Static quadrupole moment of the first excited state of 24Mg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fewell, M.P.; Hinds, S.; Kean, D.C.; Zabel, T.H.
1979-01-01
The static quadrupole moment Qsub(2+) and the B(E2;0 + → 2 + ) value for the first excited state of 24 Mg have been determined using the reorientation effect in Coulomb excitation. Surface barrier detectors at 90 0 and 172 0 were used to detect 24 Mg ions scattered from 208 Pb. It is found that Qsub(2+) = -18.1 +- 1.3 e.fm 2 , suggesting that, contrary to most previous experimental evidence, the quadrupole moment is in agreement with theoretical predictions. For B(E2;0 + → 2 + ) the value 443 +- 24 e 2 . fm 4 was obtained
Static quadrupole moment of the Kπ = 14+ isomer in 176W
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Bucurescu, D.; Brandolini, F.; Lenzi, S. M.; Pavan, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Marginean, N.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; De Poli, M.; Napoli, D. R.; Podolyak, Zs.; Ur, C. A.
2001-01-01
The investigation of high-K isomeric states in the deformed nuclei of the A∼180 region has found renewed interest in recent years. Much experimental and theoretical work was devoted to understand the mechanisms which govern their decay to lower-lying states, particularly the anomalous strong decays to low-K states. Other questions of great importance are the quenching of the pairing correlations and the shape polarization effects in the high-seniority multi-quasiparticle excitations. Our interest focused on the 41 ns K π =14 + 3746 keV isomeric state with anomalous decay in 176 W. On the basis of a precise g-factor measurement we assigned to this isomer a pure four-quasiparticle configuration, composed by two protons in the 7/2 + [404] and 9/2 - [514] orbitals and two neutrons in the 7/2 + [633] and 5/2 - [512] orbitals. In the present work the measurement of its static quadrupole moment has been performed. Prior to our experiment, static quadrupole moments have been measured only for three high-K isomeric states of seniority ≥ 4 in the A∼180 region: 16 + in 178 Hf, 35/2 - in 179 W and 25 + in 182 Os. A deformation very similar to that of the ground state has been deduced for the 16 + isomer in 178 Hf, while for the high-K isomers in 179 W and 182 Os significantly smaller deformations were reported. The quadrupole interaction of the 14 + isomeric state in 176 W has been investigated in the electric field gradient (EFG) of the polycrystalline lattice of metallic Tl by applying the time-differential perturbed angular distribution method. For W impurities in Tl host the EFG strength and its temperature dependence have been recently reported. The isomer was populated in the 164 Dy( 16 O,4n) 176 W reaction using a 83 MeV 16 O pulsed beam (pulse width 1.5 ns, repetition period 800 ns) delivered by the XTU-Tandem of Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The target consisted of 0.5 mg/cm 2 metallic 164 Dy on thick Tl backing in which both the recoiling 176 W nuclei and
LEMS: application of the method to study the static quadrupole moment of the K=35/2 isomer in 179W
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neyens, G.; Vyvey, K.; Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Blaha, P.
1997-01-01
The method of the level mixing spectroscopy (LEMS) was applied for the first time for the study of the static quadrupole moments of high-K isomers in the A∼180 mass region. Results from a preliminary experiment for the static quadrupole moment of the 35/2 - (750 ns) isomer in 179 W give a limit for its upper value Q 2 <0.343. (orig.). With 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivoruchenko, M.I.
1985-01-01
In chiral bag model an expression is obtained for the quark wave functions with account of color and pion interaction of quarks. The quadrupole moments of nonstrange hadrons are calculated. Quadrupole moment of nucleon isobar is found to be Q(Δ)=-6.3x10 -28 esub(Δ)(cm)sup(2). Fredictions of the chiral bag model are in strong disagreement with the non-relativistic quark model
Static quadrupole moments of first 2+ states in the 2s1d shell: a review of experiment and theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spear, R.H.
1981-01-01
Available experimental information on the static electric quadrupole moments Q 2 + of the 2 + first excited states of even-mass nuclei in the 2s-1d shell is tabulated and critically reviewed, and adopted values are presented. The results reveal a well defined pattern for the variation of Q 2 + through the shell. Predictions of Q 2 + made from various nuclear models are tabulated and compared with experiment. For each nucleus the quantity and quality of the existing data for Q 2 + , together with the current theoretical significance of the result, are used as criteria to determine whether new experimental work is desirable
Table of Nuclear Electric Quadrupole Moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, N.J.
2013-12-01
This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended value of the moment is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary reference EFG/moment references are required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2013. (author)
Quadrupole moments measured by nuclear orientation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchta, H.
1985-01-01
Quadrupole interactions between the nuclei and solids have been studied with the low temperature nuclear orientation technique. The first series of measurements have been effected on the orientation of 195H g m and 197 Hg m , long lived daughter states in the 195 Au and 197 Au decay. The lifetimes of these states are of the same order as the spin-lattice relaxation time. The reorientation of the intermediate states has been taken into account extending the dipole relaxation mechanism to non-equidistant relaxing substates. The experimental nuclear quadrupole moments, thus deduced are slightly different from theoretical estimations. A new high precision method accessible to levels with 100 ns to 1 m lifetimes, the level mixing resonance on oriented nuclei (LMR/ON) has been elaborated in collaboration with LEUVEN university (Belgium). In this technique the nucleus is subject to a non colinear electric plus magnetic combined interaction. The quadrupole interaction of Ag[7/2, = 40 s] isomer with the electric field gradient in zinc has been established to better than 1% observing its level mixing resonances; and also the ratio of electric field gradients of silver in zinc to cadmium. The electric quadrupole moments of 106 Ag m , 107 Ag m and 109 Ag m have been established combining the level mixing resonances with classical low temperature quadrupole alignment measurements. The experimental values are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on a semi-microscopical model using Yukawa potential [fr
Precise calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-06-01
Recently, two calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment have have given predictions that agree with the measured value to within 1%, resolving a long-standing discrepancy. One of these uses the covariant spectator theory (CST) and the other chiral effective field theory (cEFT). In this talk I will first briefly review the foundations and history of the CST, and then compare these two calculations with emphasis on how the same physical processes are being described using very different language. The comparison of the two methods gives new insights into the dynamics of the low energy NN interaction.
Table of Nuclear Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, N.J.
2011-04-01
This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. The literature search covers the period to late 2010. Many of the entries prior to 1988 follow those in Raghavan P., Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 42, 189 (1989). (author)
Table of Nuclear Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, N.J.
2014-02-01
This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. The literature search covers the period to early 2014. Many of the entries prior to 1988 follow those in Raghavan P., Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 42, 189 (1989). (author)
Quadrupole moment of the superdeformed band in 131Ce
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Y.; Godfrey, M.J.; Jenkins, I.; Kirwan, A.J.; Nolan, P.J.
1990-01-01
A mean lifetime measurement has been carried out on the states in the superdeformed band found in 131 Ce using the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). The measured intrinsic nuclear quadrupole moment is Q o approx= 6 eb, assuming constant deformation, which corresponds to a quadrupole deformation β 2 approx= 0.35. This is considerably smaller than the value deduced for 132 Ce. (author)
Quadrupole moments of low-lying baryons with spin
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The chiral constituent quark model ( CQM) with general parametrization (GP) method has been formulated to calculate the quadrupole moments of the spin − 3 2 + decuplet baryons and spin − 3 2 + → 1 2 + transitions. The implications of such a model have been investigated in detail for the effects of symmetry breaking ...
Nuclear quadrupole moment of the 99Tc ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Errico, Leonardo; Darriba, German; Renteria, Mario; Tang Zhengning; Emmerich, Heike; Cottenier, Stefaan
2008-01-01
By combining first-principles calculations and existing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we determine the quadrupole moment of the 9/2 + ground state of 99 Tc to be (-)0.14(3)b. This confirms the value of -0.129(20)b, which is currently believed to be the most reliable experimental determination, and disagrees with two earlier experimental values. We supply ab initio calculated electric-field gradients for Tc in YTc 2 and ZrTc 2 . If this calculated information would be combined with yet to be performed Tc-NMR experiments in these compounds, the error bar on the 99 Tc ground state quadrupole moment could be further reduced
Quadrupole moments of wobbling excitations in 163Lu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goergen, A.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Hagemann, G.B.; Sletten, G.; Huebel, H.; Bengtsson, R.
2004-01-01
Lifetimes of states in the triaxial strongly deformed bands of 163 Lu have been measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The bands have been interpreted as wobbling-phonon excitations from the characteristic electromagnetic properties of the transitions connecting the bands. Quadrupole moments are extracted for the zero-phonon yrast band and, for the first time, for the one-phonon wobbling band. The very similar results found for the two bands suggest a similar intrinsic structure and support the wobbling interpretation. While the in-band quadrupole moments for the bands show a decreasing trend towards higher spin, the ratio of the interband to the in-band transition strengths remains constant. Both features can be understood by a small increase in triaxiality towards higher spin. Such a change in triaxiality is also found in cranking calculations, to which the experimental results are compared
Reorientation precession measurements of quadrupole moments in 103Rh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelberg, A.; Herskind, B.; Kalish, R.; Neiman, M.
1976-01-01
The quadrupole moments of the 3/2 - and 5/2 - states in 103 Rh have been determined by measuring the precession of the gamma-ray angular distribution following Coulomb excitation; 16 O and 32 S beams have been used. The structure of the negative-parity states in 103 Rh is found to be in agreement with the model of Arima and Iachello. (orig.) [de
Extracting the Omega- electric quadrupole moment from lattice QCD data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Ramalho, M.T. Pena
2011-03-01
The Omega- has an extremely long lifetime, and is the most stable of the baryons with spin 3/2. Therefore the Omega- magnetic moment is very accurately known. Nevertheless, its electric quadrupole moment was never measured, although estimates exist in different formalisms. In principle, lattice QCD simulations provide at present the most appropriate way to estimate the Omega- form factors, as function of the square of the transferred four-momentum, Q2, since it describes baryon systems at the physical mass for the strange quark. However, lattice QCD form factors, and in particular GE2, are determined at finite Q2 only, and the extraction of the electric quadrupole moment, Q_Omega= GE2(0) e/(2 M_Omega), involves an extrapolation of the numerical lattice results. In this work we reproduce the lattice QCD data with a covariant spectator quark model for Omega- which includes a mixture of S and two D states for the relative quark-diquark motion. Once the model is calibrated, it is used to determine Q_Omega. Our prediction is Q_Omega= (0.96 +/- 0.02)*10^(-2) efm2 [GE2(0)=0.680 +/- 0.012].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasselgren, L; Fahlander, C; Edvardson, L O; Thun, J E; Falk, F; Ghumman, B S
1975-04-01
The orientation precession technique, REPREC, for measurements of quadrupole moments is described. The application of REPREC to the measurement of the static electric quadrupole moments of the first excited 2/sup +/-states in /sup 108/ /sup 110/Pd is presented. The possibility to measure the matrix product P/sub 4/ = M/sub 02/M/sub 22/,M/sub 02/M/sub 22/ is also discussed. Such measurements are presented for /sup 108/ /sup 110/Pd. The results of these measurements are P/sub 4/O for both /sup 108/Pd and /sup 110/Pd. For /sup 108/Pd the quadrupole moment of the first excited 2/sup +/-state was found to be -.66 +- .18 eb and for /sup 110/Pd -.72 +- .14 eb. Intrinsic nuclear properties for /sup 106 -110/Pd are derived using the sum rules suggested by Kumar.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasselgren, L; Fahlander, C; Falk, F; Edvardson, L O; Thun, J E; Ghuman, B S [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Fysiska Institutionen; Skaali, B [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Institutt
1976-06-28
The reorientation precession technique, REPREC, for measurements of quadrupole moments is described. The application of REPREC to the measurement of the static electric quadrupole moments of the first excited 2/sup +/ states in /sup 108/ /sup 110/Pd is presented. The possibility to measure the sign of the matrix product P/sub 4/ = M/sub 02/Msub(22')Msub(02')M/sub 22/ is also discussed. Such measurements are presented for /sup 108/ /sup 110/Pd. The results of these measurements are P/sub 4/ < 0 for both /sup 108/Pd and /sup 110/Pd. For /sup 108/Pd the quadrupole moment of the first excited 2/sup +/ state was found to be -0.66+-0.18e.b and for /sup 110/Pd, -0.72+-0.14e.b. Intrinsic nuclear properties for /sup 106 -110/Pd are derived using the sum rules suggested by Kumar.
The quadrupole moments of Cd and Zn isotopes - an apology
Haas, H.; Barbosa, M. B.; Correia, J. G.
2016-12-01
In 2010 we presented an update of the nuclear quadrupole moments (Q) for the Cd and Zn isotopes, based essentially on straightforward density functional (DF) calculations (H. Haas and J.G. Correia, Hyperfine Interact 198, 133-137 (2010)). It has been apparent for some years that the standard DF procedure obviously fails, however, to reproduce the known electric-field gradient (EFG) for various systems, typical cases being Cu2O, As and Sb, and the solid halogens. Recently a cure for this deficiency has been found in the hybrid DF technique. This method is now applied to solid Cd and Zn, and the resultant quadrupole moments are about 15 % smaller than in our earlier report. Also nuclear systematics, using the recently revised values of Q for the long-lived 11/2 isomers in111Cd to129Cd, together with earlier PAD data for107,109Cd, leads to the same conclusion. In addition, EFG calculations for the cadmium dimethyl molecule further support the new values: Q(111Cd, 5/2+) = .683(20) b, Q(67Zn, gs) = .132(5) b. This implies, that the value for the atomic EFG in the 3it {P}1 state of Zn must be revised, as it has been for Cd.
Transition quadrupole moments in the superdeformed band of 40Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiara, C.J.; Ideguchi, E.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Reviol, W.; Ryu, S.K.; Sarantites, D.G.; Baktash, C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C.J.; Reiter, P.; Seweryniak, D.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Rudolph, D.
2003-01-01
The transition quadrupole moments Q t for the superdeformed band in 40 Ca have been determined through thin-target Doppler-shift attenuation analyses. A best-fit value of Q t =1.30±0.05 e b is obtained when a single value is assumed for the entire band. Fitting separate quadrupole moments for in-band transitions decaying from the high-spin states and the presumably admixed low-spin states results in Q t (high)=1.81 -0.26 +0.41 e b and Q t (low)=1.18 -0.05 +0.06 e b, respectively. Q t values extracted for individual transitions in a Doppler-broadened line-shape analysis also indicate smaller Q t values at lower spins. These results are consistent with the interpretation of this band as an eight-particle-eight-hole superdeformed band with a significant admixture of less-collective configurations at low spins
Sensitivity of (α,α') cross sections to excited-state quadrupole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, F.T.; Scott, A.; Ronningen, R.M.; Hamilton, J.H.; Kruse, T.H.; Suchannek, R.; Savin, W.
1977-01-01
Inelastic α particle scattering at 21 and 24 MeV has been used to estimate the electric quadrupole moment of the second 2 + state in 180 Hf. Sensitivity to the assumed quadrupole moment is due almost entirely to reorientation via the nuclear force. Results suggest that the technique may be a useful method of estimating excited state quadrupole moments, particularly for states with high excitation energies or with J greater than 2
Does the small CMB quadrupole moment suggest new physics?
Cline, J M; Lesgourgues, Julien; Cline, James M.; Crotty, Patrick; Lesgourgues, Julien
2003-01-01
Motivated by WMAP's confirmation of an anomalously low value of the quadrupole moment of the CMB temperature fluctuations, we investigate the effects on the CMB of cutting off the primordial power spectrum P(k) at low wave numbers. This could arise, for example, from a break in the inflaton potential, a prior period of matter or radiation domination, or an oscillating scalar field which couples to the inflaton. We reanalyze the full WMAP parameter space supplemented by a low-k cutoff for P(k). The temperature correlations by themselves are better fit by a cutoff spectrum, but including the TE temperature-polarization spectrum reduces this preference to a 1.4 sigma effect. Inclusion of large scale structure data does not change the conclusion. If taken seriously, the low-k cutoff is correlated with optical depth so that reionization occurs even earlier than indicated by the WMAP analysis.
Quadrupole moment in the excited 2Psub(1/2) state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Ya.; Yakhontov, V.L.
1984-01-01
Computation of the quadrupole moment values in the 2Psub(1/2) states of hydrogen and meso-hydrogen is carried out. It is shown that allowance for the hyperfine interaction of the electron with the proton in the first order of perturbation theory results in giant values of the quadrupole moment of the atoms. (author)
Quadrupole moments as measures of electron correlation in two-electron atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceraulo, S.C.; Berry, R.S.
1991-01-01
We have calculated quadrupole moments, Q zz , of helium in several of its doubly excited states and in two of its singly excited Rydberg states, and of the alkaline-earth atoms Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba in their ground and low-lying excited states. The calculations use well-converged, frozen-core configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions and, for interpretive purposes, Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic wave functions and single-term, optimized, molecular rotor-vibrator (RV) wave functions. The quadrupole moments calculated using RV wave functions serve as a test of the validity of the correlated, moleculelike model, which has been used to describe the effects of electron correlation in these two-electron and pseudo-two-electron atoms. Likewise, the quadrupole moments calculated with HF wave functions test the validity of the independent-particle model. In addition to their predictive use and their application to testing simple models, the quadrupole moments calculated with CI wave functions reveal previously unavailable information about the electronic structure of these atoms. Experimental methods by which these quadrupole moments might be measured are also discussed. The quadrupole moments computed from CI wave functions are presented as predictions; measurements of Q zz have been made for only two singly excited Rydberg states of He, and a value of Q zz has been computed previously for only one of the states reported here. We present these results in the hope of stimulating others to measure some of these quadrupole moments
Electric quadrupole moments of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ states in $^{100,102,104}$Cd
Ekström, A; DiJulio, D D; Fahlander, C; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Fransen, C; Geibel, K; Hess, H; Ivanov, O; Iwanicki, J; Kester, O; Kownacki, J; Köster, U; Marsh, B A; Reiter, P; Scheck, M; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Stefanescu, I; Toft, H K; Tveten, G M; van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Wenander, F; Wrzosek, K; Zielińska, M
2009-01-01
Using the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN the Coulomb excitation cross sections for the 0gs+→21+ transition in the β-unstable isotopes 100,102,104Cd have been measured for the first time. Two different targets were used, which allows for the first extraction of the static electric quadrupole moments Q(21+) in 102,104Cd. In addition to the B(E2) values in 102,104Cd, a first experimental limit for the B(E2) value in 100Cd is presented. The data was analyzed using the maximum likelihood method. The provided probability distributions impose a test for theoretical predictions of the static and dynamic moments. The data are interpreted within the shell-model using realistic matrix elements obtained from a G-matrix renormalized CD-Bonn interaction. In view of recent results for the light Sn isotopes the data are discussed in the context of a renormalization of the neutron effective charge. This study is the first to use the reorientation effect for post-accelerated short-lived radioactive isotopes to simultaneously d...
Rapid Moment Magnitude Estimation Using Strong Motion Derived Static Displacements
Muzli, Muzli; Asch, Guenter; Saul, Joachim; Murjaya, Jaya
2015-01-01
The static surface deformation can be recovered from strong motion records. Compared to satellite-based measurements such as GPS or InSAR, the advantage of strong motion records is that they have the potential to provide real-time coseismic static displacements. The use of these valuable data was optimized for the moment magnitude estimation. A centroid grid search method was introduced to calculate the moment magnitude by using1 model. The method to data sets was applied of the 2011...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kellö, Vladimir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Comenius University, SK-842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)
2015-01-22
Highly correlated scalar relativistic calculations of electric field gradients at nuclei in diatomic molecules in combination with accurate nuclear quadrupole coupling constants obtained from microwave spectroscopy are used for determination of nuclear quadrupole moments.
Ab initio determination of the nuclear quadrupole moments of 114In, 115In, and 117In
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Errico, Leonardo A.; Renteria, Mario
2006-01-01
We present here ab initio determinations of the nuclear-quadrupole moment Q of hyperfine-probe-nuclear states of three different In isotopes: the 5 + 192 keV excited state of 114 In (probe for nuclear quadrupole alignment spectroscopy), the 9/2 + ground state of 115 In (nuclear magnetic and nuclear quadrupole resonance probe), and the 3/2 + 659 keV excited state of 117 In (perturbed angular correlations probe). These nuclear-quadrupole moments were determined by comparing experimental nuclear-quadrupole frequencies to the electric field gradient tensor calculated with high accuracy at In sites in metallic indium within the density functional theory. These ab initio calculations were performed with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The results obtained for the quadrupole moments of 114 In [Q( 114 In)=-0.14(1) b] are in clear discrepancy with those reported in the literature [Q( 114 In)=+0.16(6) b and +0.739(12) b]. For 115 In and 117 In our results are in excellent agreement with the literature and in the last case Q( 117 In) is determined with more precision. In the case of Q( 117 In), its sign cannot be determined because standard γ-γ perturbed angular correlations experiments are not sensitive to the sign of the nuclear-quadrupole frequency
Bandyopadhyay, Debades; Bhat, Sajad A.; Char, Prasanta; Chatterjee, Debarati
2018-02-01
We investigate the impact of strange-matter equations of state involving Λ hyperons, Bose-Einstein condensate of K- mesons and first-order hadron-quark phase transition on moment of inertia, quadrupole moment and tidal deformability parameter of slowly rotating neutron stars. All these equations of state are compatible with the 2 M_{solar} constraint. The main findings of this investigation are the universality of the I- Q and I -Love number relations, which are preserved by the EoSs including Λ hyperons and antikaon condensates, but broken in the presence of a first-order hadron-quark phase transition. Furthermore, it is also noted that the quadrupole moment approaches the Kerr value of a black hole for maximum-mass neutron stars.
Quadrupole moment and a proton halo structure in 17F (Iπ = 5/2+)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Dongmei; Zheng Yongnan; Yuan Daqing; Xizhen, Zhang; Zuo Yi; Minamisono, T; Matsuta, M; Fukuda, M; Mihara, M; Zhang Chunlei; Zhiqiang, Wang; Du Enpeng; Luo Hailong; Xu Guoji; Zhu Shengyun
2007-01-01
The quadrupole moment of light nuclei 17 F in the ground state (I π = 5/2 + ) is measured by the β-NMR method. The effective charge of the last proton in a d 5/2 orbit for 17 F is extracted from the measured quadrupole moment Q( 17 F) divided by the quadrupole moment Q sp calculated with a single particle model. A proton effective charge of e eff p = 1.12 ± 0.07e is obtained, which is in agreement with that given by a particle-vibration coupling model calculation within the experimental error. The present value of the proton effective charge is strong evidence for the existence of a proton skin in 17 F (I π = 5/2 + )
The cranking moment of inertia in a static potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bengtsson, R.; Hamamoto, I.; Ibarra, R.H.
1978-01-01
Taking into account the self-consistency condition for the deformation, the authors estimate the cranking moment of inertia in the absence of pair-correlations for the Woods-Saxon potential and various versions of the modified oscillator potential. The authors investigate the expectation that in a static potential the moment of inertia is almost equal to the rigid-body moment of inertia at the self-consistent deformation. They examine especially the consequence of the presence of the l 2 term in the conventional modified oscillator potential. (Auth.)
Spectrum and static moments of /sup 187/Re
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mittal, R; Sharma, S D; Sahota, H S; Sehgal, V K [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics
1979-01-01
The spectrum and static moments of /sup 187/Re are calculated using extension of Davydov-Filippov model. The Hamiltonian including the coriolis coupling term is used to calculate the effective moment of inertia for various bands. The kinking effect in the excited bands is studied by mixing the pair of bands such that both bands in single pair have same k value either k = 1/2 or 3/2. The effective moment of inertia under excitation is found to change with spin. The change is found in agreement with the theoretical prediction on the basis of this model.
Puzzle of the 6Li Quadrupole Moment: Steps toward Solving It
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blokhintsev, L.D.; Kukulin, V.I.; Pomerantsev, V.N.
2005-01-01
The problem of the origin of the quadrupole deformation in the 6 Li ground state is investigated with allowance for the three-deuteron component of the 6 Li wave function. Two long-standing puzzles related to the tensor interaction in the 6 Li nucleus are known: that of an anomalous smallness of the 6 Li quadrupole moment (being negative, it is smaller in magnitude than the 7 Li quadrupole moment by a factor of 5) and that of an anomalous behavior of the tensor analyzing power T 2q in the scattering of polarized 6 Li nuclei on various targets. It is shown that a large (in magnitude) negative exchange contribution to the 6 Li quadrupole moment from the three-deuteron configuration cancels almost completely the 'direct' positive contribution due to the αd folding potential. As a result, the total quadrupole moment proves to be close to zero and highly sensitive to fine details of the tensor nucleon-nucleon interaction in the 4 He nucleus and of its wave function
Electric quadrupole moments of {beta}-emitter {sup 21}F and {sup 23}Mg
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onishi, Takashi; Matsuta, Kensaku; Fukuda, Mitsunori [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Science] [and others
1997-03-01
For the systematic study of nuclear electromagnetic moments, electric quadrupole moments Q of {beta}-emitting nuclei {sup 21}F and {sup 23}Mg have been measured for the first time through combined technique of the polarized nuclear beams and {beta}-NMR technique. From the quadrupole coupling constants of {sup 21}F and {sup 23}Mg in MgF{sub 2} single crystal, the ratios of the Q`s with the known Q were determined as |Q({sup 21}F)|/|Q({sup 19}F{sup *})|=1.001{+-}0.034 and |Q({sup 23}Mg)|/|Q({sup 25}Mg)|=0.571{+-}0.017. (author)
Requirements for moment connections in statically indeterminate timber structures
Leijten, A.J.M.
