables. We then analyse these models, with special emphasis on the future asymptotic behaviour for different values of the parameters. Finally, we investigate static models for a mixture of a (necessarily non-tilted) perfect fluid with a barotropic equations of state and a scalar field.

  20. Flat synchronizations in spherically symmetric space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, Alicia; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the Schwarzschild space-time admits a spacelike slicing by flat instants and that the metric is regular at the horizon in the associated adapted coordinates (Painleve-Gullstrand metric form). We consider this type of flat slicings in an arbitrary spherically symmetric space-time. The condition ensuring its existence is analyzed, and then, we prove that, for any spherically symmetric flat slicing, the densities of the Weinberg momenta vanish. Finally, we deduce the Schwarzschild solution in the extended Painleve-Gullstrand-LemaItre metric form by considering the coordinate decomposition of the vacuum Einstein equations with respect to a flat spacelike slicing.

  1. Implications of the Cosmological Constant for Spherically Symmetric Mass Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, scientists have made the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is increasing rather than decreasing. This acceleration leads to an additional term in Albert Einstein's field equations which describe general relativity and is known as the cosmological constant. This work explores the aftermath of a non-vanishing cosmological constant for relativistic spherically symmetric mass distributions, which are susceptible to change against Einstein's field equations. We introduce a stellar structure equation known as the Tolman-Oppenhiemer-Volkoff (TOV) equation modified for a cosmological constant, which is derived from Einstein's modified field equations. We solve this modified TOV equation for these spherically symmetric mass distributions and obtain stellar properties such as mass and radius and investigate changes that may occur depending on the value of the cosmological constant.

  2. Exact EGB models for spherical static perfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansraj, Sudan; Chilambwe, Brian; Maharaj, Sunil D. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)

    2015-06-15

    We obtain a new exact solution to the field equations for a 5-dimensional spherically symmetric static distribution in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet modified theory of gravity. By using a transformation, the study is reduced to the analysis of a single second order nonlinear differential equation. In general the condition of pressure isotropy produces a first order differential equation which is an Abel equation of the second kind. An exact solution is found. The solution is examined for physical admissibility. In particular a set of constants is found which ensures that a pressure-free hypersurface exists which defines the boundary of the distribution. Additionally the isotropic pressure and the energy density are shown to be positive within the radius of the sphere. The adiabatic sound-speed criterion is also satisfied within the fluid ensuring a subluminal sound speed. Furthermore, the weak, strong and dominant conditions hold throughout the distribution. On setting the Gauss-Bonnet coupling to zero, an exact solution for 5-dimensional perfect fluids in the standard Einstein theory is obtained. Plots of the dynamical quantities for the Gauss-Bonnet and the Einstein case reveal that the pressure is unaffected, while the energy density increases under the influence of the Gauss-Bonnet term. (orig.)

  3. Maximal slicing of D-dimensional spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Hirotaka; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We study the foliation of a D-dimensional spherically symmetric black-hole spacetime with D≥5 by two kinds of one-parameter families of maximal hypersurfaces: a reflection-symmetric foliation with respect to the wormhole slot and a stationary foliation that has an infinitely long trumpetlike shape. As in the four-dimensional case, the foliations by the maximal hypersurfaces avoid the singularity irrespective of the dimensionality. This indicates that the maximal slicing condition will be useful for simulating higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes in numerical relativity. For the case of D=5, we present analytic solutions of the intrinsic metric, the extrinsic curvature, the lapse function, and the shift vector for the foliation by the stationary maximal hypersurfaces. These data will be useful for checking five-dimensional numerical-relativity codes based on the moving puncture approach.

  4. Spherically symmetric solution and a satisfactory energy-momentum complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashed, G.G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mikhail et al. obtained two spherically symmetric solution in Moeller tetrad theory of gravitation. They calculated their energy content and obtained a strange value for the second solution, in spite that the associated metric of these solutions is the same (the Schwarzschild metric). We use another method given bu Gibbons and Hawking to calculate the energy content of these solutions. We also obtained a strange value of energy for the second solution. Studying the requirements of the satisfactory energy-momentum complex given by Moeller we find that the second solution which behaves as 1/√r does not transform as a four-vector under Lorentz transformation

  5. Spherically symmetric near-critical accretion onto neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical and approximate analytic solutions for time-independent, spherically symmetric, radiation pressure-dominated accretion flows are presented. For flows with luminosities at infinity, L-infinity, sufficiently close to the Eddington limit L-crit, the flow velocity profile is qualitatively different from the modified free-fall profile v(r) = (1 - L-infinity/L-crit)exp 1/2 (2GM/r)exp 1/2. Advective contributions to the comoving radiation flux decelerate the flow within a criical radius, and, in this settling region, the velocity of the flow decreases linearly with decreasing radius. 14 refs

  6. Minimal Length Effects on Tunnelling from Spherically Symmetric Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benrong Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate effects of the minimal length on quantum tunnelling from spherically symmetric black holes using the Hamilton-Jacobi method incorporating the minimal length. We first derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for scalars and fermions, both of which have the same expressions. The minimal length correction to the Hawking temperature is found to depend on the black hole’s mass and the mass and angular momentum of emitted particles. Finally, we calculate a Schwarzschild black hole's luminosity and find the black hole evaporates to zero mass in infinite time.

  7. All spherically symmetric charged anisotropic solutions for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2017-06-15

    In the present paper we develop an algorithm for all spherically symmetric anisotropic charged fluid distributions. Considering a new source function ν(r) we find a set of solutions which is physically well behaved and represents compact stellar models. A detailed study specifically shows that the models actually correspond to strange stars in terms of their mass and radius. In this connection we investigate several physical properties like energy conditions, stability, mass-radius ratio, electric charge content, anisotropic nature and surface redshift through graphical plots and mathematical calculations. All the features from these studies are in excellent agreement with the already available evidence in theory as well as observations. (orig.)

  8. Integral solution for the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, J.M.; Soler, M.

    1993-01-01

    We propose an integral method to deal with the spherically symmetric non-linear Fokker-Planck equation appearing in plasma physics. A probability transition expression is obtained, which takes into account the proper domain for the radial velocity component. The analytical and computational results are new, and the time evolution is completely satisfactory. The main achievement of the method is conservation of both the initial norm and energy for unlimited times, which has not been attained in the differential approach to the problem. (orig.)

  9. Spherically Symmetric Solutions of the Einstein-Bach Equations and a Consistent Spin-2 Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janda, A.

    2006-01-01

    We briefly present a relationship between General Relativity coupled to certain spin-0 and spin-2 field theories and higher derivatives metric theories of gravity. In a special case, described by the Einstein-Bach equations, the spin-0 field drops out from the theory and we obtain a consistent spin-two field theory interacting gravitationally, which overcomes a well known inconsistency of the theory for a linear spin-two field coupled to the Einstein's gravity. Then we discuss basic properties of static spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Bach equations. (author)

  10. On the spherical symmetry of static perfect fluids in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.; Simon, W.

    1990-01-01

    We present a theorem which establishes uniqueness, in particular spherical symmetry, of a wide class of general relativistic, static perfect-fluid models provided there exists a spherically symmetric model with the same equation of state and surface potential. The method of proof, which is inspired by recent work of Masood-ul-Alam, is illustrated by demonstrating uniqueness of a class of solutions due to Buchdahl which correspond to an extreme case of the inequality on the equation of state required by our theorem. 16 refs. (Authors)

  11. The theory of spherically symmetric thin shells in conformal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Victor; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav; Eroshenko, Yury

    The spherically symmetric thin shells are the nearest generalizations of the point-like particles. Moreover, they serve as the simple sources of the gravitational fields both in General Relativity and much more complex quadratic gravity theories. We are interested in the special and physically important case when all the quadratic in curvature tensor (Riemann tensor) and its contractions (Ricci tensor and scalar curvature) terms are present in the form of the square of Weyl tensor. By definition, the energy-momentum tensor of the thin shell is proportional to Diracs delta-function. We constructed the theory of the spherically symmetric thin shells for three types of gravitational theories with the shell: (1) General Relativity; (2) Pure conformal (Weyl) gravity where the gravitational part of the total Lagrangian is just the square of the Weyl tensor; (3) Weyl-Einstein gravity. The results are compared with these in General Relativity (Israel equations). We considered in detail the shells immersed in the vacuum. Some peculiar properties of such shells are found. In particular, for the traceless ( = massless) shell, it is shown that their dynamics cannot be derived from the matching conditions and, thus, is completely arbitrary. On the contrary, in the case of the Weyl-Einstein gravity, the trajectory of the same type of shell is completely restored even without knowledge of the outside solution.

  12. Spherical aberration correction with threefold symmetric line currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Shahedul; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Ryuji; Takaoka, Akio; Munro, Eric

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that N-fold symmetric line current (henceforth denoted as N-SYLC) produces 2N-pole magnetic fields. In this paper, a threefold symmetric line current (N3-SYLC in short) is proposed for correcting 3rd order spherical aberration of round lenses. N3-SYLC can be realized without using magnetic materials, which makes it free of the problems of hysteresis, inhomogeneity and saturation. We investigate theoretically the basic properties of an N3-SYLC configuration which can in principle be realized by simple wires. By optimizing the parameters of a system with beam energy of 5.5keV, the required excitation current for correcting 3rd order spherical aberration coefficient of 400 mm is less than 1AT, and the residual higher order aberrations can be kept sufficiently small to obtain beam size of less than 1 nm for initial slopes up to 5 mrad. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Weyl curvature tensor in static spherical sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce de Leon, J.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the Weyl curvature tensor in static sources of the Schwarzschild field is studied. It is shown that in general the contribution from the Weyl curvature tensor (the ''purely gravitational field energy'') to the mass-energy inside the body may be positive, negative, or zero. It is proved that a positive (negative) contribution from the Weyl tensor tends to increase (decrease) the effective gravitational mass, the red-shift (from a point in the sphere to infinity), as well as the gravitational force which acts on a constituent matter element of a body. It is also proved that the contribution from the Weyl tensor always is negative in sources with surface gravitational potential larger than (4/9. It is pointed out that large negative contributions from the Weyl tensor could give rise to the phenomenon of gravitational repulsion. A simple example which illustrates the results is discussed

  14. Internal structure of multicomponent static spherical gravitating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, E.; Bailyn, M.

    1975-01-01

    The Maxwell--Einstein equations for a fluid comprised of more than one type of particle are not a determinate system even if an equation of state is added. The problem of what the charge distribution is in such fluids is therefore also not determinate. To complete the definition of the problem, more equations are needed. We obtain these for the simple case of a static spherically symmetric multicomponent system (imbedded in a Minkowskian background) by minimizing the energy of the fluid with respect to variations in the number densities of the constituents, with the side conditions that the total number of each constituent is constant during the variations. This procedure results in a determinate set of hydrostatic equilibrium equations, the sum of which is the familiar Tolman--Oppenheimer--Volkoff equation. Some general conclusions can be drawn. For example, the necessary and sufficient condition for charge neutrality is that the mass-energy density be some (arbitrary) function of some (arbitrary) linear combination of the number densities. Thus, since it is well known that the electrons in a white dwarf star at absolute zero form a degenerate gas, there must be a charge imbalance throughout such a star. This imbalance can then be computed self-consistently. An over-all physical interpretation of the new equations is that in equilibrium at any point in the fluid the sum of the non-gravitational forces per unit energy is the same for constituent 1 as for constituent 2 and so on. This is the analog of the corresponding (Galilean) statement for gravitational forces that is valid even without equilibrium

  15. Static axially symmetric gravitational fields with shell sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Israel's (Israel, W., 1966, Nuovo Cim., vol.44, 1-14) method for treating surface layers in general relativity is applied to construct shell sources for exterior static axially symmetric gravitational fields. Consideration is restricted to cases in which the 3-cylinder representing the history of the shell is an equipotential surface of the exterior field and consequently the space-time inside this 3-cylinder is flat. (author)

  16. Stationary bound-state massive scalar field configurations supported by spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-12-15

    It has recently been demonstrated that asymptotically flat neutral reflecting stars are characterized by an intriguing no-hair property. In particular, it has been proved that these horizonless compact objects cannot support spatially regular static matter configurations made of scalar (spin-0) fields, vector (spin-1) fields and tensor (spin-2) fields. In the present paper we shall explicitly prove that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars can support stationary (rather than static) bound-state massive scalar fields in their exterior spacetime regions. To this end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a linearized scalar field of mass μ and proper frequency ω in the curved background of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star of mass M and radius R{sub s}. It is proved that the regime of existence of these stationary composed star-field configurations is characterized by the simple inequalities 1 - 2M/R{sub s} < (ω/μ){sup 2} < 1. Interestingly, in the regime M/R{sub s} << 1 of weakly self-gravitating stars we derive a remarkably compact analytical equation for the discrete spectrum {ω(M,R_s, μ)}{sup n=∞}{sub n=1} of resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the stationary composed compact-reflecting-star-linearized-massive-scalar-field configurations. Finally, we verify the accuracy of the analytically derived resonance formula of the composed star-field configurations with direct numerical computations. (orig.)

  17. Notes on entropy force in general spherically symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper [arXiv:1001.0785], Verlinde has shown that the Newton gravity appears as an entropy force. In this paper we show how gravity appears as entropy force in Einstein's equation of gravitational field in a general spherically symmetric spacetime. We mainly focus on the trapping horizon of the spacetime. We find that when matter fields are absent, the change of entropy associated with the trapping horizon indeed can be identified with an entropy force. When matter fields are present, we see that heat flux of matter fields also leads to the change of entropy. Applying arguments made by Verlinde and Smolin, respectively, to the trapping horizon, we find that the entropy force is given by the surface gravity of the horizon. The cases in the untrapped region of the spacetime are also discussed.

  18. Spherically symmetric solutions in abelian Kaluza-Klein theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    We present the most general spherically symmetric solution to the field equations of the truncated five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. We also detail some of the special forms of this solution. With the exception of the Gross-Perry-Sorkin monopole and the Schwarzschild solutions we find that most, and we conjecture all, of the solutions have naked curvature singularities. We then proceed to consider higher-dimensional theories with toroidal compactification and we exhibit a class of nonsingular monopole solutions which are the natural generalization of the Gross-Perry-Sorkin monopole to more than five dimensions. We also present some selected solutions including a solution pertaining to a model with a Ricci-flat, but not curvature-flat, internal manifold. All of these other solutions have naked curvature singularities. (orig.)

  19. Timelike geodesics around a charged spherically symmetric dilaton black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaga C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the timelike geodesics around a spherically symmetric charged dilaton black hole. The trajectories around the black hole are classified using the effective potential of a free test particle. This qualitative approach enables us to determine the type of orbit described by test particle without solving the equations of motion, if the parameters of the black hole and the particle are known. The connections between these parameters and the type of orbit described by the particle are obtained. To visualize the orbits we solve numerically the equation of motion for different values of parameters envolved in our analysis. The effective potential of a free test particle looks different for a non-extremal and an extremal black hole, therefore we have examined separately these two types of black holes.

  20. Absorbed dose from traversing spherically symmetric, Gaussian radioactive clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.; Poston, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    If a large radioactive cloud is produced, sampling may require that an airplane traverse the cloud. A method to predict the absorbed dose to the aircrew from penetrating the radioactive cloud is needed. Dose rates throughout spherically symmetric Gaussian clouds of various sizes, and the absorbed doses from traversing the clouds, were calculated. Cloud size is a dominant parameter causing dose to vary by orders of magnitude for a given dose rate measured at some distance. A method to determine cloud size, based on dose rate readings at two or more distances from the cloud center, was developed. This method, however, failed to resolve the smallest cloud sizes from measurements made at 1,000 m to 2,000 m from the cloud center

  1. Observational signatures of spherically-symmetric black hole spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Younsi, Ziri; Porth, Oliver; Mizuno, Yosuke; Fromm, Christian; Rezzolla, Luciano; Olivares, Hector

    2017-12-01

    A binary system composed of a supermassive black hole and a pulsar orbiting around it is studied. The motivation for this study arises from the fact that pulsar timing observations have proven to be a powerful tool in identifying physical features of the orbiting companion. In this study, taking into account a general spherically-symmetric metric, we present analytic calculations of the geodesic motion, and the possible deviations with respect to the standard Schwarzschild case of General Relativity. In particular, the advance at periastron is studied with the aim of identifying corrections to General Relativity. A discussion of the motion of a pulsar very close the supermassive central black hole in our Galaxy (Sgr A*) is reported.

  2. Higher spins tunneling from a time dependent and spherically symmetric black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-01-01

    The discussions of Hawking radiation via tunneling method have been performed extensively in the case of scalar particles. Moreover, there are also several works in discussing the tunneling method for Hawking radiation by using higher spins, e.g. neutrino, photon, and gravitino, in the background of static black holes. Interestingly, it is found that the Hawking temperature for static black holes using the higher spins particles has no difference compared to the one computed using scalars. In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation for a spherically symmetric and time dependent black holes using the tunneling of Dirac particles, photon, and gravitino. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature is similar to the one derived in the tunneling method by using scalars. (orig.)

  3. Higher spins tunneling from a time dependent and spherically symmetric black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M. [Parahyangan Catholic University, Physics Department, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2016-03-15

    The discussions of Hawking radiation via tunneling method have been performed extensively in the case of scalar particles. Moreover, there are also several works in discussing the tunneling method for Hawking radiation by using higher spins, e.g. neutrino, photon, and gravitino, in the background of static black holes. Interestingly, it is found that the Hawking temperature for static black holes using the higher spins particles has no difference compared to the one computed using scalars. In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation for a spherically symmetric and time dependent black holes using the tunneling of Dirac particles, photon, and gravitino. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature is similar to the one derived in the tunneling method by using scalars. (orig.)

  4. The classification of static plane-symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziad, M.

    1999-01-01

    According to the classical literature, here a complete classification of static plane-symmetric spacetimes according to their isometries and metrics is provided,without imposing any restriction on the stress-energy tensor. It turns out that these spacetimes admit G r as the maximal isometry groups whereas their Killing vector fields are obtained. The Einstein field equations are used to discuss the stress energy tensors of the spacetimes admitting higher symmetries along with their Segre' and Plebanski types and finally results are compared with those of Taub, Hall and Steele

  5. Gravitational collapse and topology change in spherically symmetric dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: cspeter@rmki.kfki.h, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.h [RMKI H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2010-01-07

    A new numerical framework, based on the use of a simple first-order strongly hyperbolic evolution equations, is introduced and tested in the case of four-dimensional spherically symmetric gravitating systems. The analytic setup is chosen such that our numerical method is capable of following the time evolution even after the appearance of trapped surfaces, more importantly, until the true physical singularities are reached. Using this framework, the gravitational collapse of various gravity-matter systems is investigated, with particular attention to the evolution in trapped regions. It is verified that, in advance of the formation of these curvature singularities, trapped regions develop in all cases, thereby supporting the validity of the weak cosmic censor hypothesis of Penrose. Various upper bounds on the rate of blow-up of the Ricci and Kretschmann scalars and the Misner-Sharp mass are provided. In spite of the unboundedness of the Ricci scalar, the Einstein-Hilbert action was found to remain finite in all the investigated cases. In addition, important conceptual issues related to the phenomenon of topology changes are discussed.

  6. Generation of spherically symmetric metrics in f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirabi, Z.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S.H. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Gazimagusa (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    In D-dimensional spherically symmetric f(R) gravity there are three unknown functions to be determined from the fourth order differential equations. It is shown that the system remarkably may be integrated to relate two functions through the third one to provide a reduction to second order equations accompanied with a large class of potential solutions. The third function, which acts as the generator of the process, is F(R) = (df(R))/(dR). We recall that our generating function has been employed as a scalar field with an accompanying self-interacting potential previously, which is entirely different from our approach. Reduction of f(R) theory into a system of equations seems to be efficient enough to generate a solution corresponding to each generating function. As particular examples, besides the known ones, we obtain new black hole solutions in any dimension D. We further extend our analysis to cover non-zero energy-momentum tensors. Global monopole and Maxwell sources are given as examples. (orig.)

  7. Rovibrational states of Wigner molecules in spherically symmetric confining potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70-451 Szczecin, Poland and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-07

    The strong-localization limit of three-dimensional Wigner molecules, in which repulsively interacting particles are confined by a weak spherically symmetric potential, is investigated. An explicit prescription for computation of rovibrational wavefunctions and energies that are asymptotically exact at this limit is presented. The prescription is valid for systems with arbitrary angularly-independent interparticle and confining potentials, including those involving Coulombic and screened (i.e., Yukawa/Debye) interactions. The necessary derivations are greatly simplified by explicit constructions of the Eckart frame and the parity-adapted primitive wavefunctions. The performance of the new formalism is illustrated with the three- and four-electron harmonium atoms at their strong-correlation limits. In particular, the involvement of vibrational modes with the E symmetry is readily pinpointed as the origin of the “anomalous” weak-confinement behavior of the {sup 1}S{sub +} state of the four-electron species that is absent in its {sup 1}D{sub +} companion of the strong-confinement regime.

  8. Dynamics and entanglement in spherically symmetric quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Terno, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The gravity-scalar field system in spherical symmetry provides a natural setting for exploring gravitational collapse and its aftermath in quantum gravity. In a canonical approach, we give constructions of the Hamiltonian operator, and of semiclassical states peaked on constraint-free data. Such states provide explicit examples of physical states. We also show that matter-gravity entanglement is an inherent feature of physical states, whether or not there is a black hole.

  9. Boundary stress tensors for spherically-symmetric conformal Rindler observers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culetu, Hristu [Ovidius University, Constanta (Romania)

    2010-06-15

    The boundary energy-momentum tensors for a static observer in the conformally flat Rindler geometry are considered. We find that the surface energy density is positive far from the Planck world, but that the transversal pressures are negative. The kinematical parameters associated with the nongeodesic congruence of static observers are computed. The entropy S corresponding to the degrees of freedom on the 2-surface of constant {rho} and t equals the horizon entropy of a black hole with a time-dependent mass, and the Padmanabhan expression E = 2ST is obeyed. The 2-surface shear tensor is vanishing, and the coefficient of the bulk viscosity {zeta} is 1/16 {pi}, so the negative pressure due to it acts as a surface tension.

  10. The Gaussian formula and spherical aberrations of static and relativistic curved mirrors from Fermat's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto, Sylvia H; Tjiang, Paulus C

    2011-01-01

    The Gaussian formula and spherical aberrations of static and relativistic curved mirrors are analyzed using the optical path length (OPL) and Fermat's principle. The geometrical figures generated by the rotation of conic sections about their symmetry axes are considered for the shapes of the mirrors. By comparing the results in static and relativistic cases, it is shown that the focal lengths and the spherical aberration relations of the relativistic mirrors obey the Lorentz contraction. Further analysis of the spherical aberrations for both static and relativistic cases have resulted in information about the limits for the paraxial approximation, as well as for the minimum speed of the systems to reduce the spherical aberrations

  11. The general class of the vacuum spherically symmetric equations of the general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbanovski, V. V.; Sorokin, O. M.; Nesterova, M. I.; Bolotnyaya, V. A.; Markov, V. N.; Kairov, T. V.; Lyash, A. A.; Tarasyuk, O. R.

    2012-01-01

    The system of the spherical-symmetric vacuum equations of the General Relativity Theory is considered. The general solution to a problem representing two classes of line elements with arbitrary functions g 00 and g 22 is obtained. The properties of the found solutions are analyzed.

  12. Non-integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matinyan, S G; Prokhorenko, E B; Savvidy, G K

    1988-03-07

    The integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations is studied using the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam method. It is shown that the motion of this system is ergodic, while the system itself is non-integrable, i.e. manifests dynamical chaos.

  13. Initial boundary-value problem for the spherically symmetric Einstein equations with fluids with tangential pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Irene; Mena, Filipe C

    2017-08-01

    We prove that, for a given spherically symmetric fluid distribution with tangential pressure on an initial space-like hypersurface with a time-like boundary, there exists a unique, local in time solution to the Einstein equations in a neighbourhood of the boundary. As an application, we consider a particular elastic fluid interior matched to a vacuum exterior.

  14. Unified Treatment of a Class of Spherically Symmetric Potentials: Quasi-Exact Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradaran, M.; Panahi, H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Schrödinger equation for a class of spherically symmetric potentials in a simple and unified manner using the Lie algebraic approach within the framework of quasi-exact solvability. We illustrate that all models give rise to the same basic differential equation, which is expressible as an element of the universal enveloping algebra of sl(2). Then, we obtain the general exact solutions of the problem by employing the representation theory of sl(2) Lie algebra.

  15. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin, E-mail: chienichiang@berkeley.edu, E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: chen@slac.stanford.edu [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  16. A new approach to spherically symmetric junction surfaces and the matching of FLRW regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, U

    2004-01-01

    We investigate timelike junctions (with surface layer) between spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein-field equation. In contrast to previous investigations, this is done in a coordinate system in which the junction surface motion is absorbed in the metric, while all coordinates are continuous at the junction surface. The evolution equations for all relevant quantities are derived. We discuss the no-surface layer case (boundary surface) and study the behaviour for small surface energies. It is shown that one should expect cases in which the speed of light is reached within a finite proper time. We carefully discuss necessary and sufficient conditions for a possible matching of spherically symmetric sections. For timelike junctions between spherically symmetric spacetime sections we show explicitly that the time component of the Lanczos equation always reduces to an identity (independent of the surface equation of state). The results are applied to the matching of Friedmann-LemaItre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) models. We discuss 'vacuum bubbles' and closed-open junctions in detail. As illustrations several numerical integration results are presented, some of them indicate that (observers comoving with) the junction surface can reach the speed of light within a finite time

  17. The hidden symmetries and their algebraic structure of the static axially symmetric SDYM fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sanru

    1993-01-01

    A new explicit transformation about the static axially symmetric self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) fields is presented. The theory has proved that the new transformation is a symmetric one. For the two kinds of the Lie algebraic generators of the Lie group SL (N. R) /SO (N), the corresponding transformations are given. By making use of the Yang-Baxter equality and their square brackets, the loop and conformal algebraic structures of the symmetric transformations for the basic fields have been obtained. All the results obtained can be directly generalized to the other models

  18. Singularity-free static centrally symmetric solutions of some fourth order gravitational field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, B.; Schimming, R.

    1983-01-01

    The fourth order field equations proposed by TREDER with a linear combination of BACH's tensor and EINSTEIN's tensor on the left-hand side admit static centrally symmetric solutions which are analytical and non-flat in some neighborhood of the centre of symmetry. (author)

  19. On the use of the Kodama vector field in spherically symmetric dynamical problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan [MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, (Hungary)

    2006-01-07

    It is shown that by making use of the Kodama vector field, as a preferred time evolution vector field, in spherically symmetric dynamical systems unexpected simplifications arise. In particular, the evolution equations relevant for the case of a massless scalar field minimally coupled to gravity are investigated. The simplest form of these equations in the 'canonical gauge' is known to possess the character of a mixed first-order elliptic-hyperbolic system. The advantages related to the use of the Kodama vector field are twofold although they show up simultaneously. First, it is found that the true degrees of freedom separate. Second, a subset of the field equations possessing the form of a first-order symmetric hyperbolic system for these preferred degrees of freedom is singled out. It is also demonstrated, in the appendix, that the above results generalize straightforwardly to the case of a generic self-interacting scalar field.

  20. Spherical aberration correction with an in-lens N-fold symmetric line currents model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Shahedul; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Ryuji

    2018-04-01

    In our previous works, we have proposed N-SYLC (N-fold symmetric line currents) models for aberration correction. In this paper, we propose "in-lens N-SYLC" model, where N-SYLC overlaps rotationally symmetric lens. Such overlap is possible because N-SYLC is free of magnetic materials. We analytically prove that, if certain parameters of the model are optimized, an in-lens 3-SYLC (N = 3) doublet can correct 3rd order spherical aberration. By computer simulation, we show that the required excitation current for correction is less than 0.25 AT for beam energy 5 keV, and the beam size after correction is smaller than 1 nm at the corrector image plane for initial slope less than 4 mrad. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Beyond Extreme Ultra Violet (BEUV) Radiation from Spherically symmetrical High-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryouichi; Eshima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Scally, Enda; Nshimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; O'Sullivan, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    Photo-lithography is a key technology for volume manufacture of high performance and compact semiconductor devices. Smaller and more complex structures can be fabricated by using shorter wavelength light in the photolithography. One of the most critical issues in development of the next generation photo-lithography is to increase energy conversion efficiency (CE) from laser to shorter wavelength light. Experimental database of beyond extreme ultraviolet (BEUV) radiation was obtained by using spherically symmetrical high-Z plasmas generated with spherically allocated laser beams. Absolute energy and spectra of BEUV light emitted from Tb, Gd, and Mo plasmas were measured with a absolutely calibrated BEUV calorimeter and a transmission grating spectrometer. 1.0 x 1012 W/cm2 is the optimal laser intensity to produced efficient BEUV light source plasmas with Tb and Gd targets. Maximum CE is achieved at 0.8% that is two times higher than the published CEs obtained with planar targets.

  2. Solutions for the conductivity of multi-coated spheres and spherically symmetric inclusion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duc Chinh

    2018-02-01

    Variational results on the macroscopic conductivity (thermal, electrical, etc.) of the multi-coated sphere assemblage have been used to derive the explicit expression of the respective field (thermal, electrical, etc.) within the spheres in d dimensions (d=2,3). A differential substitution approach has been developed to construct various explicit expressions or determining equations for the effective spherically symmetric inclusion problems, which include those with radially variable conductivity, different radially variable transverse and normal conductivities, and those involving imperfect interfaces, in d dimensions. When the volume proportion of the outermost spherical shell increases toward 1, one obtains the respective exact results for the most important specific cases: the dilute solutions for the compound inhomogeneities suspended in a major matrix phase. Those dilute solution results are also needed for other effective medium approximation schemes.

  3. Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzinatto, R.R. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Pompeia, P.J. [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto de Fomento e Coordenacao Industrial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); De Montigny, M. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); University of Alberta, Campus Saint-Jean, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Khanna, F.C. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO box 1700, Victoria, BC (Canada); Silva, J.M.H. da [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in detail: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter b related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant b can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles. (orig.)

  4. Spherically Symmetric Geometries in f(T) and f(R) Gravitational Theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Using the well know relation between Ricci scalar, R, and torsion scalar, T, that is, R=-T-2∇_αT"α, we show that, for any spherically symmetric spacetime whose (i) scalar torsion vanishing, that is, T=T_μ_ν"αS_α"μ"ν=0 or (ii) total derivative term, that is, ∇_αT"α with T"α is the contraction of the torsion, vanishing, or (iii) the combination of scalar torsion and total derivative term vanishing, could be solution for f(T) and f(R) gravitational theories.

  5. On spherically symmetric motions of a viscous compressible barotropic and selfgravitating gas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka; Vasseur, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2011), s. 191-211 ISSN 1422-6928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0012; GA MŠk LC06052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : spherically symmetric motion * selfgravitating gas * non monotone pressure law * density-dependent viscosities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.768, year: 2011 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00021-009-0010-5

  6. How fast can a black hole eat. [Equation stationary spherically symmetric solutions, Thompson scattering, mass flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, P; Meszaros, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-11-01

    Stationary spherically symmetric solutions of the equations for accretion of large mass flows onto a black hole, including the interaction of matter and radiation due to Thomson scattering in diffusion approximation are constructed. The relevance of these solutions is discussed with respect to the question of whether the limitation of the luminosity (Eddington limit) also implies an upper bound to the possible rate of mass flow. The question remains open until all instabilities have been studied. At the moment a negative answer is favoured.

  7. Abel transforms with low regularity with applications to x-ray tomography on spherically symmetric manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoop, Maarten V.; Ilmavirta, Joonas

    2017-12-01

    We study ray transforms on spherically symmetric manifolds with a piecewise C1, 1 metric. Assuming the Herglotz condition, the x-ray transform is injective on the space of L 2 functions on such manifolds. We also prove injectivity results for broken ray transforms (with and without periodicity) on such manifolds with a C1, 1 metric. To make these problems tractable in low regularity, we introduce and study a class of generalized Abel transforms and study their properties. This low regularity setting is relevant for geophysical applications.