2011-01-01
In statically indeterminate structures, connections play a vital role in the moment distribution. Demonstrated here is a method to evaluate the conditions, taking full advantage of the benefits offered by the indeterminate nature of the structures, and using the well-established, graphical beam-line
Hyperfine structure in the Gd II spectrum and the nuclear electric quadrupole moment of 157Gd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clieves, H.P.; Steudel, A.
1979-01-01
The hyperfine structure of 157 Gd was investigated in 20 Gd II lines by means of a photoelectric recording Fabry-Perot interferometer with digital data processing. The hyperfine splitting factors, A and B, were obtained by computer fits to the observed line structures. Using a multiconfigurational set of wave functions in intermediate coupling derived by Wyart, mono-electronic parameters were deduced by a parametric treatment. The nuclear electric quadrupole moment of 157 Gd was evaluated from the quadrupole interaction of the 5d electron in 4f 7 5d6s, the 5d electron in 4f 7 5d6p, and the 6p electron in 4f 7 5d6p. The three values obtained for the quadrupole moment agree very well. The final result, corrected for Sternheimer shielding, is Q( 157 Gd) = 1.34(7) x 10 -24 cm 2 . (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stone, N. J., E-mail: n.stone@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 (United States)
2015-09-15
The most recent tabulations of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments have been prepared and published by the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA, Vienna [N. J. Stone, Report No. INDC(NDS)-0650 (2013); Report No. INDC(NDS)-0658 (2014)]. The first of these is a table of recommended quadrupole moments for all isotopes in which all experimental results are made consistent with a limited number of adopted standards for each element; the second is a combined listing of all measurements of both moments. Both tables cover all isotopes and energy levels. In this paper, the considerations relevant to the preparation of both tables are described, together with observations as to the importance and (where appropriate) application of necessary corrections to achieve the “best” values. Some discussion of experimental methods is included with emphasis on their precision. The aim of the published quadrupole moment table is to provide a standard reference in which the value given for each moment is the best available and for which full provenance is given. A table of recommended magnetic dipole moments is in preparation, with the same objective in view.
Erratum to: Quadrupole moments of low-lying baryons with spin ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
physics pp. 1083. Erratum to: Quadrupole moments of low-lying baryons with spin-. 1. 2. +. , spin-. 3. 2. +. , and spin-. 3. 2. +. → 1. 2. + transitions. NEETIKA SHARMA and HARLEEN DAHIYA. ∗. Department of Physics, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology,. Jalandhar 144 011, India. ∗. Corresponding author.
The puzzle of the 6Li quadrupole moment: steps toward the solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blokhintsev, L.D.; Kukulin, V.I.; Pomerantsev, V.N.
2005-01-01
The problem of origin of the ground-state 6 Li quadrupole deformation has been investigated with account of the three-deuteron component of this nucleus wave function. two long-standing puzzles related to the tensor interaction in 6 Li are known. The first one lies in the anomalously small value of the 6 Li quadrupole moment which, being negative, is in absolute magnitude smaller by the factor of 5 than that of 6 Li. The second puzzle consists in the anomalous behavior of the tensor analyzing power T 2q in scattering of polarized 6 Li nuclei from various targets. It is shown that the large (in absolute magnitude) negative contribution to the 6 Li quadrupole moment resulting from the three-deuteron configuration cancels almost completely the direct positive contribution due to the folding αd-potential. As a result, the total quadrupole moment turns out to be close to zero and highly sensitive to fine details of the tensor NN interaction and of the 4 He wave function [ru
Spin, quadrupole moment, and deformation of the magnetic-rotational band head in Pb193
Balabanski, D. L.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Brandolini, F.; Bucurescu, D.; Chmel, S.; Danchev, M.; de Poli, M.; Georgiev, G.; Haas, H.; Hübel, H.; Marginean, N.; Menegazzo, R.; Neyens, G.; Pavan, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Ur, C. A.; Vyvey, K.; Frauendorf, S.
2011-01-01
The spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the T1/2=9.4(5) ns isomer in Pb193 at an excitation energy Eex=(2585+x) keV is measured by the time-differential perturbed angular distribution method as |Qs|=2.6(3) e b. Spin and parity Iπ=27/2- are assigned to it based on angular distribution measurements. This state is the band head of a magnetic-rotational band, described by the 1i13/2 subshell with the (3s1/2-21h9/21i13/2)11- proton excitation. The pairing-plus-quadrupole tilted-axis cranking calculations reproduce the measured quadrupole moment with a moderate oblate deformation ɛ2=-0.11, similar to that of the 11-proton intruder states, which nuclei in the region. This is the first direct measurement of a quadrupole moment and thus of the deformation of a magnetic-rotational band head.
Spin, quadrupole moment, and deformation of the magnetic-rotational band head in (193)Pb
Balabanski, D L; Iordachescu, A; Bazzacco, D; Brandolini, F; Bucurescu, D; Chmel, S; Danchev, M; De Poli, M; Georgiev, G; Haas, H; Hubel, H; Marginean, N; Menegazzo, R; Neyens, G; Pavan, P; Rossi Alvarez, C; Ur, C A; Vyvey, K; Frauendorf, S
2011-01-01
The spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the T(1/2) = 9.4(5) ns isomer in (193)Pb at an excitation energy E(ex) = (2585 + x) keV is measured by the time-differential perturbed angular distribution method as vertical bar Q(s)vertical bar = 2.6(3) e b. Spin and parity I(pi) = 27/2(-) are assigned to it based on angular distribution measurements. This state is the band head of a magnetic-rotational band, described by the coupling of a neutron hole in the 1i(13/2) subshell with the (3s(1/2)(-2)1h(9/2)1i(13/2))(11-) proton excitation. The pairing-plus-quadrupole tilted-axis cranking calculations reproduce the measured quadrupole moment with a moderate oblate deformation epsilon(2) = -0.11, similar to that of the 11(-)proton intruder states, which occur in the even-even Pb nuclei in the region. This is the first direct measurement of a quadrupole moment and thus of the deformation of a magnetic-rotational band head.
Determination of the effective quadrupole moment in $^{181}$Ta with pionic x-rays
Beetz, R; Fransson, K; Konijn, J; Panman, J; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tibell, G
1978-01-01
From the hyperfine splitting of the 5g to 4f and the 6g to 4f pionic X-rays in /sup 181/Ta, an effective quadrupole moment of Q/sub eff /=3.58+or-0.03 b was determined. The strong interaction monopole shift epsilon /sub 0/ and the width Gamma /sub 0/ of the 4f level were measured to be epsilon /sub 0/=540+or-100 eV and Gamma /sub 0 /=225+or-57 eV, in good agreement with the values obtained with the standard optical potential description of the pion-nucleus interaction. Estimating the influence of the finite nuclear size, the deformation induced through the strong interaction between the pion and the finite nucleus, and the relative magnitude between the strong and the electromagnetic quadrupole coupling constants values for the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of Q=3.30+or-0.06 b, and for the intrinsic quadrupole moment of Q/sub 0/=7.06+or-0.12 b are obtained. (28 refs).
Quadrupole moments of the 12+ isomers in 188Hg and 190Hg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dracoulis, G.D.; Lonnroth, T.; Vajda, S.; Dafni, E.; Schatz, G.
1984-01-01
The electric quadrupole interaction of the 12 + isomers in 188 Hg and 190 Hg has been measured in solid Hg. The quadrupole moments deduced, vertical strokeQ[ 188 Hg(12 + )]vertical stroke = 91(11) e fm 2 and vertical strokeQ[ 190 Hg(12 + )]vertical stroke = 117(14) e fm 2 suggest a possible change in γ-deformation due to the rotation alignment of the isub(13/2) quasi-neutrons. The temperature dependence of the electric field gradient tensor in Hg was also determined. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrzej Magiera
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Measurements of electric dipole moment (EDM for light hadrons with use of a storage ring have been proposed. The expected effect is very small, therefore various subtle effects need to be considered. In particular, interaction of particle’s magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment with electromagnetic field gradients can produce an effect of a similar order of magnitude as that expected for EDM. This paper describes a very promising method employing an rf Wien filter, allowing to disentangle that contribution from the genuine EDM effect. It is shown that both these effects could be separated by the proper setting of the rf Wien filter frequency and phase. In the EDM measurement the magnitude of systematic uncertainties plays a key role and they should be under strict control. It is shown that particles’ interaction with field gradients offers also the possibility to estimate global systematic uncertainties with the precision necessary for an EDM measurement with the planned accuracy.
Magiera, Andrzej
2017-09-01
Measurements of electric dipole moment (EDM) for light hadrons with use of a storage ring have been proposed. The expected effect is very small, therefore various subtle effects need to be considered. In particular, interaction of particle's magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment with electromagnetic field gradients can produce an effect of a similar order of magnitude as that expected for EDM. This paper describes a very promising method employing an rf Wien filter, allowing to disentangle that contribution from the genuine EDM effect. It is shown that both these effects could be separated by the proper setting of the rf Wien filter frequency and phase. In the EDM measurement the magnitude of systematic uncertainties plays a key role and they should be under strict control. It is shown that particles' interaction with field gradients offers also the possibility to estimate global systematic uncertainties with the precision necessary for an EDM measurement with the planned accuracy.
Quadrupole moments of odd-A 53−63Mn: Onset of collectivity towards N=40
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Babcock
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the odd–even Mn isotopes between N=28 and N=38 have been measured using bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. In order to increase sensitivity to the quadrupole interaction, the measurements have been done using a transition in the ion rather than in the atom, with the additional advantage of better spectroscopic efficiency. Since the chosen transition is from a metastable state, optical pumping in ISOLDE's cooler and buncher (ISCOOL was used to populate this state. The extracted quadrupole moments are compared to large-scale shell model predictions using three effective interactions, GXPF1A, LNPS and modified A3DA. The inclusion of both the 1νg9/2 and 2νd5/2 orbitals in the model space is shown to be necessary to reproduce the observed increase in the quadrupole deformation from N=36 onwards. Specifically, the inclusion of the 2νd5/2 orbital induces an increase in neutron and proton excitations across the reduced gaps at N=40 and Z=28, leading to an increase in deformation above N=36.
Electric quadrupole moments of neutron-rich nuclei {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kameda, D., E-mail: kameda@ribf.riken.jp; Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Asahi, K.; Nagae, D.; Takemura, M.; Shimada, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Yoshimi, A.; Nagatomo, T.; Sugimoto, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Uchida, M.; Arai, T.; Takase, K.; Suda, S.; Inoue, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Murata, J.; Kawamura, H. [Rikkyo University, Department of Physics (Japan); Watanabe, H. [Australian National University, Department of Nuclear Physics (Australia); Kobayashi, Y.; Ishihara, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan)
2007-11-15
The electric quadrupole moments for the ground states of {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al have been measured by the {beta} ray-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance method. Spin-polarized {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al nuclei were obtained from the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar projectiles at E/A = 95 MeV/nucleon, and were implanted in a single crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stopper. The measured Q moment of {sup 32}Al, |Q({sup 32}Al)| = 24(2) mb, is in good agreement with a conventional shell-model calculation with a full sd model space and empirical effective charges, while that of {sup 31}Al is considerably smaller than the sd calculations.
The quadrupole moment of the first 3- state in 208Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joye, A.M.R.; Baxter, A.M.; Fewell, M.P.; Kean, D.C.; Spear, R.H.
1977-04-01
The B(E3; 0 + →3 - ) and quadrupole moment, Qsub(3 - ), of the first excited state of 208 Pb have been measured by the reorientation effect in Coulomb excitation, giving B(E3; 0 + →3 - ) = 0.665 +- E 2 B 3 and Qsub(3 - ) = -0.42 +- 0.32 EB. This value for Qsub(3 - ) is much smaller in magnitude than those obtained by Barnett et al., and is consistent with most theoretical predictions. (Author)
The charge form factor, the quadrupole moment and the photodisintegration of 6Li
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Susila, S.; Srinivasa Rao, K.
1981-01-01
The root mean square radius, the charge form factor, the charge density, the quadrupole moment and the bremsstrahlung weighted cross section for the photodisintegration of 6 Li, are calculated using a polarised cluster model wave function, which is modified to take into account, in its relative motion part, the requirement of a shell model node. A set of parameters, in the modified cluster model wave function, which account for the available experimental data for the afore-said quantities, is determined. (author)
Rotating effects on the Landau quantization for an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, PB 58051-970 (Brazil)
2016-01-07
Based on the single particle approximation [Dmitriev et al., Phys. Rev. C 50, 2358 (1994) and C.-C. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2611 (1995)], the Landau quantization associated with an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment is introduced, and then, rotating effects on this analogue of the Landau quantization is investigated. It is shown that rotating effects can modify the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the analogue of the Landau levels.
Rotating effects on the Landau quantization for an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment
Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K.
2016-01-01
Based on the single particle approximation [Dmitriev et al., Phys. Rev. C 50, 2358 (1994) and C.-C. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2611 (1995)], the Landau quantization associated with an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment is introduced, and then, rotating effects on this analogue of the Landau quantization is investigated. It is shown that rotating effects can modify the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the analogue of the Landau levels.
Rotating effects on the Landau quantization for an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K.
2016-01-01
Based on the single particle approximation [Dmitriev et al., Phys. Rev. C 50, 2358 (1994) and C.-C. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2611 (1995)], the Landau quantization associated with an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment is introduced, and then, rotating effects on this analogue of the Landau quantization is investigated. It is shown that rotating effects can modify the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the analogue of the Landau levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekstroem, C.; Rubinsztein, H.; Moeller, P.
1976-01-01
A comparison is made between experimental and theoretical level assignments and static electromagnetic moments of nuclei in the region 72 Hf- 77 Ir. The theoretical calculations are based on the modified oscillator model. Equilibrium deformation values, epsilon and epsilon 4 , are determined for doubly-even and odd-mass nuclei from the minima in the potential energy surfaces. The influence of the different parameters entering the expressions for the magnetic dipole moment is analysed. The electric quadrupole and hexadecapole moments are calculated on the assumption that the nucleus is a homogeneously charged body with a sharp surface and a shape corresponding to that of an equipotential surface. In some selected cases, the electric multipole moments are evaluated by use of the single-particle wave functions. (Auth.)
Quarks degrees of freedom and deuteron static moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.; Veselov, A.I.
1985-01-01
The probability of the six-quark bag part of the deuteron is defined within recently formulated quark compound bag (QCB) model.An upper limit of about 1% for admixture of the confined bag in the deuteron is found for the QCB potential supplied by the long range Paris interaction. The six-quark bag corrections to the static multipole moments of the deuteron are estimated to be < or approximately 1% for μsub(α) and < or approximately 6% for Qsub(d)
Gamma-decay and static moments, ch. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koops, J.E.
1978-01-01
Electromagnetic properties of low-lying states in the Ni and Cu isotopes with A = 57-67 have been calculated with shell-model wave functions obtained from a schematic interaction (MSDI) and an empirical interaction (ASDI). Effective M1 and E2 operators have been extracted from experimental transition rates and static moments. An extensive compilation of experimental lifetimes, branching and mixing ratios is presented. The adopted values are compared with the calculated results. The properties of yrast levels are generally well reproduced. It is found that the ASDI wave functions are not superior to the MSDI wave functions
Quadrupole Moments And Gamma Deformation Of Wobbling Excitations In 163Ln
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goergen, A.; Hagemann, G.B.; Sletten, G.; Hamamoto, I.; Bengtsson, R.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Huebel, H.
2005-01-01
Wobbling is an excitation mode unique to triaxial nuclei. Even though it is a general consequence of triaxiality in nuclei, it has so far only been observed in the odd-mass Lu isotopes around 163Lu. The principal evidence for the wobbling mode is based on the pattern of rotational bands characterized and described by a wobbling phonon number and the decay between different bands belonging to the same family. A new measurement revealed lifetimes of states in an excited wobbling band for the first time and gave access to absolute transition probabilities for both in-band and interband transitions. A general recipe how to derive quadrupole moments for triaxial nuclei from experimental data is discussed. The results show a remarkable similarity of the quadrupole moments for the different bands, further supporting the wobbling scenario. A decrease of the quadrupole moments is observed with increasing spin. This is attributed to an increase in triaxiality with spin, which can at the same time explain the dependence of the interband transitions on spin. Such an increase in triaxiality is qualitatively reproduced by cranking calculations to which the experimental results are compared
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denton, Peter B.; Weiler, Thomas J.
2015-01-01
Determining anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic rays at the highest energy is an important task in astrophysics. It is common and useful to partition the sky into spherical harmonics as a measure of anisotropy. The two lowest nontrivial spherical harmonics, the dipole and the quadrupole, are of particular interest, since these distributions encapsulate a dominant single source and a plane of sources, as well as offering relatively high statistics. The best experiments for the detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays currently are all ground-based, with highly nonuniform exposures on the sky resulting from the fixed experimental locations on the Earth. This nonuniform exposure increases the complexity and error in inferring anisotropies. It turns out that there is an optimal latitude for an experiment at which nonuniform exposure does not diminish the inference of the quadrupole moment. We derive the optimal latitude and find that (presumably by a fortuitous coincidence) this optimal latitude runs through the largest cosmic ray experiment, the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) in the Southern Hemisphere, and close to the largest cosmic ray experiment in the Northern Hemisphere, the Telescope Array (TA). Consequently, assuming a quadrupole distribution, PAO and TA can reconstruct the cosmic ray quadrupole distribution to a high precision without concern for their partial sky exposure
Measurement of the ground state spectroscopic quadrupole moments of 191Os and 193Os
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernst, H.; Hagn, E.; Zech, E.
1979-01-01
Radioactive 191 Os and 193 Os nuclei have been aligned in an Os single crystal at temperatures down to 4 mK. From the temperature dependence of the γ-anisotropy the quadrupole frequencies vsub(Q) = e 2 qQ/h have been determined as vsub(Q)( 191 OsOs) = -278+-9 MHz and vsub(Q)( 193 OsOs) = -96+-15 MHz. With the known electric field gradient for OsOs of eq = (-4.54+-0.24) x 10 17 V/cm 2 the ground state spectroscopic quadrupole moments are deduced to be Q( 191 Os) = +2.53+-0.16 b and Q( 193 Os) = +0.87+-0.15 b. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando
2009-01-01
An exact solution of Einstein's field equations in empty space first found in 1985 by Quevedo and Mashhoon is analyzed in detail. This solution generalizes Kerr spacetime to include the case of matter with an arbitrary mass quadrupole moment and is specified by three parameters, the mass M, the angular momentum per unit mass a and the quadrupole parameter q. It reduces to the Kerr spacetime in the limiting case q = 0 and to the Erez-Rosen spacetime when the specific angular momentum a vanishes. The geometrical properties of such a solution are investigated. Causality violations, directional singularities and repulsive effects occur in the region close to the source. Geodesic motion and accelerated motion are studied on the equatorial plane which, due to the reflection symmetry property of the solution, also turns out to be a geodesic plane.
On a Neutral Particle with a Magnetic Quadrupole Moment in a Uniform Effective Magnetic Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K.
2016-01-01
Quantum effects on a Landau-type system associated with a moving atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment subject to confining potentials are analysed. It is shown that the spectrum of energy of the Landau-type system can be modified, where the degeneracy of the energy levels can be broken. In three particular cases, it is shown that the analogue of the cyclotron frequency is modified, and the possible values of this angular frequency of the system are determined by the quantum numbers associated with the radial modes and the angular momentum and by the parameters associated with confining potentials in order that bound states solutions can be achieved.
Vingerhoets, P; Avgoulea, M; Billowes, J; Bissell, M L; Blaum, K; Brown, B A; Cheal, B; De Rydt, M; Forest, D H; Geppert, Ch; Honma, M; Kowalska, M; Kramer, J; Krieger, A; Mane, E; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Otsuka, T; Schug, M; Stroke, H H; Tungate, G; Yordanov, D T
2010-01-01
Measurements of the ground-state nuclear spins, magnetic and quadrupole moments of the copper isotopes from 61Cu up to 75Cu are reported. The experiments were performed at the ISOLDE facility, using the technique of collinear laser spectroscopy. The trend in the magnetic moments between the N=28 and N=50 shell closures is reasonably reproduced by large-scale shell-model calculations starting from a 56Ni core. The quadrupole moments reveal a strong polarization of the underlying Ni core when the neutron shell is opened, which is however strongly reduced at N=40 due to the parity change between the $pf$ and $g$ orbits. No enhanced core polarization is seen beyond N=40. Deviations between measured and calculated moments are attributed to the softness of the 56Ni core and weakening of the Z=28 and N=28 shell gaps.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Netz, G.
1974-01-01
The quadrupole moments of two single particle proton states were measured in the strongly deformed nuclei region. Both measurements are independent of model because the field gradient is known in a rhenium lattice as well as at the nucleus site of a rhenium atom and also at the nucleus site of an incorporated tantalum atom. The quadrupole moments could thus be directly extracted from the quadrupole interaction frequency, the product of quadrupole moment and field gradient. For the 482 keV state (I = 5/2 + ) in 181 73 Ta 108 one obtains a quadrupole moment of: Q (5/2) = 2.5 +- 0.2 barn. For the 496 keV state (I = 9/2 - ) in 183 75 Re 108 , a quadrupole moment of: Q (0/2) = 3.6 +- 0.4 barn is found. This value agrees well with other experimental data within the framework of the collective model. (orig./LH) [de
Quadrupole moments of Cd and Zn nuclei: When solid-state, molecular, atomic, and nuclear theory meet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haas, Heinz; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager
2017-01-01
The nuclear quadrupole moment (Q) of the 5/2+ isomeric state of 111Cd, of particular importance to the interpretation of Perturbed Angular Correlation experiments in condensed matter, was determined by combining existing PAC data with high-level ab initio (CCSD(T)) calculations for Cd-dimethyl an......The nuclear quadrupole moment (Q) of the 5/2+ isomeric state of 111Cd, of particular importance to the interpretation of Perturbed Angular Correlation experiments in condensed matter, was determined by combining existing PAC data with high-level ab initio (CCSD(T)) calculations for Cd...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Hisashi; Takiyama, Ken; Kimura, Masahiko; Yamasaki, Motokuni; Fujita, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu; Kawasaki, Ken.
1993-01-01
The electric quadrupole moment transition and the Stark effect are investigated in a He hollow cathode discharge with laser-induced fluorescence method. It is shown that the forbidden transition from 2 1 S to 3 1 D in the negative glow is dominantly due to the quadrupole moment transition. This absorption coefficient is obtained from the laser-induced fluorescence intensity measurement in which the collisional transfers are taken into account. The result agrees with the theoretical coefficient. In the cathode dark space the fluorescence due to the Stark effect is also observed. Spatial distribution of the fluorescence is discussed, compared with the electric field distribution in the dark space. (author)
The quadrupole moment of the first excited state of 18O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fewel, M.P.; Baxter, A.M.; Kean, D.C.; Spear, R.H.
1976-11-01
Using the re-orientation effect in Coulomb excitation, the quadrupole moment, Qsub(2 + ), of the first excited state of 18 O is found to be -0.100 +- 0.030 eb. The analysis assumes, on the basis of previous measurements, that B(E2; 0 + → 2 + ) = 0.0044 +- 0.0004 e 2 b 2 . A correction (+0.032 eb) for the effect of the giant dipole resonance, based on the hydrodynamic model, has been applied. Evidence is presented that some other determinations of Qsub(2 + ) were performed at too high a bombarding energy. The present value of Qsub(2 + ) is smaller in magnitude than that reported by Kleinfeld et al. (1975), but remains larger than the value of -0.034 eb predicted by a recent shell-model calculation. (Author)
The charge form factor and quadrupole moment of lithium-6 and -7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinivasa Rao, K.; Susila, S.; Sridhar, R.
1980-01-01
The cluster model wave functions for lithium-6 and -7 are constructed from a two oscillator shell model wave function assuming the nucleons belonging to the clusters to be in the 1s- and 1p-shells, respectively. After first finding the range of values of the parameters in the wave function for which acceptable values of the r.m.s. radius are obtained, the range is considerably refined by a study of the form factors of these cluster nuclei. A deformation parameter is introduced in the wave functions, to get a non-spherical charge density. This parameter is uniquely fixed by the quadrupole moment for the nucleus. The model wave functions are considered to be the desirable ones for the study of cluster-knock-out reactions. (author)
Hyperfine interaction of {sup 25}Al in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its quadrupole moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuta, K., E-mail: matsuta@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Mihara, M. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nagatomo, T. [RIKEN (Japan); Matsumiya, R. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Momota, S. [Kochi University of Technology (Japan); Ohtsubo, T. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, Radioisotope Center (Japan); Hirano, H.; Takahashi, S. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nishimura, D.; Komurasaki, J. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kitagawa, A.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Sato, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Fukuda, M. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Minamisono, T. [Fukui University of Technology (Japan); Sumikama, T. [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Tanaka, K.; Takechi, M. [RIKEN (Japan)
2007-11-15
The electric quadrupole (Q) moment of short-lived nucleus {sup 25}Al (I{sup {pi}} = 5/2{sup +}, T{sub 1/2} = 7.18 s) has been measured for the first time, by means of the {beta}-NQR technique. The spin polarization of {sup 25}Al was produced in heavy ion collisions and was kept in a {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal for as long as 2 s and the quadrupole coupling frequency was obtained as vertical bar eqQ / h({sup 25}Al in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) vertical bar = (4.05 {+-}0.30) MHz. From the result, the Q moment was determined as |Q({sup 25}Al)| = (240 {+-}20) mb. The present Q moment is larger by 30% than the shell model value of 184 mb, calculated by OXBASH code, which may show additional deformation of the nucleus.
The g-factor and the electric quadrupole moment of the 7/2+ isomer in 125Xe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alber, D.; Bertschat, H.H.; Grawe, H.; Haas, H.; Mahnke, H.E.; Menningen, M.; Semmler, W.; Sielemann, R.; Zeitz, W.D.; Freie Univ. Berlin
1983-01-01
The time differential perturbed angular distribution method (PAD) was used to measure the g-factor and the electric quadrupole interaction in a Cd single crystal for the tsub(1/2)=140 ns, Isup(π)=7/2 + isomer in 125 Xe. The g-factor is g=+0.264(10) and the quadrupole coupling constant e 2 Qq/h=122.1(6) MHz at 552 K. The lifetime of the Isup(π)=11/2 + state was measured to be tau=11.3(1.1) ps by the recoil distance method (RDM). From an analysis of the spectroscopic data using the triaxial-rotor-pulse-particle (TRPP) model the quadrupole moment of the 7/2 + isomer is deduced to be Q=1.40(15) b yielding an electric field gradient (efg) eq=3.6(4)x10 17 V/cm 2 for Xe Cd. (orig.)
The g-factor and the electric quadrupole moment of the 7/2+ isomer in 125Xe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alber, D.; Bertschat, H.H.; Grawe, H.; Haas, H.; Mahnke, H.E.; Menningen, M.; Semmler, W.; Sielemann, R.; Zeitz, W.D.
1983-01-01
The time differential perturbed angular distribution method (PAD) was used to measure the g-factor and the electric quadrupole interaction in a Cd single crystal for the tsub(1/2) = 140 ns, Isup(π) = 7/2 + isomer in 125 Xe. The g-factor is g = +0.264(10) and the quadrupole coupling constant e 2 Qq/h = 122.1(6) MHz at 552 K. The lifetime of the Isup(π) = 11/2 + state was measured to be tau = 11.3(1.1) ps by the recoil distance method (RDM). From an analysis of the spectroscopic data using the triaxial-rotor-plus-particle (TRPP) model the quadrupole moment of the 7/2 + isomer is deduced to be Q = 1.40(15) b yielding an electric field gradient (efg) eq = 3.6(4)x10 17 V/cm 2 for Xe Cd. (orig.)
Static spacetimes with prescribed multipole moments: a proof of a conjecture by Geroch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herberthson, Magnus
2009-01-01
In this paper we give sufficient conditions on a sequence of multipole moments for a static spacetime to exist with precisely these moments. The proof is constructive in the sense that a metric having prescribed multipole moments up to a given order can be calculated. Since these sufficient conditions agree with already known necessary conditions, this completes the proof of a long standing conjecture due to Geroch.
Dirkes, Alain
2018-04-01
We recently suggested a nonlocal modification of Einstein’s field equations in which Newton’s constant G was promoted to a covariant differential operator G_Λ(\\Box_g) . The latter contains two independent contributions which operate respectively in the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) energy regimes. In the light of the recent direct gravitational radiation measurements we aim to determine the UV-modified 1.5 post-Newtonian radiative quadrupole moment of a generic n-body system. We eventually use these preliminary results in the context of a binary system and observe that in the limit vanishing UV parameters we precisely recover the corresponding general relativistic results. Moreover we notice that the leading order deviation of the UV-modified radiative quadrupole moment numerically coincides with findings obtained in the framework of calculations performed previously in the context of the perihelion precession of Mercury.
Sudden change of quadrupole moment between the first 5/2- states of 197Hg and 199Hg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herzog, P.; Krien, K.; Freitag, M.; Reuschenbach, M.; Walitzki, H.
1980-01-01
Low-temperature time differential perturbed angular correlation experiments with the 164 KeV-134 keV cascade of sup(197m)Hg in a zinc matrix give evidence that the hitherto accepted value of the quadrupole moment of the first 5/2 - state of 197 Hg is erroneous. A new value is derived from a time differential perturbed angular correlation experiment with the 374 keV-158 keV cascade of sup(199m)Hg implanted into a Be single crystal and comparison with an analogous experiment for sup(197m)Hg. Taking Q(5/2 - , 199 Hg) = +0.95(7) b we derive Q(5/2 - , 197 Hg) = 0.081(6) b. This change of quadrupole moment is discussed in the framework of the shell model. (orig.)
Static and dynamic moments of the 7Li nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barker, F.C.; Kondo, Y.; Spear, R.H.
1989-09-01
The data of Weller et al. (1985) on the tensor analysing powers for elastic and inelastic Coulomb scattering of aligned 7 Li ions have been reanalyzed in order to obtain information on the values of the four 7 Li moments Q, B(E2)↑, τ 11 and τ 12 . It is shown that a single set of values, chosen primarily to be consistent with the value of Q measured by molecular techniques and the values of B(E2)↑ and τ 12 . required to fit unpolarized 7 Li data, and also with the theoretical constraint τ 11 ≅-[τ 12 ], gives a good fit to the aligned 7 Li data. 19 refs., 6 figs
Smolic, E; Hagn, E; Zech, E; Seewald, G
2002-01-01
The aim of the experiments is the measurement of $\\,$i) nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments of neutron-deficient isotopes in the region Os-Ir-Pt-Au with the methods of quadrupole-interaction-resolved NMR on oriented nuclei " QI-NMR-ON " and modulated adiabatic passage on oriented nuclei " MAPON " and $\\,$ii) the magnetic hyperfine field, electric field gradient (EFG), and spin-lattice relaxation of 5d elements in ferromagnetic Fe, Ni, fcc-Co and hcp-Co.\\\\ The measurements on Au isotopes have been finished successfully. The quadrupole moments of $^{186}$Au, $^{193m}$Au, $^{195}$Au, $^{195m}$Au, $^{197m}$Au, $^{198}$Au and $^{199}$Au were determined with high precision.\\\\ For neutron-deficient Ir isotopes QI-NMR-ON measurements were performed after implantation of Hg precursors. The EFG of Ir in hcp-Co has been calibrated. Thus precise values for the spectroscopic quadrupole mo...
Quasi real-time estimation of the moment magnitude of large earthquake from static strain changes
Itaba, S.
2016-12-01
The 2011 Tohoku-Oki (off the Pacific coast of Tohoku) earthquake, of moment magnitude 9.0, was accompanied by large static strain changes (10-7), as measured by borehole strainmeters operated by the Geological Survey of Japan in the Tokai, Kii Peninsula, and Shikoku regions. A fault model for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, based on these borehole strainmeter data, yielded a moment magnitude of 8.7. On the other hand, based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9. Such geodetic moment magnitudes, derived from static strain changes, can be estimated almost as rapidly as determinations using seismic waves. I have to verify the validity of this method in some cases. In the case of this earthquake's largest aftershock, which occurred 29 minutes after the mainshock. The prompt report issued by JMA assigned this aftershock a magnitude of 7.3, whereas the moment magnitude derived from borehole strain data is 7.6, which is much closer to the actual moment magnitude of 7.7. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami. Our simple method of using static strain changes is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of large earthquakes, and useful to improve the accuracy of Earthquake Early Warning.
Deterioration of the Skew Quadrupole Moment in Tevatron Dipoles Over Time
Syphers, Michael J
2005-01-01
During the 20 years since it was first commissioned, the Fermilab Tevatron has developed strong coupling between the two transverse degrees of freedom. A circuit of skew quadrupole magnets is used to correct for coupling and, though capable, its required strength has increased since 1983 by more than an order of magnitude. In more recent years changes to the Tevatron for colliding beams operation have altered the skew quadrupole corrector distribution and strong local coupling become evident, often encumbering routine operation during the present physics run. Detailed magnet measurements were performed on each individual magnet during construction, and in early 2003 it was realized that measurements could be performed on the magnets in situ which could determine coil movements within the iron yoke since the early 1980's. It was discovered that the superconducting coils had become vertically displaced relative to their yokes since their construction. The ensuing systematic skew quadrupole field introduced by t...
An effect of nuclear electric quadrupole moments in thermonuclear fusion plasmas
De, B. R.; Srnka, L. J.
1978-01-01
Consideration of the nuclear electric quadrupole terms in the expression for the fusion Coulomb barrier suggests that this electrostatic barrier may be substantially modified from that calculated under the usual plasma assumption that the nuclei are electric monopoles. This effect is a result of the nonspherical potential shape and the spatial quantization of the nuclear spins of the fully stripped ions in the presence of a magnetic field. For monopole-quadrupole fuel cycles like p-B-11, the fusion cross-section may be substantially increased at low energies if the protons are injected at a small angle relative to the confining magnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreiner, A.J.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A.A.; Di Paolo, H.; Kesque, J.M.; Valda, A.A.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.; Minsky, D.M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J.C.; Castell, W.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Nery, J.P.; Huck, H.; Igarzabal, M.; Fernandez Salares, A.
2008-01-01
There is a generalized perception that the availability of suitable particle accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). An ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT is described here. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4-2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. A folded tandem, with 1.20-1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ESQ chain is being designed and constructed. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is one of the technologically simplest and cheapest solutions for optimized AB-BNCT. At present there is no BNCT facility in the world with the characteristics presented in this work. For the accelerator, results on its design, construction and beam transport calculations are discussed. Taking into account the peculiarities of the expected irradiation field, the project also considers a specific study of the treatment room. This study aims at the design of the treatment room emphasizing aspects related to patient, personnel and public radiation protection; dose monitoring; patient positioning and room construction. The design considers both thermal (for the treatment of shallow tumors) and epithermal (for deep-seated tumors) neutron beams entering the room through a port connected to the accelerator via a moderation and neutron beam shaping assembly. Preliminary results of dose calculations for the treatment room design, using the MCNP program, are presented
Energy Moment Method Applied to Nuclear Quadrupole Splitting of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Lines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frank, V
1962-01-01
Expressions giving the sum of the energy values, raised to the second and third power, for a nucleus interacting with a static magnetic field and a static electric field gradient are derived. Several applications of this method for obtaining the values of the components of the electric field...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laat, C.T.A.M. de; Taal, A.; Duinker, W.; Konijn, J.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Mueller, W.; Commission of the European Communities, Geel
1987-01-01
The X-ray spectrum of muonic and pionic 237 Np has been investigated with muons and pions stopped in a NpO 2 target. The nuclear spectroscopic quadrupole moment was determined to be Q=3.886±0.006 b from the splittings of the muonic 5g→4f hyperfine complexes. The B(E2)↓-values for the first and second excited states were evaluated as 3.17±0.08 and 2.77±0.10 e 2 b 2 , respectively. A comparison between the muonic and pionic 5g→4f hyperfine complexes yields the strong interaction parameter for the pionic 4f state. For the first time a change of sign as function of Z for the strong interaction quadrupole shift ε 2 (4f) has been observed. The standard optical model predictions agree reasonably well with the measured strong interaction monopole shift, ε 0 (4f), and width, Γ 0 (4f), while they disagree with the experimental value for ε 2 . A stronger s-wave repulsion in the optical potential could explain this effect. (orig.)
Static electromagnetic properties of giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koo, W.K.
1986-03-01
Static electric monopole and quadrupole matrix elements, which are related to the mean square radius and quadrupole moment respectively, are derived for giant resonances of arbitrary multipolarity. The results furnish information on the size and shape of the nucleus in the excited giant states. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Alldredge, G. P.; Bruch, L. W.
1985-01-01
and gives a repulsive rather than an attractive electrostatic interaction at typical intermolecular distances. In the local multipole model, the atom-site dipoles give the largest contribution to both the molecular quadrupole moment and the intermolecular interaction. The Journal of Chemical Physics...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laird, R.W.; Riley, M.A.; Brown, T.B.; Pfohl, J.; Sheline, R.K.; Kondev, F.G.; Archer, D.E.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Sarantites, D.G.; Hartley, D.J.; Hibbert, I.M.; O'Brien, N.J.; Wadsworth, R.; Joss, D.T.; Nolan, P.J.; Paul, E.S.; Shepherd, S.L.
2002-01-01
The latest generation γ-ray detection system, GAMMASPHERE, coupled with the Microball charged-particle detector, has made possible a new class of nuclear lifetime measurement. For the first time differential lifetime measurements free from common systematic errors for over 15 different nuclei (>30 rotational bands in various isotopes of Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, and Sm) have been extracted at high spin within a single experiment. This comprehensive study establishes the effective single-particle transition quadrupole moments in the A∼135 light rare-earth region. Detailed comparisons are made with theoretical calculations using the self-consistent cranked mean-field theory which convincingly demonstrates the validity of the additivity of single-particle quadrupole moments in this mass region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedersen, J.; Goerlach, U.; Habs, D.; Just, M.; Metag, V.; Mosler, E.; Schukraft, J.; Singer, P.; Specht, H.J.; Ulfert, G.
1978-01-01
A modified version of the charge plunger method has been developed which, by utilizing electrostatic fields, renders possible the separation of low- and high-charge recoil ions over short flight distances. With this technique the quadrupole moment of the 200 ns fission isomer in 238 U has been determined to be (29 +- 3) b. The corresponding deformation of c/a = (1.8 +- 0.1) provides another quantitative proof for shape isomerism in the actinide region. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.
1986-01-01
A compilation of experimental root-mean square radii, isotope shifts, ground-state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of nuclei 1≤A≤239 is presented. Shell, sub-subshell closures and changes in nuclear deformations discernible from data are displayed graphically. The nuclear charge distribution, for 1≤A≤ 239 nuclei deduced from Coulomb displacement energies is shown for comparison
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olaniyi, B.; Shor, A.; Cheng, S.C.; Dugan, G.; Wu, C.S.
1981-05-01
The effective quadrupole moments Q sub(eff) of the nuclei of 165 Ho, 175 Lu, 176 Lu, 179 Hf and 181 Ta were accurately measured by detecting the pionic atom 5g-4f x-rays of the elements. The spectroscopic quadrupole moments, Q sub(spec), were obtained by correcting Q sub(eff) for nuclear finite size effect, distortion of the pion wave function by the pion-nucleus strong interaction, and contribution to the energy level splittings by the strong interaction. The intrinsic quadrupole moments, Q 0 , were obtained by projecting Q sub(spec) into the frame of reference fixed on the nucleus. The shift, epsilon 0 , and broadening, GAMMA 0 , of the 4f energy level due to the strong interactions between the pion and the nucleons for all the elements were also measured. Theoretical values of epsilon 0 and GAMMA 0 were calculated and compared to the experimental values. The measured values of Q 0 were compared with the existing results in muonic and pionic atoms. The measured values of epsilon 0 and GAMMA 0 were also compared with existing values. (auth)
Lattice distortion and spontaneous Γ5g ferro-quadrupole moment in phase IV of CexLa1-xB6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemoto, Yuichi; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Goto, Terutaka; Suzuki, Osamu; Nakamura, Shintaro; Kunii, Satoru
2005-01-01
We have performed low-temperature thermal expansion measurements to investigate lattice effect of the phase IV in Ce x La 1-x B 6 , for x=0.75 and 0.70. In phase IV of both compounds, lattice length along the [111] direction shrinks notably, on the other hand length along the [001] direction expands. These results provide evidence that the spontaneous Γ 5g ferro-quadrupole moment yz >= zx >= xy > 0 is relevant in phase IV because the trigonal lattice distortion is described by the symmetry strain yz >= zx >= xy > 0 simultaneously
Grachev, A. I.
2018-04-01
Rotation of a spherical particle in a static electric field and under steady irradiation that induces an electric dipole moment in the particle is studied for the first time. Along with the general treatment of the phenomenon, we analyze possible mechanisms underlying the photoinduction of dipole moment in the particle. Estimations of the angular velocity and the power expended by the rotating particle are provided. The indicated characteristics reach their maximum values if the size of particles is within the range of 10 nm to 10 μm.
The Erez–Rosen metric and the role of the quadrupole on light propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, Donato; Crosta, Mariateresa; Vecchiato, Alberto; De Felice, Fernando; Geralico, Andrea
2013-01-01
The gravitational field of a static body with the quadrupole moment is described by an exact solution found by Erez and Rosen. Here, we investigate the role of the quadrupole in the motion, deflection and lensing of a light ray in the above metric. The standard lensing observables such as image positions and magnification have been explicitly obtained in the weak-field and small-quadrupole limit. In this limit, the spacetime metric appears as the natural generalization to quadrupole corrections of the metric form adopted also in current astrometric models. Hence, the corresponding analytical solution of the inverse ray tracing problem and the consistency with other approaches are also discussed. (paper)
Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W
1958-01-01
Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoruk, Abdulkadir, E-mail: yorukabdulkadir@hotmail.com [Süleyman Demirel University, Nursery Medical School (Turkey); Turkan, Nureddin, E-mail: nureddin.turkan@medeniyet.edu.tr [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Faculty of Science (Turkey)
2016-09-15
We have carried out the calculation of the quadrupole moments Q(2{sub 1}{sup +}) and electromagnetic transition rates B(E2) of some levels within the framework of the interacting boson model for even-mass Ge nuclei. The presented predictions of the quadrupole moments and B(E2) ratios for Ge nuclei are compared with the results of some previous experimental and theoretical ones along with those of the neighboring Kr and Se isotopes and then it was seen that they agree well with the previous experimental and theoretical ones.
Hurst, A M
2007-01-01
Using a method whereby molecular and atomic ions are independently selected, an isobarically pure beam of 70Se ions was postaccelerated to an energy of 206 MeV using REX-ISOLDE. Coulomb-excitation yields for states in the beam and target nuclei were deduced by recording deexcitation γ rays in the highly segmented MINIBALL γ-ray spectrometer in coincidence with scattered particles in a silicon detector. At these energies, the Coulomb-excitation yield for the first 2+ state is expected to be strongly sensitive to the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment through the nuclear reorientation effect. Experimental evidence is presented here for a prolate shape for the first 2+ state in 70Se, reopening the question over whether there are, as reported earlier, deformed oblate shapes near to the ground state in the light selenium isotopes.
Clément, E; Zielińska, M; Görgen, A; Korten, W; Péru, S; Libert, J; Goutte, H; Hilaire, S; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Delahaye, P; Dijon, A; Doherty, D T; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fransen, C; Georgiev, G; Gernhäuser, R; Hess, H; Iwanicki, J; Jenkins, D G; Larsen, A C; Ljungvall, J; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P J; Pakarinen, J; Petts, A; Reiter, P; Renstrøm, T; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Sotty, C; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van de Walle, J; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; De Witte, H; Wrzosek-Lipska, K
2016-01-15
Neutron-rich {96,98}Sr isotopes have been investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross sections. These results allow, for the first time, the drawing of definite conclusions about the shape coexistence of highly deformed prolate and spherical configurations. In particular, a very small mixing between the coexisting states is observed, contrary to other mass regions where strong mixing is present. Experimental results have been compared to beyond-mean-field calculations using the Gogny D1S interaction in a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian formalism, which reproduce the shape change at N=60.
Quadrupole moment of the 7/21- isomer state in 43S. Shell model study of sulfur isotopes around N=28
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chevrier, Raphael
2013-01-01
The goal of this work consists in providing new insights in the shape coexistence expected in neutron-rich nuclei around the N=28 shell closure. In 43 S, recent experimental data as well as their interpretation in the shell model framework were used to predict the coexistence between a J π =3/2 1 - prolate deformed ground state and a 7/2 1 - rather spherical isomer state. We report on the quadrupole moment measurement Q s of the 7/2 1 - isomer state [E*=320.5(5) keV, T 1/2 =415(3) ns] in 43 S. The TDPAD method was applied on 43 S nuclei produced by the fragmentation of a 48 Ca primary beam at 345 A.MeV, and selected in-flight through the BigRIPS spectrometer at RIKEN (Japan). The measured value, |Q s |=23(3) efm 2 , is in remarkable agreement with that calculated in the shell model framework, although it is significantly larger than that expected for a single-particle state. In order to understand the nature of the correlations responsible for the departure of the isomer state from a pure spherical shape, we report on the results of a shell model study using the modern SDPF-U interaction of the neighbors sulfur isotopes 42,44,46 S. Those calculations allowed to identify a slight triaxial degree of freedom in the structure of these nuclei, although the latter happens to be highly hindered at N=28 in 44 S. Spectroscopic factor calculations show that this slight triaxial degree of freedom also impacts the low-lying structure in 43 S. It allows to better understand the deviation of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment value of the isomer state from the limit case of a pure spherical state. (author) [fr
Van Toen, Carolyn; Carter, Jarrod W; Oxland, Thomas R; Cripton, Peter A
2014-12-01
The tolerance of the spine to bending moments, used for evaluation of injury prevention devices, is often determined through eccentric axial compression experiments using segments of the cadaver spine. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory demonstrated that eccentric axial compression resulted in "unexpected" (artifact) moments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static and dynamic effects of test configuration on bending moments during eccentric axial compression typical in cadaver spine segment testing. Specific objectives were to create dynamic equilibrium equations for the loads measured inferior to the specimen, experimentally verify these equations, and compare moment responses from various test configurations using synthetic (rubber) and human cadaver specimens. The equilibrium equations were verified by performing quasi-static (5 mm/s) and dynamic experiments (0.4 m/s) on a rubber specimen and comparing calculated shear forces and bending moments to those measured using a six-axis load cell. Moment responses were compared for hinge joint, linear slider and hinge joint, and roller joint configurations tested at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Calculated shear force and bending moment curves had similar shapes to those measured. Calculated values in the first local minima differed from those measured by 3% and 15%, respectively, in the dynamic test, and these occurred within 1.5 ms of those measured. In the rubber specimen experiments, for the hinge joint (translation constrained), quasi-static and dynamic posterior eccentric compression resulted in flexion (unexpected) moments. For the slider and hinge joints and the roller joints (translation unconstrained), extension ("expected") moments were measured quasi-statically and initial flexion (unexpected) moments were measured dynamically. In the cadaver experiments with roller joints, anterior and posterior eccentricities resulted in extension moments, which were unexpected and expected, for those
Rapid estimation of the moment magnitude of large earthquake from static strain changes
Itaba, S.
2014-12-01
The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, of moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0, occurred on March 11, 2011. Based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9, and it was considerably smaller than an actual value. On the other hand, using nine borehole strainmeters of Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, we estimated a fault model with Mw 8.7 for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. This model can be estimated about seven minutes after the origin time, and five minute after wave arrival. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami (e.g., Ohta et al., 2012). Our simple method of using strain steps is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of great earthquakes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irzaman
2004-12-01
Full Text Available ZT (PbZr1-xTixO3 is a perovskite crystal that can be used for IR sensor. Small amount of dopant can drastically change the specific characteristic of ferroelectric ceramic such as spontaneous polarization, dielectric constant, electromechanical and also electro-optic properties. The addition of In3+ ion (called as hard doping has been applied in this research. Thin film of PIZT (PbInxZryTi1-x-yO3-x/2 has been deposited on Si(100 substrate with Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD method. The concentration of solution is 0,5 M and the angular speed applied of spin coating is 3000 rpm. The PIZT sample has been analyzed with x-ray diffraction method. Rietveld analyses using GSAS-EXPGUI software resulted lattice parameter of crystal and phase compositions of PIZT samples. The values of all sample PIZT spontaneous polarization (Ps have been calculated lower than PZT. The optimally Ps was reached at 0,5% to 1% In2O3 doping. Quadrupole moment of electric potential (ΦQ(r at point P (0,0,2a reached optimum at 6% In2O3 doping and they also showed that PIZT thin film have ΦQ(r higher value than their bulk form for In2O3 doping >1%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rescigno, T.N.; Bender, C.F.; McKoy, B.V.; Langhoff, P.W.
1978-01-01
Theoretical investigations of photoexcitation and ionization cross sections in molecular nitrogen are reported employing the recently devised Stieltjes--Tchebycheff moment-theory technique in the static-exchange approximation. The coupled-channel equations for photoabsorption are separated approximately by identifying the important physically distinct excitation processes associated with formation of the three lowest electronic states of the parent molecular ion. Approximate Rydberg series and pseudospectra of transition frequencies and oscillator strengths are constructed for the seven individual channel components identified using Hartree--Fock ionic core functions and normalizable Gaussian orbitals to describe the photoexcited and ejected electrons. Detailed comparisons of the theoretically determined discrete excitation series with available spectral data indicate general accord between the calculated and observed excitation frequencies and oscillator strengths, although there are some discrepancies and certain Rydberg series have apparently not yet been identified in the measured spectra. The total Stieltjes--Tchebycheff vertical photoionization cross section obtained from the discrete pseudospectra is in excellent agreement with recent electron--ion coincidence measurement of the cross section for parent--ion production from threshold to 50 eV excitation energy. Similarly, e calculated vertical partial cross sections for the production of the three lowest electronic states in the parent molecular ion are in excellent accord with the results of recent electron--electron coincidence and synchrotron--radiation branching ratio measurements. The origins of particularly intense resonancelike features in the discrete and continuum portions of the photoabsorption cross sections are discussed in terms of excitations into valencelike molecular orbitals
Global study of quadrupole correlation effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, M.; Bertsch, G.F.; Heenen, P.-H.