  8. Axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on spherical and composite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Rao, Madan

    2014-03-01

    Experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of cylindrical and spherical shapes, rod-shaped bacteria and reconstituted cylindrical liposomes suggest the influence of cell geometry on patterning of cortical actin. A theoretical model based on active hydrodynamic description of cortical actin that includes curvature-orientation coupling predicts spontaneous formation of acto-myosin rings, cables and nodes on cylindrical and spherical geometries [P. Srivastava et al, PRL 110, 168104(2013)]. Stability and dynamics of these patterns is also affected by the cellular shape and has been observed in experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of spherical shape. Motivated by this, we study the stability and dynamics of axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on the surfaces of spherical, saddle shaped and conical geometry and classify the stable steady state patterns on these surfaces. Based on the analysis of the fluorescence images of Myosin-II during ring slippage we propose a simple mechanical model for ring-sliding based on force balance and make quantitative comparison with the experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells. NSF Grant DMR-1004789 and Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  9. Linear perturbation of spherically symmetric flows: a first-order upwind scheme for the gas dynamics equations in Lagrangian coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarisse, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical scheme for computing linear Lagrangian perturbations of spherically symmetric flows of gas dynamics is proposed. This explicit first-order scheme uses the Roe method in Lagrangian coordinates, for computing the radial spherically symmetric mean flow, and its linearized version, for treating the three-dimensional linear perturbations. Fulfillment of the geometric conservation law discrete formulations for both the mean flow and its perturbation is ensured. This scheme capabilities are illustrated by the computation of free-surface mode evolutions at the boundaries of a spherical hollow shell undergoing an homogeneous cumulative compression, showing excellent agreement with reference results. (author)

  10. Canonical theory of spherically symmetric spacetimes with cross-streaming null dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bičák, Jiří; Hájíček, Petr

    2003-11-01

    The Hamiltonian dynamics of two-component spherically symmetric null dust is studied with regard to the quantum theory of gravitational collapse. The components—the ingoing and outgoing dusts—are assumed to interact only through gravitation. Different kinds of singularities, naked or “clothed,” which can form during collapse processes are described. The general canonical formulation of the one-component null-dust dynamics by Bičák and Kuchař is restricted to the spherically symmetric case and used to construct an action for the two components. The transformation from a metric variable to the quasilocal mass is shown to simplify the mathematics. The action is reduced by a choice of gauge and the corresponding true Hamiltonian is written down. Asymptotic coordinates and energy densities of dust shells are shown to form a complete set of Dirac observables. The action of the asymptotic time translation on the observables is defined but it has been calculated explicitly only in the case of one-component dust (Vaidya metric).

  11. Statics and dynamics in spherical poly-electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, Luc

    1987-01-01

    Statics and dynamics of globular poly-electrolytes are studied in the framework of the primitive model. All particle, poly-ions and ions, are taken explicitly into account and are considered as charged hard-spheres. In the first part A, the equilibrium and structural properties are calculated with the hyper-netted chain integral equation. The strong accumulation of counterions near the poly-ion surface is studied in terms of condensation. In the large charge regime, the primitive model leads to a liquid-gas like phase separation. The theoretical scattering spectra improve the results of the classical one-component model. Specific applications are presented for micellar solutions. Some improvements of the HNC equation are discussed. In the second part B, the diffusional modes are calculated with the multi-component Smoluchowski equation or with the normal modes macroscopic theory. The non-instantaneous diffusion of ions decreases the velocity of macromolecules, especially at low salinity. The hydrodynamic interactions in concentrated solutions are studied with the screened Navier-Stokes equation. Lastly, the ionic relaxation around colloids is discussed qualitatively. (author) [fr

  12. Cylindrically symmetric, static strings with a cosmological constant in Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delice, Oezguer

    2006-01-01

    The static cylindrically symmetric vacuum solutions with a cosmological constant in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory are investigated. Some of these solutions admitting Lorentz boost invariance along the symmetry axis correspond to local, straight cosmic strings with a cosmological constant. Some physical properties of such solutions are studied. These strings apply attractive or repulsive forces on the test particles. A smooth matching is also performed with a recently introduced interior thick string solution with a cosmological constant

  13. Odd-parity pertubations of spherically symmetric star clusters in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenzato, R.; Ipser, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The theory of odd-parity nonspherical peturbations of collisionless, isotropic, spherically symmetric star clusters is developed within general relativity for l> or =2. A variational principle is derived for the associated normal modes of oscillation. The variational expression reveals that an unstable normal mode has a pure exponentially growing time dependence--the corresponding complex ''eigenfrequency'' is purely imaginary--and hence that a normal mode can become unstable in a smooth fashion only thorugh zero frequency. Further, it is shown that no instabilities can set in through zero-frequency modes along smooth sequences of models with fewer high-energy stars than low-energy stars. Unless unstable normal modes suddenly appear in a nonsmooth fashion, the implications is that these models possess no unstable normal modes

  14. Spherically Symmetric Gravitational Collapse of a Dust Cloud in Third-Order Lovelock Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kang; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Rui-Hong

    We investigate the spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of an incoherent dust cloud by considering a LTB-type spacetime in third-order Lovelock Gravity without cosmological constant, and give three families of LTB-like solutions which separately corresponding to hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic. Notice that the contribution of high-order curvature corrections have a profound influence on the nature of the singularity, and the global structure of spacetime changes drastically from the analogous general relativistic case. Interestingly, the presence of high order Lovelock terms leads to the formation of massive, naked and timelike singularities in the 7D spacetime, which is disallowed in general relativity. Moveover, we point out that the naked singularities in the 7D case may be gravitational weak therefore may not be a serious threat to the cosmic censorship hypothesis, while the naked singularities in the D ≥ 8 inhomogeneous collapse violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis seriously.

  15. Spherically symmetric cosmological spacetimes with dust and radiation — numerical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Woei Chet; Regis, Marco; Clarkson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We present new numerical cosmological solutions of the Einstein Field Equations. The spacetime is spherically symmetric with a source of dust and radiation approximated as a perfect fluid. The dust and radiation are necessarily non-comoving due to the inhomogeneity of the spacetime. Such a model can be used to investigate non-linear general relativistic effects present during decoupling or big-bang nucleosynthesis, as well as for investigating void models of dark energy with isocurvature degrees of freedom. We describe the full evolution of the spacetime as well as the redshift and luminosity distance for a central observer. After demonstrating accuracy of the code, we consider a few example models, and demonstrate the sensitivity of the late time model to the degree of inhomogeneity of the initial radiation contrast

  16. Spherically symmetric cosmological spacetimes with dust and radiation — numerical implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Woei Chet; Regis, Marco; Clarkson, Chris

    2013-10-01

    We present new numerical cosmological solutions of the Einstein Field Equations. The spacetime is spherically symmetric with a source of dust and radiation approximated as a perfect fluid. The dust and radiation are necessarily non-comoving due to the inhomogeneity of the spacetime. Such a model can be used to investigate non-linear general relativistic effects present during decoupling or big-bang nucleosynthesis, as well as for investigating void models of dark energy with isocurvature degrees of freedom. We describe the full evolution of the spacetime as well as the redshift and luminosity distance for a central observer. After demonstrating accuracy of the code, we consider a few example models, and demonstrate the sensitivity of the late time model to the degree of inhomogeneity of the initial radiation contrast.

  17. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-01

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  18. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Berk, H. L. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  19. A Model of Dust-like Spherically Symmetric Gravitational Collapse without Event Horizon Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piñol M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Some dynamical aspects of gravitational collapse are explored in this paper. A time- dependent spherically symmetric metric is proposed and the corresponding Einstein field equations are derived. An ultrarelativistic dust-like stress-momentum tensor is considered to obtain analytical solutions of these equations, with the perfect fluid con- sisting of two purely radial fluxes — the inwards flux of collapsing matter and the outwards flux of thermally emitted radiation. Thermal emission is calculated by means of a simplistic but illustrative model of uninteracting collapsing shells. Our results show an asymptotic approach to a maximal space-time deformation without the formation of event horizons. The size of the body is slightly larger than the Schwarzschild radius during most of its lifetime, so that there is no contradiction with either observations or previous theorems on black holes. The relation of the latter with our results is scruti- nized in detail.

  20. A new model for spherically symmetric charged compact stars of embedding class 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, U.P. (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2017-01-15

    In the present study we search for a new stellar model with spherically symmetric matter and a charged distribution in a general relativistic framework. The model represents a compact star of embedding class 1. The solutions obtained here are general in nature, having the following two features: first of all, the metric becomes flat and also the expressions for the pressure, energy density, and electric charge become zero in all the cases if we consider the constant A = 0, which shows that our solutions represent the so-called 'electromagnetic mass model' [17], and, secondly, the metric function ν(r), for the limit n tending to infinity, converts to ν(r) = Cr{sup 2}+ ln B, which is the same as considered by Maurya et al. [11]. We have investigated several physical aspects of the model and find that all the features are acceptable within the requirements of contemporary theoretical studies and observational evidence. (orig.)

  1. Spherically symmetric models with pressure: separating expansion from contraction and generalizing TOV condition

    CERN Document Server

    Mimoso, José Pedro; Mena, Filipe C

    2010-01-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric perfect fluid spacetimes and discuss the existence and stability of a dividing shell separating expanding and collapsing regions. We perform a 3+1 splitting and obtain gauge invariant conditions relating the intrinsic spatial curvature of the shells to the ADM mass and to a function of the pressure which we introduce and that generalises the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium condition. We analyse the particular cases of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dust models with a cosmological constant as an example of a $\\Lambda$-CDM model and its generalization to contain a central perfect fluid core. These models provide simple, but physically interesting illustrations of our results.

  2. Spherically symmetric conformal gravity and ''gravitational bubbles''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.A.; Dokuchaev, V.I.; Eroshenko, Yu.N., E-mail: berezin@inr.ac.ru, E-mail: dokuchaev@inr.ac.ru, E-mail: eroshenko@inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-01

    The general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity is described. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions is found. It consists of two classes. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar of our specific metrics, and the representatives are the famous Robertson-Walker metrics. One of them we called the ''gravitational bubbles'', which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. Thus, we obtained the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant) what is absolutely impossible in General Relativity. Such a phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from ''nothing''. The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family. It appears that it can be conformally covered by the thee-parameter Mannheim-Kazanas solution. We also investigated the general structure of the energy-momentum tensor in the spherical conformal gravity and constructed the vectorial equation that reveals clearly some features of non-vacuum solutions. Two of them are explicitly written, namely, the metrics à la Vaidya, and the electrovacuum space-time metrics.

  3. Two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallakhmetov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the Einstein-Cartan theory, two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function are considered. One of these modelling anisotropic matter distributions within star and the other fluid is a perfect fluid representing a source of torsion. It is shown that the solutions of the Einstein equations for anisotropic relativistic spheres in General Relativity may generate the solutions in the Einstein-Cartan theory. Some exact solutions are obtained

  4. Vanishing Viscosity Approach to the Compressible Euler Equations for Transonic Nozzle and Spherically Symmetric Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G.; Schrecker, Matthew R. I.

    2018-04-01

    We are concerned with globally defined entropy solutions to the Euler equations for compressible fluid flows in transonic nozzles with general cross-sectional areas. Such nozzles include the de Laval nozzles and other more general nozzles whose cross-sectional area functions are allowed at the nozzle ends to be either zero (closed ends) or infinity (unbounded ends). To achieve this, in this paper, we develop a vanishing viscosity method to construct globally defined approximate solutions and then establish essential uniform estimates in weighted L p norms for the whole range of physical adiabatic exponents γ\\in (1, ∞) , so that the viscosity approximate solutions satisfy the general L p compensated compactness framework. The viscosity method is designed to incorporate artificial viscosity terms with the natural Dirichlet boundary conditions to ensure the uniform estimates. Then such estimates lead to both the convergence of the approximate solutions and the existence theory of globally defined finite-energy entropy solutions to the Euler equations for transonic flows that may have different end-states in the class of nozzles with general cross-sectional areas for all γ\\in (1, ∞) . The approach and techniques developed here apply to other problems with similar difficulties. In particular, we successfully apply them to construct globally defined spherically symmetric entropy solutions to the Euler equations for all γ\\in (1, ∞).

  5. Single molecule diffusion and the solution of the spherically symmetric residence time equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Noam

    2011-06-16

    The residence time of a single dye molecule diffusing within a laser spot is propotional to the total number of photons emitted by it. With this application in mind, we solve the spherically symmetric "residence time equation" (RTE) to obtain the solution for the Laplace transform of the mean residence time (MRT) within a d-dimensional ball, as a function of the initial location of the particle and the observation time. The solutions for initial conditions of potential experimental interest, starting in the center, on the surface or uniformly within the ball, are explicitly presented. Special cases for dimensions 1, 2, and 3 are obtained, which can be Laplace inverted analytically for d = 1 and 3. In addition, the analytic short- and long-time asymptotic behaviors of the MRT are derived and compared with the exact solutions for d = 1, 2, and 3. As a demonstration of the simplification afforded by the RTE, the Appendix obtains the residence time distribution by solving the Feynman-Kac equation, from which the MRT is obtained by differentiation. Single-molecule diffusion experiments could be devised to test the results for the MRT presented in this work. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Undergoing spherically symmetric steady-state accretion stability of white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienkiewicz, R [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. N. Copernicus Astronomical Center

    1980-01-01

    Thermal and vibrational stabilities of accreting white dwarfs with steady-state nuclear burning were considered, assuming spherically symmetric accretion of the hydrogen-rich matter and using linear stability analysis. Almost all models with masses 0.2 M(sun) - 1.39 M(sun) were found to be unstable in some way. The type of instability expected to dominate is given as a function of the accretion rate. For most accretion rates it is the thermal instability. Oscillation periods are given for the models in which the vibrational instability is the most violent one. These periods are of the order of seconds or minutes. We expect that our stability analysis may suggest the cause of the variabilities of the hot components of some symbiotic stars, for a wide range of the accretion rates. In this case our models may serve as the initial conditions for evolutionary computations. The results predict that short-period oscillations should be observed in some hot nuclei of planetary nebulae.

  7. Thermodynamic properties and static structure factor for a Yukawa fluid in the mean spherical approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Perez, J; Cruz-Vera, A; Herrera, J N

    2011-12-01

    This work presents the full analytic expressions for the thermodynamic properties and the static structure factor for a hard sphere plus 1-Yukawa fluid within the mean spherical approximation. To obtain these properties of the fluid type Yukawa analytically it was necessary to solve an equation of fourth order for the scaling parameter on a large scale. The physical root of this equation was determined by imposing physical conditions. The results of this work are obtained from seminal papers of Blum and Høye. We show that is not necessary the use the series expansion to solve the equation for the scaling parameter. We applied our theoretical result to find the thermodynamic and the static structure factor for krypton. Our results are in good agreement with those obtained in an experimental form or by simulation using the Monte Carlo method.

  8. Analysis of the static properties of cluster formations in symmetric linear multiblock copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytas, N G; Theodorakis, P E

    2011-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the static properties of a single linear multiblock copolymer chain under poor solvent conditions varying the block length N, the number of blocks n, and the solvent quality by variation of the temperature T. We study the most symmetrical case, where the number of blocks of monomers of type A, n A , equals that of monomers B, n B (n A = n B = n/2), the length of all blocks is the same irrespective of their type, and the potential parameters are also chosen symmetrically, as for a standard Lennard-Jones fluid. Under poor solvent conditions the chains collapse and blocks with monomers of the same type form clusters, which are phase separated from the clusters with monomers of the other type. We study the dependence of the size of the clusters formed on n, N and T. Furthermore, we discuss our results with respect to recent simulation data on the phase behaviour of such macromolecules, providing a complete picture for the cluster formations in single multiblock copolymer chains under poor solvent conditions.

  9. Finding a spherically symmetric cosmology from observations in observational coordinates — advantages and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, M.E. [Departamento de Física-Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, 21.945-970, Rio de Janeiro, R.J. (Brazil); Stoeger, W.R., E-mail: mearaujo@me.com, E-mail: wstoeger@as.arizona.edu [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    One of the continuing challenges in cosmology has been to determine the large-scale space-time metric from observations with a minimum of assumptions — without, for instance, assuming that the universe is almost Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW). If we are lucky enough this would be a way of demonstrating that our universe is FLRW, instead of presupposing it or simply showing that the observations are consistent with FLRW. Showing how to do this within the more general spherically symmetric, inhomogeneous space-time framework takes us a long way towards fulfilling this goal. In recent work researchers have shown how this can be done both in the traditional Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) 3 + 1 coordinate framework, and in the observational coordinate (OC) framework, in which the radial coordinate y is null (light-like) and measured down the past light cone of the observer. In this paper we investigate the stability of solutions, and the use of data in the OC field equations including their time evolution — i.e. our procedure is not restricted to our past light cone — and compare both approaches with respect to the singularity problem at the maximum of the angular-diameter distance, the stability of solutions, and the use of data in the field equations. We also compare the two approaches with regard to determining the cosmological constant Λ. This allows a more detailed account and assessment of the OC integration procedure, and enables a comparison of the relative advantages of the two equivalent solution frameworks. Both formulations and integration procedures should, in principle, lead to the same results. However, as we show in this paper, the OC procedure manifests certain advantages, particularly in the avoidance of coordinate singularities at the maximum of the angular-diameter distance, and in the stability of the solutions obtained. This particular feature is what allows us to do the best fitting of the data to smooth data functions and the

  10. An optical potential for the statically deformed actinide nuclei derived from a global spherical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawashdeh, S. M.; Jaghoub, M. I.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we test the hypothesis that a properly deformed spherical optical potential, used within a channel-coupling scheme, provides a good description for the scattering data corresponding to neutron induced reactions on the heavy, statically deformed actinides and other lighter deformed nuclei. To accomplish our goal, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche spherical global potential and then used it in a channel-coupling scheme. The ground-state is coupled to a sufficient number of inelastic rotational channels belonging to the ground-state band to ensure convergence. The predicted total cross sections, elastic and inelastic angular distributions are in good agreement with the experimental data. As a further test, we compare our results to those obtained by a global channel-coupled optical model whose parameters were obtained by fitting elastic and inelastic angular distributions in addition to total cross sections. Our results compare quite well with those obtained by the fitted, channel-coupled optical model. Below neutron incident energies of about 1MeV, our results show that scattering into the rotational excited states of the ground-state band plays a significant role in the scattering process and must be explicitly accounted for using a channel-coupling scheme.

  11. Validation of Spherically Symmetric Inversion by Use of a Tomographically Reconstructed Three-Dimensional Electron Density of the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the coronal electron density by the inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) measurements by coronagraphs is a classic problem in solar physics. An inversion technique based on the spherically symmetric geometry (spherically symmetric inversion, SSI) was developed in the 1950s and has been widely applied to interpret various observations. However, to date there is no study of the uncertainty estimation of this method. We here present the detailed assessment of this method using a three-dimensional (3D) electron density in the corona from 1.5 to 4 solar radius as a model, which is reconstructed by a tomography method from STEREO/COR1 observations during the solar minimum in February 2008 (Carrington Rotation, CR 2066).We first show in theory and observation that the spherically symmetric polynomial approximation (SSPA) method and the Van de Hulst inversion technique are equivalent. Then we assess the SSPA method using synthesized pB images from the 3D density model, and find that the SSPA density values are close to the model inputs for the streamer core near the plane of the sky (POS) with differences generally smaller than about a factor of two; the former has the lower peak but extends more in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions than the latter. We estimate that the SSPA method may resolve the coronal density structure near the POS with angular resolution in longitude of about 50 deg. Our results confirm the suggestion that the SSI method is applicable to the solar minimum streamer (belt), as stated in some previous studies. In addition, we demonstrate that the SSPA method can be used to reconstruct the 3D coronal density, roughly in agreement with the reconstruction by tomography for a period of low solar activity (CR 2066). We suggest that the SSI method is complementary to the 3D tomographic technique in some cases, given that the development of the latter is still an ongoing research effort.

  12. The Thermal Response of a Pulsar Glitch : The Non-spherical Symmetric Case

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, K. S.; Li, Y.; Suen, W. -M.

    1999-01-01

    We study the thermal evolution of a pulsar after a glitch in which the energy is released from a relative compact region. A set of relativistic thermal transport and energy balance equations is used to study the thermal evolution, without making the assumption of spherical symmetry. We use an exact cooling model to solve this set of differential equtions. Our results differ significantly from those obtained under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Even for young pulsars with a hot core lik...

  13. Hawking radiation in a d-dimensional static spherically symmetric black hole surrounded by quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Songbai; Wang Bin; Su Rukeng

    2008-01-01

    We present a solution of Einstein equations with quintessential matter surrounding a d-dimensional black hole, whose asymptotic structures are determined by the state of the quintessential matter. We examine the thermodynamics of this black hole and find that the mass of the black hole depends on the equation of state of the quintessence, while the first law is universal. Investigating the Hawking radiation in this black hole background, we observe that the Hawking radiation dominates on the brane in the low-energy regime. For different asymptotic structures caused by the equation of state of the quintessential matter surrounding the black hole, we learn that the influences by the state parameter of the quintessence on Hawking radiation are different

  14. Solutions of the linearized Bach-Einstein equation in the static spherically symmetric case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Bach-Einstein equation linearized around Minkowski space-time is completely solved. The set of solutions depends on three parameters; a two-parameter subset of it becomes asymptotically flat. In that region the gravitational potential is of the type phi = -m/r + epsilon exp (-r/l). Because of the different asymptotic behaviour of both terms, it became necessary to linearize also around the Schwarzschild solution phi = -m/r. The linearized equation resulting in this case is discussed using qualitative methods. The result is that for m = 2l phi = -m/r + epsilon r -2 exp (-r/l) u, where u is some bounded function; m is arbitrary and epsilon again small. Further, the relation between the solution of the linearized and the full equation is discussed. (author)

  15. On Quasinormal Modes for Scalar Perturbations of Static Spherically Symmetric Black Holes in Nash Embedding Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio C. Ulhoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate scalar perturbations of black holes embedded in a five-dimensional bulk space. The quasinormal frequencies of such black holes are calculated using the third order of Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin (WKB approximation for scalar perturbations. The high overtones of quasinormal modes indicate a resonant-like set of black holes suggesting a serious constraint of embedding models in five dimensions.

  16. Spherically symmetric solutions, Newton's Law, and the infrared limit λ→1 in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, Jean; Pasipoularides, Pavlos

    2011-01-01

    In this note we examine whether spherically symmetric solutions in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity can reproduce Newton's Law in the IR limit λ→1. We adopt the position that the auxiliary field A is independent of the space-time metric [J. Alexandre and P. Pasipoularides, Phys. Rev. D 83, 084030 (2011).][J. Greenwald, V. H. Satheeshkumar, and A. Wang, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 12 (2010) 007.], and we assume, as in [A. M. da Silva, Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 055011 (2011).], that λ is a running coupling constant. We show that under these assumptions, spherically symmetric solutions fail to restore the standard Newtonian physics in the IR limit λ→1, unless λ does not run, and has the fixed value λ=1. Finally, we comment on the Horava and Melby-Thompson approach [P. Horava and C. M. Melby-Thompson, Phys. Rev. D 82, 064027 (2010).] in which A is assumed as a part of the space-time metric in the IR.

  17. Classification of Teleparallel Homothetic Vector Fields in Cylindrically Symmetric Static Space-Times in Teleparallel Theory of Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, Ghulam; Khan, Suhail

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we classify cylindrically symmetric static space-times according to their teleparallel homothetic vector fields using direct integration technique. It turns out that the dimensions of the teleparallel homothetic vector fields are 4, 5, 7 or 11, which are the same in numbers as in general relativity. In case of 4, 5 or 7 proper teleparallel homothetic vector fields exist for the special choice to the space-times. In the case of 11 teleparallel homothetic vector fields the space-time becomes Minkowski with all the zero torsion components. Teleparallel homothetic vector fields in this case are exactly the same as in general relativity. It is important to note that this classification also covers the plane symmetric static space-times. (general)

  18. Conformal Collineations of the Ricci and Energy-Momentum Tensors in Static Plane Symmetric Space-Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, S. S.; Hussain, T.; Bokhari, A. H.; Khan, F.

    2018-04-01

    We provide a complete classification of static plane symmetric space-times according to conformal Ricci collineations (CRCs) and conformal matter collineations (CMCs) in both the degenerate and nondegenerate cases. In the case of a nondegenerate Ricci tensor, we find a general form of the vector field generating CRCs in terms of unknown functions of t and x subject to some integrability conditions. We then solve the integrability conditions in different cases depending upon the nature of the Ricci tensor and conclude that the static plane symmetric space-times have a 7-, 10- or 15-dimensional Lie algebra of CRCs. Moreover, we find that these space-times admit an infinite number of CRCs if the Ricci tensor is degenerate. We use a similar procedure to study CMCs in the case of a degenerate or nondegenerate matter tensor. We obtain the exact form of some static plane symmetric space-time metrics that admit nontrivial CRCs and CMCs. Finally, we present some physical applications of our obtained results by considering a perfect fluid as a source of the energy-momentum tensor.

  19. Obtaining the time evolution for spherically symmetric Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi models given data on our past light cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. E.; Stoeger, W. R.

    2009-01-01

    A rigorous demonstration that given appropriate data on our past light cone leads to the determination of the metric functions and all their time derivatives on our past light cone is presented, thus showing how to evolve the solution we obtain from data on the light cone off it in a well-defined and straightforward way. It also automatically gives a procedure for constructing the solution for all spherically symmetric, inhomogeneous cosmological Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi models in observational coordinates as a Taylor series in time of however many terms we need. Our procedure takes into account the essential data giving the maximum of the observer area (angular-diameter) distance, and the redshift z max at which that occurs. This enables the determination of the vacuum-energy density μ Λ , which would otherwise remain undetermined.

  20. A tensor formulation of the equation of transfer for spherically symmetric flows. [radiative transfer in seven dimensional Riemannian space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, B. M.

    1976-01-01

    A tensor formulation of the equation of radiative transfer is derived in a seven-dimensional Riemannian space such that the resulting equation constitutes a divergence in any coordinate system. After being transformed to a spherically symmetric comoving coordinate system, the transfer equation contains partial derivatives in angle and frequency, as well as optical depth due to the effects of aberration and the Doppler shift. However, by virtue of the divergence form of this equation, the divergence theorem may be applied to yield a numerical differencing scheme which is expected to be stable and to conserve luminosity. It is shown that the equation of transfer derived by this method in a Lagrangian coordinate system may be reduced to that given by Castor (1972), although it is, of course, desirable to leave the equation in divergence form.

  1. LOW-METALLICITY PROTOSTARS AND THE MAXIMUM STELLAR MASS RESULTING FROM RADIATIVE FEEDBACK: SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    The final mass of a newborn star is set at the epoch when the mass accretion onto the star is terminated. We study the evolution of accreting protostars and the limits of accretion in low-metallicity environments under spherical symmetry. Accretion rates onto protostars are estimated via the temperature evolution of prestellar cores with different metallicities. The derived rates increase with decreasing metallicity, from M-dot≅10 -6 M odot yr -1 at Z = Z sun to 10 -3 M sun yr -1 at Z = 0. With the derived accretion rates, the protostellar evolution is numerically calculated. We find that, at lower metallicity, the protostar has a larger radius and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) at higher stellar mass. Using this protostellar evolution, we evaluate the upper stellar mass limit where the mass accretion is hindered by radiative feedback. We consider the effects of radiation pressure exerted on the accreting envelope, and expansion of an H II region. The mass accretion is finally terminated by radiation pressure on dust grains in the envelope for Z ∼> 10 -3 Z sun and by the expanding H II region for lower metallicity. The mass limit from these effects increases with decreasing metallicity from M * ≅ 10 M sun at Z = Z sun to ≅300 M sun at Z = 10 -6 Z sun . The termination of accretion occurs after the central star arrives at the ZAMS at all metallicities, which allows us to neglect protostellar evolution effects in discussing the upper mass limit by stellar feedback. The fragmentation induced by line cooling in low-metallicity clouds yields prestellar cores with masses large enough that the final stellar mass is set by the feedback effects. Although relaxing the assumption of spherical symmetry will alter feedback effects, our results will be a benchmark for more realistic evolution to be explored in future studies.

  2. On spherically symmetric shear-free perfect fluid configurations (neutral and charged). III. Global view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The topology of the solutions derived in Part I [J. Math. Phys. 28, 1118 (1987)] is discussed in detail using suitable topological embeddings. It is found that these solutions are homeomorphic to S 3 x R, R 4 , or S 2 x R 2 . Singularities and boundaries in these manifolds are examined within a global framework. One of these boundaries (mentioned but not examined in Part II) is regular (though unphysical), and is associated with an ''asymptotically de Sitter'' behavior characterized by an exponential form of the Hubble scale factor. Solutions with S 2 x R 2 topology lack a center of symmetry [fixed point of SO(3)] and present a null boundary at an infinite affine parameter distance along hypersurfaces orthogonal to the four-velocity. This boundary, which in most cases is singular, can be identified as a null I-script surface arising as an asymptotical null limit of timelike hypersurfaces. Solutions with this topology, matched to a Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstr≅m region, describe collapsing fluid spheres whose ''surface'' (as seen by observers in the vacuum region) has finite proper radius, but whose ''interior'' is a fluid region of cosmological proportions. In the case when the null boundary of the fluid region is singular, it behaves as a sort of ''white hole.'' Uniform density solutions which are not conformally flat are all homeomorphic to S 2 x R 2 . Conformally flat solutions are also examined in detail. Their global structure has common features with those of FRW and de Sitter solutions. The static limits of all nonstatic solutions are discussed. In particular, under suitable parameter restrictions, some of these static solutions, together with the nonstatic conformally flat subclass, are the less physically objectionable of all solutions

  3. Static charged spheres with anisotropic pressure in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics, Vasavi Engineering College, Hyderabad 500 031, India. £ ... In both cases the field equations are integrated completely. ... 1. Introduction. Spherically symmetric static charged dust/perfect fluid distributions of null ...

  4. Sound wave generation by a spherically symmetric outburst and AGN feedback in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaping; Churazov, Eugene

    2017-07-01

    We consider the evolution of an outburst in a uniform medium under spherical symmetry, having in mind active galactic nucleus feedback in the intracluster medium. For a given density and pressure of the medium, the spatial structure and energy partition at a given time tage (since the onset of the outburst) are fully determined by the total injected energy Einj and the duration tb of the outburst. We are particularly interested in the late phase evolution when the strong shock transforms into a sound wave. We studied the energy partition during such transition with different combinations of Einj and tb. For an instantaneous outburst with tb → 0, which corresponds to the extension of classic Sedov-Taylor solution with counter-pressure, the fraction of energy that can be carried away by sound waves is ≲12 per cent of Einj. As tb increases, the solution approaches the 'slow piston' limit, with the fraction of energy in sound waves approaching zero. We then repeat the simulations using radial density and temperature profiles measured in Perseus and M87/Virgo clusters. We find that the results with a uniform medium broadly reproduce an outburst in more realistic conditions once proper scaling is applied. We also develop techniques to map intrinsic properties of an outburst (Einj, tb and tage) to the observables like the Mach number of the shock and radii of the shock and ejecta. For the Perseus cluster and M87, the estimated (Einj, tb and tage) agree with numerical simulations tailored for these objects with 20-30 per cent accuracy.