2006-01-01
We discuss the systematics of ground-state quadrupole correlations of binding energies and mean-square charge radii for all even-even nuclei, from 16 O up to the superheavies, for which data are available. To that aim we calculate their correlated J=0 ground state by means of the angular-momentum and particle-number projected generator coordinate method, using the axial mass quadrupole moment as the generator coordinate and self-consistent mean-field states restricted only by axial, parity, and time-reversal symmetries. The calculation is performed within the framework of a nonrelativistic self-consistent mean-field model by use of the same Skyrme interaction SLy4 and to a density-dependent pairing force to generate the mean-field configurations and to mix them. These are the main conclusions of our study: (i) The quadrupole correlation energy varies between a few 100 keV and about 5.5 MeV. It is affected by shell closures, but varies only slightly with mass and asymmetry. (ii) Projection on angular momentum J=0 provides the major part of the energy gain of up to about 4 MeV; all nuclei in the study, including doubly magic ones, gain energy by deformation. (iii) The mixing of projected states with different intrinsic axial deformations adds a few 100 keV up to 1.5 MeV to the correlation energy. (iv) Typically nuclei below mass A≤60 have a larger correlation energy than static deformation energy whereas the heavier deformed nuclei have larger static deformation energy than correlation energy. (v) Inclusion of the quadrupole correlation energy improves the description of mass systematics, particularly around shell closures, and of differential quantities, namely two-nucleon separation energies and two-nucleon gaps. The correlation energy provides an explanation of 'mutually enhanced magicity'. (vi) The correlation energy tends to decrease the shell effect on binding energies around magic numbers, but the magnitude of the suppression is not large enough to explain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, B. L.
2009-01-01
A short review is presented of the spontaneous violation of chiral symmetry in QCD vacuum. It is demonstrated that this phenomenon is the origin of baryon masses in QCD. The value of nucleon mass is calculated, as well as the masses of hyperons and some baryonic resonances, and expressed mainly through the values of quark condensates - , q = u, d, s,-the vacuum expectation values (v.e.v.) of quark field. The concept of v.e.v. induced by external fields is introduced. It is demonstrated that such v.e.v. induced by static electromagnetic field results in quark condensate magnetic susceptibility, which plays the main role in determination of baryon magnetic moments. The magnetic moments of proton, neutron, and hyperons are calculated. The results of calculation of baryon octet β-decay constants are also presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nemoto, Yuichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)]. E-mail: nemoto@phys.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Goto, Terutaka [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [National Institute for Materials Science, Tukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Nakamura, Shintaro [Center for Low Temperature Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kunii, Satoru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2005-04-30
We have performed low-temperature thermal expansion measurements to investigate lattice effect of the phase IV in Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}B{sub 6}, for x=0.75 and 0.70. In phase IV of both compounds, lattice length along the [111] direction shrinks notably, on the other hand length along the [001] direction expands. These results provide evidence that the spontaneous {gamma}{sub 5g} ferro-quadrupole moment
Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes and static properties of the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaptari, L.P.; Bondarenko, S.G.; Khanna, F.C.; Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden
1996-04-01
Extended calculations of the deuteron's static properties, based on the numerical solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, are presented. A formalism is developed, which provides a comparative analysis of the covariant amplitudes in various representations and nonrelativistic wave functions. The magnetic and quadrupole moments of the deuteron are calculated in the Bethe-Salpeter formalism and the role of relativistic corrections is discussed. (orig.)
An algebraic description of identical bands and of high-spin quadrupole collectivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.W.
1993-01-01
The Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM) has been used to describe electric quadrupole transition rates and static moments at high angular momentum in deformed nuclei. A quantitative description of these phenomena appears possible by these means. The formalism accounts naturally for those cases where significant reductions in B(E2) values are accompanied by relatively constant moments of inertia. A discussion of identical bands as being due to a dynamical symmetry will be given. The empirical properties of these bands and general principles of group theory will be used to place constraints on an acceptable symmetry. A model that represents a minimal implementation of these criteria will be presented
Dewberry, C. T.; Grubbs, G. S.; Cooke, S. A.
2009-09-01
Using pulsed jet chirped-pulse, and cavity-based Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies over 900 transitions have been recorded for the title molecule in the 1-4 GHz and 8-18 GHz regions. The C,C and C carbon-13 species have been observed in natural abundance allowing a substitution structure for the CCC backbone to be determined. Nearly all the transitions observed were either a-type R branches or b-type Q branches. No c-type transitions were observed consistent with only the trans conformer being present under our experimental conditions. The χaa,χbb,χcc and χab components of the iodine nuclear quadrupole coupling tensor have been determined. Of note, several forbidden, ΔJ±2 transitions, and one ΔJ±3 transition were observed with quite reasonable intensity. These observations have been rationalized through considerations of near degeneracies between energy levels connected via a large χab value (≈1 GHz).
Nuclear electric quadrupole interactions in liquids entrapped in cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furman, Gregory B., E-mail: gregoryf@bgu.ac.il; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Physics Department (Israel)
2016-12-15
Liquids entrapped in cavities and containing quadrupole nuclei are considered. The interaction of the quadrupole moment of a nucleus with the electric field gradient is studied. In such a system, molecules are in both rotational and translational Brownian motions which are described by the diffusion equation. Solving this equation, we show that the intra- and intermolecular nuclear quadrupole interactions are averaged to zero in cavities with the size larger than several angstroms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leander, G.A.
1985-01-01
Certain nuclei can be described as having intrinsic shapes with parity breaking static moments. The rationale for this description is discussed, spectroscopic models are outlined and their consequences are compared with experiment. (orig.)
Kinetic energy in the collective quadrupole Hamiltonian from the experimental data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jolos, R.V., E-mail: jolos@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kolganova, E.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)
2017-06-10
Dependence of the kinetic energy term of the collective nuclear Hamiltonian on collective momentum is considered. It is shown that the fourth order in collective momentum term of the collective quadrupole Hamiltonian generates a sizable effect on the excitation energies and the matrix elements of the quadrupole moment operator. It is demonstrated that the results of calculation are sensitive to the values of some matrix elements of the quadrupole moment. It stresses the importance for a concrete nucleus to have the experimental data for the reduced matrix elements of the quadrupole moment operator taken between all low lying states with the angular momenta not exceeding 4.
ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.
1979-01-01
Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neyens, G.; Nouwen, R.; S'heeren, G.; Bergh, M. van den; Coussement, R.
1993-01-01
The level mixing spectroscopy (LEMS) method has proven to be a very useful method to determine the quadrupole interaction frequency of an isomer in a solid host. Especially in the 'difficult' cases, e.g. when the isomeric lifetime is very long or its spin is very high, the method yields valuable information which is not accessible with other methods (such as TDPAD). Since the development of the method some years ago, many experiments have been performed on high spin isomers in the lead region. The static quadrupole moment of isomers with lifetimes ranging from 20 ns up to 13 ms and spins up to 65/2h have been determined in neutron deficient isotopes of Bi, At, Fr and Ra. (orig.)
Hyperfine-mediated static polarizabilities of monovalent atoms and ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.
2010-01-01
We apply relativistic many-body methods to compute static differential polarizabilities for transitions inside the ground-state hyperfine manifolds of monovalent atoms and ions. Knowledge of this transition polarizability is required in a number of high-precision experiments, such as microwave atomic clocks and searches for CP-violating permanent electric dipole moments. While the traditional polarizability arises in the second order of interaction with the externally applied electric field, the differential polarizability involves an additional contribution from the hyperfine interaction of atomic electrons with nuclear moments. We derive formulas for the scalar and tensor polarizabilities including contributions from magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine interactions. Numerical results are presented for Al, Rb, Cs, Yb + , Hg + , and Fr.
Initial value gravitational quadrupole radiation theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winicour, J.
1987-01-01
A rigorous version of the quadrupole radiation formula is derived using the characteristic initial value formulation of a general relativistic fluid space-time. Starting from initial data for a Newtonian fluid, an algorithm is presented that determines characteristic initial data for a one-parameter family of general relativistic fluid space-times. At the initial time, a one-parameter family of space-times with this initial data osculates the evolution of the Newtonian fluid and has leading order news function equal to the third time derivative of the transverse Newtonian quadrupole moment
Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter
2016-11-01
The analytical energy gradient and Hessian of the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method with regard to the components of the electric field are derived and used to calculate spin-orbit coupling (SOC) corrected dipole moments and dipole polarizabilities of molecules, which contain elements with high atomic number. Calculated 2c-NESC dipole moments and isotropic polarizabilities agree well with the corresponding four-component-Dirac Hartree-Fock or density functional theory values. SOC corrections for the electrical properties are in general small, but become relevant for the accurate prediction of these properties when the molecules in question contain sixth and/or seventh period elements (e.g., the SO effect for At2 is about 10% of the 2c-NESC polarizability). The 2c-NESC changes in the electric molecular properties are rationalized in terms of spin-orbit splitting and SOC-induced mixing of frontier orbitals with the same j = l + s quantum numbers.
Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter
2016-11-14
The analytical energy gradient and Hessian of the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method with regard to the components of the electric field are derived and used to calculate spin-orbit coupling (SOC) corrected dipole moments and dipole polarizabilities of molecules, which contain elements with high atomic number. Calculated 2c-NESC dipole moments and isotropic polarizabilities agree well with the corresponding four-component-Dirac Hartree-Fock or density functional theory values. SOC corrections for the electrical properties are in general small, but become relevant for the accurate prediction of these properties when the molecules in question contain sixth and/or seventh period elements (e.g., the SO effect for At 2 is about 10% of the 2c-NESC polarizability). The 2c-NESC changes in the electric molecular properties are rationalized in terms of spin-orbit splitting and SOC-induced mixing of frontier orbitals with the same j = l + s quantum numbers.
Nuclear quadrupole interaction measurements of 19F* and 22Na* on Graphite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djoko-Surono, Th; Martin, Peter W
1996-01-01
Time differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) technique has been used to investigate nuclear quadrupole interactions of 19 F * and 22 Na * in graphite. We concentrated the measurements on pseudo single crystal graphite called Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite for it has an ordered structure in which the c-axes of the microcrystals aligned in a certain direction with the mosaic spread less than 1 o , while the a- and b-axes randomly oriented on a plane perpendicular to the c-axes. Interactions between quadrupole moment of 19 F * and 22 Na * with its surroundings electric field gradient were studied by detecting the γ-rays distribution, W(Θ,t). For 1 9F * we found one static interaction. The corresponding electric field gradient was V zz =3.24(19)x10 22 V/m 2 . In the case of 22 Na * we found no evidence of nuclear quadrupole interaction, however, we were able to conclude that |QV 22 | 19 bV/m 2 . Using theoretical calculation Q=0.06 barn, we find that |V zz | 20 V/m 2 . These results indicate that the value efg depend on two factors, the host crystal and the core electrons. The core electrons contribution to the total efg is considerably large
Multiple shadows from distorted static black holes
Grover, Jai; Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Wittig, Alexander; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2018-04-01
We study the local shadow of the Schwarzschild black hole with a quadrupole distortion and the influence of the external gravitational field on the photon dynamics. The external matter sources modify the light ring structure and lead to the appearance of multiple shadow images. In the case of negative quadrupole moments we identify the most prominent mechanism causing multiple shadow formation. Furthermore, we obtain a condition under which this mechanism can be realized. This condition depends on the quadrupole moment, but also on the position of the observer and the celestial sphere.
What can nuclear physics learn from nuclear moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faessler, A.
1981-01-01
The information which can be obtained from static electric quadrupole and magnetic moments is discussed for some specific examples. A new highly controversial measurement of the g-factor of the 4 + state in 20 Ne is used to show the importance of magnetic moments on the understanding of nuclear structure. If the g-factor of the 4 + state in 20 Ne would indeed be zero which is very unlikely it would change our whole understanding of the sd-shell nuclei. In the second chapter we discuss a possible test of the nature of the anomaly of the moment of inertia in the rare earth nuclei. If it is an alignment of two i(13/2) neutrons along the total angular momentum the g-factor should drop to a very small value for angular momenta near backbending at the beginning of the rare earth region. In section 3 we discuss the change of the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moments for the 13/ 2 + isomeric state in the Hg isotopes as an example for a change from strong coupling to decoupling if one fills up the i(13/2) neutron shell. In section 4 we discuss the nature of the 8 + , 10 + and 12 + states in the even mass Hg and Pt isotopes which show an irregular energy spacing. Detailed theoretical calculations indicate that in the Hg isotopes up to mass number A = 196 the 8 + and 10 + states are formed by the partial and full alignment of two h(11/2) proton hole states, while in 198,200Hg the 8 + , 10 + and 12 + states are formed by partial and full alignment of two i(13/2) neutron holes. A recent argument using the energy position of the two quasi particle states claims the those states should be in all Hg isotopes i(13/2) quasi particle states. A measurement of the g-factors of those states could clear up their nature. (orig.)
Centering of quadrupole family
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinayev, Igor
2007-01-01
A procedure for finding the individual centers for a family of quadrupoles fed with a single power supply is described. The method is generalized for using the correctors adjacent to the quadrupoles. Theoretical background is presented as well as experimental data for the NSLS rings. The method accuracy is also discussed
Superconducting magnetic quadrupole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.
1995-08-01
A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
to do precision spectroscopic measurements on these ions. ... Bonn, investigated the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter, .... the details of which will be discussed in the subse- ... the radial plane the ion undergoes a circular motion with the.
1974-01-01
A stack of SPS Quadrupole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a total of 216 laminated normal conducting lattice quadrupoles with a length of 3.13 m for the core, 3.3 m overall. The F and D quads. have identical characteristics: inscribed circle radius 44 mm, core height and width 800 mm, maximum gradient 20 Tesla/m.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Overseth, O.E.
1981-01-01
The Fermilab Neutral Hyperon Beam Collaboration has measured the magnetic moments of Λ 0 , XI-neutral and XI-minus hyperons. With a recently published result for the Σ + hyperon, we now have precision measurements on the magnetic moments of six baryons. This allows a sensitive test of the quark model. The data are in qualitative agreement with the simple additive static quark model. Quantitatively however the data disagree with theoretical predictions by typically 15%. Several theoretical attempts to understand or remedy this discrepancy will be mentioned
Observation of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator
Serra-Garcia, Marc; Peri, Valerio; Süsstrunk, Roman; Bilal, Osama R.; Larsen, Tom; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Huber, Sebastian D.
2018-03-01
The modern theory of charge polarization in solids is based on a generalization of Berry’s phase. The possibility of the quantization of this phase arising from parallel transport in momentum space is essential to our understanding of systems with topological band structures. Although based on the concept of charge polarization, this same theory can also be used to characterize the Bloch bands of neutral bosonic systems such as photonic or phononic crystals. The theory of this quantized polarization has recently been extended from the dipole moment to higher multipole moments. In particular, a two-dimensional quantized quadrupole insulator is predicted to have gapped yet topological one-dimensional edge modes, which stabilize zero-dimensional in-gap corner states. However, such a state of matter has not previously been observed experimentally. Here we report measurements of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator. We experimentally characterize the bulk, edge and corner physics of a mechanical metamaterial (a material with tailored mechanical properties) and find the predicted gapped edge and in-gap corner states. We corroborate our findings by comparing the mechanical properties of a topologically non-trivial system to samples in other phases that are predicted by the quadrupole theory. These topological corner states are an important stepping stone to the experimental realization of topologically protected wave guides in higher dimensions, and thereby open up a new path for the design of metamaterials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bush, E.D. Jr.
1976-01-01
A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. Based on preliminary tests, it was seen that permanent quadrupole magnets can offer a low cost, reliable solution in applications requiring small, fixed-field focusing devices for use in ion or electron-beam transport systems. Permanent magnets do require special considerations in design, fabrication, handling, and service that are different than encountered in conventional quadrupole magnets. If these basic conditions are satisfied, the resulting beam-focusing device would be stable, maintenance free, with virtually an indefinite lifetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terlain, Anne
1984-01-01
The 2D (two-dimensional) phase transitions and orientational order in N 2 O, CO 2 , C 2 N 2 and C 2 D 2 films physi-sorbed on the (0001) face of graphite or lamellar halides, were studied experimentally by adsorption isotherm measurements and neutron diffraction. The thermodynamic functions derived from sets of isotherms suggest that crystal monolayers of N 2 O, CO 2 , and C 2 N 2 adsorbed on graphite are orientationally ordered and that the quadrupolar interaction stabilizes the 2D crystal with respect to the 2D liquid. This stabilization leads to an increase in the 2D triple point temperature, T 2t as compared with the 2D critical temperature T 2c . For C 2 N 2 this stabilization is so pronounced that T 2t becomes virtually higher than T 2c , and the phase diagram qualitatively different, having no gas-liquid coexistence domain. From a neutron diffraction experiment we have determined the crystal structure of the C 2 N 2 monolayer. It supports our interpretation of the monolayer phase diagram. In N 2 O, CO 2 , C 2 N 2 films adsorbed on graphite the molecules lie flat on the surface and their orientational order hence differs from that in the bulk crystals resulting in a loss of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction energy. Beyond a given film thickness this loss will not be compensated by the adsorbate-substrate interaction and the film will stop growing. For most of the films studied a partial wetting transition is observed at which the film thickness increases discontinuously with temperature. Although C 2 N 2 and C 2 D 2 monolayers on graphite have comparable adsorption energies, only C 2 D 2 is adsorbed on lamellar halides. This adsorption is possible only because the monolayer has a large entropy due to orientational disorder. For C 2 N 2 , which has a higher moment of inertia, such an orientational disorder cannot exist. (author) [fr
Design of the CLIC Quadrupole Vacuum Chambers
Garion, C
2010-01-01
The Compact Linear Collider, under study, requires vacuum chambers with a very small aperture, of the order of 8 mm in diameter, and with a length up to around 2 m for the main beam quadrupoles. To keep the very tight geometrical tolerances on the quadrupoles, no bake out is allowed. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-9 mbar static pressure) in a system where the vacuum performance is driven by water outgassing. For this application, a thinwalled stainless steel vacuum chamber with two ante chambers equipped with NEG strips, is proposed. The mechanical design, especially the stability analysis, is shown. The key technologies of the prototype fabrication are given. Vacuum tests are carried out on the prototypes. The test set-up as well as the pumping system conditions are presented.
Can the magnetic moment contribution explain the Ay puzzle?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoks, V.G.
1998-01-01
We evaluate the full one-photon-exchange Born amplitude for Nd scattering. We include the contributions due to the magnetic moment of the proton or neutron, and the magnetic moment and quadrupole moment of the deuteron. It is found that the inclusion of the magnetic-moment interaction in the theoretical description of the Nd scattering observables cannot resolve the long-standing A y puzzle. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Torres del Castillo, G.F; Méndez Garrido, A
2006-01-01
Making use of the fact that a 2l-pole can be represented by means of l vectors of the same magnitude, the torque on a quadrupole in an inhomogeneous external field is expressed in terms of the vectors that represent the quadrupole and the gradient of the external field. The conditions for rotational equilibrium are also expressed in terms of these vectors. Haciendo uso de que un multipolo de orden 2l puede representarse mediante l vectores de la misma magnitud, la torca sobre un cuadripolo...
High gradient superconducting quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.
1987-07-01
Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed
ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles
1977-01-01
Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stokes, R.H.; Crandall, K.R.; Stovall, J.E.; Swenson, D.A.
1979-01-01
A method has been developed to analyze the beam dynamics of the radiofrequency quadrupole accelerating structure. Calculations show that this structure can accept a dc beam at low velocity, bunch it with high capture efficiency, and accelerate it to a velocity suitable for injection into a drift tube linac
1983-01-01
There were 48 of these Quadrupoles in the ISR. They were distributed around the rings according to the so-called Terwilliger scheme. Their aperture was 184 mm, their core length 300 mm, their gradient 5 T/m. Due to their small length as compared to the aperture, the end fringe field errors had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles.
Quadrupole Transfer Function for Emittance Measurement
Cameron, Peter; Jansson, Andreas; Tan, Cheng-Yang
2008-01-01
Historically the use of the quadrupole moment measurement has been impeded by the requirement for large dynamic range, as well as measurement sensitivity to beam position. We investigate the use of the transfer function technique [1-3] in combination with the sensitivity and 160dB revolution line rejection of the direct diode detection analog front end [4] to open the possibility of an emittance diagnostic that may be implemented without operational complication, quasi- parasitic to the operation of existing tune measurement systems. Such a diagnostic would be particularly useful as an emittance monitor during acceleration ramp development in machines like RHIC and the LHC.
Quadrupole interactions in pionic and muonic tantalum and rhenium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konijn, J.; Doesburg, W. van; Ewan, G.T; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.
1981-01-01
The hyperfine splitting of pionic and muonic X-rays in natural Re has been studied using the known ratio (accurate to 1.6 parts in 10 5 ) of the quadrupole moments of the two naturally occurring 185 Re and 187 Re isotopes. From the hyperfine splitting of the 5g → 4f and 4f → 3d pionic X-rays the effective quadrupole hyperfine constants were determined to be 187 A 2 sup(e)sup(f)sup(f) (4f) = 1.163 +- 0.010 keV and 187 A 2 sup(e)sup(f)sup(f) (3d) = 5.39 +- 0.63 keV, giving strong interaction quadrupole shifts epsilon 2 (4f) = 46 +- 10 eV and epsilon 2 (3d) = 1.3 +- 0.6 keV. The strong interaction monopole shifts epsilon 0 and widths GAMMA 0 of the 5g, 4f and 3d levels have also been measured. For the two higher orbits, standard optical-potential calculations fit the measured shifts and widths quite well. The observed deeper-lying 3d state, however, has shifts and widths that differ by a factor of 2 or more from the predictions. From the measured quadrupole hyperfine constants of the 4f level we calculate the spectroscopic quadrupole moments to be 187 Qsup(μ) = 2.09 +- 0.04 b, 187 Qsup(π) = 2.07 +- 0.02 b, 185 Qsup(μ) = 2.21 +- 0.04 b, and 185 Qsup(π) = 2.18 +- 0.02 b. In addition, muonic X-rays from 181 Ta were observed; using the same methods for determining the quadrupole moments as above, a value of 181 Qsup(μ) = 3.28 +- 0.06 b was obtained, in good agreement with earlier published data. (orig.)
Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC
2007-01-01
A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bush, E.D. Jr.
1976-01-01
A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. (author)
On quantum quadrupole radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonda, L.; Mankoc-Borstnik, N.
1981-02-01
In this paper it is shown that for the electromagnetic decay of a quantum system in a coherent rotational state the total quadrupole radiation is proportional to (d 5 Q/dt 5 )(dQ/dt)sup(*)+c.c. For the radiation flux out of a sphere of large radius a different quantity, closer to the classical expression (d 3 Q/dt 3 ) 2 , is found. (author)
Superconducting Panofsky quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harwood, L.H.
1981-01-01
A design for a rectangular aperture quadrupole magnet without pole-tips was introduced by Hand and Panofsky in 1959. This design was quite radical but simple to construct. Few magnets of this design were ever built because of the large power needed. With the advent of superconducting coils there has been a renewed interest in them. The mathematical basis, field characteristics, and present and future construction of these magnets are described
The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO.
Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C
2014-03-28
A number of low-rotational lines of the E(4)Δ7/2 ← X(4)Δ7/2 (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h7/2, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq0, for the E(4)Δ7/2(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ(→)(el), for the X(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 0) and E(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F' = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F' = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.
The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhuang, Xiujuan, E-mail: zhuangxj@hnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Steimle, Timothy C. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States)
2014-03-28
A number of low-rotational lines of the E{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} ← X{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h{sub 7/2}, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq{sub 0}, for the E{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2}(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ{sup -vector}{sub el}, for the X{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} (υ = 0) and E{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F′ = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F′ = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.
Measurements of quadrupole magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conradie, J.L.; Fourie, D.T.; Cornell, J.C.; Lloyd, G.C.W.
1987-01-01
Measurements carried out on quadrupole magnets using a long asymmetric rotating coil are described. Although the method itself is fairly well-known, the introduction of microprocessors has made this once-tedious technique into a useful and simple method of evaluating quadrupole magnets. The rotating-coil device and a variety of coil sizes are now commercially available. The coil contains a large number of extremely fine wires, embedded in a carefully balanced fibre-glass rotor, resulting in a reasonable induced voltage when the coil is rotated. A digital harmonic analyser is then used to obtain the integrated multipole content of the waveform, while the coil is rotating. By integrating over time, one can average out random noise and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements. Because the harmonic analysis is done in real time, the method is quick, easy and accurate, and has been extended to locate the precise magnetic centre of the quadrupole magnet by adjusting its position relative to the coil axis so as to minimize the dipole content of the output waveform. Results of these measurements are compared with those obtained with an optical method using a suspension of magnetite. The observed light pattern is explained analytically. (author)
The first LHC insertion quadrupole
2004-01-01
An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.
Quadrupole moments of low-lying baryons with spin
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-11-27
Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.
Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.
1994-01-01
The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs
MQXFS1 Quadrupole Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambrosio, Giorgio [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.
2016-04-14
This report presents the reference design of MQXFS1, the first 1.5 m prototype of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. The MQXF quadrupoles have 150 mm aperture, coil peak field of about 12 T, and use $Nb_{3}Sn$ conductor. The design is based on the LARP HQ quadrupoles, which had 120 mm aperture. MQXFS1 has 1st generation cable cross-section and magnetic design.
Polarization electric dipole moment in nonaxial nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.Yu.; Davidovskaya, O.I.
1996-01-01
An expression for the macroscopic polarization electric dipole moment is obtained for nonaxial nuclei whose radii of the proton and neutron surfaces are related by a linear equation. Dipole transitions associated with the polarization electric dipole moment are analyzed for static and dynamical multipole deformations
Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.-D.
1996-05-01
As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole, and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors, and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model
Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.