  5. Final fate of spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of a dust cloud in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    We give a model of the higher-dimensional spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of a dust cloud including the perturbative effects of quantum gravity. The n(≥5)-dimensional action with the Gauss-Bonnet term for gravity is considered and a simple formulation of the basic equations is given for the spacetime M≅M 2 xK n-2 with a perfect fluid and a cosmological constant. This is a generalization of the Misner-Sharp formalism of the four-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime with a perfect fluid in general relativity. The whole picture and the final fate of the gravitational collapse of a dust cloud differ greatly between the cases with n=5 and n≥6. There are two families of solutions, which we call plus-branch and the minus-branch solutions. A plus-branch solution can be attached to the outside vacuum region which is asymptotically anti-de Sitter in spite of the absence of a cosmological constant. Bounce inevitably occurs in the plus-branch solution for n≥6, and consequently singularities cannot be formed. Since there is no trapped surface in the plus-branch solution, the singularity formed in the case of n=5 must be naked. On the other hand, a minus-branch solution can be attached to the outside asymptotically flat vacuum region. We show that naked singularities are massless for n≥6, while massive naked singularities are possible for n=5. In the homogeneous collapse represented by the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution, the singularity formed is spacelike for n≥6, while it is ingoing-null for n=5. In the inhomogeneous collapse with smooth initial data, the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis holds for n≥10 and for n=9 depending on the parameters in the initial data, while a naked singularity is always formed for 5≤n≤8. These naked singularities can be globally naked when the initial surface radius of the dust cloud is fine-tuned, and then the weak cosmic censorship hypothesis is violated

  6. Geometrically nonlinear dynamic and static analysis of shallow spherical shell resting on two-parameters elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civalek, Ö.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study nonlinear static and dynamic responses of shallow spherical shells resting on Winkler–Pasternak elastic foundations are carried out. The formulation of the shells is based on the Donnell theory. The nonlinear governing equations of motion of shallow shells are discretized in space and time domains using the discrete singular convolution and the differential quadrature methods, respectively. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the open literature. The effects of the Winkler and Pasternak foundation parameters on nonlinear static and dynamic response of shells are investigated. Some results are also presented for circular plate as special case. Damping effect on nonlinear dynamic response of shells is studied. It is important to state that the increase in damping parameter causes decrease in the dynamic response of the shells. It is shown that the shear parameter of the foundation has a significant influence on the dynamic and static response of the shells. Also, the response of the shell is decreased with the increasing value of the shear parameter of the foundation. Parametric studies considering different geometric variables have also been investigated. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear responses of shallow spherical shells are presented. • The effects of foundation parameters are investigated. • Damping effect on nonlinear dynamic response of shells is also studied

  7. Optical trapping of a spherically symmetric sphere in the ray-optics regime: a model for optical tweezers upon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yiren; Hsu Long; Chi Sien

    2006-01-01

    Since their invention in 1986, optical tweezers have become a popular manipulation and force measurement tool in cellular and molecular biology. However, until recently there has not been a sophisticated model for optical tweezers on trapping cells in the ray-optics regime. We present a model for optical tweezers to calculate the optical force upon a spherically symmetric multilayer sphere representing a common biological cell. A numerical simulation of this model shows that not only is the magnitude of the optical force upon a Chinese hamster ovary cell significantly three times smaller than that upon a polystyrene bead of the same size, but the distribution of the optical force upon a cell is also much different from that upon a uniform particle, and there is a 30% difference in the optical trapping stiffness of these two cases. Furthermore, under a small variant condition for the refractive indices of any adjacent layers of the sphere, this model provides a simple approximation to calculate the optical force and the stiffness of an optical tweezers system

  8. Sound wave generation by a spherically symmetric outburst and AGN feedback in galaxy clusters II: impact of thermal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaping; Churazov, Eugene

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the impact of thermal conduction on the appearance of a shock-heated gas shell which is produced when a spherically symmetric outburst of a supermassive black hole inflates bubbles of relativistic plasma at the center of a galaxy cluster. The presence of the hot and low-density shell can be used as an ancillary indicator for a high rate of energy release during the outburst, which is required to drive strong shocks into the gas. Here we show that conduction can effectively erase such shell, unless the diffusion of electrons is heavily suppressed. We conclude that a more robust proxy to the energy release rate is the ratio between the shock radius and bubble radius. We also revisited the issue of sound waves dissipation induced by thermal conduction in a scenario, where characteristic wavelength of the sound wave is set by the total energy of the outburst. For a fiducial short outburst model, the dissipation length does not exceed the cooling radius in a typical cluster, provided that the conduction is suppressed by a factor not larger than ˜100. For quasi-continuous energy injection neither the shock-heated shell nor the outgoing sound wave are important and the role of conduction is subdominant.

  9. Rotation of a Spherical Particle with Electrical Dipole Moment Induced by Steady Irradiation in a Static Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Rotation of a spherical particle in a static electric field and under steady irradiation that induces an electric dipole moment in the particle is studied for the first time. Along with the general treatment of the phenomenon, we analyze possible mechanisms underlying the photoinduction of dipole moment in the particle. Estimations of the angular velocity and the power expended by the rotating particle are provided. The indicated characteristics reach their maximum values if the size of particles is within the range of 10 nm to 10 μm.

  10. The minimum mass of a charged spherically symmetric object in D dimensions, its implications for fundamental particles, and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burikham, Piyabut; Cheamsawat, Krai; Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    We obtain bounds for the minimum and maximum mass/radius ratio of a stable, charged, spherically symmetric compact object in a D-dimensional space-time in the framework of general relativity, and in the presence of dark energy. The total energy, including the gravitational component, and the stability of objects with minimum mass/radius ratio is also investigated. The minimum energy condition leads to a representation of the mass and radius of the charged objects with minimum mass/radius ratio in terms of the charge and vacuum energy only. As applied to the electron in the four-dimensional case, this procedure allows one to re-obtain the classical electron radius from purely general relativistic considerations. By combining the lower mass bound, in four space-time dimensions, with minimum length uncertainty relations (MLUR) motivated by quantum gravity, we obtain an alternative bound for the maximum charge/mass ratio of a stable, gravitating, charged quantum mechanical object, expressed in terms of fundamental constants. Evaluating this limit numerically, we obtain again the correct order of magnitude value for the charge/mass ratio of the electron, as required by the stability conditions. This suggests that, if the electron were either less massive (with the same charge) or if its charge were any higher (for fixed mass), a combination of electrostatic and dark energy repulsion would destabilize the Compton radius. In other words, the electron would blow itself apart. Our results suggest the existence of a deep connection between gravity, the presence of the cosmological constant, and the stability of fundamental particles. (orig.)

  11. A new open-source code for spherically symmetric stellar collapse to neutron stars and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D

    2010-01-01

    We present the new open-source spherically symmetric general-relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics code GR1D. It is based on the Eulerian formulation of GR hydrodynamics (GRHD) put forth by Romero-Ibanez-Gourgoulhon and employs radial-gauge, polar-slicing coordinates in which the 3+1 equations simplify substantially. We discretize the GRHD equations with a finite-volume scheme, employing piecewise-parabolic reconstruction and an approximate Riemann solver. GR1D is intended for the simulation of stellar collapse to neutron stars and black holes and will also serve as a testbed for modeling technology to be incorporated in multi-D GR codes. Its GRHD part is coupled to various finite-temperature microphysical equations of state in tabulated form that we make available with GR1D. An approximate deleptonization scheme for the collapse phase and a neutrino-leakage/heating scheme for the postbounce epoch are included and described. We also derive the equations for effective rotation in 1D and implement them in GR1D. We present an array of standard test calculations and also show how simple analytic equations of state in combination with presupernova models from stellar evolutionary calculations can be used to study qualitative aspects of black hole formation in failing rotating core-collapse supernovae. In addition, we present a simulation with microphysical equations of state and neutrino leakage/heating of a failing core-collapse supernova and black hole formation in a presupernova model of a 40 M o-dot zero-age main-sequence star. We find good agreement on the time of black hole formation (within 20%) and last stable protoneutron star mass (within 10%) with predictions from simulations with full Boltzmann neutrino radiation hydrodynamics.

  12. A new open-source code for spherically symmetric stellar collapse to neutron stars and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D, E-mail: evanoc@tapir.caltech.ed, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.ed [TAPIR, Mail Code 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-06-07

    We present the new open-source spherically symmetric general-relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics code GR1D. It is based on the Eulerian formulation of GR hydrodynamics (GRHD) put forth by Romero-Ibanez-Gourgoulhon and employs radial-gauge, polar-slicing coordinates in which the 3+1 equations simplify substantially. We discretize the GRHD equations with a finite-volume scheme, employing piecewise-parabolic reconstruction and an approximate Riemann solver. GR1D is intended for the simulation of stellar collapse to neutron stars and black holes and will also serve as a testbed for modeling technology to be incorporated in multi-D GR codes. Its GRHD part is coupled to various finite-temperature microphysical equations of state in tabulated form that we make available with GR1D. An approximate deleptonization scheme for the collapse phase and a neutrino-leakage/heating scheme for the postbounce epoch are included and described. We also derive the equations for effective rotation in 1D and implement them in GR1D. We present an array of standard test calculations and also show how simple analytic equations of state in combination with presupernova models from stellar evolutionary calculations can be used to study qualitative aspects of black hole formation in failing rotating core-collapse supernovae. In addition, we present a simulation with microphysical equations of state and neutrino leakage/heating of a failing core-collapse supernova and black hole formation in a presupernova model of a 40 M{sub o-dot} zero-age main-sequence star. We find good agreement on the time of black hole formation (within 20%) and last stable protoneutron star mass (within 10%) with predictions from simulations with full Boltzmann neutrino radiation hydrodynamics.

  13. Relations between the matter density and layer thickness radial distributions in spherically symmetric objects: for high energy nuclear physics and astrophysics use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Zawislawski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown how it is possible to transform known data on radial distribution of the matter layer thickness to unknown radial distribution of the matter density inside spherically symmetric objects. Appropriate formulas and testing of them are presented. An application of the method for the radial distribution of the matter density inside a target nucleus is discussed as an example. 2 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Noel A.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…

  15. A new spherical harmonics scheme for multi-dimensional radiation transport I. Static matter configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radice, David; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ott, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work by McClarren and Hauck (2010) [31] suggests that the filtered spherical harmonics method represents an efficient, robust, and accurate method for radiation transport, at least in the two-dimensional (2D) case. We extend their work to the three-dimensional (3D) case and find that all of the advantages of the filtering approach identified in 2D are present also in the 3D case. We reformulate the filter operation in a way that is independent of the timestep and of the spatial discretization. We also explore different second- and fourth-order filters and find that the second-order ones yield significantly better results. Overall, our findings suggest that the filtered spherical harmonics approach represents a very promising method for 3D radiation transport calculations

  16. A new spherical harmonics scheme for multi-dimensional radiation transport I. Static matter configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radice, David, E-mail: david.radice@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute für Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam (Germany); Abdikamalov, Ernazar [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Rezzolla, Luciano [Max Planck Institute für Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ott, Christian D. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Recent work by McClarren and Hauck (2010) [31] suggests that the filtered spherical harmonics method represents an efficient, robust, and accurate method for radiation transport, at least in the two-dimensional (2D) case. We extend their work to the three-dimensional (3D) case and find that all of the advantages of the filtering approach identified in 2D are present also in the 3D case. We reformulate the filter operation in a way that is independent of the timestep and of the spatial discretization. We also explore different second- and fourth-order filters and find that the second-order ones yield significantly better results. Overall, our findings suggest that the filtered spherical harmonics approach represents a very promising method for 3D radiation transport calculations.

  17. Tracer diffusion in a polymer gel: simulations of static and dynamic 3D networks using spherical boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerlin, Natasha; Elvingson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated an alternative to the standard periodic boundary conditions for simulating the diffusion of tracer particles in a polymer gel by performing Brownian dynamics simulations using spherical boundary conditions. The gel network is constructed by randomly distributing tetravalent cross-linking nodes and connecting nearest pairs. The final gel structure is characterised by the radial distribution functions, chain lengths and end-to-end distances, and the pore size distribution. We have looked at the diffusion of tracer particles with a wide range of sizes, diffusing in both static and dynamic networks of two different volume fractions. It is quantitatively shown that the dynamical effect of the network becomes more important in facilitating the diffusional transport for larger particle sizes, and that one obtains a finite diffusion also for particle sizes well above the maximum in the pore size distribution. (paper)

  18. Static bending deflection and free vibration analysis of moderate thick symmetric laminated plates using multidimensional wave digital filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Hsun

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a multidimensional wave digital filtering network for predicting static and dynamic behaviors of composite laminate based on the FSDT. The resultant network is, thus, an integrated platform that can perform not only the free vibration but also the bending deflection of moderate thick symmetric laminated plates with low plate side-to-thickness ratios (< = 20). Safeguarded by the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy stability condition with the least restriction in terms of optimization technique, the present method offers numerically high accuracy, stability and efficiency to proceed a wide range of modulus ratios for the FSDT laminated plates. Instead of using a constant shear correction factor (SCF) with a limited numerical accuracy for the bending deflection, an optimum SCF is particularly sought by looking for a minimum ratio of change in the transverse shear energy. This way, it can predict as good results in terms of accuracy for certain cases of bending deflection. Extensive simulation results carried out for the prediction of maximum bending deflection have demonstratively proven that the present method outperforms those based on the higher-order shear deformation and layerwise plate theories. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows an optimal selection of SCF can significantly increase the accuracy of FSDT-based laminates especially compared to the higher order theory disclaiming any correction. The highest accuracy of overall solution is compared to the 3D elasticity equilibrium one.

  19. Symmetric tensor spherical harmonics on the N-sphere and their application to the de Sitter group SO(N,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, A.

    1987-01-01

    The symmetric tensor spherical harmonics (STSH's) on the N-sphere (S/sup N/), which are defined as the totally symmetric, traceless, and divergence-free tensor eigenfunctions of the Laplace--Beltrami (LB) operator on S/sup N/, are studied. Specifically, their construction is shown recursively starting from the lower-dimensional ones. The symmetric traceless tensors induced by STSH's are introduced. These play a crucial role in the recursive construction of STSH's. The normalization factors for STSH's are determined by using their transformation properties under SO(N+1). Then the symmetric, traceless, and divergence-free tensor eigenfunctions of the LB operator in the N-dimensional de Sitter space-time which are obtained by the analytic continuation of the STSH's on S/sup N/ are studied. Specifically, the allowed eigenvalues of the LB operator under the restriction of unitarity are determined. Our analysis gives a group-theoretical explanation of the forbidden mass range observed earlier for the spin-2 field theory in de Sitter space-time

  20. Solution of the comoving-frame equation of transfer in spherically symmetric flows. IV. Frequency-dependent source functions for scattering by atoms and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, D.; Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical method is presented of solving the radiative transfer equation in the comoving frame of a spherically symmetric expanding atmosphere in which both the line and the electron-scattering source function can depend on frequency (i.e., when there is partial frequency redistribution in the scattering process). This method is used to assess the adequacy of various assumptions regarding frequency redistribution in the comoving frame and to discuss the effects of electron scattering more accurately than previously possible. The methods developed here can be used in realistic model atmospheres to account for the (major) effects of electron scattering upon emergent flux profiles

  1. Characterization of spherical core–shell particles by static light scattering. Estimation of the core- and particle-size distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clementi, Luis A.; Vega, Jorge R.; Gugliotta, Luis M.; Quirantes, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A numerical method is proposed for the characterization of core–shell spherical particles from static light scattering (SLS) measurements. The method is able to estimate the core size distribution (CSD) and the particle size distribution (PSD), through the following two-step procedure: (i) the estimation of the bivariate core–particle size distribution (C–PSD), by solving a linear ill-conditioned inverse problem through a generalized Tikhonov regularization strategy, and (ii) the calculation of the CSD and the PSD from the estimated C–PSD. First, the method was evaluated on the basis of several simulated examples, with polystyrene–poly(methyl methacrylate) core–shell particles of different CSDs and PSDs. Then, two samples of hematite–Yttrium basic carbonate core–shell particles were successfully characterized. In all analyzed examples, acceptable estimates of the PSD and the average diameter of the CSD were obtained. Based on the single-scattering Mie theory, the proposed method is an effective tool for characterizing core–shell colloidal particles larger than their Rayleigh limits without requiring any a-priori assumption on the shapes of the size distributions. Under such conditions, the PSDs can always be adequately estimated, while acceptable CSD estimates are obtained when the core/shell particles exhibit either a high optical contrast, or a moderate optical contrast but with a high ‘average core diameter’/‘average particle diameter’ ratio. -- Highlights: ► Particles with core–shell morphology are characterized by static light scattering. ► Core size distribution and particle size distribution are successfully estimated. ► Simulated and experimental examples are used to validate the numerical method. ► The positive effect of a large core/shell optical contrast is investigated. ► No a-priori assumption on the shapes of the size distributions is required.

  2. Cyclic and heteroclinic flows near general static spherically symmetric black holes: semi-cyclic flows - addendum and corrigendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    We present new accretion solutions of a polytropic perfect fluid onto an f(R)-gravity de Sitter-like black hole. We consider two f(R)-gravity models and obtain finite-period cyclic flows oscillating between the event and cosmological horizons as well as semi-cyclic critical flows executing a two-way motion from and back to the same horizon. Besides the generalizations and new solutions presented in this work, a corrigendum to Eur. Phys. J. C (2016) 76:280 is provided. (orig.)

  3. Theory of extended stellar atmospheres. II. A grid of static spherical models for O stars and planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.; Mihalas, D.

    1975-01-01

    Spherical static non-LTE model atmospheres are presented for stars with M/M/sub sun/=30 and 60 at various points on their evolutionary tracks, and for some nuclei of planetary nebulae at two points of a modified Harman-Seaton sequence. The method of Mihalas and Hummer was employed, which uses a parametrized radiation force multiplier to simulate the force of radiation arising from the entire line spectrum. However, in the present work the density structure computed in the LTE models was held fixed in the calculation of the corresponding non-LTE models; in addition, the opacity of an ''average light ion'' was taken into account. The temperatures for the non-LTE models are generally lower, at a given depth, than for the corresponding LTE models when T/sub eff/<45,000 K, while the situation is reversed at higher temperatures. The continuous energy distributions are generally flattened by extension. The Lyman jump is in emission for extended models of massive stars, but never for the models of nuclei of planetary nebulae (this is primarily a temperature effect). The Balmer jumps are always in absorption. The Lyman lines are in emission, and the Balmer lines in absorption; He ii lambda4686 comes into emission in the most extended models without hydrogen line pumping, showing that it is an indicator of atmospheric extension. Very severe limb darkening is found for extended models, which have apparent angular sized significantly smaller than expected from the geometrical size of the star. Extensive tables are given of monochromatic magnitudes, continuum jumps and gradients, Stomgren-system colors, monochromatic extensions, and the profiles and equivalent widths of the hydrogen lines for all models, and of the He ii lines for some of the 60 M/sub X/ models

  4. Temperature dependence of interband recombination energy in symmetric (In,Ga)N spherical quantum dot-quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE, 267 Quartier complémentaire Ennahda 1, Rabat (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential barrier, single particle and ground-state interband recombination energies in Core|well|shell based on GaN|(In,Ga)N|GaN spherical QDQW are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii. The temperature dependency of effective-mass, band-gap energy and potential barrier is taken into account. Particle eigenvalue and band-gap energy competing effects are speculated to explain our numerical results which show that the interband recombination energy increases when the temperature increases. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the findings.

  5. Temperature dependence of interband recombination energy in symmetric (In,Ga)N spherical quantum dot-quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential barrier, single particle and ground-state interband recombination energies in Core|well|shell based on GaN|(In,Ga)N|GaN spherical QDQW are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii. The temperature dependency of effective-mass, band-gap energy and potential barrier is taken into account. Particle eigenvalue and band-gap energy competing effects are speculated to explain our numerical results which show that the interband recombination energy increases when the temperature increases. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the findings

  6. Influence of internal refractive index gradients on size measurements of spherically symmetric particles by phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Hirleman, E D

    1994-04-20

    A model based on geometric optics for predicting the response of interferometric (phase Doppler) instruments for size measurements of particles with radially symmetric but inhomogeneous internal refractive index profiles is developed. The model and results are important for applications in which heat or mass transfer from the particles or droplets is significant, for example, in liquid-fuel combustion. To quantify the magnitude of potential bias errors introduced by the classical assumption of uniform internal properties on phase Doppler measurements, we compute calibration curves for a sequence of times during the evaporation of a decane droplet immersed in an environment of T = 2000 K and p = 10 bars. The results reveal considerable effects on the relation between phase difference and droplet diameter caused by the refractive index gradients present. The model provides an important tool to assess sizing uncertainties that can be expected when applying conventional (based on uniform properties) phase Doppler calibration curves in spray combustion and similar processes.

  7. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jun, E-mail: phyjiang@yeah.net [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Cheng, Yongjun, E-mail: cyj83mail@gmail.com [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Bromley, M.W.J., E-mail: brom@physics.uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4075 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C{sub 6}, C{sub 8} and C{sub 10} atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations.

  8. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jun; Mitroy, J.; Cheng, Yongjun; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C 6 , C 8 and C 10 atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations

  9. Solution of the comoving-frame equation of transfer in spherically symmetric flows. III. Effect of aberration and advection terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, D.; Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    We investigate the importance of the advection and aberration terms, which are of order V/c, in the comoving-frame transfer equation in spherical geometry. Characteristic trajectories are found which reduce the spatial derivatives to a perfect differential, and a generalization of the numerical procedure developed in the earlier papers of this series that permits the integration of the transfer equation on these characteristics is presented. For cases in which V/cvery-much-less-than1, a perturbation solution is developed which reduces the problem to that solved in the first paper in this series. For velocities of the form V (r) approx.r/subn/(n=0,1,2), it is shown that the magnitude of the effects arising from the advection and aberration terms is about 5V/c relative to the solution with these terms omitted. In stellar winds V/capproximately-less-than0.01; hence we conclude that aberration and advection terms may safely be ignored, and that consideration of the Doppler-shift term alone is adequate in the computation of spectra from such expanding atmospheres

  10. New mathematical framework for spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambo, Roberto; Giannoni, Fabio; Magli, Giulio; Piccione, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    A theorem, giving necessary and sufficient condition for naked singularity formation in spherically symmetric non-static spacetimes under hypotheses of physical acceptability, is formulated and proved. The theorem relates the existence of singular null geodesics to the existence of regular curves which are supersolutions of the radial null geodesic equation, and allows us to treat all the known examples of naked singularities from a unified viewpoint. New examples are also found using this approach, and perspectives are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  11. Republication of: New solutions to Einstein's equations of gravitation. B. Explicit determination of static, axially symmetric fields. By Rudolf Bach. With a supplement on the static two-body problem. By H. Weyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Rudolf; Weyl, Hermann

    2012-03-01

    This is the English translation of the third of a series of 3 papers by Hermann Weyl (the third one jointly with Rudolf Bach), first published in 1917-1922, in which the authors derived and discussed the now-famous Weyl two-body static axially symmetric vacuum solution of Einstein's equations. The English translations of the other two papers are published alongside this one. The papers have been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Gernot Neugebauer, David Petroff and Bahram Mashhoon, and by a brief biography of R. Bach, written by H. Goenner.

  12. Characteristics of transonic spherical symmetric accretion flow in Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter backgrounds, in pseudo-general relativistic paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Banik, Prabir

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a complete work on steady state spherically symmetric Bondi type accretion flow in the presence of cosmological constant (Λ) in both Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SDS) and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter (SADS) backgrounds considering an isolated supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the inclusion of a simple radiative transfer scheme, in the pseudo-general relativistic paradigm. We do an extensive analysis on the transonic behavior of the Bondi type accretion flow onto the cosmological BHs including a complete analysis of the global parameter space and the stability of flow, and do a complete study of the global family of solutions for a generic polytropic flow. Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background renders multiplicity in its transonic behavior with inner "saddle" type and outer "center" type sonic points, with the transonic solutions forming closed loops or contours. There is always a limiting value for ∣Λ∣ up to which we obtain valid stationary transonic solutions, which correspond to both SDS and SADS geometries; this limiting value moderately increases with the increasing radiative efficiency of the flow, especially correspond to Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background. Repulsive Λ suppresses the Bondi accretion rate by an order of magnitude for relativistic Bondi type accretion flow for a certain range in temperature, and with a marginal increase in the Bondi accretion rate if the corresponding accretion flow occurs in SADS background. However, for a strongly radiative Bondi type accretion flow with high mass accretion rate, the presence of cosmological constant do not much influence the corresponding Bondi accretion rate of the flow. Our analysis show that the relic cosmological constant has a substantial effect on Bondi type accretion flow onto isolated SMBHs and their transonic solutions beyond length-scale of kiloparsecs, especially if the Bondi type accretion occurs onto the host supergiant ellipticals or central

  13. Spherically symmetric scalar field collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The very recent interest in scalar field collapse stems from a cosmological ... The objective of the present investigation is to explore the collapsing modes of a simple ..... The authors thank the BRNS (DAE) for financial support.

  14. Causal symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces

  15. de Sitter relativity in static charts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotaescu, Ion I. [West University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2018-02-15

    The relative geodesic motion in static (and spherically symmetric) local charts on the (1 + 3)-dimensional de Sitter spacetimes is studied in terms of conserved quantities. The Lorentzian isometries are derived, relating the coordinates of the local chart of a fixed observer with the coordinates of a mobile chart considered as the rest frame of a massive particle freely moving on a timelike geodesic. The time dilation and Lorentz contraction are discussed pointing out some notable features of the de Sitter relativity in static charts. (orig.)

  16. Linear perturbation of spherically symmetric flows: a first-order upwind scheme for the gas dynamics equations in Lagrangian coordinates; Perturbation lineaire d'ecoulements a symetrie spherique: schema decentre d'ordre 1 pour les equations de la dynamique des gaz en variables de Lagrange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarisse, J.M

    2007-07-01

    A numerical scheme for computing linear Lagrangian perturbations of spherically symmetric flows of gas dynamics is proposed. This explicit first-order scheme uses the Roe method in Lagrangian coordinates, for computing the radial spherically symmetric mean flow, and its linearized version, for treating the three-dimensional linear perturbations. Fulfillment of the geometric conservation law discrete formulations for both the mean flow and its perturbation is ensured. This scheme capabilities are illustrated by the computation of free-surface mode evolutions at the boundaries of a spherical hollow shell undergoing an homogeneous cumulative compression, showing excellent agreement with reference results. (author)

  17. The Einstein static universe with torsion and the sign problem of the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, C G

    2004-01-01

    In the field equations of Einstein-Cartan theory with cosmological constant a static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with spin density satisfying the Weyssenhoff restriction is considered. This serves as a rough model of space filled with (fermionic) dark matter. From this the Einstein static universe with constant torsion is constructed, generalizing the Einstein cosmos to Einstein-Cartan theory. The interplay between torsion and the cosmological constant is discussed. A possible way out of the cosmological constant's sign problem is suggested

  18. Entropic force, holography and thermodynamics for static space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently Verlinde has suggested a new approach to gravity which interprets gravitational interaction as a kind of entropic force. The new approach uses the holographic principle by stating that the information is kept on the holographic screens which coincide with equipotential surfaces. Motivated by this new interpretation of gravity (but not being limited by it) we study equipotential surfaces, the Unruh-Verlinde temperature, energy and acceleration for various static space-times: generic spherically symmetric solutions, axially symmetric black holes immersed in a magnetic field, traversable spherically symmetric wormholes of an arbitrary shape function, system of two and more extremely charged black holes in equilibrium. In particular, we have shown that the Unruh-Verlinde temperature of the holographic screen reaches absolute zero on the wormhole throat independently of the particular form of the wormhole solution. (orig.)

  19. Exact interior solutions for static spheres in the Einstein-Cartan theory with two sources of torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Gallakhmetov, A M

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the problem of existence of exact interior solutions for static spherically symmetric configurations in the Einstein-Cartan theory (ECT), the distributions of perfect fluid and non-minimally coupled scalar field are considered. The exact solutions in the one-torsion ECT and two-torsion one are obtained. Some consequences of two sources of torsion are discussed.

  20. The homogeneous boundary value problem of the thick spherical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, F.

    1975-01-01

    With the aim to solve boundary value problems in the same manner as it is attained at thin shell theory (Superposition of Membrane solution to solution of boundary values), one has to search solutions of the equations of equilibrium of the three dimensional thick shell which produce tensions at the cut edge and are zero on the whole shell surface inside and outside. This problem was solved with the premissions of the linear theory of Elasticity. The gained solution is exact and contains the symmetric and non-symmetric behaviour and is described in relatively short analytical expressions for the deformations and tensions, after the problem of the coupled system had been solved. The static condition of the two surfaces (zero tension) leads to a homogeneous system of complex equations with the index of the Legendre spherical function as Eigenvalue. One symmetrical case is calculated numerically and is compared with the method of finite elements. This comparison results in good accordance. (Auth.)

  1. Studies on radiation symmetrization in heavy-ion driven hohlraum targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal, M.; Atzeni, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation symmetrization within spherical, ellipsoidal and cylindral hohlraum targets for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is studied by means of a 3-D numerical, static model, in which realistic assumptions are made concerning the geometry of the system and, particularly, of the radiation converters. Among the systems so far studied, only spherical hohlraums with six converters achieve the illumination symmetry of the fusion capsule considered necessary for ICF applications. A parametric study of cylindrical hohlraums enlightens the effect of several parameter changes, and suggests directions for further studies, aiming at the design of two-converter targets

  2. A highly symmetrical 10 transistor 2-read/write dual-port static random access memory bitcell design in 28 nm high-k/metal-gate planar bulk CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Miki; Yabuuchi, Makoto; Sawada, Yohei; Tanaka, Shinji; Nii, Koji; Lu, Tien Yu; Huang, Chun Hsien; Sian Chen, Shou; Tse Kuo, Yu; Lung, Ching Cheng; Cheng, Osbert

    2018-04-01

    We propose a highly symmetrical 10 transistor (10T) 2-read/write (2RW) dual-port (DP) static random access memory (SRAM) bitcell in 28 nm high-k/metal-gate (HKMG) planar bulk CMOS. It replaces the conventional 8T 2RW DP SRAM bitcell without any area overhead. It significantly improves the robustness of process variations and an asymmetric issue between the true and bar bitline pairs. Measured data show that read current (I read) and read static noise margin (SNM) are respectively boosted by +20% and +15 mV by introducing the proposed bitcell with enlarged pull-down (PD) and pass-gate (PG) N-channel MOSs (NMOSs). The minimum operating voltage (V min) of the proposed 256 kbit 10T DP SRAM is 0.53 V in the TT process, 25 °C under the worst access condition with read/write disturbances, and improved by 90 mV (15%) compared with the conventional one.

  3. Spherically symmetric radiation in gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridy, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper investigates a previously neglected mode by which a star may lose energy in the late stages of gravitational collapse to the black hole state. A model consisting of a Schwarzschild exterior matched to a Friedman interior of collapsing pressureless dust is studied. The matter of the collapsing star is taken as the source of a massive vector boson field and a detailed boundary value problem is carried out. Vector mesons are strongly coupled to all nucleons and will be radiated by ordinary matter during the collapse. The time dependent coupling between interior and exterior modes matched across the moving boundary of the collapsing star and the presence of the gravitational fields and their gradients in the field equations may give rise to a parametric amplification mechanism and permit the gravitational field to pump energy into the boson field, greatly enhancing the amount of boson radiation. The significance of a radiative mechanism driven by collapse is that it can react back upon the collapsing source and deprive it of some of the very mass that drives the collapse via its self gravitation. If the mass loss is great enough, this may provide a mechanism to slow or even halt gravitational collapse in some cases

  4. Stationary axially symmetric exterior solutions in the five-dimensional representation of the Brans-Dicke-Jordan theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckman, W.

    1986-01-01

    The inverse scattering method of Belinsky and Zakharov is used to investigate axially symmetric stationary vacuum soliton solutions in the five-dimensional representation of the Brans-Dicke-Jordan theory of gravitation, where the scalar field of the theory is an element of a five-dimensional metric. The resulting equations for the spacetime metric are similar to those of solitons in general relativity, while the scalar field generated is the product of a simple function of the coordinates and an already known scalar field solution. A family of solutions is considered that reduce, in the absence of rotation, to the five-dimensional form of a well-known Weyl-Levi Civita axially symmetric static vacuum solution. With a suitable choice of parameters, this static limit becomes equivalent to the spherically symmetric solution of the Brans-Dicke theory. An exact metric, in which the Kerr-scalar McIntosh solution is a special case, is given explicitly

  5. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  6. Symmetric textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures

  7. Trapped surfaces in spherical stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, P.; Malec, E.; O'Murchadha, N.

    1988-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric spacetimes. These conditions show that the formation of trapped surfaces depends on both the degree of concentration and the average flow of the matter. The result can be considered as a partial validation of the cosmic-censorship hypothesis

  8. How Spherical Is a Cube (Gravitationally)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, Jeff; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    An important concept that is presented in the discussion of Newton's law of universal gravitation is that the gravitational effect external to a spherically symmetric mass distribution is the same as if all of the mass of the distribution were concentrated at the center. By integrating over ring elements of a spherical shell, we show that the…

  9. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  10. Spherical CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Taco S.; Geiger, Mario; Koehler, Jonas; Welling, Max

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the method of choice for learning problems involving 2D planar images. However, a number of problems of recent interest have created a demand for models that can analyze spherical images. Examples include omnidirectional vision for drones, robots, and autonomous cars, molecular regression problems, and global weather and climate modelling. A naive application of convolutional networks to a planar projection of the spherical signal is destined t...