1997-01-01
As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
CLIC Quadrupole Module final report
Artoos, K; Mainaud-Durand, H
2013-01-01
Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line. The CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) module has been defined and studied. It is meant as a test stand for stabilisation and pre-alignment with a MB Quadrupole. The main topic that has been tackled concerns the Quadrupole magnet stabilisation to 1nm at 1Hz. This is needed to obtain the desired CLIC luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2m-1. The deliverable was demonstrated by procuring a MBQ and by stabilising a powered and cooled CLIC MBQ quadrupole. In addition, the stabilisation system has to be compatible with the pre-alignment procedures. Pre-alignment movement resolution has been demonstrated to 1m. The last step is the combined test of stability with a quadrupole on a CLIC Module with the pre-alignment.
Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirson, M.W.
1979-01-01
Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)
Emittance growth from rotated quadrupoles in heavy ion accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnard, J.J.
1995-01-01
We derive a set of moment equations which incorporates linear quadrupolar focusing and space-charge defocusing, in the presence of rotational misalignments of the quadrupoles about the direction of beam propagation. Although the usual beam emittance measured relative to fixed transverse x and y coordinate axes is not constant, a conserved emittance-like quantity has been found. Implications for alignment tolerances in accelerators for heavy-ion inertial fusion are discussed
Cooperstock's counterexample to the gravitational-radiation quadrupole formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, M.
1986-01-01
Cooperstock has recently modified the axially symmetric gravitational two-body problem previously analyzed by himself, Lim, and Hobill by introducing a new assumption, that ''The system undergoes a smooth transition from the static state to free-fall and the motion. . .consists of the two bodies accelerating towards each other while undergoing slow tidal deformation.'' This assumption is inconsistent with his solution of the field equations. The quadrupole formula correctly describes the radiation emitted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piskunov, V.A.
1981-01-01
The following connection of windings of electromagnet is suggested for simplification of the design of qUadrupole magnetic lens intended for use in radiotechnical and electron-optical devices. The mentioned windings are connected with each other by a bridge scheme and the variable resistors are switched in its diagonals in the lens containing four electromagnet with windings connected with two variable resistors the mobile contacts of which are connected with a direct current source. Current redistribution between left windings and right windings takes place at shift of mobile contact of variable resistor, and current redistribution between upper and low coils of electromagnets takes place at shifting mobile contact of the other variable resistor. In this case smooth and independent electron-optical misalignment of lens by two mutually perpendicular directions proceeds. Use of the given design of the lens in the oscillograph permits to use printing assembly for alignment plate and to reduce the number of connections at the expense of decreasing the number of resistors
Quadrupole formula for Kaluza-Klein modes in the braneworld
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinoshita, Shunichiro; Kudoh, Hideaki; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Sato, Katsuhiko
2005-01-01
The quadrupole formula in four-dimensional Einstein gravity is a useful tool to describe gravitational wave radiation. We derive the quadrupole formula for the Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld model. The quadrupole formula provides a transparent representation of the exterior weak gravitational field induced by localized sources. We find that a general isolated dynamical source gives rise to the 1/r 2 correction to the leading 1/r gravitational field. We apply the formula to an evaluation of the effective energy carried by the KK modes from the viewpoint of an observer on the brane. Contrary to the ordinary gravitational waves (zero mode), the flux of the induced KK modes by the non-spherical part of the quadrupole moment vanishes at infinity and only the spherical part contributes to the flux. Since the effect of the KK modes appears in the linear order of the metric perturbations, the effective energy flux observed on the brane is not always positive, but can become negative depending on the motion of the localized sources
Pairing field and moments of inertia of superdeformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yongjing; Chen Yongshou; Xu Fuxin
2002-01-01
The authors have systematically analysed the dynamic moments of inertia of the experimental superdeformed (SD) bands observed in the A = 190, 150 and 60-80 mass regions as functions of rotational frequency. By combining the different mass regions, the dramatic features of the dynamic moments of inertia were found and explained based on the calculations of the pairing fields of SD nuclei with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator quadrupole pairing Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model
Theory of nuclear magnetic moments - LT-35
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerman, A. K.
1952-09-15
The purpose of these notes is to give an account of some attempts at interpreting the observed values of nuclear magnetic moments. There is no attempt at a complete summary of the field as that would take much more space than is used here. In many cases the arguments are only outlined and references are given for those interested in further details. A discussion of the theory of nuclear magnetic moments necessitates many excursions into the details of the nuclear models because the magnetic moments have a direct bearing on the validity of these models. However the main emphasis here is on those features which tend to explain the magnetic moments and other evidence is not discussed unless it has a direct bearing on the problem. In the first part of the discussion the Shell Model of the nucleus is used, as this model seems to correlate a large body of data relating to the heavier nuclei. Included here are the modifications proposed to explain the fact that the experimental magnetic moments do not fit quantitatively with the exact predictions of the Shell Model. The next sections deal with some of the more drastic modifications introduced to explain the large nuclear quadrupole moments and the effect of these modifications on the magnetic moments. Finally we turn to more detailed investigations of the light nuclei, in particular the - Conjugate nuclei. (author)
Communication: On the isotope anomaly of nuclear quadrupole coupling in molecules
Filatov, Michael; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter
2012-10-01
The dependence of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCC) on the interaction between electrons and a nucleus of finite size is theoretically analyzed. A deviation of the ratio of the NQCCs obtained from two different isotopomers of a molecule from the ratio of the corresponding bare nuclear electric quadrupole moments, known as quadrupole anomaly, is interpreted in terms of the logarithmic derivatives of the electric field gradient at the nuclear site with respect to the nuclear charge radius. Quantum chemical calculations based on a Dirac-exact relativistic methodology suggest that the effect of the changing size of the Au nucleus in different isotopomers can be observed for Au-containing molecules, for which the predicted quadrupole anomaly reaches values of the order of 0.1%. This is experimentally detectable and provides an insight into the charge distribution of non-spherical nuclei.
Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments
Franklin, Jerrold
1989-05-01
This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12-17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article. (AIP)
Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franklin, J.
1989-01-01
This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12--17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article
Electromagnetic design of superconducting quadrupoles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Rossi
2006-10-01
Full Text Available We study how the critical gradient depends on the coil layout in a superconducting quadrupole for particle accelerators. We show that the results relative to a simple sector coil are well representative of the coil layouts that have been used to build several quadrupoles in the past 30 years. Using a semianalytical approach, we derive a formula that gives the critical gradient as a function of the coil cross-sectional area, of the magnet aperture, and of the superconducting cable parameters. This formula is used to evaluate the efficiency of several types of coil layouts (shell, racetrack, block, open midplane.
An online database of nuclear electromagnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mertzimekis, T.J.; Stamou, K.; Psaltis, A.
2016-01-01
Measurements of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments are considered quite important for the understanding of nuclear structure both near and far from the valley of stability. The recent advent of radioactive beams has resulted in a plethora of new, continuously flowing, experimental data on nuclear structure – including nuclear moments – which hinders the information management. A new, dedicated, public and user friendly online database ( (http://magneticmoments.info)) has been created comprising experimental data of nuclear electromagnetic moments. The present database supersedes existing printed compilations, including also non-evaluated series of data and relevant meta-data, while putting strong emphasis on bimonthly updates. The scope, features and extensions of the database are reported.
Rathjen, C
2002-01-01
A method based on analytical formulas is described to calculate bending moments, stresses, and deformations of vacuum chambers and beam screens in dipole and in quadrupole fields during a magnet quench. Solutions are given for circular and racetrack shaped structures. Without the need of time consuming calculations the solutions enable a quick design and verification of vacuum chambers and beam screens.
On the theoretical description of nuclear quadrupole coupling in Π states of small molecules
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fišer, J.; Polák, Rudolf
2013-01-01
Roč. 425, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 126-133 ISSN 0301-0104 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Π States * Nuclear quadrupole coupling constant * Electric dipole moment Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2013
Electromagnetic moments and effective operators in nuclei near and far from the stability line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuta, Kensaku; Minamisono, Tadanori; Ogawa, Yoko; Miyake, Toru; Morishita, Akio; Sato, Kazunori; Momota, Sadao; Nojiri, Yoichi; Mihara, Mototsugu; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Zhu, Sheng-Yung; Onishi, Takashi; Sasaki, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Minamisono, Kei; Akai, Hisazumi; Atsushi, Kitagawa; Torikoshi, Masami; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Nishio, Teiji; Koda, Shigeru; Otsubo, Tatashi; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Tanihata, Isao; Yoshida, Koichi; Ozawa, Akira; Kitagawa, Hisashi; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hanna, Stanley S.; Alonso, Jose R.; Krebs, Gary F.; Symons, T. James M.; Osaka-RIKEN-HIMAC Collaboration
2003-12-01
Quenching of neutron effective charge has been observed by measuring the quadrupole moment of 16 N. Moreover, the neutron effective charge may be quenched in the quadrupole moment of 21 F. This quenching of effective charges is discussed in terms of the overlap integrals of the wave functions of the valence nucleons and the core. Effective g-factors may be required to explain the large spin expectation value for the mass number 9 mirror nuclei, deduced from the iso-scalar magnetic moment
Barbosa, Marcelo
A review about the nuclear properties, namely the nuclear moments (magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment) and their interaction with electromagnetic fields external to the nucleus (hyperfine interactions), as well as the angular distribution of radiation produced by $\\gamma$-decay, is presented. A detailed description about the theory of Perturbed Angular Correlations was done, including the comparison between $\\gamma-\\gamma$- correlations and $e^{-}- \\gamma$ correlations. For dynamic nuclear interactions, an introduction to the theory of stochastic states in PAC was performed. We focused on ab-initio implementation of observables for analyzing fluctuating quadrupole hyperfine interactions on time dependent perturbed angular correlations experiments. The development of computacional codes solving the full problem, adapted to fit data obtained on single crystals or polycrystals for two-state transient fields with any axial symmetry and orientation was the main purpose of this work. The final pa...
Origin-independent calculation of quadrupole intensities in X-ray spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernadotte, Stephan; Atkins, Andrew J.; Jacob, Christoph R.
2012-01-01
For electronic excitations in the ultraviolet and visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the intensities are usually calculated within the dipole approximation, which assumes that the oscillating electric field is constant over the length scale of the transition. For the short wavelengths used in hard X-ray spectroscopy, the dipole approximation may not be adequate. In particular, for metal K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), it becomes necessary to include higher-order contributions. In quantum-chemical approaches to X-ray spectroscopy, these so-called quadrupole intensities have so far been calculated by including contributions depending on the square of the electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole transition moments. However, the resulting quadrupole intensities depend on the choice of the origin of the coordinate system. Here, we show that for obtaining an origin-independent theory, one has to include all contributions that are of the same order in the wave vector consistently. This leads to two additional contributions depending on products of the electric-dipole and electric-octupole and of the electric-dipole and magnetic-quadrupole transition moments, respectively. We have implemented such an origin-independent calculation of quadrupole intensities in XAS within time-dependent density-functional theory, and demonstrate its usefulness for the calculation of metal and ligand K-edge XAS spectra of transition metal complexes.
Assembling Transgender Moments
Greteman, Adam J.
2017-01-01
In this article, the author seeks to assemble moments--scholarly, popular, and aesthetic--in order to explore the possibilities that emerge as moments collect in education's encounters with the needs, struggles, and possibilities of transgender lives and practices. Assembling moments, the author argues, illustrates the value of "moments"…
Quadrupole collectivity in {sup 128}Cd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boenig, Esther Sabine
2014-07-07
The regions around shell closures, especially around doubly magic nuclei, are of major interest in nuclear structure physics, as they provide a perfect test for nuclear structure theory. The neutron-rich Cd isotopes in the region of {sup 132}Sn are only two protons away from the shell closure at Z=50 and in close proximity to the N=82 magic number. Nevertheless they show an irregular behaviour regarding the excitation energy of the first excited 2{sup +} state. This is not reproduced by shell model calculations, which is astonishing due to the proximity of the shell closures. In order to shed light on the much discussed region around doubly magic {sup 132}Sn, a Coulomb excitation experiment of {sup 128}Cd has been performed at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The reduced transition strength B(E2;0{sup +}{sub gs} → 2{sup +}{sub 1}), which is a measure of collectivity, and the spectroscopic quadrupole moment Q{sub s}(2{sup +}{sub 1}) as a measure of deformation could be determined for the first time. The results are shown as the continuation of already measured neutron-rich Cd isotopes and are compared to both beyond mean field and shell model calculations, which give different predictions for these observables.
Nuclear quadrupole resonance of arsenolite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madarazo, R.
1988-01-01
A pulsed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) spectrometer was constructed using imported Matec units. Peripherical components were specially assembled and tested for the implantation of the spin-echo technique in the Laboratorio de Centros de Cor of IFUSP. The R.F. operation range is from 50 to 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times were carried out at room temperature in arsenolite. The 75 As NQR frequency measured at room temperature is 116.223 MHz. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forssen, C.; Caurier, E.; Navratil, P.
2009-01-01
Recently, charge radii and ground-state electromagnetic moments of Li and Be isotopes were measured precisely. We have performed large-scale ab initio no-core shell model calculations for these isotopes using high-precision nucleon-nucleon potentials. The isotopic trends of our computed charge radii and quadrupole and magnetic-dipole moments are in good agreement with experimental results with the exception of the 11 Li charge radius. The magnetic moments are in particular well described, whereas the absolute magnitudes of the quadrupole moments are about 10% too small. The small magnitude of the 6 Li quadrupole moment is reproduced, and with the CD-Bonn NN potential, also its correct sign
Statics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 1
Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf
2017-01-01
This book contains the most important formulas and more than 160 completely solved problems from Statics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Equilibrium - Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, Centroids - Support Reactions - Trusses - Beams, Frames, Arches - Cables - Work and Potential Energy - Static and Kinetic Friction - Moments of Inertia.
Relativistic Quadrupole Polarizability for the Ground State of Hydrogen-Like Ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yong-Hu; Zhang Xian-Zhou; Tang Li-Yan; Shi Ting-Yun; Mitroy Jim
2012-01-01
The static quadrupole polarizabilities for hydrogen-like ions from Z = 1 to Z = 100 in the 1S 1/2 ground state are calculated to high precision by solving the Dirac equation using the B-spline Galerkin method. The results are consistent with the expression of Kaneko [J. Phys. B 10 (1977) 3347] at low Z. The quadrupole oscillator strength sum Σ n f (2) gn is computed to be zero to a very high degree of precision. (atomic and molecular physics)
The electromagnetic multipole moments of the charged open-flavor {Z}_{\\bar{c}q} states
Azizi, K.; Özdem, U.
2018-05-01
The electromagnetic multipole moments of the open-flavor {Z}\\bar{cq} states are investigated by assuming a diquark–antidiquark picture for their internal structure and quantum numbers {J}{PC}={1}+- for their spin-parity. In particular, their magnetic and quadrupole moments are extracted in the framework of light-cone QCD sum rule by the help of the photon distribution amplitudes. The electromagnetic multipole moments of the open-flavor {Z}\\bar{cq} states are important dynamical observables, which encode valuable information on their underlying structure. The results obtained for the magnetic moments of different structures are considerably large and can be measured in future experiments. We obtain very small values for the quadrupole moments of {Z}\\bar{cq} states indicating a nonspherical charge distribution.
Design of an electrostatic magnetic quadrupole accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.
1993-01-01
A new type of electrostatic acceleration system, electrostatic magnetic quadrupole (ESMQ) acceleration system, is proposed for efficient acceleration of negative ion beams. In this system, permanent magnets are buried in the acceleration electrodes so as to produce a quadrupole magnetic field in the electrode aperture region. Envelope simulation indicates that the quadrupole field can deflect electrons stripped from the negative ions. Beam envelope simulations for deuterium ions and electrons have been carried out using the beam envelope code TRACE. Electrons are largely divergent and most appear likely to hit downstream electrodes. Furthermore, maximum beam divergence of the deuterium ions is reduced to the focusing effect of the quadrupole magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clement, H.; Frick, R.; Graw, G.; Schiemenz, P.; Seichert, N.
1983-01-01
The 2 1 + -excitation of deformed nuclei by tensor polarized deuterons provides an alignment of both nuclei and thus a means to study specifically the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between both nuclei. The tensor analyzing power Asub(xz)(theta) has been measured for the elastic and inelastic scattering on 24 Mg and 28 Si. The coupled channel analysis including a deformed tensor potential reveals a clear signature of the quadrupole-quadrupole part of the nuclear projectile-target interaction. (orig.)
MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report
Ambrosio, G; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Chlachidize, G; Cooley, L D; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Hafalia, R; Holik, E F; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Juchno, M; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Muratore, J; Nobrega, F; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Pong, I; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G L; Santini, C; Schmalzle, J; Schmalzle, J; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Vallone, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M
2017-01-01
This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.
MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambrosio, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Anerella, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bossert, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cavanna, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cheng, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chlachidize, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Cooley, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dietderich, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Felice, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ferracin, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Ghosh, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hafalia, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Holik, E. F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bermudez, S. Izquierdo [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Juchno, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Krave, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchevsky, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Muratore, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nobrega, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perez, J. C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Pong, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prestemon, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ravaioli, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sabbi, G. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Santini, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schmalzle, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stoynev, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Strauss, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vallone, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yu, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2017-07-16
This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.
Electric quadruple moments of high-spin isomers in 209Po
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, E.A.; Nicolescu, G.; Plostinaru, D.
1998-01-01
The electric quadrupole interaction of the 209 Po (17/2) - and (13/2) - isomers in a Bi single-crystal was measured. The results for the quadrupole moments are connected with studies of isomers in Po isotopes. A two level analysis procedure was employed for the combined data of (17/2) - and (13/2) - isomers. The quadrupole moments of the Po isotopes are of special interest for testing nuclear models because of supposed simple nuclear structure with two protons outside a closed magic number shell. While the g-factors are significant for the predominant few-particle structures often present at high spins, the quadrupole moments are sensitive to additional contributions arising from core deformation effects. A systematic study of quadrupole moments of 12 + isomers in Pb isotopes has indeed demonstrated that the valence neutron effective charge increases as more particle pairs are removed from the 208 Pb core. In the present work, quadrupole coupling constants were measured for the isomers by the time-differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) technique, in the presence of quadrupole interactions from the internal electric field gradient (EFG) in Bi crystal. The experiments were performed using a pulsed deuteron-beam of 13 MeV. The (17/2) - isomer state (T 1/2 = 88 ns) and the (13/2) - isomer state (T 1/2 = 24 ns) were populated and aligned by the 209 Bi(d,2n) reaction. The repetition time of the pulse was 10 μs and the width was around 5 ns (FWHM). The rather low bombardment energy was chosen to reduce population of higher spin isomers and to optimize the population of 209 Po((17/2) - ) and 209 Po((13/2) - ). The 209 Po single crystal target was held at a temperature of 470 K in order to reduce possible radiation damage effects. The experiments have been performed with the c axis of the single crystal at 45 angle and 90 angle to the beam direction. We chose to use a calibration based on isomers with well-understood nuclear structure allowing a reliable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montani, Giovanni; Ruffini, Remo; Zalaletdinov, Roustam
2003-01-01
A model for the static weak-field macroscopic medium is analysed and the equation for the macroscopic gravitational potential is derived. This is a biharmonic equation which is a non-trivial generalization of the Poisson equation of Newtonian gravity. In the case of strong gravitational quadrupole polarization, it essentially holds inside a macroscopic matter source. Outside the source the gravitational potential fades away exponentially. The equation is equivalent to a system of the Poisson equation and the non-homogeneous modified Helmholtz equations. The general solution to this system is obtained by using the Green function method and it is not limited to Newtonian gravity. In the case of insignificant gravitational quadrupole polarization, the equation for macroscopic gravitational potential becomes the Poisson equation with the matter density renormalized by a factor including the value of the quadrupole gravitational polarization of the source. The general solution to this equation obtained by using the Green function method is limited to Newtonian gravity
Simulation of a quadrupole resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleindienst, Raphael [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)
2013-07-01
Modern particle accelerators often rely on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology for accelerating cavities. In particular in CW operation, very high quality factors up into the high range are desirable, since one of the main cost drivers of such an accelerator, the cryogenic refrigeration plant, is inversely proportional to Q{sub 0}. Present day superconducting cavities are generally made of solid Niobium. A possibility to increase the quality factor as well as accelerating fields is to use thin film coated cavities. Apart from Niobium thin films, other superconducting materials, such as MgB{sub 2}, NbN and Nb{sub 3}Sn are promising candidates. Measuring and understanding the RF-properties of superconducting thin films, specifically the surface resistance, is needed to drive forward this development. Currently only few facilities exist capable of measuring the surface resistance of thin films samples with a resolution in the nano-ohm range at the operating frequency of typical cavities(e.g. L-band). A dedicated test stand consisting of a quadrupole resonator is therefore being constructed at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin. This system is based on the 400 MHz quadrupole resonator at CERN, with the design adapted to 433 MHz (making available the higher harmonic mode at 1.3 GHz) and optimized with respect to resolution and maximum achievable fields using simulation data obtained with CST Microwave Studio as well as ANSYS. The simulated design is being manufactured. An outlook for future physics runs is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1983-06-01
The new experimental values of hyperon magnetic moments are compared with sum rules predicted from general quark models. Three difficulties are encountered which are not easily explained by simple models. The isovector contributions of nonstrange quarks to hyperon moments are smaller than the corresponding contribution to nucleon moments, indicating either appreciable configuration mixing present in hyperon wave functions and absent in nucleons or an additional isovector contribution beyond that of valence quarks; e.g. from a pion cloud. The large magnitude of the ω - moment may indicate that the strange quark contribution to the ω moments is considerably larger than the value μ(#betta#) predicted by simple models which have otherwise been very successful. The set of controversial values from different experiments of the μ - moment include a value very close to -(1/2)μ(μ + ) which would indicate that strange quarks do not contribute at all to the μ moments. (author)
Electrostatic quadrupoles for heavy-ion fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seidl, P.; Faltens, A.
1993-05-01
Voltage-holding data for three quadrupole electrode sizes and inter-electrode spacings are reported. The dependence of the breakdown voltage on system size and its influence on the optimum quadrupole size for beam transport in a multiple beam array are discussed
A strong focussing cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheng Yaochang
1986-01-01
The construction and performance of small cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole, which is installed in JM-400 pulse electrostatic accelerator, are described. This electrostatic quadrupole is not only used in neutron generator, but also suitable for ion injector as well as for low energy electron accelerator
Molecular multipole moments of water molecules in ice Ih
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batista, E.R.; Xantheas, S.S.; Jonsson, H.
1998-01-01
We have used an induction model including dipole, dipole endash quadrupole, quadrupole endash quadrupole polarizability and first hyperpolarizability as well as fixed octopole and hexadecapole moments to study the electric field in ice. The self-consistent induction calculations gave an average total dipole moment of 3.09 D, a 67% increase over the dipole moment of an isolated water molecule. A previous, more approximate induction model study by Coulson and Eisenberg [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 291, 445 (1966)] suggested a significantly smaller average value of 2.6 D. This value has been used extensively in recent years as a reference point in the development of various polarizable interaction potentials for water as well as for assessment of the convergence of water cluster properties to those of bulk. The reason for this difference is not due to approximations made in the computational scheme of Coulson and Eisenberg but rather due to the use of less accurate values for the molecular multipoles in these earlier calculations. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim André
One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...
Static and dynamical properties of light hadrons in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, B.L.
1984-01-01
The review of QCD determination of static and dynamical properties of hadrons is given. Hadron masses, their transition constants into quark currents, meson formfactors at intermediate momentum transfers, mesonic partial widths and structure functions at small x are considered. A special attention is paid to calculation of static paramaters of hadrons in external fields (nucleon and hyperon magnetic moments, interaction constants with axial currents)
Solid state NMR, basic theory and recent progress for quadrupole nuclei with half-integer spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dieter, F.
1998-01-01
This review describes the basic theory and some recently developed techniques for the study of quadrupole nuclei with half integer spins in powder materials. The latter is connected to the introduction of the double rotation (DOR) by A. Samoson et al. (1) and to the introduction of the multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ MAS) technique by L. Frydman et. al. (2). For integer spins, especially the solid-state deuterium magnetic resonance, we refer to the review of G.L. Hoatson and R.L. Vold: '' 2 H-NMR Spectroscopy of Solids and Liquid Crystals'' (3). For single crystals we refer to O. Kanert and M. Mehring: ''Static quadrupole effects in disordered cubic solids''(4) and we would like also to mention the ''classic'' review of M.H. Cohen and F. Reif: ''Quadrupole effects in NMR studies of solids'' (5). Some more recent reviews in the field under study are D. Freude and J. Haase ''Quadrupole effects in solid-state NMR'' (6). Ch. Jager: ''Satellite Transition Spectroscopy of Quadrupolar Nuclei'' (7) and B.F. Chmelka and J.W. Zwanziger: ''Solid State NMR Line Narrowing Methods for Quadrupolar Nuclei - Double Rotation and Dynamic-Angle Spinning'' (8). A survey of nuclear quadrupole frequency data published before the end of 1982 is given by H. Chihara and N. Nakamura in Landolt-Bornstein, Vol. 20 (9). Values of the chemical shift of quadrupole nuclei in solids can be found in books such as ''Multinuclear NMR'' edited by J. Mason (10). In section 9 of ref (6) some electric field gradient and chemical shift data published from 1983 to 1992 for the most studied quadrupole nuclei sup 27 Al, sup 23 Na, and sup 17 O are given
Summary of static properties of leptons and hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franklin, J.