  11. Spherical and planar three-dimensional anti-de Sitter black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanchin, Vilson T; Miranda, Alex S

    2004-01-01

    The technique of dimensional reduction was used in a recent paper (Zanchin V T, Kleber A and Lemos J P S 2002 Phys. Rev. D 66 064022) where a three-dimensional (3D) Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory was built from the usual four-dimensional (4D) Einstein-Maxwell-Hilbert action for general relativity. Starting from a class of 4D toroidal black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes several 3D black holes were obtained and studied in such a context. In the present work we choose a particular case of the 3D action which presents Maxwell field, dilaton field and an extra scalar field, besides gravity field and a negative cosmological constant, and obtain new 3D static black hole solutions whose horizons may have spherical or planar topology. We show that there is a 3D static spherically symmetric solution analogous to the 4D Reissner-Nordstroem-AdS black hole, and obtain other new 3D black holes with planar topology. From the static spherical solutions, new rotating 3D black holes are also obtained and analysed in some detail

  12. Spherical cows in the sky with fab four

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Sandora, McCullen, E-mail: kaloper@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: mesandora@ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We explore spherically symmetric static solutions in a subclass of unitary scalar-tensor theories of gravity, called the 'Fab Four' models. The weak field large distance solutions may be phenomenologically viable, but only if the Gauss-Bonnet term is negligible. Only in this limit will the Vainshtein mechanism work consistently. Further, classical constraints and unitarity bounds constrain the models quite tightly. Nevertheless, in the limits where the range of individual terms at large scales is respectively Kinetic Braiding, Horndeski, and Gauss-Bonnet, the horizon scale effects may occur while the theory satisfies Solar system constraints and, marginally, unitarity bounds. On the other hand, to bring the cutoff down to below a millimeter constrains all the couplings scales such that 'Fab Fours' can't be heard outside of the Solar system.

  13. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogliati, Joshua J.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2010-01-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  14. Tradeoff between insensitivity to depth-induced spherical aberration and resolution of 3D fluorescence imaging due to the use of wavefront encoding with a radially symmetric phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblas, Ana; Dutta, Ananya; Saavedra, Genaro; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2018-02-01

    Previously, a wavefront encoded (WFE) imaging system implemented using a squared cubic (SQUBIC) phase mask has been verified to reduce the sensitivity of the imaging system to spherical aberration (SA). The strength of the SQUBIC phase mask and, as consequence, the performance of the WFE system are controlled by a design parameter, A. Although the higher the A-value, the more tolerant the WFE system is to SA, this is accomplished at the expense of the effective imaging resolution. In this contribution, we investigate this tradeoff in order to find an optimal A-value to balance the effect of SA and loss of resolution.

  15. On the uniqueness of static perfect-fluid solutions in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.; Simon, W.

    1990-01-01

    Following earlier work of Masood-ul-Alam, we consider a uniqueness problem for nonrotating stellar models. Given a static, asymptotically flat perfect-fluid spacetime with barotropic equation of state ρ(p), and given another such spacetime which is spherically symmetric and has the same ρ(p) and the same surface potential: we prove that both are identical provided ρ(p) satisfies a certain differential inequality. This inequality is more natural and less restrictive that the conditions required by Masood-ul-Alam. 30 refs. (Authors)

  16. Spherical aberration correction in a scanning transmission electron microscope using a sculpted thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, Roy; Remez, Roei; Lu, Peng-Han; Jin, Lei; Lereah, Yossi; Tavabi, Amir H; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Arie, Ady

    2018-06-01

    Nearly eighty years ago, Scherzer showed that rotationally symmetric, charge-free, static electron lenses are limited by an unavoidable, positive spherical aberration. Following a long struggle, a major breakthrough in the spatial resolution of electron microscopes was reached two decades ago by abandoning the first of these conditions, with the successful development of multipole aberration correctors. Here, we use a refractive silicon nitride thin film to tackle the second of Scherzer's constraints and demonstrate an alternative method for correcting spherical aberration in a scanning transmission electron microscope. We reveal features in Si and Cu samples that cannot be resolved in an uncorrected microscope. Our thin film corrector can be implemented as an immediate low cost upgrade to existing electron microscopes without re-engineering of the electron column or complicated operation protocols and can be extended to the correction of additional aberrations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bi-conformal symmetry and static Green functions in the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We study a static massless minimally coupled scalar field created by a source in a static D-dimensional spacetime. We demonstrate that the corresponding equation for this field is invariant under a special transformation of the background metric. This transformation consists of the static conformal transformation of the spatial part of the metric accompanied by a properly chosen transformation of the red-shift factor. Both transformations are determined by one function Ω of the spatial coordinates. We show that in a case of higher dimensional spherically symmetric black holes one can find such a bi-conformal transformation that the symmetry of the D-dimensional metric is enhanced after its application. Namely, the metric becomes a direct sum of the metric on a unit sphere and the metric of 2D anti-de Sitter space. The method of the heat kernels is used to find the Green function in this new space, which allows one, after dimensional reduction, to obtain a static Green function in the original space of the static black hole. The general useful representation of static Green functions is obtained in the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini spacetimes of arbitrary dimension. The exact explicit expressions for the static Green functions are obtained in such metrics for D<6. It is shown that in the four dimensional case the corresponding Green function coincides with the Copson solution.

  18. On the spherical harmonic expansion of the neutron angular distribution function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, Sven

    1959-03-15

    The neutron (one-velocity) angular distribution function is expanded in terms of spherical harmonic tensors. The solution to the equations of the moments is given explicitly and the result is applied to the plane, spherical and cylinder symmetrical cases.

  19. On the spherical harmonic expansion of the neutron angular distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, Sven

    1959-03-01

    The neutron (one-velocity) angular distribution function is expanded in terms of spherical harmonic tensors. The solution to the equations of the moments is given explicitly and the result is applied to the plane, spherical and cylinder symmetrical cases

  20. Cuspidal discrete series for semisimple symmetric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Schlichtkrull, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We propose a notion of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces. We then study the real hyperbolic spaces in detail, and show that there exists both cuspidal and non-cuspidal discrete series. In particular, we show that all the spherical discrete series are non-cuspidal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All...

  1. Electron Optics for Biologists: Physical Origins of Spherical Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Peter; Zadunaisky, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Reports on the physical origins of spherical aberrations in axially symmetric electrostatic lenses to convey the essentials of electon optics to those who must think critically about the resolution of the electron microscope. (GS)

  2. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-01-01

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced

  3. Spherical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, J. E.; de Souza, R. E.; Penereiro, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos fotometria fotografica de 8 objetos y espectrosco- pla para 3 galaxias, las cuales son buenos candidatos para galaxias esfericas. Los resultados fotometricos se presentan en la forma de iso- fotas y de perfiles radiales promedlo, de los cuales se derivan para- metros estructurales. Estas observaciones combinadas con parametros di- namicos obtenidos de observaciones espectrosc6picas, son consistentes con el plano fundamental derivado por Djorgovski y Davis (1987). ABSTRACT. We present photographic surface photometry for 8 objects and spectroscopy for 3 galaxies which are good candidates for spherical galaxies. Photometric results are presented in the form of isophotes and mean radial profiles from which we derived structural parameters. These observations combined with dynamical parameters obtained from spectroscopic observations are consistent with the fundamental plane derived by Djorgovski and Davis (1987). Keq wo : CALAXIES-ELLIPTICAL

  4. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-04-11

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Wu, Fuzhang; Nan, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  6. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Dong, Weiming; Yan, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  7. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-02-26

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  8. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  9. Effective pair potentials for spherical nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zon, Ramses

    2009-01-01

    An effective description for rigid spherical nanoparticles in a fluid of point particles is presented. The points inside the nanoparticles and the point particles are assumed to interact via spherically symmetric additive pair potentials, while the distribution of points inside the nanoparticles is taken to be spherically symmetric and smooth. The resulting effective pair interactions between a nanoparticle and a point particle, as well as between two nanoparticles, are then given by spherically symmetric potentials. If overlap between particles is allowed, as can occur for some forms of the pair potentials, the effective potential generally has non-analytic points. It is shown that for each effective potential the expressions for different overlapping cases can be written in terms of one analytic auxiliary potential. Even when only non-overlapping situations are possible, the auxiliary potentials facilitate the formulation of the effective potentials. Effective potentials for hollow nanoparticles (appropriate e.g. for buckyballs) are also considered and shown to be related to those for solid nanoparticles. For hollow nanoparticles overlap is more physical, since this covers the case of a smaller particle embedded in a larger, hollow nanoparticle. Finally, explicit expressions are given for the effective potentials derived from basic pair potentials of power law and exponential form, as well as from the commonly used London–van der Waals, Morse, Buckingham, and Lennard-Jones potentials. The applicability of the latter is demonstrated by comparison with an atomic description of nanoparticles with an internal face centered cubic structure

  10. Spherical Casimir pistons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.uk [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-07

    A piston is introduced into a spherical lune Casimir cavity turning it into two adjacent lunes separated by the (hemispherical) piston. On the basis of zeta-function regularization, the vacuum energy of the arrangement is finite for conformal propagation in spacetime. For even spheres this energy is independent of the angle of the lune. For odd dimensions it is shown that for all Neumann, or all Dirichlet, boundary conditions the piston is repelled or attracted by the nearest wall if d = 3, 7, ... or if d = 1, 5, ... , respectively. For hybrid N-D conditions these requirements are switched. If a mass is added, divergences arise which render the model suspect. The analysis, however, is relatively straightforward and involves the Barnes zeta function. The extension to finite temperatures is made and it is shown that for the 3, 7, ... series of odd spheres, the repulsion by the walls continues but that, above a certain temperature, the free energy acquires two minima symmetrically placed about the midpoint.

  11. Spherical Casimir pistons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2011-01-01

    A piston is introduced into a spherical lune Casimir cavity turning it into two adjacent lunes separated by the (hemispherical) piston. On the basis of zeta-function regularization, the vacuum energy of the arrangement is finite for conformal propagation in spacetime. For even spheres this energy is independent of the angle of the lune. For odd dimensions it is shown that for all Neumann, or all Dirichlet, boundary conditions the piston is repelled or attracted by the nearest wall if d = 3, 7, ... or if d = 1, 5, ... , respectively. For hybrid N-D conditions these requirements are switched. If a mass is added, divergences arise which render the model suspect. The analysis, however, is relatively straightforward and involves the Barnes zeta function. The extension to finite temperatures is made and it is shown that for the 3, 7, ... series of odd spheres, the repulsion by the walls continues but that, above a certain temperature, the free energy acquires two minima symmetrically placed about the midpoint.

  12. Ultrasmooth, Highly Spherical Monocrystalline Gold Particles for Precision Plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, You-Jin; Schade, Nicholas B.; Sun, Li; Fan, Jonathan A.; Bae, Doo Ri; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Lee, Gaehang; Capasso, Federico; Sacanna, Stefano; Manoharan, Vinothan N.; Yi, Gi-Ra

    2013-01-01

    isotropic, so that spheres are favored under quasi-static conditions. It is scalable up to particle sizes of 200 nm or more. The resulting spherical crystals display uniform scattering spectra and consistent optical coupling at small separations, even

  13. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous bianisotropic media: Wave propagation and light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Shalin, Alexander S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    We develop a technique for finding closed-form expressions for electromagnetic fields in radially inhomogeneous bianisotropic media, both the solutions of the Maxwell equations and material tensors being defined by the set of auxiliary two-dimensional matrices. The approach is applied to determine...

  14. Optics of relativistic sources in a spherically symmetric gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of spectral shifts and gravitational focussing on radiation from sources moving geodesically in the Schwarzschild gravitational field is analyzed using the general-relativistic equations for geodesic motion and for the propagation of radiation along null geodesics in the geometrical optics approximation. The exact solutions of the Schwarzschild geodesic equations are briefly discussed for the null and time-like cases, and the method of classifying the orbital types of motion based on the effective radial potential is presented. A method of finding the stability of these orbits using this technique is discussed. The geometrical optics approximation for the propagation of radiation is discussed, and the area-intensity law for the Schwarzschild field is derived. The particularly interesting region near R = 3m is investigated by means of expansions of the exact equations. Numerical techniques for calculating radiation patterns from the propagation equations are discussed, including techniques for obtaining the time variation along geodesics and differences in propagation time along different null geodesics. Finally, the implications of these calculations for the apparent contradiction in energy requirements set by Joseph Weber's observations of galactic gravitational radiation and by astronomical observation are discussed. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  15. Spherically symmetric random walks. II. Dimensionally dependent critical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Boettcher, S.; Meisinger, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    A recently developed model of random walks on a D-dimensional hyperspherical lattice, where D is not restricted to integer values, is extended to include the possibility of creating and annihilating random walkers. Steady-state distributions of random walkers are obtained for all dimensions D approx-gt 0 by solving a discrete eigenvalue problem. These distributions exhibit dimensionally dependent critical behavior as a function of the birth rate. This remarkably simple model exhibits a second-order phase transition with a universal, nontrivial critical exponent for all dimensions D approx-gt 0. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Spherically symmetric relativistic model for spiral galaxies and dense stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, R.; Rodrigues, L.M.C.; Sasse, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    The behaviour of the pressure and the density as well as the gravitational field of a dense star are studied in some detail. For such a purpose and to take into account relativistic effects, we find a family of exact solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equation, which contains as a particular case solutions corresponding to a γ-law equation of state. The mentioned family can also be used to model the (luminous or dark) matter content of spiral galaxies, as it fits the observed data for their orbital velocities profiles. (author)

  17. A new model for spherically symmetric anisotropic compact star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-05-15

    In this article we obtain a new anisotropic solution for Einstein's field equations of embedding class one metric. The solution represents realistic objects such as Her X-1 and RXJ 1856-37. We perform a detailed investigation of both objects by solving numerically the Einstein field equations with anisotropic pressure. The physical features of the parameters depend on the anisotropic factor i.e. if the anisotropy is zero everywhere inside the star then the density and pressures will become zero and the metric turns out to be flat. We report our results and compare with the above mentioned two compact objects as regards a number of key aspects: the central density, the surface density onset and the critical scaling behaviour, the effective mass and radius ratio, the anisotropization with isotropic initial conditions, adiabatic index and red shift. Along with this we have also made a comparison between the classical limit and theoretical model treatment of the compact objects. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings for the stability condition in a relativistic compact star. (orig.)

  18. Invariant identification of naked singularities in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, R

    2012-01-01

    The study of generic naked singularities and their implications for the cosmic censorship conjecture is still an open issue in the framework of general relativity. One of the obstacles can be traced to the procedures for identifying naked singularities. Usually, the methods applied are not only model and coordinate dependent, but they very often rely in some strong assumptions on the degree of differentiability of the physical magnitudes of the model (such as the mass, density, etc) in the singularity. In this paper, we present a coordinate independent framework for identifying naked singularities based on invariants which is also devoid of strong differentiability requirements. The approach is intended to analyse whole families of models and to provide general results related to the cosmic censorship conjecture. Moreover, since the framework has a strict geometrical nature it can be used with alternative theories of gravitation as long as they assume the existence of a Lorentzian manifold. We exemplify its strength by applying it to the study of the collapse of radiation in radiative coordinates and the collapse of dust in comoving coordinates. (paper)

  19. Spherically symmetric star model in the gravitational gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsou, C [Peking Observatory, China; Ch' en, S; Ho, T; Kuo, H

    1976-12-01

    It is shown that a star model, which is black hole-free and singularity-free, can be obtained naturally in the gravitational gauge theory, provided the space-time is torsion-free and the matter is spinless. The conclusion in a sense shows that the discussions about the black hole and the singularity based on general relativity may not describe nature correctly.

  20. New and precise construction of the local interstellar electron spectrum from the radio background and an application to the solar modulation of cosmic rays showing an incompatability of the electron and nuclei modulation using the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockstroh, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cosmic-ray electrons generate the observed radio-frequency background. Previous attempts in the literature to reconcile quantitatively the measured radio-frequency intensity with the intensity deduced from the electron spectrum measured at earth have culminated in the problem that to get the respective emissivities to agree, an unacceptably high interstellar B field must be chosen. In the light of new experimental data on the emissivity as deduced from H II region studies and on the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient with solar radius and particle rigidity, the assumptions under which the electron emissivity comparison has been made have been reexamined closely. The paradox between predicted and measured emissivity was resolved by ascribing to the magnetic fields of the galaxy a distribution of magnetic field strengths. From modified synchrotron formulas, the interstellar electron spectrum has been constructed from the radio frequency emission data with greatly improved precision. The interstellar electron spectrum has been determined independently of the solar modulation and provides, therefore, an estimate of the absolute depth of the electron modulation. Then the measured electron, proton, and helium-nuclei fluxes were systematically compared to the predictions of the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation using the electron modulation as a base. A previously unnoticed non-tracking of the modulation parameters was observed during the recent recovery that did not occur during the 1965 to 1969 period. Although the argument could be presented just as well by attributing the anomaly to the nuclei, the discussion here arbitrarily tailored it to the electrons, and this new phenomenon was named, the modulation reluctance of the cosmic-ray electrons

  1. Numerical procedure for the calculation of nonsteady spherical shock fronts with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.H.

    The basis of the numerical method is an implicit difference scheme with time backward differences to a freely moving coordinate system. The coordinate system itself is determined simultaneously with the iterative solution of the physical equations as a function of the physical variables. Shock fronts, even nonsteady ones, are calculated as discontinuities according to the Rankine--Hugoniot equations. The radiation field is obtained from the two-dimensional, static, spherically symmetric transport equation in conjunction with the time-dependent one-dimensional moment equations. No artificial viscosity of any type is ever used. The applicability of the method developed is demonstrated by an example involving the calculation of protostar collapse. 11 figures

  2. On Symmetric Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Ryan; Cho, Ilwoo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study structure theorems of algebras of symmetric functions. Based on a certain relation on elementary symmetric polynomials generating such algebras, we consider perturbation in the algebras. In particular, we understand generators of the algebras as perturbations. From such perturbations, define injective maps on generators, which induce algebra-monomorphisms (or embeddings) on the algebras. They provide inductive structure theorems on algebras of symmetric polynomials. As...

  3. Computation of higher spherical harmonics moments of the angular flux for neutron transport problems in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, D.C.; Sharma, A.

    2000-01-01

    The integral form of one-speed, spherically symmetric neutron transport equation with isotropic scattering is considered. Two standard problems are solved using normal mode expansion technique. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving their singular integral equations. It is shown that these expansion coefficients provide a representation of all spherical harmonics moments of the angular flux as a superposition of Bessel functions. It is seen that large errors occur in the computation of higher moments unless we take certain precautions. The reasons for this phenomenon are explained. They throw some light on the failure of spherical harmonics method in treating spherical geometry problems as observed by Aronsson

  4. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  5. Static solitons in more than one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.

    1978-01-01

    The most important development of the last decade in particle physics and field theory has undoubtedly been the advent of hidden-symmetric gauge theories. One of the more interesting by-products of this development has been the discovery that hidden-symmetric gauge theories admit static solutions to the field equations which are regular everywhere and for which the energy is finite. Such solutions will be called solitons. The hidden-symmetric gauge solutions exist for n space dimensions, where 1 [de

  6. Rotationally symmetric breather-like solutions to the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O.H.; Samuelsen, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Breather-like solutions to the spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equation are examined numerically. Depending on the initial conditions they either exhibit a return effect or expand towards infinity. (orig.)

  7. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Nicolás [Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá (Colombia); Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R., E-mail: nicolas.bernal@uan.edu.co, E-mail: lnecib@mit.edu, E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  8. Rotationally symmetric numerical solutions to the sine-Gordon equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1981-01-01

    We examine numerically the properties of solutions to the spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equation given an initial profile which coincides with the one-dimensional breather solution and refer to such solutions as ring waves. Expanding ring waves either exhibit a return effect or expand towards...

  9. Centrioles in Symmetric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Quast, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe all centrioles in irreducible simply connected pointed symmetric spaces of compact type in terms of the root system of the ambient space, and we study some geometric properties of centrioles.

  10. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igenbergs, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator

  11. Symmetric eikonal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)

  12. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs

  13. Spontaneous excitation of a static multilevel atom coupled with electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations in Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenting; Yu Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    We study the spontaneous excitation of a radially polarized static multilevel atom outside a spherically symmetric black hole in multipolar interaction with quantum electromagnetic fluctuations in the Boulware, Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacuum states. We find that spontaneous excitation does not occur in the Boulware vacuum, and, in contrast to the scalar field case, the spontaneous emission rate is not well behaved at the event horizon as a result of the blow-up of the proper acceleration of the static atom. However, spontaneous excitation can take place both in the Unruh and the Hartle-Hawking vacua as if there were thermal radiation from the black hole. Distinctive features in contrast to the scalar field case are the existence of a term proportional to the proper acceleration squared in the rate of change of the mean atomic energy in the Unruh and the Hartle-Hawking vacua and the structural similarity in the spontaneous excitation rate between the static atoms outside a black hole and uniformly accelerated ones in a flat space with a reflecting boundary, which is particularly dramatic at the event horizon where a complete equivalence exists. (paper)

  14. Multiparty symmetric sum types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  15. Counting with symmetric functions

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics.  It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions.  Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions.  Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4.  The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...

  16. Symmetric Tensor Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brachat, Jerome; Comon, Pierre; Mourrain, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for decomposing a symmetric tensor, of dimension n and order d, as a sum of rank-1 symmetric tensors, extending the algorithm of Sylvester devised in 1886 for binary forms. We recall the correspondence between the decomposition of a homogeneous polynomial in n variables...... of polynomial equations of small degree in non-generic cases. We propose a new algorithm for symmetric tensor decomposition, based on this characterization and on linear algebra computations with Hankel matrices. The impact of this contribution is two-fold. First it permits an efficient computation...... of the decomposition of any tensor of sub-generic rank, as opposed to widely used iterative algorithms with unproved global convergence (e.g. Alternate Least Squares or gradient descents). Second, it gives tools for understanding uniqueness conditions and for detecting the rank....

  17. On isotropic cylindrically symmetric stellar models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, Brien C; Nolan, Louise V

    2004-01-01

    We attempt to match the most general cylindrically symmetric vacuum spacetime with a Robertson-Walker interior. The matching conditions show that the interior must be dust filled and that the boundary must be comoving. Further, we show that the vacuum region must be polarized. Imposing the condition that there are no trapped cylinders on an initial time slice, we can apply a result of Thorne's and show that trapped cylinders never evolve. This results in a simplified line element which we prove to be incompatible with the dust interior. This result demonstrates the impossibility of the existence of an isotropic cylindrically symmetric star (or even a star which has a cylindrically symmetric portion). We investigate the problem from a different perspective by looking at the expansion scalars of invariant null geodesic congruences and, applying to the cylindrical case, the result that the product of the signs of the expansion scalars must be continuous across the boundary. The result may also be understood in relation to recent results about the impossibility of the static axially symmetric analogue of the Einstein-Straus model

  18. Are Nanoparticles Spherical or Quasi-Spherical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Tschulik, Kristina; Fletcher, Stephen; Compton, Richard G

    2015-07-20

    The geometry of quasi-spherical nanoparticles is investigated. The combination of SEM imaging and electrochemical nano-impact experiments is demonstrated to allow sizing and characterization of the geometry of single silver nanoparticles. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...

  20. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  1. Distributed Searchable Symmetric Encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bösch, C.T.; Peter, Andreas; Leenders, Bram; Lim, Hoon Wei; Tang, Qiang; Wang, Huaxiong; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) allows a client to store encrypted data on a storage provider in such a way, that the client is able to search and retrieve the data selectively without the storage provider learning the contents of the data or the words being searched for. Practical SSE schemes

  2. Spherical neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  3. Chiral pion dynamics for spherical nucleon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, V.; Rho, M.; Nyman, E.M.; Jun, J.H.; Brown, G.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1980-01-01

    A chirally symmetric quark-bag model for the nucleon is obtained by introducing an explicit, classical, pion field exterior to the bag. The coupling at the bag surface is determined by the requirement of a conserved axial-vector current. The pion field satisfies equations of motion corresponding to the non-linear sigma-model. We study on this paper the simplified case where the bag and the pion field are spherically symmetric. Corrections due to gluon exchange between the quarks are ignored along with other interactions which split the N- and Δ-masses. The equations of motion for the pion field are solved and we find a substantial pion pressure at the bag surface, along with an attractive contribution to the nucleon self-energy. The total energy of the system, bag plus meson cloud, turns out to be approximately Msub(n)c 2 for a wide range of bag radii, from 1.5 fm down to about 0.5 fm. Introduction of a form factor for the pion would extend the range of possible radii to even smaller values. We propose that the bag with the smallest allowed radius be identified with the 'little bag' discussed before. One surprising result of the paper is that as long as one restricts to spherically symmetric bags, restoring chiral symmetry to the bag model makes the axial-vector current coupling constant gsub(A) to be always too large compared with the experimental value for any bag radius, suggesting a deviation from spherical symmetry for the intrinsic bag wave functions of the 'ground-state' hadrons. (orig.)

  4. From static to rotating to conformal static solutions: rotating imperfect fluid wormholes with(out) electric or magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Department of Mathematics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-05-15

    We derive a shortcut stationary metric formula for generating imperfect fluid rotating solutions, in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, from spherically symmetric static ones. We explore the properties of the curvature scalar and stress-energy tensor for all types of rotating regular solutions we can generate without restricting ourselves to specific examples of regular solutions (regular black holes or wormholes). We show through examples how it is generally possible to generate an imperfect fluid regular rotating solution via radial coordinate transformations. We derive rotating wormholes that are modeled as imperfect fluids and discuss their physical properties. These are independent on the way the stress-energy tensor is interpreted. A solution modeling an imperfect fluid rotating loop black hole is briefly discussed. We then specialize to the recently discussed stable exotic dust Ellis wormhole as emerged in a source-free radial electric or magnetic field, and we generate its, conjecturally stable, rotating counterpart. This turns out to be an exotic imperfect fluid wormhole, and we determine the stress-energy tensor of both the imperfect fluid and the electric or magnetic field. (orig.)

  5. From static to rotating to conformal static solutions: rotating imperfect fluid wormholes with(out) electric or magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    We derive a shortcut stationary metric formula for generating imperfect fluid rotating solutions, in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, from spherically symmetric static ones. We explore the properties of the curvature scalar and stress-energy tensor for all types of rotating regular solutions we can generate without restricting ourselves to specific examples of regular solutions (regular black holes or wormholes). We show through examples how it is generally possible to generate an imperfect fluid regular rotating solution via radial coordinate transformations. We derive rotating wormholes that are modeled as imperfect fluids and discuss their physical properties. These are independent on the way the stress-energy tensor is interpreted. A solution modeling an imperfect fluid rotating loop black hole is briefly discussed. We then specialize to the recently discussed stable exotic dust Ellis wormhole as emerged in a source-free radial electric or magnetic field, and we generate its, conjecturally stable, rotating counterpart. This turns out to be an exotic imperfect fluid wormhole, and we determine the stress-energy tensor of both the imperfect fluid and the electric or magnetic field. (orig.)

  6. Symmetric waterbomb origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Feng, Huijuan; Ma, Jiayao; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    The traditional waterbomb origami, produced from a pattern consisting of a series of vertices where six creases meet, is one of the most widely used origami patterns. From a rigid origami viewpoint, it generally has multiple degrees of freedom, but when the pattern is folded symmetrically, the mobility reduces to one. This paper presents a thorough kinematic investigation on symmetric folding of the waterbomb pattern. It has been found that the pattern can have two folding paths under certain circumstance. Moreover, the pattern can be used to fold thick panels. Not only do the additional constraints imposed to fold the thick panels lead to single degree of freedom folding, but the folding process is also kinematically equivalent to the origami of zero-thickness sheets. The findings pave the way for the pattern being readily used to fold deployable structures ranging from flat roofs to large solar panels.

  7. Symmetric modular torsatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  8. Symmetric vectors and algebraic classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, E.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of symmetric vector field in Riemannian manifolds, which arises in the study of relativistic cosmological models, is analyzed. Symmetric vectors are tied up with the algebraic properties of the manifold curvature. A procedure for generating a congruence of symmetric fields out of a given pair is outlined. The case of a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature (''isotropic universe'') is studied in detail, with all its symmetric vector fields being explicitly constructed

  9. Representations of locally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1995-09-01

    Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs

  10. Thermal properties of self-gravitating plane-symmetric configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, T; Ikeuchi, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sugimoto, D

    1976-09-01

    As a limiting case of rotating stars, thermal properties of infinite plane-symmetric self-gravitating gas are investigated. Such a configuration is characterized by surface density of the plane instead of stellar mass. In the Kelvin contraction, temperature of the interior decreases, if the surface density is kept constant. If the accretion of matter takes place, or if the angular momenta are transferred outward, the surface density will increase. In this case, the temperature of the interior may increase. When a nuclear burning is ignited, it is thermally unstable in most cases, even when electrons are non-degenerate. This thermal instability is one of the essential differences of the plane-symmetric configuration from the spherical star. Such instabilities are computed for different cases of nuclear fuels. This type of nuclear instability is the same phenomenon as thermal instability of a thin shell burning in a spherical star.

  11. Symmetric scrolled packings of multilayered carbon nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, A. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Baimova, Yu. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Scrolled packings of single-layer and multilayer graphene can be used for the creation of supercapacitors, nanopumps, nanofilters, and other nanodevices. The full atomistic simulation of graphene scrolls is restricted to consideration of relatively small systems in small time intervals. To overcome this difficulty, a two-dimensional chain model making possible an efficient calculation of static and dynamic characteristics of nanoribbon scrolls with allowance for the longitudinal and bending stiffness of nanoribbons is proposed. The model is extended to the case of scrolls of multilayer graphene. Possible equilibrium states of symmetric scrolls of multilayer carbon nanotribbons rolled up so that all nanoribbons in the scroll are equivalent are found. Dependences of the number of coils, the inner and outer radii, lowest vibrational eigenfrequencies of rolled packages on the length L of nanoribbons are obtained. It is shown that the lowest vibrational eigenfrequency of a symmetric scroll decreases with a nanoribbon length proportionally to L -1. It is energetically unfavorable for too short nanoribbons to roll up, and their ground state is a stack of plane nanoribbons. With an increasing number k of layers, the nanoribbon length L necessary for creation of symmetric scrolls increases. For a sufficiently small number of layers k and a sufficiently large nanoribbon length L, the scrolled packing has the lowest energy as compared to that of stack of plane nanoribbons and folded structures. The results can be used for development of nanomaterials and nanodevices on the basis of graphene scrolled packings.

  12. Exploring plane-symmetric solutions in f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamir, M. F., E-mail: farasat.shamir@nu.edu.pk [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Department of Sciences and Humanities (Pakistan)

    2016-02-15

    The modified theories of gravity, especially the f(R) gravity, have attracted much attention in the last decade. This paper is devoted to exploring plane-symmetric solutions in the context of metric f(R) gravity. We extend the work on static plane-symmetric vacuum solutions in f(R) gravity already available in the literature [1, 2]. The modified field equations are solved using the assumptions of both constant and nonconstant scalar curvature. Some well-known solutions are recovered with power-law and logarithmic forms of f(R) models.

  13. Symmetric spaces and the Kashiwara-Vergne method

    CERN Document Server

    Rouvière, François

    2014-01-01

    Gathering and updating results scattered in journal articles over thirty years, this self-contained monograph gives a comprehensive introduction to the subject. Its goal is to: - motivate and explain the method for general Lie groups, reducing the proof of deep results in invariant analysis to the verification of two formal Lie bracket identities related to the Campbell-Hausdorff formula (the "Kashiwara-Vergne conjecture"); - give a detailed proof of the conjecture for quadratic and solvable Lie algebras, which is relatively elementary; - extend the method to symmetric spaces; here an obstruction appears, embodied in a single remarkable object called an "e-function"; - explain the role of this function in invariant analysis on symmetric spaces, its relation to invariant differential operators, mean value operators and spherical functions; - give an explicit e-function for rank one spaces (the hyperbolic spaces); - construct an e-function for general symmetric spaces, in the spirit of Kashiwara and Vergne's or...

  14. Hawking radiation from a spherical loop quantum gravity black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    We introduce quantum field theory on quantum space-times techniques to characterize the quantum vacua as a first step toward studying black hole evaporation in spherical symmetry in loop quantum gravity and compute the Hawking radiation. We use as quantum space-time the recently introduced exact solution of the quantum Einstein equations in vacuum with spherical symmetry and consider a spherically symmetric test scalar field propagating on it. The use of loop quantum gravity techniques in the background space-time naturally regularizes the matter content, solving one of the main obstacles to back-reaction calculations in more traditional treatments. The discreteness of area leads to modifications of the quantum vacua, eliminating the trans-Planckian modes close to the horizon, which in turn eliminates all singularities from physical quantities, like the expectation value of the stress–energy tensor. Apart from this, the Boulware, Hartle–Hawking and Unruh vacua differ little from the treatment on a classical space-time. The asymptotic modes near scri are reproduced very well. We show that the Hawking radiation can be computed, leading to an expression similar to the conventional one but with a high frequency cutoff. Since many of the conclusions concern asymptotic behavior, where the spherical mode of the field behaves in a similar way as higher multipole modes do, the results can be readily generalized to non spherically symmetric fields. (paper)

  15. Preserving spherical symmetry in axisymmetric coordinates for diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, T. A.; Kolev, T. V.; Bailey, T. S.; Till, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    Persevering symmetric solutions, even in the under-converged limit, is important to the robustness of production simulation codes. We explore the symmetry preservation in both a continuous nodal and a mixed finite element method. In their standard formulation, neither method preserves spherical solution symmetry in axisymmetric (RZ) coordinates. We propose two methods, one for each family of finite elements, that recover spherical symmetry for low-order finite elements on linear or curvilinear meshes. This is a first step toward understanding achieving symmetry for higher-order elements. (authors)

  16. Symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, Marcin L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on symmetric extendibility of quantum states become especially important in a context of analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, distilabillity and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyse composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part with a particular attention devoted to one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of quantum state. We underpin those results with geome...

  17. A symmetric safety valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Danny

    2010-01-01

    How to set policy in the presence of uncertainty has been central in debates over climate policy. Concern about costs has motivated the proposal for a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, with a 'safety valve' that would mitigate against spikes in the cost of emission reductions by introducing additional emission allowances into the market when marginal costs rise above the specified allowance price level. We find two significant problems, both stemming from the asymmetry of an instrument that mitigates only against a price increase. One is that most important examples of price volatility in cap-and-trade programs have occurred not when prices spiked, but instead when allowance prices collapsed. Second, a single-sided safety valve may have unintended consequences for investment. We illustrate that a symmetric safety valve provides environmental and welfare improvements relative to the conventional one-sided approach.

  18. Symmetric q-Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Dattoli

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available q analog of bessel functions, symmetric under the interchange of q and q^ −1 are introduced. The definition is based on the generating function realized as product of symmetric q-exponential functions with appropriate arguments. Symmetric q-Bessel function are shown to satisfy various identities as well as second-order q-differential equations, which in the limit q → 1 reproduce those obeyed by the usual cylindrical Bessel functions. A brief discussion on the possible algebraic setting for symmetric q-Bessel functions is also provided.

  19. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  20. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  1. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  2. Spherical proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Semmes, P.B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches to proton emission from spherical nuclei are investigated, and it is found that all the methods employed give very similar results. The calculated decay widths are found to be qualitatively insensitive to the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential, i.e., changing the potential parameters over a fairly large range typically changes the decay width by no more than a factor of ∼3. Proton half-lives of observed heavy proton emitters are, in general, well reproduced by spherical calculations with the spectroscopic factors calculated in the independent quasiparticle approximation. The quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained in our study requires that the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential be chosen carefully. It also suggests that deformed proton emitters will provide invaluable spectroscopic information on the angular momentum decomposition of single-proton orbitals in deformed nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. The space-time outside a source of gravitational radiation: the axially symmetric null fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, L. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Escuela de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Universidad de Salamanca, Instituto Universitario de Fisica Fundamental y Matematicas, Salamanca (Spain); Di Prisco, A. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Escuela de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ospino, J. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and Instituto Universitario de Fisica Fundamental y Matematicas, Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    We carry out a study of the exterior of an axially and reflection symmetric source of gravitational radiation. The exterior of such a source is filled with a null fluid produced by the dissipative processes inherent to the emission of gravitational radiation, thereby representing a generalization of the Vaidya metric for axially and reflection symmetric space-times. The role of the vorticity, and its relationship with the presence of gravitational radiation is put in evidence. The spherically symmetric case (Vaidya) is, asymptotically, recovered within the context of the 1 + 3 formalism. (orig.)

  4. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  5. Symmetric pseudocapacitors based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-modified carbon nanospheres: correlating physicochemistry and synergistic interaction on energy storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khawula, TNY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide-modified carbon nanospheres (MoS(sub2)/CNS) with two different morphologies (spherical and flower-like) have been synthesized using hydrothermal techniques and investigated as symmetric pseudocapacitors in an aqueous electrolyte...

  6. Design and Transmission Analysis of an Asymmetrical Spherical Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Caro, Stéphane; Wang, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    analysis and optimal design of the proposed manipulator based on its kinematic analysis. The input and output transmission indices of the manipulator are defined for its optimum design based on the virtual coefficient between the transmission wrenches and twist screws. The sets of optimal parameters......This paper presents an asymmetrical spherical parallel manipulator and its transmissibility analysis. This manipulator contains a center shaft to both generate a decoupled unlimited-torsion motion and support the mobile platform for high positioning accuracy. This work addresses the transmission...... are identified and the distribution of the transmission index is visualized. Moreover, a comparative study regarding to the performances with the symmetrical spherical parallel manipulators is conducted and the comparison shows the advantages of the proposed manipulator with respect to its spherical parallel...

  7. Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…

  8. Liouvillian integrability of gravitating static isothermal fluid spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacono, Roberto; Llibre, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    We examine the integrability properties of the Einstein field equations for static, spherically symmetric fluid spheres, complemented with an isothermal equation of state, ρ = np. In this case, Einstein's equations can be reduced to a nonlinear, autonomous second order ordinary differential equation (ODE) for m/R (m is the mass inside the radius R) that has been solved analytically only for n = −1 and n = −3, yielding the cosmological solutions by De Sitter and Einstein, respectively, and for n = −5, case for which the solution can be derived from the De Sitter's one using a symmetry of Einstein's equations. The solutions for these three cases are of Liouvillian type, since they can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Here, we address the question of whether Liouvillian solutions can be obtained for other values of n. To do so, we transform the second order equation into an equivalent autonomous Lotka–Volterra quadratic polynomial differential system in R 2 , and characterize the Liouvillian integrability of this system using Darboux theory. We find that the Lotka–Volterra system possesses Liouvillian first integrals for n = −1, −3, −5, which descend from the existence of invariant algebraic curves of degree one, and for n = −6, a new solvable case, associated to an invariant algebraic curve of higher degree (second). For any other value of n, eventual first integrals of the Lotka–Volterra system, and consequently of the second order ODE for the mass function must be non-Liouvillian. This makes the existence of other solutions of the isothermal fluid sphere problem with a Liouvillian metric quite unlikely

  9. Liouvillian integrability of gravitating static isothermal fluid spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacono, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.iacono@enea.it [ENEA-C. R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy); Llibre, Jaume, E-mail: jllibre@mat.uab.cat [Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    We examine the integrability properties of the Einstein field equations for static, spherically symmetric fluid spheres, complemented with an isothermal equation of state, ρ = np. In this case, Einstein's equations can be reduced to a nonlinear, autonomous second order ordinary differential equation (ODE) for m/R (m is the mass inside the radius R) that has been solved analytically only for n = -1 and n = -3, yielding the cosmological solutions by De Sitter and Einstein, respectively, and for n = -5, case for which the solution can be derived from the De Sitter's one using a symmetry of Einstein's equations. The solutions for these three cases are of Liouvillian type, since they can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Here, we address the question of whether Liouvillian solutions can be obtained for other values of n. To do so, we transform the second order equation into an equivalent autonomous Lotka–Volterra quadratic polynomial differential system in R² and characterize the Liouvillian integrability of this system using Darboux theory. We find that the Lotka–Volterra system possesses Liouvillian first integrals for n = -1, -3, -5, which descend from the existence of invariant algebraic curves of degree one, and for n = -6, a new solvable case, associated to an invariant algebraic curve of higher degree (second). For any other value of n, eventual first integrals of the Lotka–Volterra system, and consequently of the second order ODE for the mass function must be non-Liouvillian. This makes the existence of other solutions of the isothermal fluid sphere problem with a Liouvillian metric quite unlikely.

  10. Current drive experiments on the HIT-II spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Raman, R.; Nelson, B.A.; Holcomb, C.T.; McCollam, K.J.; Sieck, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the following new achievements from the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) program: a) formation and sustainment of a toroidal magnetic equilibrium using coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in a conducting shell that has an L/R time much shorter than the pulse length; b) static formation of a spherical torus with plasma current over 180 kA using a transformer and feedback controlled equilibrium coils; and c) production of a current increase in a transformer produced spherical torus using CHI. (author)

  11. Current drive experiments on the HIT-II spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.; Raman, R.; Nelson, B.; Holcomb, C.T.; McCollam, K.J.; Sieck, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the following new achievements from the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) program: a) formation and sustainment of a toroidal magnetic equilibrium using coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in a conducting shell that has an L/R time much shorter than the pulse length; b) static formation of a spherical torus with plasma current over 180 kA using a transformer and feedback controlled equilibrium coils; and c) production of a current increase in a transformer produced spherical torus using CHI. (author)

  12. Skyrmions and vector mesons: a symmetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldi, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    We propose an extension of the effective, low-energy chiral Lagrangian known as the Skyrme model, to one formulated by a non-linear sigma model generalized to include vector mesons in a symmetric way. The model is based on chiral SU(6) x SU(6) symmetry spontaneously broken to static SU(6). The rho and other vector mesons are dormant Goldstone bosons since they are in the same SU(6) multiplet as the pion and other pseudoscalars. Hence the manifold of our generalized non-linear sigma model is the coset space (SU(6) x SU(6))/Su(6). Relativistic effects, via a spin-dependent mass term, break the static SU(6) and give the vectors a mass. The model can then be fully relativistic and covariant. The lowest-lying Skyrmion in this model is the whole baryonic 56-plet, which splits into the octet and decuplet in the presence of relativistic SU(6)-breaking. Due to the built-in SU(6) and the presence of vector mesons, the model is expected to have better phenomenological results, as well as providing a conceptually more unified picture of mesons and baryons. 29 references

  13. Mesotherapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Matsukura, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2010-04-01

    Benign symmetric lipomatosis, also known as Madelung disease, is a rare disorder characterized by fat distribution around the shoulders, arms, and neck in the context of chronic alcoholism. Complete excision of nonencapsulated lipomas is difficult. However, reports describing conservative therapeutic measures for lipomatosis are rare. The authors present the case of a 42-year-old man with a diagnosis of benign symmetric lipomatosis who had multiple, large, symmetrical masses in his neck. Multiple phosphatidylcholine injections in the neck were administered 4 weeks apart, a total of seven times to achieve lipolysis. The patient's lipomatosis improved in response to the injections, and he achieved good cosmetic results. Intralesional injection, termed mesotherapy, using phosphatidylcholine is a potentially effective therapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis that should be reconsidered as a therapeutic option for this disease.

  14. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell e...

  15. Magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphasis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasms in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In addition, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps in the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (orig.)

  16. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic implosion symmetry and suppression of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in an octahedrally symmetric field

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic implosion symmetry and suppression of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in an octahedrally symmetric field

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2017-01-27

    We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.

  19. Evolution of the spherical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The possible processes of the Galaxy spherical clusters formation and evolution are described on a popular level. The orbits of spherical cluster motion and their spatial velocities are determined. Given are the distrbutions of spherical cluster stars according to their velocities and the observed distribution of spherical clusters in the area of the Galaxy slow evolution. The dissipation and dynamic friction processes destructing clusters with the mass less than 10 4 of solar mass and bringing about the reduction of clusters in the Galaxy are considered. The paradox of forming mainly X-ray sources in spherical clusters is explained. The schematic image of possible ways of forming X-ray sources in spherical clusters is given

  20. The Role of Orthogonal Polynomials in Tailoring Spherical Distributions to Kurtosis Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bagnato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out an investigation of the orthogonal-polynomial approach to reshaping symmetric distributions to fit in with data requirements so as to cover the multivariate case. With this objective in mind, reference is made to the class of spherical distributions, given that they provide a natural multivariate generalization of univariate even densities. After showing how to tailor a spherical distribution via orthogonal polynomials to better comply with kurtosis requirements, we provide operational conditions for the positiveness of the resulting multivariate Gram–Charlier-like expansion, together with its kurtosis range. Finally, the approach proposed here is applied to some selected spherical distributions.

  1. Static validation of licence conformance policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    Policy conformance is a security property gaining importance due to commercial interest like Digital Rights Management. It is well known that static analysis can be used to validate a number of more classical security policies, such as discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as well...... as communication protocols using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. In this work we show how to develop a Flow Logic for validating the conformance of client software with respect to a licence conformance policy. Our approach is sufficiently flexible that it extends to fully open systems that can admit new...

  2. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  3. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes

    2003-01-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  4. On perfect fluids and black holes in static equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc; Simon, Walter [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Proofs of spherical symmetry of static black holes and of spherical symmetry of static perfect fluids normally require, a priori, 'black holes only' or 'fluid only'. In a recent paper Shiromizu, Yamada and Yoshino admit a priori (and exclude) coexistence of fluids and holes. This work assumes connectedness of the fluid region and the same assumptions on the equation of state as earlier papers on the 'fluid only' case, and requires in addition an upper bound for the fluid mass in terms of the black holes masses. We discuss this paper. As a new result we show that there cannot exist static fluid shells (i.e. fluid regions of the topology of an annulus) even if one a priori admits, inside and outside the shell, any arrangement of black holes or additional matter which satisfies the energy condition.

  5. On perfect fluids and black holes in static equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc; Simon, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Proofs of spherical symmetry of static black holes and of spherical symmetry of static perfect fluids normally require, a priori, 'black holes only' or 'fluid only'. In a recent paper Shiromizu, Yamada and Yoshino admit a priori (and exclude) coexistence of fluids and holes. This work assumes connectedness of the fluid region and the same assumptions on the equation of state as earlier papers on the 'fluid only' case, and requires in addition an upper bound for the fluid mass in terms of the black holes masses. We discuss this paper. As a new result we show that there cannot exist static fluid shells (i.e. fluid regions of the topology of an annulus) even if one a priori admits, inside and outside the shell, any arrangement of black holes or additional matter which satisfies the energy condition

  6. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  7. Permutation-symmetric three-particle hyper-spherical harmonics based on the S3⊗SO(3rot⊂O(2⊗SO(3rot⊂U(3⋊S2⊂O(6 subgroup chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Salom

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We construct the three-body permutation symmetric hyperspherical harmonics to be used in the non-relativistic three-body Schrödinger equation in three spatial dimensions (3D. We label the state vectors according to the S3⊗SO(3rot⊂O(2⊗SO(3rot⊂U(3⋊S2⊂O(6 subgroup chain, where S3 is the three-body permutation group and S2 is its two element subgroup containing transposition of first two particles, O(2 is the “democracy transformation”, or “kinematic rotation” group for three particles; SO(3rot is the 3D rotation group, and U(3,O(6 are the usual Lie groups. We discuss the good quantum numbers implied by the above chain of algebras, as well as their relation to the S3 permutation properties of the harmonics, particularly in view of the SO(3rot⊂SU(3 degeneracy. We provide a definite, practically implementable algorithm for the calculation of harmonics with arbitrary finite integer values of the hyper angular momentum K, and show an explicit example of this construction in a specific case with degeneracy, as well as tables of K≤6 harmonics. All harmonics are expressed as homogeneous polynomials in the Jacobi vectors (λ,ρ with coefficients given as algebraic numbers unless the “operator method” is chosen for the lifting of the SO(3rot⊂SU(3 multiplicity and the dimension of the degenerate subspace is greater than four – in which case one must resort to numerical diagonalization; the latter condition is not met by any K≤15 harmonic, or by any L≤7 harmonic with arbitrary K. We also calculate a certain type of matrix elements (the Gaunt integrals of products of three harmonics in two ways: 1 by explicit evaluation of integrals and 2 by reduction to known SU(3 Clebsch–Gordan coefficients. In this way we complete the calculation of the ingredients sufficient for the solution to the quantum-mechanical three-body bound state problem.

  8. Harmonic analysis on symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Terras, Audrey

    This text explores the geometry and analysis of higher rank analogues of the symmetric spaces introduced in volume one. To illuminate both the parallels and differences of the higher rank theory, the space of positive matrices is treated in a manner mirroring that of the upper-half space in volume one. This concrete example furnishes motivation for the general theory of noncompact symmetric spaces, which is outlined in the final chapter. The book emphasizes motivation and comprehensibility, concrete examples and explicit computations (by pen and paper, and by computer), history, and, above all, applications in mathematics, statistics, physics, and engineering. The second edition includes new sections on Donald St. P. Richards’s central limit theorem for O(n)-invariant random variables on the symmetric space of GL(n, R), on random  matrix theory, and on advances in the theory of automorphic forms on arithmetic groups.

  9. Axially symmetric Lorentzian wormholes in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schein, F.

    1997-11-01

    The field equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity, being local, do not fix the global structure of space-time. They admit topologically non-trivial solutions, including spatially closed universes and the amazing possibility of shortcuts for travel between distant regions in space and time - so-called Lorentzian wormholes. The aim of this thesis is to (mathematically) construct space-times which contain traversal wormholes connecting arbitrary distant regions of an asymptotically flat or asymptotically de Sitter universe. Since the wormhole mouths appear as two separate masses in the exterior space, space-time can at best be axially symmetric. We eliminate the non-staticity caused by the gravitational attraction of the mouths by anchoring them by strings held at infinity or, alternatively, by electric repulsion. The space-times are obtained by surgically grafting together well-known solutions of Einstein's equations along timelike hypersurfaces. This surgery naturally concentrates a non-zero stress-energy tensor on the boundary between the two space-times which can be investigated by using the standard thin shell formalism. It turns out that, when using charged black holes, the provided constructions are possible without violation of any of the energy conditions. In general, observers living in the axially symmetric, asymptotically flat (respectively asymptotically de Sitter) region axe able to send causal signals through the topologically non-trivial region. However, the wormhole space-times contain closed timelike curves. Because of this explicit violation of global hyperbolicity these models do not serve as counterexamples to known topological censorship theorems. (author)

  10. New static solutions in f(T) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daouda, M.H.; Rodrigues, Manuel E. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Houndjo, M.J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    We consider the equations of motion of an anisotropic space-time in f(T) theory, where T is the torsion. New spherically symmetric solutions of black holes and wormholes are obtained with a constant torsion and for the cases for which the radial pressure is proportional to a real constant, to some algebraic functions f(T) and their derivatives f{sub T}(T), or vanishes identically. (orig.)

  11. Static black hole and vacuum energy: thin shell and incompressible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming; Matsuo, Yoshinori

    2018-03-01

    With the back reaction of the vacuum energy-momentum tensor consistently taken into account, we study static spherically symmetric black-hole-like solutions to the semi-classical Einstein equation. The vacuum energy is assumed to be given by that of 2-dimensional massless scalar fields, as a widely used model in the literature for black holes. The solutions have no horizon. Instead, there is a local minimum in the radius. We consider thin shells as well as incompressible fluid as the matter content of the black-hole-like geometry. The geometry has several interesting features due to the back reaction of vacuum energy. In particular, Buchdahl's inequality can be violated without divergence in pressure, even if the surface is below the Schwarzschild radius. At the same time, the surface of the star can not be far below the Schwarzschild radius for a density not much higher than the Planck scale, and the proper distance from its surface to the origin can be very short even for very large Schwarzschild radius. The results also imply that, contrary to the folklore, in principle the Boulware vacuum can be physical for black holes.

  12. Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: Static frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, we assume that the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies and use the Hamilton–Jacobi method to investigate the corresponding effects on the Hawking radiation in this paper. The preferred frame is the static frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energies but is modified near the Planck mass mp. We calculate the corrections to the Hawking temperature for massive and charged particles to O(mp−2 and massless and neutral particles to all orders. Our results suggest that the thermal spectrum of radiations near horizon is robust, e.g. corrections to the Hawking temperature are suppressed by mp. After the spectrum of radiations near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole. We find that the subleading logarithmic term of the entropy does not depend on how the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified. Finally, the luminosities of black holes are computed by using the geometric optics approximation.

  13. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  14. Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus......, but using a non-local rewriting. The second system is the symmetric completion of the first, as normally given in deep inference for logics with a DeMorgan duality: all inference rules have duals, as cut is dual to the identity axiom. We prove a generalisation of cut elimination, that we call symmetric...

  15. Diagrams for symmetric product orbifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakman, Ari; Rastelli, Leonardo; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a diagrammatic language for symmetric product orbifolds of two-dimensional conformal field theories. Correlation functions of twist operators are written as sums of diagrams: each diagram corresponds to a branched covering map from a surface where the fields are single-valued to the base sphere where twist operators are inserted. This diagrammatic language facilitates the study of the large N limit and makes more transparent the analogy between symmetric product orbifolds and free non-abelian gauge theories. We give a general algorithm to calculate the leading large N contribution to four-point correlators of twist fields.

  16. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 20 rue de l' Ecole-de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pironio, Stefano, E-mail: jean-daniel.bancal@unige.c [Laboratoire d' Information Quantique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2010-09-24

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  17. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  18. First results of spherical GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda; Taureg, Hans; Villa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method to make GEM foils with a spherical geometry. Tests of this procedure and with the resulting spherical GEMs are presented. Together with a spherical drift electrode, a spherical conversion gap can be formed. This eliminates the parallax error for detection of x-rays, neutrons or UV photons when a gaseous converter is used. This parallax error limits the spatial resolution at wide scattering angles. Besides spherical GEMs, we have developed curved spacers to maintain accurate spacing, and a conical field cage to prevent edge distortion of the radial drift field up to the limit of the angular acceptance of the detector. With these components first tests are done in a setup with a spherical entrance window but a planar readout structure; results will be presented and discussed. A flat readout structure poses difficulties, however. Therefore we will show advanced plans to make a prototype of an entirely spherical double-GEM detector, including a spherical 2D readout structure. This detector w...

  19. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  20. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, R.A. Jr; Gliebe, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload. 7 figs

  1. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  2. Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Sofo, Jorge O.; Cole, Milton W.; Velegol, Darrell; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2005-01-01

    A cluster consisting of many atoms or molecules may be considered, in some circumstances, to be a single large molecule with a well-defined polarizability. Once the polarizability of such a cluster is known, one can evaluate certain properties--e.g. the cluster's van der Waals interactions, using expressions derived for atoms or molecules. In the present work, we evaluate the static polarizability of a cluster using a microscopic method that is exact within the linear and dipolar approximations. Numerical examples are presented for various shapes and sizes of clusters composed of identical atoms, where the term 'atom' actually refers to a generic constituent, which could be any polarizable entity. The results for the clusters' polarizabilities are compared with those obtained by assuming simple additivity of the constituents' atomic polarizabilities; in many cases, the difference is large, demonstrating the inadequacy of the additivity approximation. Comparison is made (for symmetrical geometries) with results obtained from continuum models of the polarizability. Also, the surface effects due to the nonuniform local field near a surface or edge are shown to be significant

  3. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  4. Tilting-connected symmetric algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    The notion of silting mutation was introduced by Iyama and the author. In this paper we mainly study silting mutation for self-injective algebras and prove that any representation-finite symmetric algebra is tilting-connected. Moreover we give some sufficient conditions for a Bongartz-type Lemma to hold for silting objects.

  5. Symmetric group representations and Z

    OpenAIRE

    Adve, Anshul; Yong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We discuss implications of the following statement about the representation theory of symmetric groups: every integer appears infinitely often as an irreducible character evaluation, and every nonnegative integer appears infinitely often as a Littlewood-Richardson coefficient and as a Kronecker coefficient.

  6. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  7. Quantum systems and symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained

  8. The symmetric longest queue system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, Geert-Jan; Adan, Ivo; van der Wal, Jan

    1997-01-01

    We derive the performance of the exponential symmetric longest queue system from two variants: a longest queue system with Threshold Rejection of jobs and one with Threshold Addition of jobs. It is shown that these two systems provide lower and upper bounds for the performance of the longest queue

  9. Sirius-T, a symmetrically illuminated ICF tritium production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Sawan, M.E.; Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Engelstad, R.L.; Larsen, E.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Peterson, R.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A scoping study of a symmetrically illuminated ICF tritium production facility utilizing a KrF laser is presented. A single shell ICF target is illuminated by 92 beams symmetrically distributed around a spherical cavity filled with xenon gas at 1.0 torr. The driver energy and target gain are taken to be 2 MJ and 50 for the optimistic case and 1 MJ and 100 for the conservative case. Based on a graphite dry wall evaporation rate of 0.1 cm/y for a 100 MJ yield, the authors estimate a cavity radius of 3.5 m for a rep-rate of 10 Hz and 3.0 m for 5 Hz. A spherical structural frame has been scoped out capable of supporting 92 blanket modules, each with a beam port in the center. They have selected liquid lithium in vanadium structure as the primary breeding concept utilizing beryllium as a neutron multiplier. A tritium breeding ratio of 1.83 can be achieved in the 3 m radius cavity which at 10 Hz and an availability of 75% provides an annual tritium surplus of 32.6 kg. Assuming 100% debt financing over a 30 year reactor lifetime, the production cost of T 2 for the 2 MJ driver case is $7,325/g for a 5% interest rate and $12,370/g for a 10% interest rate. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Symmetric imaging findings in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Learning objectives: to make a list of diseases and syndromes which manifest as bilateral symmetric findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; to discuss the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis for these diseases; to explain which of these conditions necessitates urgent therapy and when additional studies and laboratory can precise diagnosis. There is symmetry in human body and quite often we compare the affected side to the normal one but in neuroradiology we might have bilateral findings which affected pair structures or corresponding anatomic areas. It is very rare when clinical data prompt diagnosis. Usually clinicians suspect such an involvement but Ct and MRI can reveal symmetric changes and are one of the leading diagnostic tool. The most common location of bilateral findings is basal ganglia and thalamus. There are a number of diseases affecting these structures symmetrically: metabolic and systemic diseases, intoxication, neurodegeneration and vascular conditions, toxoplasmosis, tumors and some infections. Malformations of cortical development and especially bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria requires not only exact report on the most affected parts but in some cases genetic tests or combination with other clinical symptoms. In the case of herpes simplex encephalitis bilateral temporal involvement is common and this finding very often prompt therapy even before laboratory results. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PReS) and some forms of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can lead to symmetric changes. In these acute conditions MR plays a crucial role not only in diagnosis but also in monitoring of the therapeutic effect. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 can demonstrate bilateral optic glioma combined with spinal neurofibroma and bilateral acoustic schwanoma respectively. Mirror-image aneurysm affecting both internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries is an example of symmetry in

  11. 'Static' octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leander, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Certain nuclei can be described as having intrinsic shapes with parity breaking static moments. The rationale for this description is discussed, spectroscopic models are outlined and their consequences are compared with experiment. (orig.)

  12. Tensor spherical harmonics and tensor multipoles. II. Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumens, M.; Minnaert, P.

    1976-01-01

    The bases of tensor spherical harmonics and of tensor multipoles discussed in the preceding paper are generalized in the Hilbert space of Minkowski tensor fields. The transformation properties of the tensor multipoles under Lorentz transformation lead to the notion of irreducible tensor multipoles. We show that the usual 4-vector multipoles are themselves irreducible, and we build the irreducible tensor multipoles of the second order. We also give their relations with the symmetric tensor multipoles defined by Zerilli for application to the gravitational radiation

  13. Legendre Duality of Spherical and Gaussian Spin Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, Giuseppe; Tantari, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The classical result of concentration of the Gaussian measure on the sphere in the limit of large dimension induces a natural duality between Gaussian and spherical models of spin glass. We analyse the Legendre variational structure linking the free energies of these two systems, in the spirit of the equivalence of ensembles of statistical mechanics. Our analysis, combined with the previous work (Barra et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47, 155002, 2014), shows that such models are replica symmetric. Lastly, we briefly discuss an application of our result to the study of the Gaussian Hopfield model

  14. Legendre Duality of Spherical and Gaussian Spin Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genovese, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.genovese@math.uzh.ch [Universität Zürich, Institut für Mathematik (Switzerland); Tantari, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.tantari@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Centro Ennio de Giorgi (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The classical result of concentration of the Gaussian measure on the sphere in the limit of large dimension induces a natural duality between Gaussian and spherical models of spin glass. We analyse the Legendre variational structure linking the free energies of these two systems, in the spirit of the equivalence of ensembles of statistical mechanics. Our analysis, combined with the previous work (Barra et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47, 155002, 2014), shows that such models are replica symmetric. Lastly, we briefly discuss an application of our result to the study of the Gaussian Hopfield model.

  15. Near spherical illumination of ion-beam and laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is developed for reducing energy-deposition asymmetry in spherical targets driven directly by ion or laser beams. This work is part of a strategy for achieving illumination symmetry in such targets, which is proposed as an alternative to those in the literature. This strategy allows an axially symmetric placement of beamlets, which would be convenient for some driven or reactor scenarios. It also allows the use of beam currents or energy fluxes and beam transverse profiles to help reduce deposition asymmetry with fewer beamlets. In the ideal limit of thin deposition layers and controlled beam profiles, at most six beamlets are needed for target symmetry

  16. Complete synthetic seismograms based on a spherical self-gravitating Earth model with an atmosphere-ocean-mantle-core structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongjiang; Heimann, Sebastian; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Hansheng; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid method is proposed to calculate complete synthetic seismograms based on a spherically symmetric and self-gravitating Earth with a multilayered structure of atmosphere, ocean, mantle, liquid core and solid core. For large wavelengths, a numerical scheme is used to solve the geodynamic boundary-value problem without any approximation on the deformation and gravity coupling. With decreasing wavelength, the gravity effect on the deformation becomes negligible and the analytical propagator scheme can be used. Many useful approaches are used to overcome the numerical problems that may arise in both analytical and numerical schemes. Some of these approaches have been established in the seismological community and the others are developed for the first time. Based on the stable and efficient hybrid algorithm, an all-in-one code QSSP is implemented to cover the complete spectrum of seismological interests. The performance of the code is demonstrated by various tests including the curvature effect on teleseismic body and surface waves, the appearance of multiple reflected, teleseismic core phases, the gravity effect on long period surface waves and free oscillations, the simulation of near-field displacement seismograms with the static offset, the coupling of tsunami and infrasound waves, and free oscillations of the solid Earth, the atmosphere and the ocean. QSSP is open source software that can be used as a stand-alone FORTRAN code or may be applied in combination with a Python toolbox to calculate and handle Green's function databases for efficient coding of source inversion problems.

  17. Linearized vector radiative transfer model MCC++ for a spherical atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postylyakov, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    Application of radiative transfer models has shown that optical remote sensing requires extra characteristics of radiance field in addition to the radiance intensity itself. Simulation of spectral measurements, analysis of retrieval errors and development of retrieval algorithms are in need of derivatives of radiance with respect to atmospheric constituents under investigation. The presented vector spherical radiative transfer model MCC++ was linearized, which allows the calculation of derivatives of all elements of the Stokes vector with respect to the volume absorption coefficient simultaneously with radiance calculation. The model MCC++ employs Monte Carlo algorithm for radiative transfer simulation and takes into account aerosol and molecular scattering, gas and aerosol absorption, and Lambertian surface albedo. The model treats a spherically symmetrical atmosphere. Relation of the estimated derivatives with other forms of radiance derivatives: the weighting functions used in gas retrieval and the air mass factors used in the DOAS retrieval algorithms, is obtained. Validation of the model against other radiative models is overviewed. The computing time of the intensity for the MCC++ model is about that for radiative models treating sphericity of the atmosphere approximately and is significantly shorter than that for the full spherical models used in the comparisons. The simultaneous calculation of all derivatives (i.e. with respect to absorption in all model atmosphere layers) and the intensity is only 1.2-2 times longer than the calculation of the intensity only

  18. Spherical thin shells in F(R) gravity. Construction and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Figueroa Aguirre, Griselda [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2018-01-15

    We present a broad class of spherical thin shells of matter in F(R) gravity. We show that the corresponding junction conditions determine the equation of state between the energy density and the pressure/tension at the surface. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the symmetry. We apply the formalism to the construction of charged bubbles and we find that there exist stable static configurations for a suitable set of the parameters of the model. (orig.)

  19. Spherical thin shells in F(R) gravity. Construction and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Figueroa Aguirre, Griselda

    2018-01-01

    We present a broad class of spherical thin shells of matter in F(R) gravity. We show that the corresponding junction conditions determine the equation of state between the energy density and the pressure/tension at the surface. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the symmetry. We apply the formalism to the construction of charged bubbles and we find that there exist stable static configurations for a suitable set of the parameters of the model. (orig.)

  20. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  1. JUST: Joint Upgraded Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, E.A.; Dvorkin, N.Ya.; Filatov, O.G.

    1997-01-01

    The main goals, ideas and the programme of JUST, spherical tokamak (ST) for the plasma burn investigation, are presented. The place and prospects of JUST in thermonuclear investigations are discussed. (author)

  2. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    to emulate spherical wave channel models in multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. In this paper, a technique based on the field synthesis principle is proposed to approximate spherical waves emitted from arbitrarily located point sources with arbitrary polarizations. Simulation results show that static......Spherical wave channel modeling has attracted huge research attention for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and short-distance MIMO systems. Current research work in multi-probe anechoic chamber systems is limited to reproduce radio channels assuming planar wavefronts. There is a need...... spherical waves can be reproduced with a limited number of probes, and the field synthesis accuracy of spherical wave depends on the location of the source point....