1989-01-01
The session on Static Properties of Leptons and Hadrons had six talks on baryon magnetic moments (four experimental and two theoretical) and three talks on other topics (g/2 of the electron, g-2 of the muon, and a search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron). I will first give brief summaries of these last three talks and then present an overview of baryon magnetic moments, updated by the results presented at this symposium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steffen, R.M.
1982-10-01
Until June 1982 all muonic x-ray experiments were performed at the Stopped Muon Channel (SMC) in experimental area A of LAMPF. The SMC channel, consisting of 3 bending magnets and 21 quadrupole magnets, is specifically designed for a clean muon beam and incorporates a long path for the decay of the pions. Recently a number of long-time experiments (rare decay modes of the muon, etc.) have been assigned to the SMC and running time for the muonic x-ray experiments has become very precious. For these reasons considerable time was spent in the summer of 1982 to study the feasibility of doing muonic experiments at the abandoned Biomed channel which has been designed for pion-irradiation therapy of cancer patients. Since the length of the Biomed channel is short, the available experimental area is close to the production target, and hence the neutron background in the experimental area is intolerably large (about 50 times larger than in the SMC experimental area). To reduce this background, the muonic x-ray detector and counter telescope arrangement was modified and surrounded by a concrete and steel shielding house of 1.5 feet minimum wall thickness. The dimensions of the house were 10' x 14' x 6' (H). The background was thus reduced to an acceptable level, even though the signal-to-noise ratio is still twice as large as in the SMC. Nevertheless, the Biomed channel is now usable for Muonic x-ray experiments that do not involve the observation of muonic x-rays of less than 0.5 MeV energy. The muonic x-ray experiments on 233 U described in this Progress Report have been performed at the Biomed channel
Quadrupole interaction in zinc metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vetterling, W.T.; Pound, R.V.
1977-01-01
To allow measurement of the quadrupole interaction in zinc metal, the enriched ZnO was reduced to zinc metal powder and compressed into a pill of thickness 1.4 gm/cm 2 . Sources were made by diffusing 20 mCi of 67 Ga into sintered copper pills. The transducer was based on a cylinder of PZT-4 with 1 / 2 -inch length and could cover linearly a velocity range of +-100 μ/s at 200 Hz. The multiscalar was a modified Northern model NS600, with a minimum dwell time of 20 μs, and with a 10-count buffer at the input to eliminate deadtime from memory cycling
Nuclear quadrupole deformations and anisotropic angular correlations between K x rays and gamma rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, A.E.
1983-01-01
Anisotropic angular correlation between gamma rays and the K x rays following the K conversion from nuclei with large static deformations has been studied. A complete theoretical expression for 181 Ta, the second known case of this phenomenon, is presented. This case involves several mixed nuclear transitions which result in 62% of the x rays arising from magnetic dipole internal-conversion processes and 38% arising from electric-quadrupole internal-conversion processes
A quantized microwave quadrupole insulator with topologically protected corner states
Peterson, Christopher W.; Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Hughes, Taylor L.; Bahl, Gaurav
2018-03-01
The theory of electric polarization in crystals defines the dipole moment of an insulator in terms of a Berry phase (geometric phase) associated with its electronic ground state. This concept not only solves the long-standing puzzle of how to calculate dipole moments in crystals, but also explains topological band structures in insulators and superconductors, including the quantum anomalous Hall insulator and the quantum spin Hall insulator, as well as quantized adiabatic pumping processes. A recent theoretical study has extended the Berry phase framework to also account for higher electric multipole moments, revealing the existence of higher-order topological phases that have not previously been observed. Here we demonstrate experimentally a member of this predicted class of materials—a quantized quadrupole topological insulator—produced using a gigahertz-frequency reconfigurable microwave circuit. We confirm the non-trivial topological phase using spectroscopic measurements and by identifying corner states that result from the bulk topology. In addition, we test the critical prediction that these corner states are protected by the topology of the bulk, and are not due to surface artefacts, by deforming the edges of the crystal lattice from the topological to the trivial regime. Our results provide conclusive evidence of a unique form of robustness against disorder and deformation, which is characteristic of higher-order topological insulators.
Marciano, William J
2010-01-01
This book provides a self-contained description of the measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and muon, along with a discussion of the measurements of the fine structure constant, and the theory associated with magnetic and electric dipole moments. Also included are the searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron, muon, neutron and atomic nuclei. The related topic of the transition moment for lepton flavor violating processes, such as neutrinoless muon or tauon decays, and the search for such processes are included as well. The papers, written by many o
Effect on the variation of the moment of inertia in band K=1/2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yanxin; Yu Shaoying; Inner Mongolia Univ. for Nationalities, Tongliao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
2004-01-01
The effect on the variation of the moment of inertia in band 171 Yb[521]1/2 is investigated using the particle number conserving (PNC) method for treating the cranked shell model with monopole and Y 20 quadrupole pairing interactions. The experimental moments of inertia of 171 Yb[521]1/2 (signature α=±1/2) and the blocking effect of proton are reproduced well by the PNC calculation, in which no free parameter is involved. (authors)
On the multipole moments of charge distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khare, P.L.
1977-01-01
There are two different standard methods for showing the equivalence of a charge distribution in a small volume tau surrounding a point O, to the superposition of a monopole, a dipole, a quadrupole and poles of higher moments at the point O: (a) to show that the electrostatic potential due to the charge distribution at an outside point is the same as due to these superposed multipoles (including a monopole). (b) to show that the energy of interaction of an external field with the charge distribution is the same as with the superposed equivalent monopole and multipoles. Neither of these methods gives a physical picture of the equivalence of a charge distribution to the superposition of different multipoles. An attempt is made to interpret in physical terms the emergence of the multipoles of different order, that are equivalent to a charge distribution and to show that the magnitudes of the moments of these multipoles are in agreement with the results of both the approaches (a) and (b). This physical interpretation also helps to understand, in a simple manner, some of the wellknown properties of the multipole moments of atoms and nuclei. (K.B.)
Electric dipole moments reconsidered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rupertsberger, H.
1989-01-01
The electric dipole moments of elementary particles, atoms, molecules and their connection to the electric susceptibility are discussed for stationary states. Assuming rotational invariance it is emphasized that for such states only in the case of a parity and time reversal violating interaction the considered particles can obtain a nonvanishing expectation value for the electric dipole moment. 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun
2012-01-01
We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose second...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-03-29
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-01-01
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments
Eight piece quadrupole magnet, method for aligning quadrupole magent pole tips
Jaski, Mark S.; Liu, Jie; Donnelly, Aric T.; Downey, Joshua S.; Nudell, Jeremy J.; Jain, Animesh
2018-01-30
The invention provides an alternative to the standard 2-piece or 4-piece quadrupole. For example, an 8-piece and a 10-piece quadrupole are provided whereby the tips of each pole may be adjustable. Also provided is a method for producing a quadrupole using standard machining techniques but which results in a final tolerance accuracy of the resulting construct which is better than that obtained using standard machining techniques.
Schmüdgen, Konrad
2017-01-01
This advanced textbook provides a comprehensive and unified account of the moment problem. It covers the classical one-dimensional theory and its multidimensional generalization, including modern methods and recent developments. In both the one-dimensional and multidimensional cases, the full and truncated moment problems are carefully treated separately. Fundamental concepts, results and methods are developed in detail and accompanied by numerous examples and exercises. Particular attention is given to powerful modern techniques such as real algebraic geometry and Hilbert space operators. A wide range of important aspects are covered, including the Nevanlinna parametrization for indeterminate moment problems, canonical and principal measures for truncated moment problems, the interplay between Positivstellensätze and moment problems on semi-algebraic sets, the fibre theorem, multidimensional determinacy theory, operator-theoretic approaches, and the existence theory and important special topics of multidime...
Multipole moments of water molecules in clusters and ice Ih from first principles calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batista, E.R.; Xantheas, S.S.; Jonsson, H.
1999-01-01
We have calculated molecular multipole moments for water molecules in clusters and in ice Ih by partitioning the charge density obtained from first principles calculations. Various schemes for dividing the electronic charge density among the water molecules were used. They include Bader close-quote s zero flux surfaces and Voronoi partitioning schemes. A comparison was also made with an induction model including dipole, dipole-quadrupole, quadrupole-quadrupole polarizability and first hyperpolarizability as well as fixed octopole and hexadecapole moments. We have found that the different density partitioning schemes lead to widely different values for the molecular multipoles, illustrating how poorly defined molecular multipoles are in clusters and condensed environments. For instance, the magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in ice Ih ranges between 2.3 D and 3.1 D depending on the partitioning scheme used. Within each scheme, though, the value for the molecular dipole moment in ice is larger than in the hexamer. The magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in the clusters shows a monotonic increase from the gas phase value to the one in ice Ih, with the molecular dipole moment in the water ring hexamer being smaller than the one in ice Ih for all the partitioning schemes used. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.
Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G
2014-08-01
We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.
Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.
2014-01-01
We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components
Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)
2014-08-15
We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.
AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends
CERN PhotoLab
1981-01-01
Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.
Superfluid quenching of the moment of inertia in a strongly interacting Fermi gas
Riedl, S.; Sánchez Guajardo, E. R.; Kohstall, C.; Hecker Denschlag, J.; Grimm, R.
2011-03-01
We report on the observation of a quenched moment of inertia resulting from superfluidity in a strongly interacting Fermi gas. Our method is based on setting the hydrodynamic gas in slow rotation and determining its angular momentum by detecting the precession of a radial quadrupole excitation. The measurements distinguish between the superfluid and collisional origins of hydrodynamic behavior, and show the phase transition.
Laser measurements of radii and moments of barium nuclei near the proton drip line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eastham; Smith, J.R.H.; Groves, J.
1987-01-01
A new technique of laser spectroscopy has been used to measure the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moment of /sup 121/Ba, and the r.m.s. charge radii of /sup 120,121/Ba. The results are discussed in terms of the unified model
Nuclei quadrupole coupling constants in diatomic molecule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, A.I.; Rebane, T.K.
1993-01-01
An approximate relationship between the constants of quadrupole interaction of nuclei in a two-atom molecule is found. It enabled to establish proportionality of oscillatory-rotation corrections to these constants for both nuclei in the molecule. Similar results were obtained for the factors of electrical dipole-quadrupole screening of nuclei. Applicability of these relationships is proven by the example of lithium deuteride molecule. 4 refs., 1 tab
AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand
CERN PhotoLab
1981-01-01
Please look up 8101024 first. Shims and washers on the wide quadrupoles (QFW, QDW; located in the lattice where dispersion was large) served mostly for corrections of those lattice parameters which were a function of momentum. After mounting shims and washers, the quadrupoles were measured to determine their magnetic centre and to catalogue the effect of washer constellations. Raymond Brown is busy measuring a wide quad.
Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.
1988-10-01
A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs
Fluxonium-Based Artificial Molecule with a Tunable Magnetic Moment
Kou, A.; Smith, W. C.; Vool, U.; Brierley, R. T.; Meier, H.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Glazman, L. I.; Devoret, M. H.
2017-07-01
Engineered quantum systems allow us to observe phenomena that are not easily accessible naturally. The LEGO®-like nature of superconducting circuits makes them particularly suited for building and coupling artificial atoms. Here, we introduce an artificial molecule, composed of two strongly coupled fluxonium atoms, which possesses a tunable magnetic moment. Using an applied external flux, one can tune the molecule between two regimes: one in which the ground-excited state manifold has a magnetic dipole moment and one in which the ground-excited state manifold has only a magnetic quadrupole moment. By varying the applied external flux, we find the coherence of the molecule to be limited by local flux noise. The ability to engineer and control artificial molecules paves the way for building more complex circuits for quantum simulation and protected qubits.
Spins, moments and charge radii beyond $^{48}$Ca
Neyens, G; Rajabali, M M; Hammen, M; Blaum, K; Froemmgen, N E; Garcia ruiz, R F; Kreim, K D; Budincevic, I
Laser spectroscopy of $^{49-54}$Ca is proposed as a continuation of the experimental theme initiated with IS484 “Ground-state properties of K-isotopes from laser and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy” and expanded in INTC-I-117 “Moments, Spins and Charge Radii Beyond $^{48}$Ca.” It is anticipated that the charge radii of these isotopes can show strong evidence for the existence of a sub-shell closure at N=32 and could provide a first tentative investigation into the existence of a shell effect at N=34. Furthermore the proposed experiments will simultaneously provide model-independent measurements of the spins, magnetic moments and quadrupole moments of $^{51,53}$Ca permitting existing and future excitation spectra to be pinned to firm unambiguous ground states.
Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH
2014-01-01
Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.
Particle electric dipole moments
Pendlebury, J M
2000-01-01
Measurements of particle electric dipole moments (EDMs) continue to put powerful constraints on theories of T-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, which form currently one of the most prominent fields in particle physics. EDM measurements have been concentrated on neutral systems such as the neutron and atoms and molecules. These measurements allow one to deduce, in turn, the electric dipole moments of the fundamental fermions, that is, the lighter leptons and quarks and also those of some heavy nuclei.
Theory of enhanced second-harmonic generation by the quadrupole-dipole hybrid exciton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roslyak, Oleksiy; Birman, Joseph L
2008-01-01
We report calculated substantial enhancement of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) in cuprous oxide crystals, resonantly hybridized with an appropriate organic material (DCM2:CA:PS 'solid state solvent'). The quadrupole origin of the inorganic part of the quadrupole-dipole hybrid provides inversion symmetry breaking and the organic part contributes to the oscillator strength of the hybrid. We show that the enhancement of the SHG, compared to the bulk cuprous oxide crystal, is proportional to the ratio of the DCM2 dipole moment and the effective dipole moment of the quadrupole transitions in the cuprous oxide. It is also inversely proportional to the line-width of the hybrid and bulk excitons. The enhancement may be regulated by adjusting the organic blend (mutual concentration of the DCM2 and CA part of the solvent) and pumping conditions (varying the angle of incidence in the case of optical pumping or populating the minimum of the lower branch of the hybrid in the case of electrical pumping)
SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rainer Meinke Carl Goodzeit Penny Ball Roger Bangerter
2003-01-01
The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of loW--cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet RandD construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed
SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rainer Meinke
2003-10-01
The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed
A new online database of nuclear electromagnetic moments
Mertzimekis, Theo J.
2017-09-01
Nuclear electromagnetic (EM) moments, i.e., the magnetic dipole and the electric quadrupole moments, provide important information of nuclear structure. As in other types of experimental data available to the community, measurements of nuclear EM moments have been organized systematically in compilations since the dawn of nuclear science. However, the wealth of recent moments measurements with radioactive beams, as well as earlier existing measurements, lack an online, easy-to-access, systematically organized presence to disseminate information to researchers. In addition, available printed compilations suffer a rather long life cycle, being left behind experimental measurements published in journals or elsewhere. A new, online database (http://magneticmoments.info) focusing on nuclear EM moments has been recently developed to disseminate experimental data to the community. The database includes non-evaluated experimental data of nuclear EM moments, giving strong emphasis on frequent updates (life cycle is 3 months) and direct connection to the sources via DOI and NSR hyperlinks. It has been recently integrated in IAEA LiveChart [1], but can also be found as a standalone webapp [2]. A detailed review of the database features, as well as plans for further development and expansion in the near future is discussed.
Boson models of quadrupole collective motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelevinskij, V.G.
1985-01-01
The subject of the lecture is the low-lying excitations of even-even (e-e) spherical nuclei. The predominant role of the quadrupole mode, which determines the structure of spectra and transitions, is obvious on the background of shell periodicity and pair correlations. Typical E2-transitions are strengthened Ω ∼ A 2/3 times in comparison with single particle evaluations. Together with the regularity of the whole picture it gives evidence about collectivization of quadrupole motion. The collective states are combined in bands, where the transition probability are especially great; frequencies ω of the strengthened transitions are small in comparison with pair separation energies of 2 E-bar ∼ 2 MeV. Thus, the description of low-lying excitations of spherical nuclei has to be based on three principles: collectivity (Ω >> 1), adiabaticity (τ ≡ ω/2E-bar << 1) and quadrupole symmetry
Magnetic Measurement Results of the LCLS Undulator Quadrupoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, Scott; Caban, Keith; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reese, Ed; Wolf, Zachary; /SLAC
2011-08-18
This note details the magnetic measurements and the magnetic center fiducializations that were performed on all of the thirty-six LCLS undulator quadrupoles. Temperature rise, standardization reproducibility, vacuum chamber effects and magnetic center reproducibility measurements are also presented. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator beam line has 33 girders, each with a LCLS undulator quadrupole which focuses and steers the beam through the beam line. Each quadrupole has main quadrupole coils, as well as separate horizontal and vertical trim coils. Thirty-six quadrupoles, thirty-three installed and three spares were, manufactured for the LCLS undulator system and all were measured to confirm that they met requirement specifications for integrated gradient, harmonics and for magnetic center shifts after current changes. The horizontal and vertical dipole trims of each quadrupole were similarly characterized. Each quadrupole was also fiducialized to its magnetic center. All characterizing measurements on the undulator quads were performed with their mirror plates on and after a standardization of three cycles from -6 to +6 to -6 amps. Since the undulator quadrupoles could be used as a focusing or defocusing magnet depending on their location, all quadrupoles were characterized as focusing and as defocusing quadrupoles. A subset of the undulator quadrupoles were used to verify that the undulator quadrupole design met specifications for temperature rise, standardization reproducibility and magnetic center reproducibility after splitting. The effects of the mirror plates on the undulator quadrupoles were also measured.
Spins, moments and radii of Cd isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammen, Michael
2013-01-01
, the electric quadrupole moments, spins and changes in mean square charge radii are extracted. The obtained data reveal among other features an extremely linear behaviour of the quadrupole moments of the I=11/2 - isomeric states and a parabolic development in differences in mean square nuclear charge radii between ground and isomeric state. The development of charge radii between the shell closures is smooth, exposes a regular odd-even staggering and can be described and interpreted in the model of Zamick and Thalmi.
Spins, moments and radii of Cd isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammen, Michael
2013-10-30
recorded and the magnetic dipole moments, the electric quadrupole moments, spins and changes in mean square charge radii are extracted. The obtained data reveal among other features an extremely linear behaviour of the quadrupole moments of the I=11/2{sup -} isomeric states and a parabolic development in differences in mean square nuclear charge radii between ground and isomeric state. The development of charge radii between the shell closures is smooth, exposes a regular odd-even staggering and can be described and interpreted in the model of Zamick and Thalmi.
Tunable high-gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles
Shepherd, B J A; Marks, N; Collomb, N A; Stokes, D G; Modena, M; Struik, M; Bartalesi, A
2014-01-01
A novel type of highly tunable permanent magnet (PM) based quadrupole has been designed by the ZEPTO collaboration. A prototype of the design (ZEPTO-Q1), intended to match the specification for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator, was built and magnetically measured at Daresbury Laboratory and CERN. The prototype utilises two pairs of PMs which move in opposite directions along a single vertical axis to produce a quadrupole gradient variable between 15 and 60 T/m. The prototype meets CLIC's challenging specification in terms of the strength and tunability of the magnet.
SKEW QUADRUPOLE FOCUSING LATTICES AND APPLICATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, B.
2001-01-01
In this paper we revisit using skew quadrupole fields in place of traditional normal upright quadrupole fields to make beam focusing structures. We illustrate by example skew lattice decoupling, dispersion suppression and chromatic correction using the neutrino factory Study-II muon storage ring design. Ongoing BNL investigation of flat coil magnet structures that allow building a very compact muon storage ring arc and other flat coil configurations that might bring significant magnet cost reduction to a VLHC motivate our study of skew focusing
The Nuclear Scissors Mode by Two Approaches (Wigner Function Moments Versus RPA)
Balbutsev, E B
2004-01-01
Two complementary methods to describe the collective motion, RPA and Wigner Function Moments (WFM) method, are compared on an example of a simple model - harmonic oscillator with quadrupole-quadrupole residual interaction. It is shown that they give identical formulae for eigenfrequencies and transition probabilities of all collective excitations of the model including the scissors mode, which is a subject of our especial attention. The normalization factor of the "synthetic" scissors state and its overlap with physical states are calculated analytically. The orthogonality of the spurious state to all physical states is proved rigorously.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanks, T.C.; Kanamori, H.
1979-05-10
The nearly conincident forms of the relations between seismic moment M/sub o/ and the magnitudes M/sub L/, M/sub s/, and M/sub w/ imply a moment magnitude scale M=2/3 log M/sub o/-10.7 which is uniformly valid for 3< or approx. =M/sub L/< or approx. = 7, 5 < or approx. =M/sub s/< or approx. =7 1/2 and M/sub w/> or approx. = 7 1/2.
Ion-storage in radiofrequency electric quadrupole field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gheorghe, V.
1976-01-01
The confinement of charged particles in a quadrupole radiofrequency electric field are presented. The stability diagrams and phase space trajectories for the quadrupole mass spectrometer and for the ion trap are represented and their main characteristics are discussed. (author)
Static electromagnetic frequency changers
Rozhanskii, L L
1963-01-01
Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work
Spins, Electromagnetic Moments, and Isomers of 107-129Cd
Yordanov, D T; Bieron, J; Bissell, M L; Blaum, K; Budincevic, I; Fritzsche, S; Frommgen, N; Georgiev, G; Geppert, Ch; Hammen, M; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Krieger, A; Neugart, R; Nortershauser, W; Papuga, J; Schmidt, S
2013-01-01
The neutron-rich isotopes of cadmium up to the N=82 shell closure have been investigated by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Deep-UV excitation at 214.5 nm and radioactive-beam bunching provided the required experimental sensitivity. Long-lived isomers are observed in 127Cd and 129Cd for the first time. One essential feature of the spherical shell model is unambiguously confirmed by a linear increase of the 11/2- quadrupole moments. Remarkably, this mechanism is found to act well beyond the h11/2 shell.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oku, Takayuki
2009-01-01
We have investigated suitable magnetic field distribution to polarize neutrons based only on the electromagnetic interaction between a neutron magnetic moment and magnetic field, and found out a quadrupole field was the most suitable among simple multipole fields. Then we constructed a quadrupole magnet with a Halbach magnetic circuit as the neutron polarizing device. A cold neutron polarizing experiment of the quadrupole magnet was performed at the beamline C3-1-2-1 (NOP) of JRR-3 at JAEA. By passing through the aperture of the quadrupole magnet, positive and negative polarity neutrons are accelerated in opposite directions and spatially separated. Therefore, we extracted the one-spin component and analyzed its polarization degree. As a result very high neutron polarization degree P=0.9993±0.0025 was obtained. Then the quadrupole magnet was installed into the polarized neutron focusing geometry SANS instrument SANS-J-II of JRR-3. The instrument performance was enhanced by about 10 times compared with the case with the magnetic supermirror as the neutron polarizing device. The details are shown and discussed. (author)
Rotation Detection Using the Precession of Molecular Electric Dipole Moment
Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun
2017-11-01
We present a method to detect the rotation by using the precession of molecular electric dipole moment in a static electric field. The molecular electric dipole moments are polarized under the static electric field and a nonzero electric polarization vector emerges in the molecular gas. A resonant radio-frequency pulse electric field is applied to realize a 90° flip of the electric polarization vector of a particular rotational state. After the pulse electric field, the electric polarization vector precesses under the static electric field. The rotation induces a shift in the precession frequency which is measured to deduce the angular velocity of the rotation. The fundamental sensitivity limit of this method is estimated. This work is only a proposal and does not involve experimental results.
Pieters, Jurgen
2001-01-01
'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Towner, I.S.; Khanna, F.C.
1984-01-01
Consideration of core polarization, isobar currents and meson-exchange processes gives a satisfactory understanding of the ground-state magnetic moments in closed-shell-plus (or minus)-one nuclei, A = 3, 15, 17, 39 and 41. Ever since the earliest days of the nuclear shell model the understanding of magnetic moments of nuclear states of supposedly simple configurations, such as doubly closed LS shells +-1 nucleon, has been a challenge for theorists. The experimental moments, which in most cases are known with extraordinary precision, show a small yet significant departure from the single-particle Schmidt values. The departure, however, is difficult to evaluate precisely since, as will be seen, it results from a sensitive cancellation between several competing corrections each of which can be as large as the observed discrepancy. This, then, is the continuing fascination of magnetic moments. In this contribution, we revisit the subjet principally to identify the role played by isobar currents, which are of much concern at this conference. But in so doing we warn quite strongly of the dangers of considering just isobar currents in isolation; equal consideration must be given to competing processes which in this context are the mundane nuclear structure effects, such as core polarization, and the more popular meson-exchange currents
Higgins, Chris
2014-01-01
In "The Humanist Moment," Chris Higgins sets out to recover a tenable, living humanism, rejecting both the version vilified by the anti-humanists and the one sentimentalized by the reactionary nostalgists. Rescuing humanism from such polemics is only the first step, as we find at least nine rival, contemporary definitions of humanism.…
All systems go for LHC quadrupoles
2003-01-01
The series fabrication of the Main Quadrupole cold masses for the LHC has begun with the delivery of the first unit on February 12th. The superconducting dipole magnets required to bend the proton beams around the LHC are often in the news. Less famous, perhaps, but equally important are the 360 main quadrupole (MQ) magnets, which will perform the principal focusing around the 27 km ring. CERN and CEA-Saclay began collaborating on the development and prototyping of these magnets in 1989. This resulted in five highly successful quadrupole units - also known as short straight sections - one of which was integrated for testing in String 1, and two others of the final design in String 2. Once the tests had confirmed the validity of the design and realization, the fabrication of the 360 cold masses had to be transferred to industry. After highly competitive tendering, the German firm ACCEL Instruments was entrusted both with the construction of the quadrupole magnets themselves, and with their assembly into the co...
Collective Quadrupole Excitations of Transactinide Nuclei
Zajac, K; Pomorski, K; Rohozinski, S G; Srebrny, J
2003-01-01
The quadrupole excitations of transuranic nuclei are described in the frame of the microscopic Bohr Hamiltonian modified by adding the coupling with the collective pairing vibrations. The energies of the states from the ground-state bands in U to No even-even isotopes as well as the B(E2) transition probabilities are reproduced within the model containing no adjustable parameters.
Model of an LHC superconducting quadrupole magnet
Laurent Guiraud
2000-01-01
Model of a superconducting quadrupole magnet for the LHC project. These magnets are used to focus the beam by squeezing it into a smaller cross-section, a similar effect to a lens focusing light. However, each magnet only focuses the beam in one direction so alternating magnet arrangements are required to produce a fully focused beam.
AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand
CERN PhotoLab
1981-01-01
Please look up 8101024 and 8103203 first. Wide quadrupole (QFW, QDW) with end-shims and shimming washers on the measurement stand. With the measurement coil one measured the harmonics of the magnetic field, determined the magnetic centre, and catalogued the effect of washer constellations.
FACET Tolerances for Static and Dynamic Misalignments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Federico, Joel
2012-07-13
The Facility for AdvancedAccelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is designed to deliver a beam with a transverse spot size on the order of 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m in a new beamline constructed at the two kilometer point of the SLAC linac. Commissioning the beamline requires mitigating alignment errors and their effects, which can be significant and result in spot sizes orders of magnitude larger. Sextupole and quadrupole alignment errors in particular can introduce errors in focusing, steering, and dispersion which can result in spot size growth, beta mismatch, and waist movement. Alignment errors due to static misalignments, mechanical jitter, energy jitter, and other physical processes can be analyzed to determine the level of accuracy and precision that the beamline requires. It is important to recognize these effects and their tolerances in order to deliver a beam as designed.
Nonadiabatic production of spinor condensates with a quadrupole-Ioffe-configuration trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, P.; Xu, Z.; You, L.
2006-01-01
Motivated by the recent experimental observation of multicomponent spinor condensates via a time-dependent quadrupole-Ioffe-configuration trap, we provide a general framework for the investigation of nonadiabatic Landau-Zener dynamics of a hyperfine spin, e.g., from an atomic magnetic dipole moment coupled to a weak time-dependent magnetic (B-) field. The spin flipped population distribution, or the so-called Majorona formula, is expressed in terms of system parameters and experimental observables; thus, the distribution provides much needed insight into the underlying mechanism for the production of spinor condensates due to nonadiabatic level crossings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreiner, A.J.; Castell, W.; Di Paolo, H.; Baldo, M.; Bergueiro, J.
2011-01-01
We describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction. The machine currently being constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 0.6 MV. We report here on the progress achieved in a number of different areas.
Kreiner, A J; Castell, W; Di Paolo, H; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J; Burlon, A A; Cartelli, D; Vento, V Thatar; Kesque, J M; Erhardt, J; Ilardo, J C; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Sandin, J C Suarez; Igarzabal, M; Huck, H; Estrada, L; Repetto, M; Obligado, M; Padulo, J; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M; Gonzalez, S J; Capoulat, M E
2011-12-01
We describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction. The machine currently being constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 0.6 MV. We report here on the progress achieved in a number of different areas. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Distorted black holes in terms of multipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suen, W.
1986-01-01
In terms of a multipole-moment formalism previously developed for non-asymptotically-flat systems in general relativity, the metric of a Schwarzschild black hole in an external quadrupolar gravitational field is studied. Among other results, we find that the black hole develops an induced quadrupole moment, which in turn generates a tidal field opposing the applied field. This effect, plus the fact that the horizon cannot expand when a quasistatic tidal force is applied, can be described in terms of effective 2-dimensional elastic moduli for the black-hole horizon. The bulk modulus is kappa = ∞, and the shear modulus is mu = -63/(20πM), where M is the hole's mass
Measurement of nuclear moments and radii by collinear laser spectroscopy
Geithner, W R; Lievens, P; Kotrotsios, G; Silverans, R; Kappertz, S
2002-01-01
%IS304 %title\\\\ \\\\Collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam has proven to be a widely applicable and very efficient tool for measurements of changes in mean square nuclear charge radii, nuclear spins, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Recent developments of extremely sensitive non-optical detection schemes enabled for some elements the extension of the measurements towards the very short-lived isotopes in the far wings of the ISOLDE production curves. The gain in sensitivity opens up new perspectives, particularly for measurements on lighter nuclei whose ground-state properties can be interpreted by large scale microscopic calculations instead of the more phenomenologic models used for heavier nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ For the sequence of argon isotopes $^{32-40}$Ar and $^{46}$Ar isotope shifts and nuclear moments were measured by optical pumping followed by state selective collisional ionization and detection of the $\\beta$-decay. Similarly, the low-background $\\alpha$-detection was used to extend earlie...
Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, A.S.
1984-01-01
The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged
Redefining the political moment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Arvanitakis
2011-07-01
Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan
2004-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 10 (2004), s. 1364-1367 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : projective transform * moment invariants * object recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.352, year: 2004 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20040112.pdf
Quadrupole moments of high spin states in the trans lead region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neyens, G.; Hardeman, F.; Nouwen, R.; S'heeren, G.; Van Den Bergh, M.; Cousement, R.
1990-01-01
The last few years, a lot of attention has been paid to the trans lead region. A reason for this has to be found in the fact that 208 Pb is a double magic core: both its proton and neutron shell are closed. This means that all nuclei in the lead region can be described well by the shell model, using a spherical 208 Pb core (spherical symmetric potential) and some valence particles or holes around it. The question is whether this model is also correct for high spin states. In this region, isomers with high angular momenta can only be created by alignment of all the spins of the valence particles and holes. And in some cases, alignment is not enough: core excitations are necessary to build up the large spin value of the isomeric state (e.g. the 63/2-isomer in 211 Rn. This means that a neutron pair from the closed N = 126 shell is broken up and one or both neutrons are excited to a level with higher energy and spin. The alignment of the valence-particle-spins causes an increase of the interactions between the valence particles (holes) on one hand, and between the valence particles (holes) and the hard core on the other hand. The latter interaction can cause a deformation of the core. The two interactions are taken into account in two different models: The SERI model (Spherical shell model with Empirical Residual Interactions) and the DIPM (Deformed Independent Particle Model). This paper reports that the effect of alignment of the spins of the valence particles in an isomeric state has been taken into account in the shell model by using residual interactions between the valence particles. These interactions are introduced in the theory in an empirical way or are calculated. Another model, the DIPM, takes into account the effect of alignment in a natural way: it starts from a deformed core (e.g. an axial symmetric potential) in which the valence particles are moving independently from each other)
Quadrupole moments of low-lying baryons with spin- , spin- , and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-02-03
Feb 3, 2013 ... boson (GB), successfully explains the 'proton spin crisis' [26], hyperon β decay parame- ters [27], strangeness content in the nucleon [28], and in the N ...... ment of India (SR/S2/HEP-0028/2008) and Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India (2010/37P/48/BRNS/1445). References. [1] R G Sachs ...
Quadrupole to BPM offset determination in Indus-2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jena, Saroj; Ghodke, A.D.; Singh, G.
2009-01-01
A feasibility of finding the quadrupole to BPM offset using beam based alignment (BBA) technique in Indus-2 has been studied. The measurements of the offsets between BPM and quadrupoles could be performed by using quadratic fitting for the minima of the orbit response w. r. t. changes in the quadrupole strengths. These offsets will be integrated to the orbit data during closed orbit correction. There are 72 quadrupoles and 56 BPMs in Indus-2. However the assessment of Quad-BPM offsets is not feasible in some cases due to non-availability of BPM adjacent to quadrupole and also in some cases because of a large phase advance between quadrupole and nearby BPM. Here single corrector method is used to obtain these offsets and assumed the current of each quadrupole can be varied independently. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed in MATLAB for the use of BBA in Indus-2. (author)
Rectifier cabinet static breaker
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costantino, R.A. Jr; Gliebe, R.J.
1992-01-01
A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload. 7 figs
Rectifier cabinet static breaker
Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.
1992-09-01
A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.
Heavy quark and magnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mubarak, Ahmad; Jallu, M.S.
1979-01-01
The magnetic moments and transition moments of heavy hadrons including the conventional particles are obtained under the SU(5) truth symmetry scheme. To this end state vectors are defined and the quark additivity principle is taken into account. (author)
Moment methods for nonlinear maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pusch, G.D.; Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON
1993-01-01
It is shown that Differential Algebra (DA) may be used to push moments of distributions through a map, at a computational cost per moment comparable to pushing a single particle. The algorithm is independent of order, and whether or not the map is symplectic. Starting from the known result that moment-vectors transform linearly - like a tensor - even under a nonlinear map, I suggest that the form of the moment transformation rule indicates that the moment-vectors are elements of the dual to DA-vector space. I propose several methods of manipulating moments and constructing invariants using DA. I close with speculations on how DA might be used to ''close the circle'' to solve the inverse moment problem, yielding an entirely DA-and-moment-based space-charge code. (Author)
Quadrupole deformed and octupole collective bands in 228Ra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulda, K.; Aas, A.J.
1998-01-01
Spins and parities for collective states in 228 Ra have been determined from conversion electron measurements with a mini-orange β spectrometer. The fast-timing βγγ(t) method has been used to measure lifetimes of T 1/2 =550(20) ps and 181(3) ps for the 2 + 1 and 4 + 1 members of the K=0 + band, and T 1/2 ≤7 ps and ≤6 ps for the 1 - 1 and 3 - 1 members of the K=0 - band, respectively. The quadrupole moments, Q 0 , deduced from the B(E2; 2 + 1 →0 + 1 ) and B(E2; 4 + 1 →2 + 1 ) rates are in good agreement with the previously measured value and the systematics of the region. However, the B(E1) rates of ≥4 x 10 -4 e 2 fm 2 , which represent the first B(E1) measurements for this nucleus, are at least 25 times larger than the value previously suggested for 228 Ra. The new results are consistent with the B(E1) rates recently measured for the neighbouring 227 Ra and reveal octupole correlations in 228 Ra. (orig.)
Statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials
Kruyt, Nicolaas P.
2003-01-01
A theoretical framework is presented for the statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials. In analogy to the force and moment equilibrium equations for particles, compatibility equations for closed loops are formulated in the two-dimensional case for relative displacements and
LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.
2008-01-01
A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb 3 Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb 3 Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure
LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Fermilab; Brookhaven; LBL, Berkeley; Texas A-M
2007-01-01
A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb3Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb3Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure
LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.
2007-01-01
A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb 3 Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb 3 Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure
The LHC Main Quadrupoles during Series Fabrication
Tortschanoff, Theodor; Durante, M; Hagen, P; Klein, U; Krischel, D; Payn, A; Rossi, L; Schellong, B; Schmidt, P; Simon, F; Schirm, K-M; Todesco, E
2006-01-01
By the end of August 2005 about 320 of the 400 main LHC quadrupole magnets have been fabricated and about 220 of them assembled into their cold masses, together with corrector magnets. About 130 of them have been cold tested in their cryostats and most of the quadrupoles exceeded their nominal excitation, i.e. 12,000 A, after no more than two training quenches. During this series fabrication, the quality of the magnets and cold masses was thoroughly monitored by means of warm magnetic field measurements, of strict geometrical checking, and of various electrical verifications. A number of modifications were introduced in order to improve the magnet fabrication, mainly correction of the coil geometry for achieving the specified field quality and measures for avoiding coil insulation problems. Further changes concern the electrical connectivity and insulation of instrumentation, and of the corrector magnets inside the cold masses. The contact resistances for the bus-bar connections to the quench protection diode...
Quadrupole collective excitations in rapidly rotating nuclej
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhajlov, I.N.
1983-01-01
The spectrum of collective quadrupole excitations in nuclei is investigated. The average nucleus field has the axial symmetry and rotation occurs relatively to this axis. Dependences of the spectrum of quadrupole oscillations on rotation rate for classic liquid drop (CLD) and for a drop of fermi-liquid (DFL) with fissionability parameter X=0.62 ( 154 Er) are presented. The dependence of probabilities of E2-transitions between single-phonon and phonon-free states on rotation rate for CLD and DFL with fussionability parameter X=0.62 ( 154 Er) is also presented. It is shown that for CLD collective E2-transition of states of yrast-consequence is absolutely forbidden. For DFL transitions are possible that lead to decay of phonon-free state with the excitation of phonons of γ-modes and decrease of angular momentum
Contamination measurements with quadrupole mass spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohatka, S.; Berecz, I.; Langer, G.
1981-01-01
A sensitive quadrupole mass spectrometer of our own construction was used for different purity measurements. The analysis of gases in operating rooms showed a 1 ppm-10 5 ppm concentration of narcotics and helped to develop an effective and cheap method for regenerating narcotic filters. We regularly control the gases used in radioactive pollution measurements by internal GM counters and in radiocarbon dating technique. Combustion products and the gases of a fermenter are investigated for industrial application. (orig.) [de
Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.
1987-01-01
The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance
On the theory of nuclear quadrupole oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrosimov, V.I.; Strutinskij, V.M.
1978-01-01
Presented is a deduction and a convinient writing form of the secular equation for nuclear quadrupole oscillations. The deduction is consistent with usual random phase approximation. It is regarded that the oscillations of the nuclear average potential are adiabatic with respect to formation of the Cooper pairs and the collective motion arises as a result of the coherent distortion of the quasiparticle wave functions. The energy gap changes are also taken into account
15 T And Beyond - Dipoles and Quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabbi, GianLuca
2008-01-01
Starting with the invention of the cyclotron by Lawrence, accelerator-based experiments have been the primary source of new discoveries in particle physics. In order to progress toward higher energy and luminosity, higher field magnets are required. R and D programs are underway to take advantage of new developments in superconducting materials, achieve better efficiency and simplify magnet fabrication while preserving accelerator-class field quality. A review of recent progress on high field dipole and quadrupole magnets is presented.
Hydrogen isotope analysis by quadrupole mass spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellefson, R.E.; Moddeman, W.E.; Dylla, H.F.
1981-03-01
The analysis of isotopes of hydrogen (H, D, T) and helium ( 3 He, 4 He) and selected impurities using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been investigated as a method of measuring the purity of tritium gas for injection into the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A QMS was used at low resolution, m/Δm 3 He, and 4 He in HT/D 2
Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.
1987-01-01
The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient supperconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance
Emittance measurements by variable quadrupole method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toprek, D.
2005-01-01
The beam emittance is a measure of both the beam size and beam divergence, we cannot directly measure its value. If the beam size is measured at different locations or under different focusing conditions such that different parts of the phase space ellipse will be probed by the beam size monitor, the beam emittance can be determined. An emittance measurement can be performed by different methods. Here we will consider the varying quadrupole setting method.
Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator
Moretti, Alfred
1985-01-01
An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.
Excitation of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogata, H. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Yamagata, T.; Tanaka, M. [and others; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics
1980-01-01
Recent studies on the giant monopole resonance (GMR) and the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) in /sup 144/Sm and /sup 208/Pb using the ..cap alpha..-scattering performed at RCNP are summarized. The observed angular range covered 1.6/sup 0/ -- 7/sup 0/ with a coupled system of a dipole and a triplet quadrupole magnet. The incident energy was changed from 84 to 119 MeV. The resonance shapes and energy-weighted sum-rule strengths of the GMR and the GQR were reliably deduced as a function of incident energy. The quadrupole strength of --20% was found in the GMR region. The observed excitation function of the GMR was compared with the DWBA calculation, in which the Satchler's Version I was used as a form factor representing the compressional motion of the nucleus. It was found that the experimental excitation function of the GMR shows steeper decrease as lowering the incident energy than the DWBA prediction whereas that of the GQR is successfully described by the DWBA. This suggests that examination of the model describing the GMR is necessary.
Paul Callaghan luminous moments
Callaghan, Paul
2013-01-01
Acknowledged internationally for his ground-breaking scientific research in the field of magnetic resonance, Sir Paul Callaghan was a scientist and visionary with a rare gift for promoting science to a wide audience. He was named New Zealander of the Year in 2011. His death in early 2012 robbed New Zealand of an inspirational leader. Paul Callaghan: Luminous Moments brings together some of his most significant writing. Whether he describes his childhood in Wanganui, reflects on discovering the beauty of science, sets out New Zealand's future potential or discusses the experience of fa
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mischke, R.E.
2003-01-01
The status of experiments to measure the electric dipole moment of the neutron is presented and the planned experiment at Los Alamos is described. The goal of this experiment is an improvement in sensitivity of a factor of 50 to 100 over the current limit. It has the potential to reveal new sources of T and CP violation and to challenge calculations that propose extensions to the Standard Model. The experiment employs several advances in technique to reach its goals and the feasibility of meeting these technical challenges is currently under study
Dynamic interaction between localized magnetic moments in carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, A T; Muniz, R B; Ferreira, M S
2008-01-01
Magnetic moments dilutely dispersed in a metallic host tend to be coupled through the conduction electrons of the metal. This indirect exchange coupling (IEC), known to occur for a variety of magnetic materials embedded in several different metallic structures, is of rather long range, especially for low-dimensional structures like carbon nanotubes. Motivated by recent claims that the indirect coupling between magnetic moments in precessional motion has a much longer range than its static counterpart, we consider here how magnetic atoms adsorbed to the walls of a metallic nanotube respond to a time-dependent perturbation that induces their magnetic moments to precess. By calculating the frequency-dependent spin susceptibility, we are able to identify resonant peaks whose respective widths provide information about the dynamic aspect of the IEC. We show that by departing from a purely static representation to another in which the moments are allowed to precess, we change from what is already considered a long-range interaction to another whose range is far superior. In other words, localized magnetic moments embedded in a metallic structure can feel each other's presence more easily when they are set in precessional motion. We argue that such an effect can have useful applications leading to large-scale spintronics devices
Quadrupole terms in the Maxwell equations: Born energy, partial molar volume, and entropy of ions.
Slavchov, Radomir I; Ivanov, Tzanko I
2014-02-21
A new equation of state relating the macroscopic quadrupole moment density Q to the gradient of the field ∇E in an isotropic fluid is derived: Q = αQ(∇E - U∇·E/3), where the quadrupolarizability αQ is proportional to the squared molecular quadrupole moment. Using this equation of state, a generalized expression for the Born energy of an ion dissolved in quadrupolar solvent is obtained. It turns out that the potential and the energy of a point charge in a quadrupolar medium are finite. From the obtained Born energy, the partial molar volume and the partial molar entropy of a dissolved ion follow. Both are compared to experimental data for a large number of simple ions in aqueous solutions. From the comparison the value of the quadrupolar length LQ is determined, LQ = (αQ/3ɛ)(1/2) = 1-4 Å. Data for ion transfer from aqueous to polar oil solution are analyzed, which allowed for the determination of the quadrupolarizability of nitrobenzene.
A united phenomenological description of quadrupole excitations in even-even nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipas, P.O.; Haapakoski, P.; Honkaranta, T.
1975-05-01
A phenomenological model is developed for the collective quadrupole properties of all even-even nuclei. Rotational, vibrational, and transitional nuclei are included in the model on an equal footing. A Bohr-type intrinsic Hamiltonian for harmonic quadrupole vibrations about an axially deformed shape is solved exactly. States of good angular momentum are projected out of the intrinsic states, and they are made orthogonal by a Schmidt scheme. The angular-momentum and phonon-number composition of the states is analyzed at various stages; states with K=1 are found spurious. Excitation energies for the ground, β and γ bands are calculated as expectation values of a radically simplified nuclear Hamiltonian in our projected and orthogonalized states. With increasing deformation the calculated energies evolve smoothly from the evenly spaced phonon spectrum to the Bohr-Mottelson rotational-vibrational spectrum according to the scheme of Sheline and Sakai. The basic model contains only two parameters (deformation d and energy scale) to fix the entire quadrupole spectrum of a nucleus. The results are given in the form of graphs suitable for immediate application; numerical results are readily produced by our computer code. The ground bands are fitted comparably to the VMI model, while the β and γ bands are reproduced qualitatively. The nuclei 152 Sm, 152 Gd, and 114 Cd are used as test cases. Quadrupole moments and E2 transition rates are also calculated. Intra-ground-band transition ratios and branching ratios from the β and γ bands are given in terms of the single parameter d. The results are applied to 152 Sm, with fair success. Finally the model to include two more parameters (anisotropy) is extended. The improvement over the basic model is modest in view of added parameters and computational effort. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc eWittmann
2011-10-01
Full Text Available It has been suggested that perception and action can be understood as evolving in temporal epochs or sequential processing units. Successive events are fused into units forming a unitary experience or ‘psychological present’. Studies have identified several temporal integration levels on different time scales which are fundamental for our understanding of behaviour and subjective experience. In recent literature concerning the philosophy and neuroscience of consciousness these separate temporal processing levels are not always precisely distinguished. Therefore, empirical evidence from psychophysics and neuropsychology on these distinct temporal processing levels is presented and discussed within philosophical conceptualizations of time experience. On an elementary level, one can identify a functional moment, a basic temporal building block of perception in the range of milliseconds that defines simultaneity and succession. Below a certain threshold temporal order is not perceived, individual events are processed as co-temporal. On a second level, an experienced moment, which is based on temporal integration of up to a few seconds, has been reported in many qualitatively different experiments in perception and action. It has been suggested that this segmental processing mechanism creates temporal windows that provide a logistical basis for conscious representation and the experience of nowness. On a third level of integration, continuity of experience is enabled by working-memory in the range of multiple seconds allowing the maintenance of cognitive operations and emotional feelings, leading to mental presence, a temporal window of an individual’s experienced presence.
Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations
Kaplan, Daniel
2013-01-01
Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…
Consistent calculation of the polarization electric dipole moment by the shell-correction method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.Yu.
1992-01-01
Macroscopic calculations of the polarization electric dipole moment which arises in nuclei with an octupole deformation are discussed in detail. This dipole moment is shown to depend on the position of the center of gravity. The conditions of consistency of the radii of the proton and neutron potentials and the radii of the proton and neutron surfaces, respectively, are discussed. These conditions must be incorporated in a shell-correction calculation of this dipole moment. A correct calculation of this moment by the shell-correction method is carried out. Dipole transitions between (on the one hand) levels belonging to an octupole vibrational band and (on the other) the ground state in rare-earth nuclei with a large quadrupole deformation are studied. 19 refs., 3 figs
Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K. [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Ruebenbauer, K., E-mail: sfrueben@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, Av. A. Mickiewicza 30, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Górnicki, R. [RENON, ul. Gliniana 15/15, PL-30-732 Kraków (Poland)
2016-07-15
Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in {sup 57}Fe have been collected at room temperature by using {sup 57}Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V{sub zz} = +1.61(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2} for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the {sup 57}Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the {sup 57}Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V{sub zz} = +1.92(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2}. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge
Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K.; Ruebenbauer, K.; Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J.; Górnicki, R.
2016-01-01
Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in "5"7Fe have been collected at room temperature by using "5"7Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V_z_z = +1.61(4) × 10"1"9 Vm"−"2 for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the "5"7Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the "5"7Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V_z_z = +1.92(4) × 10"1"9 Vm"−"2. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge for ab initio calculations
Measurements of the microwave spectrum, Re-H bond length, and Re quadrupole coupling for HRe(CO)5
Kukolich, Stephen G.; Sickafoose, Shane M.
1993-11-01
Rotational transition frequencies for rhenium pentacarbonyl hydride were measured in the 4-10 GHz range using a Flygare-Balle type microwave spectrometer. The rotational constants and Re nuclear quadrupole coupling constants for the four isotopomers, (1) H187Re(CO)5, (2) H185Re(CO)5, (3) D187Re(CO)5, and (4) D185Re(CO)5, were obtained from the spectra. For the most common isotopomer, B(1)=818.5464(2) MHz and eq Q(187Re)=-900.13(3) MHz. The Re-H bond length (r0) determined by fitting the rotational constants is 1.80(1) Å. Although the Re atom is located at a site of near-octahedral symmetry, the quadrupole coupling is large due to the large Re nuclear moments. A 2.7% increase in Re quadrupole coupling was observed for D-substituted isotopomers, giving a rather large isotope effect on the quadrupole coupling. The Cax-Re-Ceq angle is 96(1)°, when all Re-C-O angles are constrained to 180°.
Approximating distributions from moments
Pawula, R. F.
1987-11-01
A method based upon Pearson-type approximations from statistics is developed for approximating a symmetric probability density function from its moments. The extended Fokker-Planck equation for non-Markov processes is shown to be the underlying foundation for the approximations. The approximation is shown to be exact for the beta probability density function. The applicability of the general method is illustrated by numerous pithy examples from linear and nonlinear filtering of both Markov and non-Markov dichotomous noise. New approximations are given for the probability density function in two cases in which exact solutions are unavailable, those of (i) the filter-limiter-filter problem and (ii) second-order Butterworth filtering of the random telegraph signal. The approximate results are compared with previously published Monte Carlo simulations in these two cases.
Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fathizadeh, M.
1995-01-01
This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets
Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric analysis of geochemical samples.
Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Johnson, S. M.