  3. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Barbosa, L.F.W.; Patire Junior, H.; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  4. Miniaturization of Spherical Magnetodielectric Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle

    ; Arbitrary order of the spherical wave, arbitrary radius of the spherical antenna, as well as arbitrarily large core permeability and/or permittivity, given an inversely proportional frequency variation of the imaginary part(s) and an arbitrary dispersion of the real part(s) - thus describing both lossless...... with a magnetic loss tangent of 1 and relative permeability of 300 yield Q/e equal 65% of the Chu lower bound, with a simultaneous e of 71%....

  5. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  6. Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Han

    2018-01-17

    The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy to the complex quantum potentials, photonics provides an ideal platform for visualization of many conceptually striking predictions from the non-Hermitian quantum theory. A rapidly developing field has emerged, namely, PT symmetric photonics, demonstrating intriguing optical phenomena including eigenstate coalescence and spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. The advance of quantum physics, as the feedback, provides photonics with brand-new paradigms to explore the entire complex permittivity plane for novel optical functionalities. Here, we review recent exciting breakthroughs in PT symmetric photonics while systematically presenting their underlying principles guided by non-Hermitian symmetries. The potential device applications for optical communication and computing, bio-chemical sensing, and healthcare are also discussed.

  7. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  8. Reducing depth induced spherical aberration in 3D widefield fluorescence microscopy by wavefront coding using the SQUBIC phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwary, Nurmohammed; Doblas, Ana; King, Sharon V.; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2014-03-01

    Imaging thick biological samples introduces spherical aberration (SA) due to refractive index (RI) mismatch between specimen and imaging lens immersion medium. SA increases with the increase of either depth or RI mismatch. Therefore, it is difficult to find a static compensator for SA1. Different wavefront coding methods2,3 have been studied to find an optimal way of static wavefront correction to reduce depth-induced SA. Inspired by a recent design of a radially symmetric squared cubic (SQUBIC) phase mask that was tested for scanning confocal microscopy1 we have modified the pupil using the SQUBIC mask to engineer the point spread function (PSF) of a wide field fluorescence microscope. In this study, simulated images of a thick test object were generated using a wavefront encoded engineered PSF (WFEPSF) and were restored using space-invariant (SI) and depth-variant (DV) expectation maximization (EM) algorithms implemented in the COSMOS software4. Quantitative comparisons between restorations obtained with both the conventional and WFE PSFs are presented. Simulations show that, in the presence of SA, the use of the SIEM algorithm and a single SQUBIC encoded WFE-PSF can yield adequate image restoration. In addition, in the presence of a large amount of SA, it is possible to get adequate results using the DVEM with fewer DV-PSFs than would typically be required for processing images acquired with a clear circular aperture (CCA) PSF. This result implies that modification of a widefield system with the SQUBIC mask renders the system less sensitive to depth-induced SA and suitable for imaging samples at larger optical depths.

  9. On symmetric structures of order two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bousquet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Let (ω n 0 < n be the sequence known as Integer Sequence A047749 http://www.research.att.com/ njas/sequences/A047749 In this paper, we show that the integer ω n enumerates various kinds of symmetric structures of order two. We first consider ternary trees having a reflexive symmetry and we relate all symmetric combinatorial objects by means of bijection. We then generalize the symmetric structures and correspondences to an infinite family of symmetric objects.

  10. Formation of solar-type stars in spherical symmetry. II. Effects of detailed constitutive relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.A.; Newman, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A time-dependent hydrodynamical calculation of the spherically symmetric self-gravitational collapse and accretion of a homogeneous Jeans unstable 1 M/sub sun/ protostellar cloud has been performed using the detailed equation-of-state tables of Fontaine, Graboske, and Van Horn. It is found that the inner 0.03 M/sub sun/ of the core enters a partially degenerate region during the main accretion phase. A well-pronounced off-center temperature maximum develops under the combined influences of electron degeneracy and pressure ionization. A hydrogen ionization zone within the quasi-hydrostatic core drives core oscillations with typical periods of a few months in the transition phase from the second (final) collpase to the accretion stage. A third collapse does not occur, because of the gradual (''soft'') ionization of hydrogen at high density (rhoapprox. =1 g cm -3 ). Gas opacities were taken from the King IVa tables of Cox and Tabor, and dust opacities from Bertout and Yorke. Energy transport by radiation was treated by solution of the time-dependent moment equations with an Eddington factor f derived from the static transport equation. The diffusion approximation with f=1/3 would offer an adequate description of the protostellar core, but the intensity of the constant luminosity radiation field becomes highly anisotropic in local optically thin regions of the envelope. The degree of anisotropy in optically thick regions is determined by the temperature dependence of the dust opacity and the depletion of matter from the envelope. Near the end of the accretion phase the entire envelope is characterized by complete anisotropy f=1

  11. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  12. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...

  13. Quantum effects in non-maximally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Non-Maximally symmetric spaces provide a more general background to explore the relation between the geometry of the manifold and the quantum fields defined in the manifold than those with maximally symmetric spaces. A static Taub universe is used to study the effect of curvature anisotropy on the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a self-interacting scalar field. The one-loop effective potential on a λphi 4 field with arbitrary coupling xi is computed by zeta function regularization. For massless minimal coupled scalar fields, first order phase transitions can occur. Keeping the shape invariant but decreasing the curvature radius of the universe induces symmetry breaking. If the curvature radius is held constant, increasing deformation can restore the symmetry. Studies on the higher-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theories are also focused on the deformation effect. Using the dimensional regularization, the effective potential of the free scalar fields in M 4 x T/sup N/ and M 4 x (Taub) 3 spaces are obtained. The stability criterions for the static solutions of the self-consistent Einstein equations are derived. Stable solutions of the M 4 x S/sup N/ topology do not exist. With the Taub space as the internal space, the gauge coupling constants of SU(2), and U(1) can be determined geometrically. The weak angle is therefore predicted by geometry in this model

  14. Normal range of facial asymmetry in spherical coordinates: a CBCT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Rui Feng [Research Laboratory Specialist Intermediate, Department of Biologic and Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Na, Hee Ja [Dept. ofDental Hygiene, Honam University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan Matin [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed to measure the bilateral differences of facial lines in spherical coordinates from faces within a normal range of asymmetry utilizing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scans from 22 females with normal symmetric-looking faces (mean age 24 years and 8 months) were selected for the study. The average menton deviation was 1.01{+-}0.66 mm. The spherical coordinates, length, and midsagittal and coronal inclination angles of the ramal and mandibular lines were calculated from CBCT. The bilateral differences in the facial lines were determined. All of the study subjects had minimal bilateral differences of facial lines. The normal range of facial asymmetry of the ramal and mandibular lines was obtained in spherical coordinates. The normal range of facial asymmetry in the spherical coordinate system in this study should be useful as a reference for diagnosing facial asymmetry.

  15. Spherical dust collapse in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2004-01-01

    We consider here whether it is possible to recover cosmic censorship when a transition is made to higher-dimensional spacetimes, by studying the spherically symmetric dust collapse in an arbitrary higher spacetime dimension. It is pointed out that if only black holes are to result as the end state of a continual gravitational collapse, several conditions must be imposed on the collapsing configuration, some of which may appear to be restrictive, and we need to study carefully if these can be suitably motivated physically in a realistic collapse scenario. It would appear, that, in a generic higher-dimensional dust collapse, both black holes and naked singularities would develop as end states as indicated by the results here. The mathematical approach developed here generalizes and unifies the earlier available results on higher-dimensional dust collapse as we point out. Further, the dependence of black hole or naked singularity end states as collapse outcomes on the nature of the initial data from which the collapse develops is brought out explicitly and in a transparent manner as we show here. Our method also allows us to consider here in some detail the genericity and stability aspects related to the occurrence of naked singularities in gravitational collapse

  16. Painleve-Gullstrand synchronizations in spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, Alicia; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A Painleve-Gullstrand synchronization is a slicing of the spacetime by a family of flat space-like 3-surfaces. For spherically symmetric spacetimes, we show that a Painleve-Gullstrand synchronization only exists in the region where (dr) 2 ≤ 1, r being the curvature radius of the isometry group orbits (2-spheres). This condition states that the Misner-Sharp gravitational energy of these 2-spheres is not negative and has an intrinsic meaning in terms of the norm of the mean extrinsic curvature vector. It also provides an algebraic inequality involving the Weyl curvature scalar and the Ricci eigenvalues. We prove that the energy and momentum densities associated with the Weinberg complex of a Painleve-Gullstrand slice vanish in these curvature coordinates, and we give a new interpretation of these slices by using semi-metric Newtonian connections. It is also outlined that, by solving the vacuum Einstein's equations in a coordinate system adapted to a Painleve-Gullstrand synchronization, the Schwarzschild solution is directly obtained in a whole coordinate domain that includes the horizon and both its interior and exterior regions.

  17. A symmetric integral identity for Bessel functions with applications to integral geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Yehonatan

    2017-12-01

    In the article of Kunyansky (Inverse Probl 23(1):373-383, 2007) a symmetric integral identity for Bessel functions of the first and second kind was proved in order to obtain an explicit inversion formula for the spherical mean transform where our data is given on the unit sphere in Rn . The aim of this paper is to prove an analogous symmetric integral identity in case where our data for the spherical mean transform is given on an ellipse E in R2 . For this, we will use the recent results obtained by Cohl and Volkmer (J Phys A Math Theor 45:355204, 2012) for the expansions into eigenfunctions of Bessel functions of the first and second kind in elliptical coordinates.

  18. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  19. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new co...

  20. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)

  1. Symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, I G

    1997-01-01

    One of the most classical areas of algebra, the theory of symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials has long been known to be connected to combinatorics, representation theory, and other branches of mathematics. Written by perhaps the most famous author on the topic, this volume explains some of the current developments regarding these connections. It is based on lectures presented by the author at Rutgers University. Specifically, he gives recent results on orthogonal polynomials associated with affine Hecke algebras, surveying the proofs of certain famous combinatorial conjectures.

  2. Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Coelho M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.

  3. Ultrasmooth, Highly Spherical Monocrystalline Gold Particles for Precision Plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, You-Jin

    2013-12-23

    Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles were prepared by a cyclic process of slow growth followed by slow chemical etching, which selectively removes edges and vertices. The etching process effectively makes the surface tension isotropic, so that spheres are favored under quasi-static conditions. It is scalable up to particle sizes of 200 nm or more. The resulting spherical crystals display uniform scattering spectra and consistent optical coupling at small separations, even showing Fano-like resonances in small clusters. The high monodispersity of the particles we demonstrate should facilitate the self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters with uniform optical resonances, which could in turn be used to fabricate optical metafluids. Narrow size distributions are required to control not only the spectral features but also the morphology and yield of clusters in certain assembly schemes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Spherical Demons: Fast Surface Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B.T. Thomas; Sabuncu, Mert; Vercauteren, Tom; Ayache, Nicholas; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina

    2009-01-01

    We present the fast Spherical Demons algorithm for registering two spherical images. By exploiting spherical vector spline interpolation theory, we show that a large class of regularizers for the modified demons objective function can be efficiently implemented on the sphere using convolution. Based on the one parameter subgroups of diffeomorphisms, the resulting registration is diffeomorphic and fast – registration of two cortical mesh models with more than 100k nodes takes less than 5 minutes, comparable to the fastest surface registration algorithms. Moreover, the accuracy of our method compares favorably to the popular FreeSurfer registration algorithm. We validate the technique in two different settings: (1) parcellation in a set of in-vivo cortical surfaces and (2) Brodmann area localization in ex-vivo cortical surfaces. PMID:18979813

  5. On the Stability of Spherically Symmetric Self-Gravitating Classical and Quantum Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makedonski, Mathias

    on to the description of the corresponding systems in the setting of general relativity, it is shown, that the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volko equation can be obtained from a suitable variation of the total energy. We prove a previously unnoticed energetic instability of the model. Staying in the general relativistic setting....... As for the perfect fluid, we prove energetic instability and conclude our investigations by constructing a naive quantum version of the free massive scalar eld, that also suers energetic instability. ´...

  6. Solution of the spherically symmetric linear thermoviscoelastic problem in the inertia-free limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    paper-the thermoviscoelastic  problem may be solved analytically in the inertia-free limit, i.e., the limit where the sample is much smaller than the wavelength of sound waves at the frequencies of interest. As for the one-dimensional thermoviscoelastic problem [Christensen et al., Phys. Rev. E 75...

  7. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps II Spherically Symmetric Anisotropic Cusps

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D

    2010-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we study density cusps that may contain central black holes. The actual co-eval self-similar growth would not distinguish between the central object and the surroundings. Methods. To study the environment of a growing black hole we seek descriptions of steady 'cusps' that may contain a black hole and that retain at least a memory of self-similarity. We refer to the environment in brief as the 'bulge' and on smaller scales, the 'halo'. Results. We find simple descriptions of the simulations of collisionless matter by comparing predicted densities, velocity dispersions and distribution functions with the simulations. In some cases central point masses may be included by iteration. We emphasize that the co-eval self-similar growth allows an explanation of the black hole bulge mass correlation between approximately similar collisionless systems. Conclusions. We have derived our results from first principles assuming adiabatic self-similarity and either self-similar virialisation or normal stea...

  8. Propagation of a shock wave in a radiating spherically symmetric distribution of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Nunez, L.; Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela)

    1987-01-01

    A method used to study the evolution of radiating spheres reported by Herrera et al. (1980) is extended to the case in which the sphere is divided in two regions by a shock wave front. The equations of state at both sides of the shock are different, and the solutions are matched on it via the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. The outer-region metric is matched with a Vaidya solution on the boundary surface of the sphere. As an example of the procedure, two known solutions for radiating systems are considered. The matter distribution is free of singularities everywhere within the sphere and a Gaussian-like pulse is assumed to carry out a fraction of the total mass. Exploding models are then obtained. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of recent work on gravitational collapse and supernovae. 29 references

  9. Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyun; Wang Bingbing; Li Xiaofeng; Fu Panming; Chen Jing; Liu Jie; Jiang Hongbing; Gong Qihuang; Yan Zongchao

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional semiclassical method, we perform a systematic analysis of the effects of an additional static electric field on nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of a helium atom in an intense, linearly polarized laser field. It is found that the static electric field influences not only the ionization rate, but also the kinetic energy of the ionized electron returning to the parent ion, in such a way that, if the rate is increased, then the kinetic energy of the first returning electron is decreased, and vice versa. These two effects compete in NSDI. Since the effect of the static electric field on the ionization of the first electron plays a more crucial role in the competition, the symmetric double-peak structure of the He 2+ momentum distribution parallel to the polarization of the laser field is destroyed. Furthermore, the contribution of the trajectories with multiple recollisions to the NSDI is also changed dramatically by the static electric field. As the static electric field increases, the trajectories with two recollisions, which start at the time when the laser and the static electric field are in the same direction, become increasingly important for the NSDI

  10. The Static Quantum Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, inclu...

  11. Spherical Pendulum, Actions, and Spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, Peter H.; Dullin, Holger R.; Waalkens, Holger; Wiersig, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The classical and quantum mechanics of a spherical pendulum are worked out, including the dynamics of a suspending frame with moment of inertia θ. The presence of two separatrices in the bifurcation diagram of the energy-momentum mapping has its mathematical expression in the hyperelliptic nature of

  12. Laplacian eigenmodes for spherical spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, M; Caillerie, S

    2005-01-01

    The possibility that our space is multi-rather than singly-connected has gained renewed interest after the discovery of the low power for the first multipoles of the CMB by WMAP. To test the possibility that our space is a multi-connected spherical space, it is necessary to know the eigenmodes of such spaces. Except for lens and prism space, and to some extent for dodecahedral space, this remains an open problem. Here we derive the eigenmodes of all spherical spaces. For dodecahedral space, the demonstration is much shorter, and the calculation method much simpler than before. We also apply our method to tetrahedric, octahedric and icosahedric spaces. This completes the knowledge of eigenmodes for spherical spaces, and opens the door to new observational tests of the cosmic topology. The vector space V k of the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on the 3-sphere S 3 , corresponding to the same eigenvalue λ k = -k(k + 2), has dimension (k + 1) 2 . We show that the Wigner functions provide a basis for such a space. Using the properties of the latter, we express the behaviour of a general function of V k under an arbitrary rotation G of SO(4). This offers the possibility of selecting those functions of V k which remain invariant under G. Specifying G to be a generator of the holonomy group of a spherical space X, we give the expression of the vector space V x k of the eigenfunctions of X. We provide a method to calculate the eigenmodes up to an arbitrary order. As an illustration, we give the first modes for the spherical spaces mentioned

  13. ODF Maxima Extraction in Spherical Harmonic Representation via Analytical Search Space Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    By revealing complex fiber structure through the orientation distribution function (ODF), q-ball imaging has recently become a popular reconstruction technique in diffusion-weighted MRI. In this paper, we propose an analytical dimension reduction approach to ODF maxima extraction. We show that by expressing the ODF, or any antipodally symmetric spherical function, in the common fourth order real and symmetric spherical harmonic basis, the maxima of the two-dimensional ODF lie on an analytically derived one-dimensional space, from which we can detect the ODF maxima. This method reduces the computational complexity of the maxima detection, without compromising the accuracy. We demonstrate the performance of our technique on both artificial and human brain data. PMID:20879302

  14. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  15. Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.

  16. Nonlinear PT-symmetric plaquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Günther, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D PT-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its PTsymmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain–loss coefficient, γ. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  17. STATIC{sub T}EMP: a useful computer code for calculating static formation temperatures in geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco (Mexico); Garcia, A.; Santoyo, S. [Unidad Geotermia, Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco (Mexico); Espinosa, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Co. Vicentina (Mexico); Hernandez, I. [ITESM, Centro de Sistemas de Manufactura, Monterrey (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The development and application of the computer code STATIC{sub T}EMP, a useful tool for calculating static formation temperatures from actual bottomhole temperature data logged in geothermal wells is described. STATIC{sub T}EMP is based on five analytical methods which are the most frequently used in the geothermal industry. Conductive and convective heat flow models (radial, spherical/radial and cylindrical/radial) were selected. The computer code is a useful tool that can be reliably used in situ to determine static formation temperatures before or during the completion stages of geothermal wells (drilling and cementing). Shut-in time and bottomhole temperature measurements logged during well completion activities are required as input data. Output results can include up to seven computations of the static formation temperature by each wellbore temperature data set analysed. STATIC{sub T}EMP was written in Fortran-77 Microsoft language for MS-DOS environment using structured programming techniques. It runs on most IBM compatible personal computers. The source code and its computational architecture as well as the input and output files are described in detail. Validation and application examples on the use of this computer code with wellbore temperature data (obtained from specialised literature) and with actual bottomhole temperature data (taken from completion operations of some geothermal wells) are also presented. (Author)

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a self-similar spherical expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, I.B.; Book, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The self-similar motion of a spherically symmetric isentropic cloud of ideal gas driven outward by an expanding low-density medium (e.g., radiation pressure from a pulsar) is shown to be unstable to Rayleigh-Taylor modes which develop in the neighborhood of the interface. A complete solution of the linearized equations of motion is obtained. The implications for astrophysical phenomena are discussed

  19. New diffusion-like solutions of one-speed transport equations in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Stationary, one-speed, spherically symmetric transport equations are considered in a conservative medium. Closed-form expressions are obtained for the angular flux ψ(r, μ) that yield a total flux varying as 1/r by using Sonine transforms. Properties of this solution are studied and it is shown that the solution can not be identified as a diffusion mode solution of the transport equation. Limitations of the Sonine transform technique are noted. (author)

  20. Angular shift in scattering the spherical analogous of the Goos-Hanchen effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari Junior, N.F.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    A generalization of the time and spatial delay concept is obtained, for the scattering of transversaly incident beam restricted by a spherically symmetric scatterer using the methods of the complex angular momentum, valid for the angular momentum and angle conjufated variable pair. The result obtained is known validity domain, within the semiclassical approximation. Applied to the scttering problem in the high frequency limit by a transparent sphere with refractive index N [pt

  1. The static pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, Conrad L [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1958-07-01

    In a pinch, the outward diffusion of plasma due to collisions can be balanced by the inward drift resulting from ExB, where E is the applied electric field and B the magnetic field. From the equation expressing the balance of these two effects, together with the pressure balance equation, one obtains the perpendicular conductivity, which is about one-half of the classical parallel conductivity. This result has been applied to the problem of a static pinch under the assumptions: 1) there is an applied longitudinal (B{sub z}) magnetic field; 2) the plasma is isothermal; 3) the solution depends only on the radial coordinate.

  2. On symmetric equilibrium of an isothermal gas with a free boundary and a body force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The equation of symmetric equilibrium of an isothermal gas with an unknown boundary in the field of a body force is considered. Conditions for solvability and insolvability of the problem as well as for uniqueness and nonuniqueness of solutions are presented. Examples of finite, countable, or continual sets of solutions are constructed including equipotential ones. Static stability of solutions is analyzed too.

  3. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  4. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  5. Comprehensive asynchronous symmetric rendezvous algorithm in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meenu Chawla

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Simulation results affirm that CASR algorithm performs better in terms of average time-to-rendezvous as compared ... process; neighbour discovery; symmetric rendezvous algorithm. 1. .... dezvous in finite time under the symmetric model. The CH ..... CASR algorithm in Matlab 7.11 and performed several.

  6. Spherical subsystem of galactic radiosources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, A G; Popov, M V [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' '

    1975-05-01

    The concentration of statistically complete sampling radiosources of the Ohiof scanning with plane spectra towards the Galaxy centre has been discovered. Quantitative calculations have showed that the sources form a spheric subsystem, which is close in parameters to such old formations in the Galaxy as globular clusters and the RRLsub(YR) type stars. The luminosity of the galaxy spheric subsystem object equals 10/sup 33/ erg/sec, the total number of objects being 7000. The existence of such a subsystem explains s the anomalously by low incline of statistics lgN-lgS in HF scanning PKS (..gamma..-2700Mgz) and the Michigan University scanning (..gamma..=8000Mgz) because the sources of galaxy spheric subsystem make up a considerable share in the total number of sources, especially at high frequencies (50% of sources with a flux greater than a unit of flux per 8000Mgz). It is very probable that the given subsystem consists of the representatives of one of the following class of objects: a) heat sources - the H2H regions with T=10/sup 40/K, Nsub(e)=10/sup 3/, l=1 ps b) supermass black holes with mass M/Mo approximately 10/sup 5/.

  7. Symmetric splitting of very light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.

    1985-01-01

    Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12 C + 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be + 40 Ca and 153 MeV 6 Li + 40 Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12 C + 40 Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12 C + 40 Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 40 0 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12 C + 40 C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV

  8. Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.

  9. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  10. Substring-Searchable Symmetric Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Melissa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a setting where a client wants to outsource storage of a large amount of private data and then perform substring search queries on the data – given a data string s and a search string p, find all occurrences of p as a substring of s. First, we formalize an encryption paradigm that we call queryable encryption, which generalizes searchable symmetric encryption (SSE and structured encryption. Then, we construct a queryable encryption scheme for substring queries. Our construction uses suffix trees and achieves asymptotic efficiency comparable to that of unencrypted suffix trees. Encryption of a string of length n takes O(λn time and produces a ciphertext of size O(λn, and querying for a substring of length m that occurs k times takes O(λm+k time and three rounds of communication. Our security definition guarantees correctness of query results and privacy of data and queries against a malicious adversary. Following the line of work started by Curtmola et al. (ACM CCS 2006, in order to construct more efficient schemes we allow the query protocol to leak some limited information that is captured precisely in the definition. We prove security of our substring-searchable encryption scheme against malicious adversaries, where the query protocol leaks limited information about memory access patterns through the suffix tree of the encrypted string.

  11. Spherical space Bessel-Legendre-Fourier mode solver for Maxwell's wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Mohammed A.; Gauthier, Robert C.

    2015-02-01

    For spherically symmetric dielectric structures, a basis set composed of Bessel, Legendre and Fourier functions, BLF, are used to cast Maxwell's wave equations into an eigenvalue problem from which the localized modes can be determined. The steps leading to the eigenmatrix are reviewed and techniques used to reduce the order of matrix and tune the computations for particular mode types are detailed. The BLF basis functions are used to expand the electric and magnetic fields as well as the inverse relative dielectric profile. Similar to the common plane wave expansion technique, the BLF matrix returns the eigen-frequencies and eigenvectors, but in BLF only steady states, non-propagated, are obtained. The technique is first applied to a air filled spherical structure with perfectly conducting outer surface and then to a spherical microsphere located in air. Results are compared published values were possible.

  12. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  13. Spherical symmetry as a test case for unconstrained hyperboloidal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vañó-Viñuales, Alex; Husa, Sascha; Hilditch, David

    2015-01-01

    We consider the hyperboloidal initial value problem for the Einstein equations in numerical relativity, motivated by the goal to evolve radiating compact objects such as black hole binaries with a numerical grid that includes null infinity. Unconstrained evolution schemes promise optimal efficiency, but are difficult to regularize at null infinity, where the compactified Einstein equations are formally singular. In this work we treat the spherically symmetric case, which already poses nontrivial problems and constitutes an important first step. We have carried out stable numerical evolutions with the generalized BSSN and Z4 equations coupled to a scalar field. The crucial ingredients have been to find an appropriate evolution equation for the lapse function and to adapt constraint damping terms to handle null infinity. (paper)

  14. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell and Russell Feder

    2010-06-04

    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  15. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Ronald E.; Feder, Russell

    2010-01-01

    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  16. Equilibrium location for spherical DNA and toroidal cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapat, Pakhapoom; Baowan, Duangkamon; Hill, James M.

    2018-05-01

    Cyclodextrin comprises a ring structure composed of glucose molecules with an ability to form complexes of certain substances within its central cavity. The compound can be utilised for various applications including food, textiles, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, and gene delivery. In gene transfer, the possibility of forming complexes depends upon the interaction energy between cyclodextrin and DNA molecules which here are modelled as a torus and a sphere, respectively. Our proposed model is derived using the continuum approximation together with the Lennard-Jones potential, and the total interaction energy is obtained by integrating over both the spherical and toroidal surfaces. The results suggest that the DNA prefers to be symmetrically situated about 1.2 Å above the centre of the cyclodextrin to minimise its energy. Furthermore, an optimal configuration can be determined for any given size of torus and sphere.

  17. Static electricity: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Rita M.

    1991-11-01

    The major concern with static electricity is its discharging in a flammable atmosphere which can explode and cause a fire. Textile materials can have their electrical resistivity decreased by the addition of antistatic finishes, imbedding conductive particles into the fibres or by adding metal fibers to the yarns. The test methods used in the studies of static electricity include measuring the static properties of materials, of clothed persons, and of the ignition energy of flammable gases. Surveys have shown that there is sparse evidence for fires definitively being caused by static electricity. However, the 'worst-case' philosophy has been adopted and a static electricity safety code is described, including correct grounding procedures and the wearing of anti-static clothing and footwear.

  18. The symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowski, Marcin L

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states. (paper)

  19. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  20. Symmetric Kullback-Leibler Metric Based Tracking Behaviors for Bioinspired Robotic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hengli; Luo, Jun; Wu, Peng; Xie, Shaorong; Li, Hengyu

    2015-01-01

    A symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric based tracking system, capable of tracking moving targets, is presented for a bionic spherical parallel mechanism to minimize a tracking error function to simulate smooth pursuit of human eyes. More specifically, we propose a real-time moving target tracking algorithm which utilizes spatial histograms taking into account symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric. In the proposed algorithm, the key spatial histograms are extracted and taken into particle filtering framework. Once the target is identified, an image-based control scheme is implemented to drive bionic spherical parallel mechanism such that the identified target is to be tracked at the center of the captured images. Meanwhile, the robot motion information is fed forward to develop an adaptive smooth tracking controller inspired by the Vestibuloocular Reflex mechanism. The proposed tracking system is designed to make the robot track dynamic objects when the robot travels through transmittable terrains, especially bumpy environment. To perform bumpy-resist capability under the condition of violent attitude variation when the robot works in the bumpy environment mentioned, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our bioinspired tracking system using bionic spherical parallel mechanism inspired by head-eye coordination.

  1. Symmetric Kullback-Leibler Metric Based Tracking Behaviors for Bioinspired Robotic Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengli Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric based tracking system, capable of tracking moving targets, is presented for a bionic spherical parallel mechanism to minimize a tracking error function to simulate smooth pursuit of human eyes. More specifically, we propose a real-time moving target tracking algorithm which utilizes spatial histograms taking into account symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric. In the proposed algorithm, the key spatial histograms are extracted and taken into particle filtering framework. Once the target is identified, an image-based control scheme is implemented to drive bionic spherical parallel mechanism such that the identified target is to be tracked at the center of the captured images. Meanwhile, the robot motion information is fed forward to develop an adaptive smooth tracking controller inspired by the Vestibuloocular Reflex mechanism. The proposed tracking system is designed to make the robot track dynamic objects when the robot travels through transmittable terrains, especially bumpy environment. To perform bumpy-resist capability under the condition of violent attitude variation when the robot works in the bumpy environment mentioned, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our bioinspired tracking system using bionic spherical parallel mechanism inspired by head-eye coordination.

  2. Cooperative effects in spherical spasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    A fully analytical semiclassical theory of cooperative optical processes which occur in an ensemble of molecules embedded in a spherical core-shell nanoparticle is developed from first principles. Both the plasmonic Dicke effect and spaser generation are investigated for the designs in which...... a shell/core contains an arbitrarily large number of active molecules in the vicinity of a metallic core/shell. An essential aspect of the theory is an ab initio account of the feedback from the core/shell boundaries which significantly modifies the molecular dynamics. The theory provides rigorous, albeit...

  3. Spherical bodies of constant width

    OpenAIRE

    Lassak, Marek; Musielak, Michał

    2018-01-01

    The intersection $L$ of two different non-opposite hemispheres $G$ and $H$ of a $d$-dimensional sphere $S^d$ is called a lune. By the thickness of $L$ we mean the distance of the centers of the $(d-1)$-dimensional hemispheres bounding $L$. For a hemisphere $G$ supporting a %spherical convex body $C \\subset S^d$ we define ${\\rm width}_G(C)$ as the thickness of the narrowest lune or lunes of the form $G \\cap H$ containing $C$. If ${\\rm width}_G(C) =w$ for every hemisphere $G$ supporting $C$, we...

  4. Photons in a spherical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Pallas, N.; Vlad, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The spectrum of black body radiation at the absolute temperature T, in an ideal spherical cavity of radius R, is studied. The departures from the classical predictions of Planck's theory, due to the discrete energies of the radiation quanta confined inside the cavity, depend on the adiabatic invariant RT and are significant for RT≤ 1 cm K. Special attention was paid to evidence sudden changes in the spectrum intensities, forbidden bands of frequency, as well as major modifications of the total energy for RT≤ 1 cm K. Similar effects were present in case of a cubic cavity too. (authors)

  5. Linac design algorithm with symmetric segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.; Nath, S.; Billen, J.H.; Stovall, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells and individual cells symmetric in both the CCDTL AND CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. We have implemented a design algorithm in the PARMILA code in which cells and multi-cavity segments are made symmetric, significantly reducing the number of unique components. Using the symmetric algorithm, a sample linac design was generated and its performance compared with a similar one of conventional design

  6. Interactions between charged spherical macroions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.J.; Falk, M.L.; Robbins, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to study the screened interactions between charged spherical macroions surrounded by discrete counterions, and to test previous theories of screening. The simulations were performed in the primitive cell of the bcc lattice, and in the spherical Wigner endash Seitz cell that is commonly used in approximate calculations. We found that the Wigner endash Seitz approximation is valid even at high volume fractions φ and large macroion charges Z, because the macroion charge becomes strongly screened. Pressures calculated from Poisson endash Boltzmann theory and local density functional theory deviate from MC values as φ and Z increase, but continue to provide upper and lower bounds for the MC results. While Debye endash Hueckel (DH) theory fails badly when the bare charge is used, MC pressures can be fit with an effective DH charge, Z DH , that is nearly independent of volume fraction. As Z diverges, Z DH saturates at zψ max R m /λ, where z is the counterion charge, R m is the macroion radius, λ is the Bjerrum length, and ψ max is a constant of order 10. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Ono

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the innovative spherical torus (ST) concept. Physics outcome of the NSTX research program is relevant to near-term applications such as the Volume Neutron Source (VNS) and burning plasmas, and future applications such as the pilot and power plants. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current was successfully ramped up to the design value of 1 million amperes (MA) on December 14, 1999. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments have also started. Stable CHI discharges of up to 133 kA and 130-msec duration have been produced using 20 kA of injected current. Using eight antennas connected to two transmitters, up to 2 MW of HHFW power was successfully coupled to the plasma. The Neutral-beam Injection (NBI) heating system and associated NBI-based diagnostics such as the Charge-exchange Recombination Spectrometer (CHERS) will be operational in October 2000

  8. Casimir effect in spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The analytic regularization method is applied to study the Casimir effect for spherical cavities. Although many works have been presented in the past few years, problems related to the elimination of the regulator parameter still remain. A way to calculate the zero point energy of a perfectly conducting spherical shell which is a miscellaneous of those presented early is here proposed, How a cancelation of divergent terms occurs and how a finite parte is obtained after the elimination of the regulator parameter is shown. As a by-product the zero point energy of the interior vibration modes is obtained and this has some relevance to the quarks bag model. This relev ance is also discussed. The calculation of the energy fom the density view is also discussed. Some works in this field are criticized. The logarithmic divergent terms in the zero point energy are studied when the interior and exterior of the sphere are considered as a medium not dispersive and characterized by a dielectric constants ε 1 and ε 2 and peermeability constants μ 1 and μ 2 respectivelly. The logarithmic divergent terms are not present in the case of ε i μ i =K, with K some constant and i=1,2. (author) [pt

  9. Towards a Prototype of a Spherical Tippe Top

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ciocci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among spinning objects, the tippe top exhibits one of the most bizarre and counterintuitive behaviours. The commercially available tippe tops basically consist of a section of a sphere with a rod. After spinning on its rounded body, the top flips over and continues spinning on the stem. The commonly used simplified mathematical model for the tippe top is a sphere whose mass distribution is axially but not spherically symmetric, spinning on a flat surface subject to a small friction force that is due to sliding. Three main different dynamical behaviours are distinguished: tipping, nontipping, hanging, that is, the top rises but converges to an intermediate state instead of rising all the way to the vertical state. Subclasses according to the stability of relative equilibria can further be distinguished. Our concern is the degree of confidence in the mathematical model predictions, we applied 3D printing and rapid prototyping to manufacture a “3-in-1 toy” that could catch the three main characteristics defining the three main groups in the classification of spherical tippe tops as mentioned above. We propose three designs. This “toy” is suitable to validate the mathematical model qualitatively and quantitatively.

  10. Radiatively-suppressed spherical accretion under relativistic radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We numerically examine radiatively-suppressed relativistic spherical accretion flows on to a central object with mass M under Newtonian gravity and special relativity. We simultaneously solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double iteration process in the case of the intermediate optical depth. We find that the accretion flow is suppressed, compared with the freefall case in the nonrelativistic regime. For example, in the case of accretion on to a luminous core with accretion luminosity L*, the freefall velocity v normalized by the speed of light c under the radiative force in the nonrelativistic regime is β (\\hat{r}) = v/c = -√{(1-Γ _*)/(\\hat{r}+1-Γ _*)}, where Γ* (≡ L*/LE, LE being the Eddington luminosity) is the Eddington parameter and \\hat{r} (= r/rS, rS being the Schwarzschild radius) the normalized radius, whereas the infall speed at the central core is ˜0.7β(1), irrespective of the mass-accretion rate. This is due to the relativistic effect; the comoving flux is enhanced by the advective flux. We briefly examine and discuss an isothermal case, where the emission takes place in the entire space.

  11. Coherent radiation by a spherical medium of resonant atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Sudhakar; Glauber, Roy J.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation by the atoms of a resonant medium is a cooperative process in which the medium participates as a whole. In two previous papers we treated this problem for the case of a medium having slab geometry, which, under plane-wave excitation, supports coherent waves that propagate in one dimension. We extend the treatment here to the three-dimensional problem, focusing principally on the case of spherical geometry. By regarding the radiation field as a superposition of electric and magnetic multipole fields of different orders, we express it in terms of suitably defined scalar fields. The latter fields possess a sequence of exponentially decaying eigenmodes corresponding to each multipole order. We consider several examples of spherically symmetric initial excitations of a sphere. Small uniformly excited spheres, we find, tend to radiate superradiantly, while the radiation from a large sphere with an initially excited inner core exhibits temporal oscillations that result from the participation of a large number of coherently excited amplitudes in different modes. The frequency spectrum of the emitted radiation possesses a rich structure, including a frequency gap for large spheres and sharply defined and closely spaced peaks caused by the small frequency shifts and even smaller decay rates characteristic of the majority of eigenmodes.

  12. Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a review of our theoretical and experimental progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study. From our theoretical study, the octahedral spherical hohlraums with 6 Laser Entrance Holes (LEHs of octahedral symmetry have robust high symmetry during the capsule implosion at hohlraum-to-capsule radius ratio larger than 3.7. In addition, the octahedral spherical hohlraums also have potential superiority on low backscattering without supplementary technology. We studied the laser arrangement and constraints of the octahedral spherical hohlraums, and gave a design on the laser arrangement for ignition octahedral hohlraums. As a result, the injection angle of laser beams of 50°–60° was proposed as the optimum candidate range for the octahedral spherical hohlraums. We proposed a novel octahedral spherical hohlraum with cylindrical LEHs and LEH shields, in order to increase the laser coupling efficiency and improve the capsule symmetry and to mitigate the influence of the wall blowoff on laser transport. We studied on the sensitivity of the octahedral spherical hohlraums to random errors and compared the sensitivity among the octahedral spherical hohlraums, the rugby hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums, and the results show that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are robust to these random errors while the cylindrical hohlraums are the most sensitive. Up till to now, we have carried out three experiments on the spherical hohlraum with 2 LEHs on Shenguang(SG laser facilities, including demonstration of improving laser transport by using the cylindrical LEHs in the spherical hohlraums, spherical hohlraum energetics on the SGIII prototype laser facility, and comparisons of laser plasma instabilities between the spherical hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums on the SGIII laser facility.

  13. Symmetric nuclear matter with Skyrme interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisa, K.; Bicer, A.; Atav, U.

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) and some properties of symmetric nuclear matter, such as the saturation density, saturation energy and incompressibility, are obtained by using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  14. Performance limitations of translationally symmetric nonimaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortz, John C.; Shatz, Narkis E.; Winston, Roland

    2001-11-01

    The component of the optical direction vector along the symmetry axis is conserved for all rays propagated through a translationally symmetric optical device. This quality, referred to herein as the translational skew invariant, is analogous to the conventional skew invariant, which is conserved in rotationally symmetric optical systems. The invariance of both of these quantities is a consequence of Noether's theorem. We show how performance limits for translationally symmetric nonimaging optical devices can be derived from the distributions of the translational skew invariant for the optical source and for the target to which flux is to be transferred. Examples of computed performance limits are provided. In addition, we show that a numerically optimized non-tracking solar concentrator utilizing symmetry-breaking surface microstructure can overcome the performance limits associated with translational symmetry. The optimized design provides a 47.4% increase in efficiency and concentration relative to an ideal translationally symmetric concentrator.

  15. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  16. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  17. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  18. Theorem on axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A; Le Denmat, G [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Henri Poincare

    1977-01-24

    A theorem is proved which asserts the non-existence of axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations with non-stationary rotation only. The eventual consequences in black-hole physics are suggested.

  19. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...

  20. Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    Charts N/A Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 14 Kamran Ghiassi N/A 1 Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids Kevin T. Greeson...NUMBER (Include area code) 29 November 2017 Briefing Charts 01 November 2017 - 30 November 2017 Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic ... Liquids K. Greeson, K. Ghiassi, J. Alston, N. Redeker, J. Marcischak, L. Gilmore, A. Guenthner Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRP 9 Antares

  1. The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2003-01-01

    A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, and symmetric transform given as the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generatin...... large sets of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....

  2. The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2003-01-01

    A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, symmetric transform, the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generating large sets...... of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....

  3. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L.M.

    1987-09-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction. (author). 20 refs

  4. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)×SU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenom is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction.

  5. Radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds under relativistic radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, J.

    2018-05-01

    We numerically investigate radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds from the central luminous object with mass M and luminosity L* under Newtonian gravity, special relativity, and relativistic radiative transfer. We solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double-iteration processes, to obtain the intensity and velocity fields simultaneously. We found that the momentum-driven winds with scattering are quickly accelerated near the central object to reach the terminal speed. The results of numerical solutions are roughly fitted by a relation of \\dot{m}=0.7(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2.6}, where \\dot{m} is the mass-loss rate normalized by the critical one, Γ* the central luminosity normalized by the critical one, τ* the typical optical depth, β* the initial flow speed at the central core of radius R*, and βout the terminal speed normalized by the speed of light. This relation is close to the non-relativistic analytical solution, \\dot{m} = 2(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2}, which can be re-expressed as β _out^2/2 = (Γ _*-1)GM/c^2 R_*. That is, the present solution with small optical depth is similar to that of the radiatively driven free outflow. Furthermore, we found that the normalized luminosity (Eddington parameter) must be larger than unity for the relativistic spherical wind to blow off with intermediate or small optical depth, i.e. Γ _* ≳ \\sqrt{(1+β _out)^3/(1-β _out)}. We briefly investigate and discuss an isothermal wind.

  6. A Micro Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope with Adjustable Static Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Kong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  7. The ETE spherical Tokamak project. IAEA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Del Bosco, E.; Berni, L.A.; Ferreira, J.G.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: ludwig@plasma.inpe.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the historical development of the ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of October, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  8. Spherical sila- and germa-homoaromaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongfang; Hirsch, Andreas; Nagase, Shigeru; Thiel, Walter; Schleyer, Paul von Ragué

    2003-12-17

    Guided by the 2(N + 1)2 electron-counting rule for spherical aromatic molecules, we have designed various spherical sila- and germa-homoaromatic systems rich in group 14 elements. Their aromaticity is revealed by density-functional computations of their structures and the nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS). Besides the formerly used endohedral inclusion strategy, spherical homoaromaticity is another way to stabilize silicon and germanium clusters.

  9. 3D dynamic modeling of spherical wheeled self-balancing mobile robot

    OpenAIRE

    İnal, Ali Nail

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references. In recent years, dynamically stable platforms that move on spherical wheels, also known as BallBots, gained popularity in the robotics literature as an alternative locomotion method to statically stable wheeled mobile robots. In contrast to wheeled ...

  10. Spherical collapse in chameleon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Ph.; Rosenfeld, R.; Steer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse in principle depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity

  11. Spherical collapse in chameleon models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Ph. [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Rosenfeld, R. [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, 01140-070, São Paulo (Brazil); Steer, D.A., E-mail: brax@spht.saclay.cea.fr, E-mail: rosenfel@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: daniele.steer@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC, UMR 7164, CNRS, Université Paris 7, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2010-08-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse in principle depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity.

  12. Spherical Collapse in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Ph; Steer, D A

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity.

  13. Diffusion Coefficient Calculations With Low Order Legendre Polynomial and Chebyshev Polynomial Approximation for the Transport Equation in Spherical Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasa, F.; Anli, F.; Guengoer, S.

    2007-01-01

    We present analytical calculations of spherically symmetric radioactive transfer and neutron transport using a hypothesis of P1 and T1 low order polynomial approximation for diffusion coefficient D. Transport equation in spherical geometry is considered as the pseudo slab equation. The validity of polynomial expansionion in transport theory is investigated through a comparison with classic diffusion theory. It is found that for causes when the fluctuation of the scattering cross section dominates, the quantitative difference between the polynomial approximation and diffusion results was physically acceptable in general

  14. Analysis of transverse RMS emittance growth of a beam induced by spherical and chromatic aberration in a solenoidal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, Radhakanta, E-mail: radhakanta.physics@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nayak, Biswaranjan [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Sharma, Archana; Mittal, Kailash C. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-01-21

    In a medium energy beam transport line transverse rms emittance growth associated with spherical aberration is analysed. An analytical expression is derived for beam optics in a solenoid field considering terms up to the third order in the radial displacement. Two important phenomena: effect of spherical aberrations in axial-symmetric focusing lens and influence of nonlinear space charge forces on beam emittance growth are discussed for different beam distributions. In the second part nonlinear effect associated with chromatic aberration that describes the growth of emittance and distortion of phase space area is discussed.

  15. Deformation and orientation effects in the binary symmetric decay of 20,21,22Ne*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-01-01

    We have extended the study of binary symmetric decay (BSD) of extremely light mass compound systems 20,21,22 Ne* formed in 10,11 B+ 10,11 B reactions at E lab = 48 MeV, to explore the role of deformations and orientations, using the Dynamical Cluster decay Model (DCM). In the present work, we find that with inclusion of quadruple deformations and 'hot compact' orientations of nuclei σ ff increases in comparison to the case of spherical considerations of nuclei

  16. Stationary spherical shells around Kerr-Newman naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdenek Stuchlik; Stanislav Hledik

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that in the field of some Kerr-Newman naked singularities a stationary spherical shell of charged dust can exist, with the specific charge being the same for all particles of the dusty shell. Gravitational attractions acting on the particles are balanced by electromagnetic repulsion in such a way that the shell is stable against radial perturbations. Particles of the shell move along orbits with constant latitude and radius. Rotation of the shell is differential. The shell is corotating relative to static observers at infinity, but it is counter rotating relative to the family of locally non-rotating observers. No such a shell can exist in the field of Kerr-Newman black holes. (authors)

  17. On the relation between reduced quantisation and quantum reduction for spherical symmetry in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodendorfer, N; Zipfel, A

    2016-01-01

    Building on a recent proposal for a quantum reduction to spherical symmetry from full loop quantum gravity, we investigate the relation between a quantisation of spherically symmetric general relativity and a reduction at the quantum level. To this end, we generalise the previously proposed quantum reduction by dropping the gauge fixing condition on the radial diffeomorphisms, thus allowing us to make direct contact with previous work on reduced quantisation. A dictionary between spherically symmetric variables and observables with respect to the reduction constraints in the full theory is discussed, as well as an embedding of reduced quantum states to a subsector of the quantum symmetry reduced full theory states. On this full theory subsector, the quantum algebra of the mentioned observables is computed and shown to qualitatively reproduce the quantum algebra of the reduced variables in the large quantum number limit for a specific choice of regularisation. Insufficiencies in recovering the reduced algebra quantitatively from the full theory are attributed to the oversimplified full theory quantum states we use. (paper)

  18. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  19. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  20. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and not allowed, to do. The second issue was that a fully static analysis was never a realistic possibility, because Java , the programming langauge...scale to large programs it had to handle essentially all of the features of Java and could also be used as a general-purpose analysis engine. The...static analysis of imperative languages. • A framework for adding specifications about the behavior of methods, including methods that were

  1. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  2. Stability of the spherical form of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    An extension of the mass formula for a spherical nucleus in the drop model to include a largely deformed nucleus of different forms is investigated. It is found that although the spherical form is stable under small deformations from equilibrium, there exists for heavier nuclei another more favourable stable form, which can be approximated by two, or three touching prolate ellipsoids of revolution

  3. Spherical Tensor Calculus for Local Adaptive Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisert, Marco; Burkhardt, Hans

    In 3D image processing tensors play an important role. While rank-1 and rank-2 tensors are well understood and commonly used, higher rank tensors are rare. This is probably due to their cumbersome rotation behavior which prevents a computationally efficient use. In this chapter we want to introduce the notion of a spherical tensor which is based on the irreducible representations of the 3D rotation group. In fact, any ordinary cartesian tensor can be decomposed into a sum of spherical tensors, while each spherical tensor has a quite simple rotation behavior. We introduce so called tensorial harmonics that provide an orthogonal basis for spherical tensor fields of any rank. It is just a generalization of the well known spherical harmonics. Additionally we propose a spherical derivative which connects spherical tensor fields of different degree by differentiation. Based on the proposed theory we present two applications. We propose an efficient algorithm for dense tensor voting in 3D, which makes use of tensorial harmonics decomposition of the tensor-valued voting field. In this way it is possible to perform tensor voting by linear-combinations of convolutions in an efficient way. Secondly, we propose an anisotropic smoothing filter that uses a local shape and orientation adaptive filter kernel which can be computed efficiently by the use spherical derivatives.

  4. Crossing-symmetric solutions to low equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Crossing symmetric models of the pion-nucleon interaction in which crossing symmetry is kept to lowest order in msub(π)/msub(N) are investigated. Two iterative techniques are developed to solve the crossing-symmetric Low equation. The techniques are used to solve the original Chew-Low equations and their generalizations to include the coupling to the pion-production channels. Small changes are found in comparison with earlier results which used an iterative technique proposed by Chew and Low and which did not produce crossing-symmetric results. The iterative technique of Chew and Low is shown to fail because of its inability to produce zeroes in the amplitude at complex energies while physical solutions to the model require such zeroes. We also prove that, within the class of solutions such that phase shifts approach zero for infinite energy, the solution to the Low equation is unique. (orig.)

  5. Revisiting the Optical PT-Symmetric Dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Delfino Huerta Morales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optics has proved a fertile ground for the experimental simulation of quantum mechanics. Most recently, optical realizations of PT -symmetric quantum mechanics have been shown, both theoretically and experimentally, opening the door to international efforts aiming at the design of practical optical devices exploiting this symmetry. Here, we focus on the optical PT -symmetric dimer, a two-waveguide coupler where the materials show symmetric effective gain and loss, and provide a review of the linear and nonlinear optical realizations from a symmetry-based point of view. We go beyond a simple review of the literature and show that the dimer is just the smallest of a class of planar N-waveguide couplers that are the optical realization of the Lorentz group in 2 + 1 dimensions. Furthermore, we provide a formulation to describe light propagation through waveguide couplers described by non-Hermitian mode coupling matrices based on a non-Hermitian generalization of the Ehrenfest theorem.

  6. PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuce, C.

    2014-01-01

    PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity. - Highlights: • We show that PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model may have real spectrum. • We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of disorder. • We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum for PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model. • We discuss that phase transition from extended to localized states exists

  7. PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuce, C., E-mail: cyuce@anadolu.edu.tr

    2014-06-13

    PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity. - Highlights: • We show that PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model may have real spectrum. • We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of disorder. • We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum for PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model. • We discuss that phase transition from extended to localized states exists.

  8. Meissner effect for axially symmetric charged black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlebeck, Norman; Scholtz, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In our previous work [N. Gürlebeck and M. Scholtz, Phys. Rev. D 95, 064010 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.064010], we have shown that electric and magnetic fields are expelled from the horizons of extremal, stationary and axially symmetric uncharged black holes; this is called the Meissner effect for black holes. Here, we generalize this result in several directions. First, we allow that the black hole carries charge, which requires a generalization of the definition of the Meissner effect. Next, we introduce the notion of almost isolated horizons, which is weaker than the usual notion of isolated horizons, since the geometry of the former is not necessarily completely time independent. Moreover, we allow the horizon to be pierced by strings, thereby violating the usual assumption on the spherical topology made in the definition of the weakly isolated horizon. Finally, we spell out in detail all assumptions entering the proof and show that the Meissner effect is an inherent property of black holes even in full nonlinear theory.

  9. Ballooning Stability of the Compact Quasiaxially Symmetric Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Canik, J.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.; Klasky, S.; Cooper, W.A.; Kerbichler, W.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability of a compact, quasiaxially symmetric stellarator (QAS), expected to achieve good stability and particle confinement is examined with a method that can lead to estimates of global stability. Making use of fully 3D, ideal-MHD stability codes, the QAS beta is predicted to be limited above 4% by ballooning and high-n kink modes. Here MHD stability is analyzed through the calculation and examination of the ballooning mode eigenvalue isosurfaces in the 3-space [s, alpha, theta(subscript ''k'')]; s is the edge normalized toroidal flux, alpha is the field line variable, and theta(subscript ''k'') is the perpendicular wave vector or ballooning parameter. Broken symmetry, i.e., deviations from axisymmetry, in the stellarator magnetic field geometry causes localization of the ballooning mode eigenfunction, with new types of nonsymmetric, eigenvalue isosurfaces in both the stable and unstable spectrum. The isosurfaces around the most unstable points i n parameter space (well above marginal) are topologically spherical. In such cases, attempts to use ray tracing to construct global ballooning modes lead to a k-space runaway. Introduction of a reflecting cutoff in k(perpendicular) to model numerical truncation or finite Larmor radius (FLR) yields chaotic ray paths ergodically filling the allowed phase space, indicating that the global spectrum must be described using the language of quantum chaos theory. However, the isosurface for marginal stability in the cases studied are found to have a more complex topology, making estimation of FLR stabilization more difficult

  10. Electrical properties of spherical syncytia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, R S; Barcilon, V; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    Syncytial tissues consist of many cells whose intracellular spaces are electrically coupled one to another. Such tissues typically include narrow, tortuous extracellular space and often have specialized membranes at their outer surface. We derive differential equations to describe the potentials induced when a sinusoidal or steady current is applied to the intracellular space with a microelectrode. We derive solutions for spherical preparations with isotropic properties or with a particular anisotropy in effective extracellular and intracellular resistivities. Solutions are presented in an approximate form with a simple physical interpretation. The leading term in the intracellular potential describes an "isopotential" cell in which there is no spatial variation of intracellular potential. The leading term in the extracellular potential, and thus the potential across the inner membranes, varies with radial position, even at zero frequency. The next term of the potentials describes the direct effects of the point source of current and, for the parameters given here, acts as a series resistance producing a large local potential drop essentially independent of frequency. A lumped equivalent circuit describes the "low frequency" behavior of the syncytium, and a distributed circuit gives a reasonably accurate general description. Graphs of the spatial variation and frequency dependence of intracellular, extracellular, and transmembrane potential are given, the response to sinusoidal currents is used to calculate numerically the response to a step function of current.

  11. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, I K

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed

  12. Alfven Eigenmodes in spherical tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, Mikhail P.; Sharapov, Sergei E.; Berk, Herbert L.; Pinches, Simon D.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic instabilities are often excited by fast super-Alfvenic ions produced by neutral beam injection (NBI) in plasmas of the spherical tokamaks START and MAST (toroidal magnetic confinement devices in which the minor a and major R 0 radii of the torus are comparable, R 0 /a≅1.2/1.8). These instabilities are seen as discrete weakly-damped toroidal and elliptical Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs and EAEs) with frequencies tracing in time the Alfven scaling with the equilibrium magnetic field and plasma density, or as energetic particle modes (EPMs) whose frequencies don't start from TAE-frequency and sweep down in time faster than the equilibrium parameters change. In some discharges the beam drives Aflvenic-type modes that start from the TAE frequency and sweep in both up- and down- directions. Such electromagnetic perturbations are interpreted as 'hole-clump' long-living nonlinear fluctuations of the fast ion distribution function predicted by Berk-Breizman-Petviashvili [Phys. Lett. A238 (1998) 408]. It is found on both START and MAST that the Alfven instabilities weaken in their mode amplitude and in the number of unstable modes as the pressure of the thermal plasma increases, in agreement with increased thermal ion Landau damping and the pressure effect on core-localised TAEs. (author)

  13. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  14. Symmetry theorems via the continuous steiner symmetrization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ragoub

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a new approach due to F. Brock called the Steiner symmetrization, we show first that if $u$ is a solution of an overdetermined problem in the divergence form satisfying the Neumann and non-constant Dirichlet boundary conditions, then $Omega$ is an N-ball. In addition, we show that we can relax the condition on the value of the Dirichlet boundary condition in the case of superharmonicity. Finally, we give an application to positive solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems in symmetric domains for the divergence case.

  15. The Axially Symmetric One-Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-M.; Teh, Rosy

    2009-01-01

    We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this solution with θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solutions of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a non-BPS solution.

  16. Symmetric splitting of very light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.

    1984-01-01

    Inclusive and coincidence measurements have been performed to study symmetric products from the reactions 74--186 MeV 12 C+ 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be+ 40 Ca, and 153 MeV 6 Li+ 40 Ca. The binary decay of the composite system has been verified. Energy spectra, angular distributions, and fragment correlations are presented. The total kinetic energies for the symmetric products from these very light composite systems are compared to liquid drop model calculations and fission systematics

  17. A new scheduling algorithm for parallel sparse LU factorization with static pivoting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigori, Laura; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2002-08-20

    In this paper we present a static scheduling algorithm for parallel sparse LU factorization with static pivoting. The algorithm is divided into mapping and scheduling phases, using the symmetric pruned graphs of L' and U to represent dependencies. The scheduling algorithm is designed for driving the parallel execution of the factorization on a distributed-memory architecture. Experimental results and comparisons with SuperLU{_}DIST are reported after applying this algorithm on real world application matrices on an IBM SP RS/6000 distributed memory machine.

  18. Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-12-01

    Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.

  19. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  20. Sobolev spaces on bounded symmetric domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    Roč. 60, č. 12 ( 2015 ), s. 1712-1726 ISSN 1747-6933 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded symmetric domain * Sobolev space * Bergman space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.466, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933. 2015 .1043910

  1. Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Huangjun, E-mail: hzhu@pitp.ca

    2015-11-15

    Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg–Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg–Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.

  2. Harmonic maps of the bounded symmetric domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Y.L.

    1994-06-01

    A shrinking property of harmonic maps into R IV (2) is proved which is used to classify complete spacelike surfaces of the parallel mean curvature in R 4 2 with a reasonable condition on the Gauss image. Liouville-type theorems of harmonic maps from the higher dimensional bounded symmetric domains are also established. (author). 25 refs

  3. The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs. Mausumi Bose (nee Sen) obtained her MSc degree in. Statistics from the Calcutta. University and PhD degree from the Indian Statistical. Institute. She is on the faculty of the Indian. Statistical Institute. Her main field of research interest is design and analysis of experiments.

  4. Symmetric intersections of Rauzy fractals | Sellami | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study symmetric subsets of Rauzy fractals of unimodular irreducible Pisot substitutions. The symmetry considered is re ection through the origin. Given an unimodular irreducible Pisot substitution, we consider the intersection of its Rauzy fractal with the Rauzy fractal of the reverse substitution. This set is ...

  5. Fourier inversion on a reductive symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den

    1999-01-01

    Let X be a semisimple symmetric space. In previous papers, [8] and [9], we have dened an explicit Fourier transform for X and shown that this transform is injective on the space C 1 c (X) ofcompactly supported smooth functions on X. In the present paper, which is a continuation of these papers, we

  6. A viewpoint on nearly conformally symmetric manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1990-06-01

    Some observations, with definition, on Nearly Conformally Symmetric (NCS) manifold are made. A number of theorems concerning conformal change of metric and parallel tensors on NCS manifolds are presented. It is illustrated that a manifold M = R n-1 x R + 1 , endowed with a special metric, is NCS but not of harmonic curvature. (author). 8 refs

  7. Harmonic analysis on reductive symmetric spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    2000-01-01

    We give a relatively non-technical survey of some recent advances in the Fourier theory for semisimple symmetric spaces. There are three major results: An inversion formula for the Fourier transform, a Palley-Wiener theorem, which describes the Fourier image of the space of completely supported

  8. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    1994-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  9. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Carmona, J.; Delorme, P.

    1997-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  10. On the stability of a radiating fluid in a porous spherical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1987-09-01

    The onset of thermal instability in a fluid filled porous spherical shell is investigated when the temperatures of the walls are large enough for thermal radiation to be significant. Assuming that the gravitational field is radially symmetric and the porous medium consists of fluid which is optically thin, non-grey and near equilibrium, the problem is reduced to the determination of the eigenvalues for a set of linear homogeneous equations with variable coefficients. The effect of porosity and radiation on the stability parameter is discussed quantitatively. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  11. Elastic interaction between surface and spherical pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, G.Z.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsyn, S.B.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.

    2000-01-01

    The energy of elastic interaction of a gas-filled spherical cavity with a boundary of an elastic isotropic half-space is determined. The elastic field of a system of a spherical cavity - boundary is represented as an expansion in series of potential functions. The factors of expansions are determined by boundary conditions on a free surface of an elastic half-space and on a spherical surface of a cavity with pressure of gas P. Function of a Tresca-Miesesa on a surface of elastic surface is defined additionally with purpose creep condition determination caused by gas pressure in the cavity. (author)

  12. Majumdar-Papapetrou class of nonstatic cylindrically symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, R.N.; Rao, P.P.

    1979-01-01

    Relations have been obtained between certain components of the metric and the electromagnetic potentials for source-free Brans-Dicke-Maxwell fields described by a nonstatic cylindrically symmetric Einstein-Rosen metric. These are important, in the sense that they generate a class of solutions that in a way can be said to belong to the class generated by similar relations obtained by Majumdar (Phys. Rev.; 72: 390 (1947)) and Papapetrou (Proc. R. Ir. Acad. Sect. A.; 51: 191 (1947)) for generalized static Einstein-Maxwell fields. The relations have further been used to reduce the B-D Maxwell equations to B-D vacuum equations and vice versa. (author)

  13. Calculation of laminar incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer during spherical annulus filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuft, D.B.

    1979-04-01

    A method of computing laminar incompressible fluid-flow and heat transfer during the filling of a spherical annulus is presented. Transient fluid temperatures and heat flux rates in the spherical annulus are calculated for an insulated outer sphere and a constant temperature inner sphere with heated water filling the annulus from the bottom. To achieve a solution, laminar axially symmetric flow is assumed and the Marker-and-Cell (MAC) free surface computational method is applied to this problem in spherical coordinates. Changes in the standard MAC treatment are incorporated and special methods for handling the free surface are introduced. A variable mesh is used to improve resolution near the inner sphere where temperature and velocity gradients are steep and the governing equations are derived for variable fluid properties to allow an eddy viscosity turbulence model to be applied later. Calculations of velocity, temperature, and inner sphere heat flux in a spherical annulus of 139.7 mm inner radius, and 168.3 mm outer radius within an inlet tube diameter of 38.1 mm are presented

  14. Reconstructing matter profiles of spherically compensated cosmic regions in ΛCDM cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fromont, Paul; Alimi, Jean-Michel

    2018-02-01

    The absence of a physically motivated model for large-scale profiles of cosmic voids limits our ability to extract valuable cosmological information from their study. In this paper, we address this problem by introducing the spherically compensated cosmic regions, named CoSpheres. Such cosmic regions are identified around local extrema in the density field and admit a unique compensation radius R1 where the internal spherical mass is exactly compensated. Their origin is studied by extending the standard peak model and implementing the compensation condition. Since the compensation radius evolves as the Universe itself, R1(t) ∝ a(t), CoSpheres behave as bubble Universes with fixed comoving volume. Using the spherical collapse model, we reconstruct their profiles with a very high accuracy until z = 0 in N-body simulations. CoSpheres are symmetrically defined and reconstructed for both central maximum (seeding haloes and galaxies) and minimum (identified with cosmic voids). We show that the full non-linear dynamics can be solved analytically around this particular compensation radius, providing useful predictions for cosmology. This formalism highlights original correlations between local extremum and their large-scale cosmic environment. The statistical properties of these spherically compensated cosmic regions and the possibilities to constrain efficiently both cosmology and gravity will be investigated in companion papers.

  15. Spherical aberration compensation method for long focal-length measurement based on Talbot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yupeng; Huang, Xiao; Bai, Jian; Du, Juan; Liu, Qun; Luo, Yujie; Luo, Jia

    2017-08-01

    Large-aperture and long focal-length lens is widely used in high energy laser system. The method based on Talbot interferometry is a reliable method to measure the focal length of such elements. By employing divergent beam and two gratings of different periods, this method could realize full-aperture measurement, higher accuracy and better repeatability. However, it does not take into account the spherical aberration of the measured lens resulting in the moiré fringes bending, which will introduce measurement error. Furthermore, in long-focal measurement with divergent beam, this error is an important factor affecting the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new spherical aberration compensation method, which could significantly reduce the measurement error. Characterized by central-symmetric scanning window, the proposed method is based on the relationship between spherical aberration and the lens aperture. Angle data of moiré fringes in each scanning window is retrieved by Fourier analysis and statistically fitted to estimate a globally optimum value for spherical-aberration-free focal length calculation. Simulation and experiment have been carried out. Compared to the previous work, the proposed method is able to reduce the relative measurement error by 50%. The effect of scanning window size and shift step length on the results is also discussed.

  16. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  17. Symmetry relationships for multiple scattering of polarized light in turbid spherical samples: theory and a Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a theory describing totally incoherent multiple scattering of turbid spherical samples. It is proved that if reciprocity and mirror symmetry hold for single scattering by a particle, they also hold for multiple scattering in spherical samples. Monte Carlo simulations generate a reduced effective scattering Mueller matrix, which virtually satisfies reciprocity and mirror symmetry. The scattering matrix was factorized by using the symmetric decomposition in a predefined form, as well as the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition, approximately into a product of a pure depolarizer and vertically oriented linear retarding diattenuators. The parameters of these components were calculated as a function of the polar angle. While the turbid spherical sample is a pure depolarizer at low polar angles, it obtains more functions of the retarding diattenuator with increasing polar angle.

  18. Combined analytical-numerical procedure to solve multigroup spherical harmonics equations in two-dimensional r-z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Milosevic, M.

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper a generalization is performed of a procedure to solve multigroup spherical harmonics equations, which has originally been proposed and developed for one-dimensional systems in cylindrical or spherical geometry, and later extended for a special case of a two-dimensional system in r-z geometry. The expressions are derived for the axial and the radial dependence of the group values of the neutron flux moments, in the P-3 approximation of the spherical harmonics method, in a cylindrically symmetrical system with an arbitrary number of material regions in both r- and z-directions. In the special case of an axially homogeneous system, these expressions reduce to the relations derived previously. (author)

  19. Thermal behaviour of a spherical addition to molten metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehmen, E.

    1995-05-01

    This thesis presents a numerical model for describing the thermal behaviour of a spherical alloy addition when added to a melt. It is assumed that: no significant heat of solution between the alloy addition and the melt is involved, the dissolution rate is dominated by heat transfer from the melt, the heat flow into the addition is spherically symmetric, the additions have a well defined melting point, there are no solid phase transformations, heat conduction can be represented by Fourier`s law, and the heat transfer from the melt can be described by an average heat transfer coefficient. The model is validated by comparison with experimental data obtained from immersion experiments on: (1) a 4.88 cm diameter Al sphere chilled in liquid nitrogen to -196 {sup o}C and then immersed in water of 3.8 {sup o}C and 18.1 {sup o}C, (2) 4.90 cm diameter Al spheres at room temperatures immersed in molten Al of 720 {sup o}C, and (3) 3.72 cm diameter 75 wt% FeSi spheres at 150 {sup o}C immersed in molten steel of 1600 {sup o}C. The shell thickness and temperatures at the sphere centre and surface were recorded as functions of time. For model and experiment to agree, it was found that the density, specific heat and thermal conductivity of the alloy addition must depend on temperature, and an inner heat transfer resistance across the sphere-shell interphase must be included. The sensible heat of the melt that solidifies should be included in the heat balance only when the shell is expanding. The inner heat transfer resistance is shown to be very important in determining the melting/dissolution time for alloy additions that react strongly with the melt. 70 refs., 60 figs., 36 tabs.

  20. Finite amplitude, horizontal motion of a load symmetrically supported between isotropic hyperelastic springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Millard F; Young, Todd R

    2012-03-01

    The undamped, finite amplitude horizontal motion of a load supported symmetrically between identical incompressible, isotropic hyperelastic springs, each subjected to an initial finite uniaxial static stretch, is formulated in general terms. The small amplitude motion of the load about the deformed static state is discussed; and the periodicity of the arbitrary finite amplitude motion is established for all such elastic materials for which certain conditions on the engineering stress and the strain energy function hold. The exact solution for the finite vibration of the load is then derived for the classical neo-Hookean model. The vibrational period is obtained in terms of the complete Heuman lambda-function whose properties are well-known. Dependence of the period and hence the frequency on the physical parameters of the system is investigated and the results are displayed graphically.

  1. Potential surfaces in symmetric heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Piller, C.; Mignen, J.; Raffray, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The entrance channel in symmetric heavy-ion reactions is studied in the liquid-drop model approach including the nuclear proximity energy and allowing ellipsoidal deformations of the colliding nuclei. In the whole mass range a sudden transition occurs from oblate to prolate shapes when the proximity forces become important. This strongly affects the effective moment of inertia. The ellipsoidal deformations reduce the fusion barrier width for light systems and lower the potential barrier height for medium and heavy nuclei. The results are in agreement with the empirical effective barrier shift determined by Aguiar et al for the 58 Ni + 58 Ni, 74 Ge + 74 Ge and 80 Se + 80 Se systems. The sub-barrier fusion enhancement in heavy-ion reactions might be explained by the slowness of the process. Below the static fusion barrier, the reaction time is long; allowing some adiabaticity and deformations of the colliding ions. Above the barrier, the reaction is more sudden and the deformation degree of freedom is frozen

  2. BioClips of symmetric and asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W; White, John G

    2007-05-01

    Animations have long been used as tools to illustrate complex processes in such diverse fields as mechanical engineering, astronomy, bacteriology and physics. Animations in biology hold particular educational promise for depicting complex dynamic processes, such as photosynthesis, motility, viral replication and cellular respiration, which cannot be easily explained using static two-dimensional images. However, these animations have often been restrictive in scope, having been created for a specific classroom or research audience. In recent years, a new type of animation has emerged called the BioClip (http://www.bioclips.com) that strives to present science in an interactive multimedia format, which is, at once, informative and entertaining, by combining animations, text descriptions and music in one portable cross-platform document. In the present article, we illustrate the educational value of this new electronic resource by reviewing in depth two BioClips our group has created which describe the processes of symmetric and asymmetric cell division (http://www.wormclassroom.org/cb/bioclip).

  3. Weakly Interacting Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric States in the Bilayer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Tomaka, G.; Ploch, D.

    We have studied the parallel magneto-transport in DQW-structures of two different potential shapes: quasi-rectangular and quasi-triangular. The quantum beats effect was observed in Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations for both types of the DQW structures in perpendicular magnetic filed arrangement. We developed a special scheme for the Landau levels energies calculation by means of which we carried out the necessary simulations of beating effect. In order to obtain the agreement between our experimental data and the results of simulations, we introduced two different quasi-Fermi levels which characterize symmetric and anti-symmetric states in DQWs. The existence of two different quasi Fermi-Levels simply means, that one can treat two sub-systems (charge carriers characterized by symmetric and anti-symmetric wave functions) as weakly interacting and having their own rate of establishing the equilibrium state.

  4. Nonexistence of Skyrmion-Skyrmion and Skyrmion-anti-Skyrmion static equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Warnick, C. M.; Wong, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    We consider classical static Skyrmion-anti-Skyrmion and Skyrmion-Skyrmion configurations, symmetric with respect to a reflection plane, or symmetric up to a G-parity transformation, respectively. We show that the stress tensor component completely normal to the reflection plane, and hence its integral over the plane, is negative definite or positive definite, respectively. Classical Skyrmions always repel classical Skyrmions and classical Skyrmions always attract classical anti-Skyrmions and thus no static equilibrium, whether stable or unstable, is possible in either case. No other symmetry assumption is made and so our results also apply to multi-Skyrmion configurations. Our results are consistent with existing analyses of Skyrmion forces at large separation, and with numerical results on Skymion-anti-Skyrmion configurations in the literature which admit a different reflection symmetry. They also hold for the massive Skyrme model. We also point out that reflection symmetric self-gravitating Skyrmions or black holes with Skyrmion hair cannot rest in symmetric equilibrium with self-gravitating anti-Skyrmions.

  5. Monodromy in the quantum spherical pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemin, V.; Uribe, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this article we show that monodromy in the quantum spherical pendulum can be interpreted as a Maslov effect: i.e. as multi-valuedness of a certain generating function of the quantum energy levels. (orig.)

  6. Transformation of Real Spherical Harmonics under Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Z.; Krukowski, St.; Jalbout, A. F.

    2008-08-01

    The algorithm rotating the real spherical harmonics is presented. The convenient and ready to use formulae for l = 0, 1, 2, 3 are listed. The rotation in R3 space is determined by the rotation axis and the rotation angle; the Euler angles are not used. The proposed algorithm consists of three steps. (i) Express the real spherical harmonics as the linear combination of canonical polynomials. (ii) Rotate the canonical polynomials. (iii) Express the rotated canonical polynomials as the linear combination of real spherical harmonics. Since the three step procedure can be treated as a superposition of rotations, the searched rotation matrix for real spherical harmonics is a product of three matrices. The explicit formulae of matrix elements are given for l = 0, 1, 2, 3, what corresponds to s, p, d, f atomic orbitals.

  7. Optical properties of spherical gold mesoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. I.; Novikov, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical properties of spherical gold particles with diameters of 150-650 nm (mesoparticles) are studied by reflectance spectroscopy. Particles are fabricated by laser-induced transfer of metallic droplets onto metal and dielectric substrates. Contributions of higher multipoles (beyond...

  8. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  9. FY 2006 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  10. Feasibility study for the Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Baylor, L.R.

    1985-10-01

    The design of the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX) is discussed. The physics of the plasma are given in a magnetohydrodynamic model. The structural aspects and instrumentation of the device are described. 19 refs., 103 figs

  11. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  12. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  13. START: the creation of a spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Alan

    1992-01-01

    The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) plasma fusion experiment is now operational at AEA Fusion's Culham Laboratory. It is the world's first experiment to explore an extreme limit of the tokamak - the Spherical Tokamak - which theoretical studies predict may have substantial advantages in the search for economic fusion power. The Head of the START project, describes the concept, some of the initial experimental results and the possibility of developing a spherical tokamak power reactor. (author)

  14. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  15. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  16. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...

  17. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R.; Dehghani, M.H.; Zangeneh, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  18. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R. [Shahid Bahonar University, Department of Physics, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, M.H. [Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, M.K. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  19. Static Analysis of Functional Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the static analysis of programs in the functional programming language Miranda is described based on two graph models. A new control-flow graph model of Miranda definitions is presented, and a model with four classes of caligraphs. Standard software metrics are applicable to these

  20. Preparation and Optical Properties of Spherical Inverse Opals by Liquid Phase Deposition Using Spherical Colloidal Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoi, Y; Tominaga, T

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) inverse opals in spherical shape were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) using spherical colloidal crystals as templates. Spherical colloidal crystals were produced by ink-jet drying technique. Aqueous emulsion droplets that contain polystyrene latex particles were ejected into air and dried. Closely packed colloidal crystals with spherical shape were obtained. The obtained spherical colloidal crystals were used as templates for the LPD. The templates were dispersed in the deposition solution of the LPD, i.e. a mixed solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid and reacted for 4 h at 30 °C. After the LPD process, the interstitial spaces of the spherical colloidal crystals were completely filled with titanium oxide. Subsequent heat treatment resulted in removal of templates and spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals. The spherical shape of the template was retained. SEM observations indicated that the periodic ordered voids were surrounded by titanium dioxide. The optical reflectance spectra indicated that the optical properties of the spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals were due to Bragg diffractions from the ordered structure. Filling in the voids of the inverse opals with different solvents caused remarkable changes in the reflectance peak.

  1. Representations of the infinite symmetric group

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Representation theory of big groups is an important and quickly developing part of modern mathematics, giving rise to a variety of important applications in probability and mathematical physics. This book provides the first concise and self-contained introduction to the theory on the simplest yet very nontrivial example of the infinite symmetric group, focusing on its deep connections to probability, mathematical physics, and algebraic combinatorics. Following a discussion of the classical Thoma's theorem which describes the characters of the infinite symmetric group, the authors describe explicit constructions of an important class of representations, including both the irreducible and generalized ones. Complete with detailed proofs, as well as numerous examples and exercises which help to summarize recent developments in the field, this book will enable graduates to enhance their understanding of the topic, while also aiding lecturers and researchers in related areas.

  2. Symmetric, discrete fractional splines and Gabor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing the continu......In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing...... the continuous splines, and one is a truly finite, discrete construction. We discuss the properties of these splines and their usefulness as windows for Gabor frames and Wilson bases....

  3. Symmetric configurations highlighted by collective quantum coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obster, Dennis [Radboud University, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Sasakura, Naoki [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    Recent developments in quantum gravity have shown the Lorentzian treatment to be a fruitful approach towards the emergence of macroscopic space-times. In this paper, we discuss another related aspect of the Lorentzian treatment: we argue that collective quantum coherence may provide a simple mechanism for highlighting symmetric configurations over generic non-symmetric ones. After presenting the general framework of the mechanism, we show the phenomenon in some concrete simple examples in the randomly connected tensor network, which is tightly related to a certain model of quantum gravity, i.e., the canonical tensor model. We find large peaks at configurations invariant under Lie-group symmetries as well as a preference for charge quantization, even in the Abelian case. In future study, this simple mechanism may provide a way to analyze the emergence of macroscopic space-times with global symmetries as well as various other symmetries existing in nature, which are usually postulated. (orig.)

  4. Overlap-free symmetric D 0 Lwords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frid

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A D0L word on an alphabet Σ={0,1,…,q-1} is called symmetric if it is a fixed point w=φ(w of a morphism φ:Σ * → Σ * defined by φ(i= t 1 + i t 2 + i … t m + i for some word t 1 t 2 … t m (equal to φ(0 and every i ∈ Σ; here a means a mod q. We prove a result conjectured by J. Shallit: if all the symbols in φ(0 are distinct (i.e., if t i ≠ t j for i ≠ j, then the symmetric D0L word w is overlap-free, i.e., contains no factor of the form axaxa for any x ∈ Σ * and a ∈ Σ.

  5. Young—Capelli symmetrizers in superalgebras†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brini, Andrea; Teolis, Antonio G. B.

    1989-01-01

    Let Supern[U [unk] V] be the nth homogeneous subspace of the supersymmetric algebra of U [unk] V, where U and V are Z2-graded vector spaces over a field K of characteristic zero. The actions of the general linear Lie superalgebras pl(U) and pl(V) span two finite-dimensional K-subalgebras B and [unk] of EndK(Supern[U [unk] V]) that are the centralizers of each other. Young—Capelli symmetrizers and Young—Capelli *-symmetrizers give rise to K-linear bases of B and [unk] containing orthogonal systems of idempotents; thus they yield complete decompositions of B and [unk] into minimal left and right ideals, respectively. PMID:16594014

  6. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  7. Commutative curvature operators over four-dimensional generalized symmetric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haji-Badali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Commutative properties of four-dimensional generalized symmetric pseudo-Riemannian manifolds were considered. Specially, in this paper, we studied Skew-Tsankov and Jacobi-Tsankov conditions in 4-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian generalized symmetric manifolds.

  8. Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lampreia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.

  9. A symmetric Roos bound for linear codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duursma, I.M.; Pellikaan, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    The van Lint–Wilson AB-method yields a short proof of the Roos bound for the minimum distance of a cyclic code. We use the AB-method to obtain a different bound for the weights of a linear code. In contrast to the Roos bound, the role of the codes A and B in our bound is symmetric. We use the bound

  10. Symmetric voltage-controlled variable resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Feedback network makes resistance of field-effect transistor (FET) same for current flowing in either direction. It combines control voltage with source and load voltages to give symmetric current/voltage characteristics. Since circuit produces same magnitude output voltage for current flowing in either direction, it introduces no offset in presense of altering polarity signals. It is therefore ideal for sensor and effector circuits in servocontrol systems.

  11. Resistor Networks based on Symmetrical Polytopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Moody

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a method developed by Van Steenwijk can be generalized to calculate the resistance between any two vertices of a symmetrical polytope all of whose edges are identical resistors. The method is applied to a number of cases that have not been studied earlier such as the Archimedean polyhedra and their duals in three dimensions, the regular polytopes in four dimensions and the hypercube in any number of dimensions.

  12. Symmetric vs. asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph; Goerg, Sebastian J.; Yu, Gaoneng

    2012-01-01

    In major legal orders such as UK, the U.S., Germany, and France, bribers and recipients face equally severe criminal sanctions. In contrast, countries like China, Russia, and Japan treat the briber more mildly. Given these differences between symmetric and asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery, one may wonder which punishment strategy is more effective in curbing corruption. For this purpose, we designed and ran a lab experiment in Bonn (Germany) and Shanghai (China) with exactly the same...

  13. Is the Universe matter-antimatter symmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1976-09-01

    According to the symmetric cosmology there should be antimatter regions in space which are equally as large as the matter regions. The regions of different kind are separated by Leidenfrost layers, which may be very thin and not observable from a distance. This view has met resistance which in part is based on the old view that the dilute interstellar and intergalactic medium is more or less homogeneous. However, through space research in the magnetosphere and interplanetary space we know that thin layers, dividing space into regions of different magnetisation, exist and based on this it is concluded that space in general has a cellular structure. This result may break down the psychological resistance to the symmetric theory. The possibility that every second star in our galaxy consists of antimatter is discussed, and it is shown that this view is not in conflict with any observations. As most stars are likely to be surrounded by solar systems of a structure like our own, it is concluded that collisions between comets and antistars (or anticomets and stars) would be rather frequent. Such collisions would result in phenomena of the same type as the observed cosmic γ-ray bursts. Another support for the symmetric cosmology is the continuous X-ray background radiation. Also many of the observed large energy releases in cosmos are likely to be due to annihilation

  14. Spherical collapse and cluster counts in modified gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, Matthew C.; Stabenau, Hans F.; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2009-01-01

    Modifications to the gravitational potential affect the nonlinear gravitational evolution of large scale structures in the Universe. To illustrate some generic features of such changes, we study the evolution of spherically symmetric perturbations when the modification is of Yukawa type; this is nontrivial, because we should not and do not assume that Birkhoff's theorem applies. We then show how to estimate the abundance of virialized objects in such models. Comparison with numerical simulations shows reasonable agreement: When normalized to have the same fluctuations at early times, weaker large scale gravity produces fewer massive halos. However, the opposite can be true for models that are normalized to have the same linear theory power spectrum today, so the abundance of rich clusters potentially places interesting constraints on such models. Our analysis also indicates that the formation histories and abundances of sufficiently low mass objects are unchanged from standard gravity. This explains why simulations have found that the nonlinear power spectrum at large k is unaffected by such modifications to the gravitational potential. In addition, the most massive objects in models with normalized cosmic microwave background and weaker gravity are expected to be similar to the high-redshift progenitors of the most massive objects in models with stronger gravity. Thus, the difference between the cluster and field galaxy populations is expected to be larger in models with stronger large scale gravity.

  15. On the harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present paper, we introduce the notions of functions harmonic starlike with respect to symmetric, conjugate and symmetric conjugate points. Such results as coefficient inequalities and structural formulae for these function classes are proved. Keywords: Harmonic functions, harmonic starlike functions, symmetric points, ...

  16. Rotational symmetric HMD with eye-tracking capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    As an important auxiliary function of head-mounted displays (HMDs), eye tracking has an important role in the field of intelligent human-machine interaction. In this paper, an eye-tracking HMD system (ET-HMD) is designed based on the rotational symmetric system. The tracking principle in this paper is based on pupil-corneal reflection. The ET-HMD system comprises three optical paths for virtual display, infrared illumination, and eye tracking. The display optics is shared by three optical paths and consists of four spherical lenses. For the eye-tracking path, an extra imaging lens is added to match the image sensor and achieve eye tracking. The display optics provides users a 40° diagonal FOV with a ״ 0.61 OLED, the 19 mm eye clearance, and 10 mm exit pupil diameter. The eye-tracking path can capture 15 mm × 15 mm of the users' eyes. The average MTF is above 0.1 at 26 lp/mm for the display path, and exceeds 0.2 at 46 lp/mm for the eye-tracking path. Eye illumination is simulated using LightTools with an eye model and an 850 nm near-infrared LED (NIR-LED). The results of the simulation show that the illumination of the NIR-LED can cover the area of the eye model with the display optics that is sufficient for eye tracking. The integrated optical system HMDs with eye-tracking feature can help improve the HMD experience of users.

  17. Spherical aberration of an optical system and its influence on depth of focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš, Antonín; Pokorný, Petr

    2017-06-10

    This paper analyzes the influence of spherical aberration on the depth of focus of symmetrical optical systems for imaging of axial points. A calculation of a beam's caustics is discussed using ray equations in the image plane and considering longitudinal spherical aberration as well. Concurrently, the influence of aberration coefficients on extremes of such a curve is presented. Afterwards, conditions for aberration coefficients are derived if the Strehl definition should be the same in two symmetrically placed planes with respect to the paraxial image plane. Such conditions for optical systems with large aberrations are derived with the use of geometric-optical approximation where the gyration diameter of the beam in given planes of the optical system is evaluated. Therefore, one can calculate aberration coefficients in such a way that the optical system generates a beam of rays that has the gyration radius in a given interval smaller than the defined limit value. Moreover, one can calculate the maximal depth of focus of the optical system respecting the aforementioned conditions.

  18. Static elliptic minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastras, Georgios [NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Attiki (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    The Ryu-Takayanagi conjecture connects the entanglement entropy in the boundary CFT to the area of open co-dimension two minimal surfaces in the bulk. Especially in AdS{sub 4}, the latter are two-dimensional surfaces, and, thus, solutions of a Euclidean non-linear sigma model on a symmetric target space that can be reduced to an integrable system via Pohlmeyer reduction. In this work, we construct static minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 4} that correspond to elliptic solutions of the reduced system, namely the cosh-Gordon equation, via the inversion of Pohlmeyer reduction. The constructed minimal surfaces comprise a two-parameter family of surfaces that include helicoids and catenoids in H{sup 3} as special limits. Minimal surfaces that correspond to identical boundary conditions are discovered within the constructed family of surfaces and the relevant geometric phase transitions are studied. (orig.)

  19. Dual formulation of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric action of kappa-symmetric D3-brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanichchapongjaroen, Pichet

    2018-02-01

    We study the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation. Essentially, the construction is the PST-covariantisation and nonlinearisation of Zwanziger action. The covariantisation made use of three auxiliary scalar fields. Apart from these, the construction proceed in a similar way to that of the standard formulation. For example, the theories can be extended to include interactions with external fields, and that the theories possess two local PST symmetries. We then explicitly demonstrate the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation of DBI theory, and D3-brane. For each of these theories, the twisted selfduality condition obtained from duality-symmetric actions are explicitly shown to match with the duality relation between field strength and its dual from the one-potential actions. Their on-shell actions between the duality-symmetric and the one-potential versions are also shown to match. We also explicitly prove kappa-symmetry of the covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric D3-brane action in dual formulation.

  20. ELSA- The European Levitated Spherical Actruator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Serin, J.; Telteu-Nedelcu, D.; De La Vallee Poussin, H.; Onillon, E.; Rossini, L.

    2014-08-01

    The reaction sphere is a magnetic bearing spherical actuator consisting of a permanent magnet spherical rotor that can be accelerated in any direction. It consists of an 8-pole permanent magnet spherical rotor that is magnetically levitated and can be accelerated about any axis by a 20-pole stator with electromagnets. The spherical actuator is proposed as a potential alternative to traditional momentum exchange devices such as reaction wheels (RWs) or control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). This new actuator provides several benefits such as reduced mass and power supply allocated to the attitude and navigation unit, performance gain, and improved reliability due to the absence of mechanical bearings. The paper presents the work done on the levitated spherical actuator and more precisely the electrical drive including its control unit and power parts. An elegant breadboard is currently being manufactured within the frame of an FP7 project. This project also comprises a feasibility study to show the feasibility of integrating such a system on a flight platform and to identify all the challenges to be solved in terms of technology or components to be developed.

  1. Statistical Mechanics of Thin Spherical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košmrlj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes, and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells, thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated “pressure.” Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows nonlinearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power-law exponent that characterizes the response of fluctuating flat membranes to a uniform tension.

  2. Scaling of a fast spherical discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antsiferov, P. S., E-mail: Ants@isan.troitsk.ru; Dorokhin, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The influence of the discharge cavity dimensions on the properties of the spherical plasma formed in a fast discharge was studied experimentally. The passage of a current pulse with an amplitude of 30–40 kA and a rise rate of ~10{sup 12} A/s (a fast discharge) through a spherical ceramic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) cavity with an inner diameter of 11 mm filled with argon at a pressure of 80 Pa results in the formation of a 1- to 2-mm-diameter spherical plasma with an electron temperature of several tens of electronvolts and a density of 10{sup 18}–10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}. It is shown that an increase in the inner diameter of the discharge cavity from 11 to 21 mm leads to the fourfold increase in the formation time of the spherical plasma and a decrease in the average ion charge. A decrease in the cavity diameter to 7 mm makes the spherical plasma unstable.

  3. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki [PPPL; Kaita, Robert [PPPL

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  5. Friction factor for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović-Radoičić Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the experimental evaluation of different friction factor correlations for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles at ambient temperature. The experiments were performed by measuring the pressure drop across the bed. Packed beds made of monosized glass spherical particles of seven different diameters were used, as well as beds made of 16 fractions of quartz filtration sand obtained by sieving (polydisperse non-spherical particles. The range of bed voidages was 0.359–0.486, while the range of bed particle Reynolds numbers was from 0.3 to 286 for spherical particles and from 0.1 to 50 for non-spherical particles. The obtained results were compared using a number of available literature correlations. In order to improve the correlation results for spherical particles, a new simple equation was proposed in the form of Ergun’s equation, with modified coefficients. The new correlation had a mean absolute deviation between experimental and calculated values of pressure drop of 9.04%. For non-spherical quartz filtration sand particles the best fit was obtained using Ergun’s equation, with a mean absolute deviation of 10.36%. Surface-volume diameter (dSV necessary for correlating the data for filtration sand particles was calculated based on correlations for dV = f(dm and Ψ = f(dm. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON172022

  6. The spherical harmonics method, II (application to problems with plane and spherical symmetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, C

    1958-12-15

    The application of the spherical harmonic method to problems with plane or spherical symmetry is discussed in detail. The numerical results of some applications already made are included to indicate the degree of convergence obtained. Formulae for dealing with distributions of isotropic sources are developed. Tables useful in applying the method are given in Section 11. (author)

  7. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  8. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  9. Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-03-31

    if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing

  10. Static and Dynamic Membrane Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While originally P systems were defined to contain multiset rewriting rules, it turned out that considering different types of rules may produce important results, such as increasing the computational power of the rules. This paper focuses on factoring out the concept of a membrane structure out of various P system models with the goal of providing useful formalisations. Both static and dynamic membrane structures are considered.

  11. Spherical harmonics analysis of surface density fluctuations of spherical ionic SDS and nonionic C12E8 micelles: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Noriyuki; Nimura, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kazushi; Okazaki, Susumu

    2017-07-21

    The surface structure and its fluctuation of spherical micelles were investigated using a series of density correlation functions newly defined by spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials based on the molecular dynamics calculations. To investigate the influence of head-group charges on the micelle surface structure, ionic sodium dodecyl sulfate and nonionic octaethyleneglycol monododecylether (C 12 E 8 ) micelles were investigated as model systems. Large-scale density fluctuations were observed for both micelles in the calculated surface static structure factor. The area compressibility of the micelle surface evaluated by the surface static structure factor was tens-of-times larger than a typical value of a lipid membrane surface. The structural relaxation time, which was evaluated from the surface intermediate scattering function, indicates that the relaxation mechanism of the long-range surface structure can be well described by the hydrostatic approximation. The density fluctuation on the two-dimensional micelle surface has similar characteristics to that of three-dimensional fluids near the critical point.

  12. Casimir energy density for spherical universes in n-dimensional spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezcan, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    We consider the Casimir effect for the massless conformal scalar field in an n-dimensional, closed, static universe. We calculate the renormalized vacuum energy density using the covariant point-splitting method, the mode-sum regularization and the renormalized vacuum energy with the zeta-function regularization. We observe that all odd spacetime dimensions give us the zero renormalized vacuum energy density. For even spacetime dimensions the renormalized vacuum energy density oscillates in sign. The result agrees with three regularization techniques. The Casimir energy density for spherical universes in n-dimensional spacetime is regarded as interesting both to understand the correspondence between the sign of the effect and the dimension of manifold in topology and as a key to confirming the Casimir energy for half spherical universes (manifold with boundary) in n-dimensional spacetime

  13. Electromagnetic cloaking in higher order spherical cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhwa, H. H.; Aiyar, R. P. R. C.; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    The inception of transformation optics has led to the realisation of the invisibility devices for various applications, one of which is spherical cloaking. In this paper, a formulation for a higher-order spherical cloak has been proposed to reduce its physical thickness significantly by introducing a nonlinear relation between the original and transformed coordinate systems and it has been verified using the ray tracing approach. Analysis has been carried out to observe the anomalies in the variation of refractive index for higher order cloaks indicating the presence of poles in the relevant equations. Furthermore, a higher-order spherical cloak with predefined values of the material characteristics on its inner and outer surfaces has been designed for practical application.

  14. A spherical Taylor-Couette dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Florence; Gissinger, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    We present a new scenario for magnetic field amplification in the planetary interiors where an electrically conducting fluid is confined in a differentially rotating, spherical shell (spherical Couette flow) with thin aspect-ratio. When the angular momentum sufficiently decreases outwards, a primary hydrodynamic instability is widely known to develop in the equatorial region, characterized by pairs of counter-rotating, axisymmetric toroidal vortices (Taylor vortices) similar to those observed in cylindrical Couette flow. We characterize the subcritical dynamo bifurcation due to this spherical Taylor-Couette flow and study its evolution as the flow successively breaks into wavy and turbulent Taylor vortices for increasing Reynolds number. We show that the critical magnetic Reynolds number seems to reach a constant value as the Reynolds number is gradually increased. The role of global rotation on the dynamo threshold and the implications for planetary interiors are finally discussed.

  15. Spherical tokamak power plant design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hender, T.C.; Bond, A.; Edwards, J.; Karditsas, P.J.; McClements, K.G.; Mustoe, J.; Sherwood, D.V.; Voss, G.M.; Wilson, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    The very high β potential of the spherical tokamak has been demonstrated in the START experiment. Systems code studies show the cost of electricity from spherical tokamak power plants, operating at high β in second ballooning mode stable regime, is comparable with fossil fuels and fission. Outline engineering designs are presented based on two concepts for the central rod of the toroidal field (TF) circuit - a room temperature water cooled copper rod or a helium cooled cryogenic aluminium rod. For the copper rod case the TF return limbs are supported by the vacuum vessel, while for the aluminium rod the TF coils form an independent structure. In both cases thermohydraulic and stress calculations indicate the viability of the design. Two-dimensional neutronics calculations show the feasibility of tritium self-sufficiency without an inboard blanket. The spherical tokamak has unique maintenance possibilities based on lowering major component structures into a hot cell beneath the device and these are discussed

  16. Dynamics of a spherical minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, T; Coolen, A C C; Sherrington, D

    2003-01-01

    We present an exact dynamical solution of a spherical version of the batch minority game (MG) with random external information. The control parameters in this model are the ratio of the number of possible values for the public information over the number of agents, and the radius of the spherical constraint on the microscopic degrees of freedom. We find a phase diagram with three phases: two without anomalous response (an oscillating versus a frozen state) and a further frozen phase with divergent integrated response. In contrast to standard MG versions, we can also calculate the volatility exactly. Our study reveals similarities between the spherical and the conventional MG, but also intriguing differences. Numerical simulations confirm our analytical results

  17. Electrostatic axisymmetric mirror with removable spherical aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmuzaev, S.B.; Serikbaeva, G.S.; Hizirova, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The electrostatic axisymmetric mirror, assembled from three coaxial cylinders with an equal diameter d and under the potential v1, v2 and v3, was computed. The proportions of geometrical and electric parameters of the mirror, with which the spherical 3-order aberration may be eliminated, were determined. The computation outcomes of the case, when the focal power of the mirror is enough large and the object plane in the focus is out of its field, are presented (Fig. 1 - potentials proportion that makes elimination of the spherical aberration possible; Fig. 2 - the focus coordinates when the spherical aberration is eliminated). The geometrical values are presented by d, and the electric ones are presented by v1. The figures on the curves present a length of the second (middle) electrode. The zero point is located in the middle of the gap between the first and second electrodes The investigated mirror may be used as a lens for the transmission electron microscope

  18. Flow and scour around spherical bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Christoffer

    2003-01-01

    Spherical bodies placed in the marine environment may bury themselves due to the action of the waves and the current on the sediment in their immediate neighborhood. The present study addresses this topic by a numerical and an experimental investigation of the flow and scour around a spherical body...... results except in the critical flow regime. For flow around a near-wall sphere, a weak horseshoe vortex emerges as the gap ratio becomes less than or equal to 0.3. In Chapter 3, a RANS flow solver has been used to compute the bed shear stress for a near-wall sphere. The model results compare well...... 4, an experimental study on the scour around spherical bodies and self-burial in sand for steady current and waves has been carried out. The effect of the contraction of streamlines is found to be the key element in the scour process both for steady current and waves. Furthermore, it is demonstrated...

  19. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  20. Photonic jet μ-etching: from static to dynamic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrochman, A.; Lecler, S.; Zelgowski, J.; Mermet, F.; Fontaine, J.; Tumbelaka, B. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Photonic jet etching is a direct-laser etching method applying photonic jet phenomenon to concentrate the laser beam onto the proceeded material. We call photonic jet the phenomenon of the localized sub-wavelength propagative beam generated at the shadow-side surfaces of micro-scale dielectric cylinders or spheres, when they are illuminated by an electromagnetic plane-wave or laser beam. This concentration has made possible the laser to yield sub-μ etching marks, despite the laser was a near-infrared with nano-second pulses sources. We will present these achievements from the beginning when some spherical glasses were used for static etching to dynamic etching using an optical fiber with a semi-elliptical tip.