1972-01-01
Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric-analysis techniques can be used to study a wide variety of problems involving decomposition processes and identification of released volatile components. A recording vacuum thermoanalyzer has been coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The rapid scan capabilities of the quadrupole mass spectrometer are used to identify the gaseous components released. The capability of the thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass spectrometer to provide analytical data for identification of the released volatile components, for determination of their sequence of release and for correlation of thermal-decomposition studies is illustrated by an analysis of the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite.
ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng
2013-01-01
Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.
Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas
2013-01-01
Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel
2001-01-01
Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...
Quenching of spin-flip quadrupole transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castel, B.; Blunden, P.; Okuhara, Y.
1985-01-01
An increasing amount of experimental data indicates that spin-flip quadrupole transitions exhibit quenching effects similar to those reported earlier in (p,n) reactions involving l = 0 and l = 1 transitions. We present here two model calculations suggesting that the E2 spin-flip transitions are more affected than their M1 and M3 counterparts by the tensor and spin-orbit components of the nuclear force and should exhibit the largest quenching. We also review the experimental evidence corroborating our observations
Quadrupole interaction studies of Hg in Sb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soares, J.C.; Krien, K.; Herzog, P.; Folle, H.R.; Freitag, K.; Reuschenbach, F.; Reuschenbach, M.; Trzcinski, R.
1978-01-01
Time differential perturbed angular correlation and nuclear orientation studies of the electric quadrupole interaction for Hg in Sb have been performed. The effective field gradients at room temperature and below 0.05K have been derived. These two values are no indication for an anomalous temperature dependence of the effective field gradient for Hg in Sb. The value of the electric field gradient fits well into the systematics for Hg in other hosts. It is shown that the electronic enhancements of the field gradients are correlated to the valence of the impurities and are rather insensitive to the host properties. (orig./HPOE) [de
Fast storage of nuclear quadrupole resonance signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anferov, V.P.; Molchanov, S.V.; Levchun, O.D.
1988-01-01
Fast multichannel storage of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals is described. Analog-to-digital converter, arithmetic-logical unit, internal memory device (IMD) selection-storage unit and control unit are the storage main units. The storage is based on 43 microcircuits and provides for record and storage of NQR-signals at the contributed operation with Mera-60 microcomputer. Time of analog-to-digital conversion and signal recording into IMD is ∼ 1 mks. Capacity of analog-to-digital converter constitutes 8-10 bits. IMD capacity is 4 K bitsx16. Number of storage channels is 4
Moment invariants for particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysenko, W.P.; Overley, M.S.
1988-01-01
The rms emittance is a certain function of second moments in 2-D phase space. It is preserved for linear uncoupled (1-D) motion. In this paper, the authors present new functions of moments that are invariants for coupled motion. These invariants were computed symbolically using a computer algebra system. Possible applications for these invariants are discussed. Also, approximate moment invariants for nonlinear motion are presented
Explosions and static electricity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jonassen, Niels M
1995-01-01
The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel
2001-01-01
Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new co...
Sim, Hasung; Lee, Seongsu; Hong, Kun-Pyo; Jeong, Jaehong; Zhang, J. R.; Kamiyama, T.; Adroja, D. T.; Murray, C. A.; Thompson, S. P.; Iga, F.; Ji, S.; Khomskii, D.; Park, Je-Geun
2016-11-01
Dy B4 has a two-dimensional Shastry-Sutherland (Sh-S) lattice with strong Ising character of the Dy ions. Despite the intrinsic frustrations, it undergoes two successive transitions: a magnetic ordering at TN=20 K and a quadrupole ordering at TQ=12.5 K . From high-resolution neutron and synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction studies, we have obtained full structural information on this material in all phases and demonstrate that structural modifications occurring at quadrupolar transition lead to the lifting of frustrations inherent in the Sh-S model. Our paper thus provides a complete experimental picture of how the intrinsic frustration of the Sh-S lattice can be lifted by the coupling to quadrupole moments. We show that two other factors, i.e., strong spin-orbit coupling and long-range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in metallic Dy B4 , play an important role in this behavior.
Variable high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole (QUAPEVA)
Marteau, F.; Ghaith, A.; N'Gotta, P.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Kitegi, C.; Loulergue, A.; Vétéran, J.; Sebdaoui, M.; André, T.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.; Vallerand, C.; Oumbarek, D.; Cosson, O.; Forest, F.; Jivkov, P.; Lancelot, J. L.; Couprie, M. E.
2017-12-01
Different applications such as laser plasma acceleration, colliders, and diffraction limited light sources require high gradient quadrupoles, with strength that can reach up to 200 T/m for a typical 10 mm bore diameter. We present here a permanent magnet based quadrupole (so-called QUAPEVA) composed of a Halbach ring and surrounded by four permanent magnet cylinders. Its design including magnetic simulation modeling enabling us to reach 201 T/m with a gradient variability of 45% and mechanical issues are reported. Magnetic measurements of seven systems of different lengths are presented and confirmed the theoretical expectations. The variation of the magnetic center while changing the gradient strength is ±10 μm. A triplet of QUAPEVA magnets is used to efficiently focus a beam with large energy spread and high divergence that is generated by a Laser Plasma Acceleration source for a free electron laser demonstration and has enabled us to perform beam based alignment and control the dispersion of the beam.
LHC interaction region quadrupole cryostat design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicol, T.H.; Darve, Ch.; Huang, Y.; Page, T.M.
2002-01-01
The cryostat of a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Interaction Region (IR) quadrupole magnet consists of all components of the inner triplet except the magnet assembly itself. It serves to support the magnet accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, to house all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations, and must be able to be manufactured at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course of their expected operating lifetime. This paper describes the current LHC IR inner triplet quadrupole magnet cryostats being designed and manufactured at Fermilab as part of the US-LHC collaboration, and includes discussions on the structural and thermal considerations involved in the development of each of the major systems
Fe/sup 57/ polarimetry based on quadrupole interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonser, U; Sakai, H; Keune, W [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (F.R. Germany). Fachbereich Angewandte Physik
1976-01-01
A quadrupole Fe/sup 57/ polarimeter consisting of single crystals of LiNbO/sub 3/:Co/sup 57/ as source (polarizer) and of FeCO/sub 3/ (siderite) as absorber (analyzer) is described. The quadrupole interactions of the two materials are nearly equal in magnitude but opposite in sign and in addition the asymmetry parameter eta equal approximately 0.
Large permanent magnet quadrupoles for an electron storage ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herb, S.W.
1987-01-01
We have built large high quality permanent magnet quadrupoles for use as interaction region quadrupoles in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring where they must operate in the 10 kG axial field of the CLEO experimental detector. We describe the construction and the magnetic measurement and tuning procedures used to achieve the required field quality and stability. (orig.)
Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ling, K.M.
1990-01-01
Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs
Computation of a quadrupole magnet for the APS storage ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, L.R.; Kim, S.H.; Thompson, K.M.
1990-01-01
The storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source will include 400 quadrupole magnets for focusing the beam. A prototype quadrupole has been designed, constructed, and measured. This paper describes the two- and three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D) field computations performed for this design. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maschke, A. W.
1985-01-01
A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly
Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Zernike moment to enhance the discriminant nature (Pang et al 2006). ... was proposed which is partially invariant to changes in the local image samples, ... tigate the Krawtchouk discrete orthogonal moment-based feature ..... in scale have been achieved by changing the distance between the person and the video camera.
Variational approach to magnetic moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipparini, E; Stringari, S; Traini, M [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita di Trento, Italy
1977-11-07
Magnetic moments in nuclei with a spin unsaturated core plus or minus an extra nucleon have been studied using a restricted Hartree-Fock approach. The method yields simple explicit expressions for the deformed ground state and for magnetic moments. Different projection techniques of the HF scheme have been discussed and compared with perturbation theory.
On fractional Fourier transform moments
Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.
2000-01-01
Based on the relation between the ambiguity function represented in a quasi-polar coordinate system and the fractional power spectra, the fractional Fourier transform moments are introduced. Important equalities for the global second-order fractional Fourier transform moments are derived and their
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Experiments
Peng, Jen-Chieh
2008-01-01
The neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) provides unique information on CP violation and physics beyond the Standard Model. We first review the history of experimental searches for neutron electric dipole moment. The status of future neutron EDM experiments, including experiments using ultra-cold neutrons produced in superfluid helium, will then be presented.
Hart, Joseph M; Garrison, J Craig; Palmieri-Smith, Riann; Kerrigan, D Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D
2008-05-01
Lower extremity kinetics while performing a single-leg forward jump landing may help explain gender biased risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Gender comparison of lower extremity joint angles and moments. Static groups comparison. Motion analysis laboratory. 8 male and 8 female varsity, collegiate soccer athletes. 5 single-leg landings from a 100cm forward jump. Peak and initial contact external joint moments and joint angles of the ankle, knee, and hip. At initial heel contact, males exhibited a adduction moment whereas females exhibited a abduction moment at the hip. Females also had significantly less peak hip extension moment and significantly less peak hip internal rotation moment than males had. Females exhibited greater knee adduction and hip internal rotation angles than men did. When decelerating from a forward jump, gender differences exist in forces acting at the hip.
Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV
2009-01-01
Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.
2002-01-01
Experiment IS358 uses the intense and pure beams of copper isotopes provided by the ISOLDE RILIS (resonance ionization laser ion source). The isotopes are implanted and oriented in the low temperature nuclear orientation set-up NICOLE. Magnetic moments are measured by $\\beta$-NMR. Copper (Z=29), with a single proton above the proton-magic nickel isotopes provides an ideal testground for precise shell model calculations of magnetic moments and their experimental verification. In the course of our experiments we already determined the magnetic moments of $^{67}$Ni, $^{67}$Cu, $^{68g}$Cu, $^{69}$Cu and $^{71}$Cu which provide important information on the magicity of the N=40 subshell closure. In 2001 we plan to conclude our systematic investigations by measuring the magnetic moment of the neutron-deficient isotope $^{59}$Cu. This will pave the way for a subsequent study of the magnetic moment of $^{57}$Cu with a complementary method.
Rescuing the nonjet (NJ azimuth quadrupole from the flow narrative
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trainor Thomas A.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available According to the flow narrative commonly applied to high-energy nuclear collisions a cylindrical-quadrupole component of 1D azimuth angular correlations is conventionally denoted by quantity υ2 and interpreted to represent elliptic flow. Jet angular correlations may also contribute to υ2 data “nonflow” depending on the method used to calculate υ2, but 2D graphical methods are available to insure accurate separation. The nonjet (NJ quadrupole has various properties inconsistent with a flow interpretation, including the observation that NJ quadrupole centrality variation in A-A collisions has no relation to strongly-varying jet modication (“jet quenching” in those collisions commonly attributed to jet interaction with a flowing dense medium. In this presentation I describe isolation of quadrupole spectra from pt-differential υ2(pt data from the RHIC and LHC. I demonstrate that quadrupole spectra have characteristics very different from the single-particle spectra for most hadrons, that quadrupole spectra indicate a common boosted hadron source for a small minority of hadrons that “carry” the NJ quadrupole structure, that the narrow source-boost distribution is characteristic of an expanding thin cylindrical shell (strongly contradicting hydro descriptions, and that in the boost frame a single universal quadrupole spectrum (Lévy distribution on transverse mass mt accurately describes data for several hadron species scaled according to their statistical-model abundances. The quadrupole spectrum shape changes very little from RHIC to LHC energies. Taken in combination those characteristics strongly suggest a unique nonflow (and nonjet QCD mechanism for the NJ quadrupole conventionally represented by υ2.
Rescuing the nonjet (NJ) azimuth quadrupole from the flow narrative
Trainor, Thomas A.
2017-04-01
According to the flow narrative commonly applied to high-energy nuclear collisions a cylindrical-quadrupole component of 1D azimuth angular correlations is conventionally denoted by quantity υ2 and interpreted to represent elliptic flow. Jet angular correlations may also contribute to υ2 data "nonflow" depending on the method used to calculate υ2, but 2D graphical methods are available to insure accurate separation. The nonjet (NJ) quadrupole has various properties inconsistent with a flow interpretation, including the observation that NJ quadrupole centrality variation in A-A collisions has no relation to strongly-varying jet modication ("jet quenching") in those collisions commonly attributed to jet interaction with a flowing dense medium. In this presentation I describe isolation of quadrupole spectra from pt-differential υ2(pt) data from the RHIC and LHC. I demonstrate that quadrupole spectra have characteristics very different from the single-particle spectra for most hadrons, that quadrupole spectra indicate a common boosted hadron source for a small minority of hadrons that "carry" the NJ quadrupole structure, that the narrow source-boost distribution is characteristic of an expanding thin cylindrical shell (strongly contradicting hydro descriptions), and that in the boost frame a single universal quadrupole spectrum (Lévy distribution) on transverse mass mt accurately describes data for several hadron species scaled according to their statistical-model abundances. The quadrupole spectrum shape changes very little from RHIC to LHC energies. Taken in combination those characteristics strongly suggest a unique nonflow (and nonjet) QCD mechanism for the NJ quadrupole conventionally represented by υ2.
Nomura, Yasunori
2012-01-01
We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, inclu...
Quench Protection of SC Quadrupole Magnets
Feher, S.; Bossert, R.; Dimarco, J.; Mitchell, D.; Lamm, M. J.; Limon, P. J.; Mazur, P.; Nobrega, F.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J. P.; Strait, J. B.; Tompkins, J. C.; Zlobin, A. V.; McInturff, A. D.
1997-05-01
The energy stored in a superconducting accelerator magnet is dissipated after a quench in the coil normal zones, heating the coil and generating a turn to turn and coil to ground voltage drop. Quench heaters are used to protect the superconducting magnet by greatly increasing the coil normal zone thus allowing the energy to be dissipated over a larger conductor volume. Such heaters will be required for the Fermilab/LBNL design of the high gradient quads (HGQ) designed for the LHC interaction regions. As a first step, heaters were installed and tested in several Tevatron low-β superconducting quadrupoles. Experimental studies in normal and superfluid helium are presented which show the heater-induced quench response as a function of magnet excitation current, magnet temperature and peak heater energy density.
Isabelle dipole and quadrupole coil configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahl, P.F.; Hahn, H.
1980-01-01
The coil configurations of the ISABELLE dipole and quadrupole magnets have been reviewed and a number of improvements were suggested for incorporation into the final design. The coil designs are basically single layer multiple block approximations to cosine current distributions, wound from a high aspect ratio non-keystoned braided conductor. The blocks are separated by knife-edge wedges to maximize the quench propagation velocity. The current density variation is obtained by an appropriate distribution of the spacer turns and, to a lesser degree, by the wedge locations. The use of inert turns is necessary to minimize the peak field enhancement both in the ends and in the two dimensional section. Schemes for deriving turns distributions yielding harmonic coefficients satisfying the stringent ISABELLE tolerances on field uniformity, while allowing for simplicity in winding and taking into account quench propagation considerations, will be discussed, as well as our approach to the coil end configuration
An improved integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole
Abbott, S.R.
1987-10-05
An improved radio frequency quadrupole is provided having an elongate housing with an elongate central axis and top, bottom and two side walls symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes formed integrally with the walls, the vanes each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls, and the vanes integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane passing through the tip of the vane, the walls having flat mounting surfaces at right angles to and parallel to the control plane, respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other. 4 figs.
Radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wangler, T.P.; Stokes, R.H.
1980-01-01
The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is a new linear accelerator concept in which rf electric fields are used to focus, bunch, and accelerate the beam. Because the RFQ can provide strong focusing at low velocities, it can capture a high-current dc ion beam from a low-voltage source and accelerate it to an energy of 1 MeV/nucleon within a distance of a few meters. A recent experimental test at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has confirmed the expected performance of this structure and has stimulated interest in a wide variety of applications. The general properties of the RFQ are reviewed and examples of applications of this new accelerator are presented
RF quadrupole beam dynamics design studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crandall, K.R.; Stokes, R.H.; Wangler, T.P.
1979-01-01
The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator structure is expected to permit considerable flexibility in achieving linac design objectives at low velocities. Calculational studies show that the RFQ can accept a high-current, low-velocity, dc beam, bunch it with high efficiency, and accelerate it to a velocity suitable for injection into a drift-tube linac. Although it is relatively easy to generate a satisfactory design for an RFQ linac for low beam currents, the space-charge effects produced by high currents dominate the design criteria. Methods have been developed to generate solutions that make suitable compromises between the effects of emittance growth, transmission efficiency, and overall structure length. Results are given for a test RFQ linac operating at 425 MHz
Commissioning results of the HZB quadrupole resonator
Kleindienst, Raphael; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver
2015-01-01
Recent cavity results with niobium have demonstrated the necessity of a good understanding of both the BCS and residual resistance. For a complete picture and comparison with theory, it is essential that one can measure the RF properties as a function of field, temperature, frequency and ambient magnetic field. Standard cavity measurements are limited in their ability to change all parameters freely and in a controlled manner. On the other hand, most sample measurement setups operate at fairly high frequency, where the surface resistance is always BCS dominated. The quadrupole resonator, originally developed at CERN, is ideally suited for characterization of samples at typical cavity RF frequencies. We report on a modified version of the QPR with improved RF figures of merit for high-field operation. Experimental challenges in the commissioning run and alternate designs for simpler sample changes are shown alongside measurement results of a large grain niobium sample.
TOUTATIS: A radio frequency quadrupole code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romuald Duperrier
2000-12-01
Full Text Available A cw high power linear accelerator can only work with very low particle losses and structure activation. At low energy, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ is an accelerator element that is very sensitive to losses. To design this structure, a good understanding of the beam dynamics is required. Generally, the reference code PARMTEQM is enough to design the accelerator. TOUTATIS has been written with the goals of cross-checking results and obtaining more reliable dynamics. This paper relates the different numerical methods used in the code. It is time based, using multigrids methods and adaptive mesh for a fine description of the forces without being time consuming. The field is calculated through a Poisson solver and the vanes are fully described, allowing it to properly simulate the coupling gaps and the RFQs extremities. Theoretical and experimental tests are also described and show a good agreement between simulations and reference cases.
Experimental investigation of quadrupole virtual photon spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gouffon, P.
1986-01-01
To test experimentally the quadrupole virtual photon spectrum calculation, the (e,α) excitation function of an isolated 2 + level at 20.14 MeV in 24 Mg was measured. The most recent calculations in DWBA, including nuclear size effects, are compared to this experimental curve. The differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩdE was measured 48 0 , 90 0 , 132 0 in the laboratory system, for total electron energies of 20.0, 20.8, 21.5, 24.0, 26.0, 28.0, 30.0, 32.0, 36.0, and 40.0 MeV. The reduced matrix element B(E2) of the 20,14 MeV level is extracted as a secondary product of this work. (author) [pt
Zhong, Rong-Xuan; Huang, Nan; Li, Huang-Wu; He, He-Xiang; Lü, Jian-Tao; Huang, Chun-Qing; Chen, Zhao-Pin
2018-04-01
We numerically and analytically investigate the formations and features of two-dimensional discrete Bose-Einstein condensate solitons, which are constructed by quadrupole-quadrupole interactional particles trapped in the tunable anisotropic discrete optical lattices. The square optical lattices in the model can be formed by two pairs of interfering plane waves with different intensities. Two hopping rates of the particles in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linear anisotropic system. We find that if all of the pairs of dipole and anti-dipole are perpendicular to the lattice panel and the line connecting the dipole and anti-dipole which compose the quadrupole is parallel to horizontal direction, both the linear anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear one can strongly influence the formations of the solitons. There exist three patterns of stable solitons, namely horizontal elongation quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons, disk-shape isotropic pattern solitons and vertical elongation quasi-continuous solitons. We systematically demonstrate the relationships of chemical potential, size and shape of the soliton with its total norm and vertical hopping rate and analytically reveal the linear dispersion relation for quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons.
Yasini, Siavash; Pierpaoli, Elena
2017-12-01
We present a general framework for the accurate spectral modeling of the low multipoles of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed in a boosted frame. In particular, we demonstrate how spectral measurements of the low multipoles can be used to separate the motion-induced dipole of the CMB from a possible intrinsic dipole component. In a moving frame, the leakage of an intrinsic dipole moment into the CMB monopole and quadrupole induces spectral distortions with distinct frequency functions that, respectively, peak at 337 and 276 GHz. The leakage into the quadrupole moment also induces a geometrical distortion to the spatial morphology of this mode. The combination of these effects can be used to lift the degeneracy between the motion-induced dipole and any intrinsic dipole that the CMB might possess. Assuming the current peculiar velocity measurements, the leakage of an intrinsic dipole with an amplitude of ΔT=30 μK into the monopole and quadrupole moments will be detectable by a PIXIE-like experiment at ∼40 nK (2.5σ) and ∼130 nK (11σ) level at their respective peak frequencies.
On the baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, P.L.
1976-01-01
In the context of quark confinement ideas, the baryon magnetic moments are calculated by assuming a SU(3) breaking due to the inequalities of the quark masses (m sub(p) different m sub(n) different m lambda ). The modified SU(6) result for the ratio of the magnetic moments of the neutron and proton is obtained. The p-quark is found heavier than the n-quark by circa 15 MeV. and alternative way of evaluating the baryon magnetic moments by means of simple physical considerations based on the properties of the SU(6) baryon S-waves functions is given
Moment Magnitude discussion in Austria
Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang
2017-04-01
We implemented and tested the Moment Magnitude estimation „dbmw" from the University of Trieste in our Antelope near real-time System. It is used to get a fast Moment Magnitude solutions and Ground Motion Parameter (PGA, PGV, PSA 0.3, PSA 1.0 and PSA 3.0) to calculate Shake and Interactive maps. A Moment Magnitude Catalogue was generated and compared with the Austrian Earthquake Catalogue and all available Magnitude solution of the neighbouring agencies. Relations of Mw to Ml and Ground Motion to Intensity are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuta, K.; Arimura, K.; Nagatomo, T.; Akutsu, K.; Iwakoshi, T.; Kudo, S.; Ogura, M.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Sumikama, T.; Minamisono, K.; Miyake, T.; Minamisono, T.; Fukuda, M.; Mihara, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sasaki, M.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Suda, M.; Hirai, M.; Momota, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Sakamoto, A.; Saihara, M.; Ohtsubo, T.; Alonso, J.R.; Krebs, G.F.; Symons, T.J.M.
2004-01-01
The magnetic moment of 33 Cl (Iπ=3/2+, T1/2=2.51s) has been re-measured precisely by β-NMR method. The obtained magnetic moment |μ|=0.7549(3)μN is consistent with the old value 0.7523(16)μN, but is 5 times more accurate. The value is well reproduced by the shell model calculation, μSM=0.70μN. Combined with the magnetic moment of the mirror partner 33 S, the nuclear matrix elements , , , and were derived
Moment methods with effective nuclear Hamiltonians; calculations of radial moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belehrad, R.H.
1981-02-01
A truncated orthogonal polynomial expansion is used to evaluate the expectation value of the radial moments of the one-body density of nuclei. The expansion contains the configuration moments, , , and 2 >, where R/sup (k)/ is the operator for the k-th power of the radial coordinate r, and H is the effective nuclear Hamiltonian which is the sum of the relative kinetic energy operator and the Bruckner G matrix. Configuration moments are calculated using trace reduction formulae where the proton and neutron orbitals are treated separately in order to find expectation values of good total isospin. The operator averages are taken over many-body shell model states in the harmonic oscillator basis where all particles are active and single-particle orbitals through six major shells are included. The radial moment expectation values are calculated for the nuclei 16 O, 40 Ca, and 58 Ni and find that is usually the largest term in the expansion giving a large model space dependence to the results. For each of the 3 nuclei, a model space is found which gives the desired rms radius and then we find that the other 5 lowest moments compare favorably with other theoretical predictions. Finally, we use a method of Gordon (5) to employ the lowest 6 radial moment expectation values in the calculation of elastic electron scattering from these nuclei. For low to moderate momentum transfer, the results compare favorably with the experimental data
PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cogliati, Joshua J.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.
2010-01-01
Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.
Point-particle limit and the far-zone quadrupole formula in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Futamase, T.
1985-01-01
Strong internal gravity is incorporated in a divergent-free post-Newtonian approximation scheme by introducing a body-zone limit. When incorporated into the notion of sequences of solutions, this provides the first rigorous point-particle limit in general relativity. The scheme is applied to construct an asymptotic approximation to a binary system composed of two rotating neutron stars. The lowest-order calculation is carried out in the near and far zones, giving Newton's equations of motion and the far-zone quadrupole formula. The quadrupole moment of the system is expressed in terms of a mass integral over each compact star. The same mass appears in Newton's equations of motion. The mass is indeed the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass the compact star would have if it were isolated. Thus the equivalence principle for strong gravity is confirmed, even for gravitational radiation: gravitational potential energy radiates the same amount of gravitational waves as any other form of energy does
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Longmire, Conrad L [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
1958-07-01
In a pinch, the outward diffusion of plasma due to collisions can be balanced by the inward drift resulting from ExB, where E is the applied electric field and B the magnetic field. From the equation expressing the balance of these two effects, together with the pressure balance equation, one obtains the perpendicular conductivity, which is about one-half of the classical parallel conductivity. This result has been applied to the problem of a static pinch under the assumptions: 1) there is an applied longitudinal (B{sub z}) magnetic field; 2) the plasma is isothermal; 3) the solution depends only on the radial coordinate.
Design of the LINAC4 Transfer Line Quadrupole Electromagnets
Vanherpe, L
2013-01-01
Beam focusing in the various segments of the Linac4 Transfer Line is provided by quadrupole electromagnets. In total seventeen pulsed, air-cooled quadrupole electromagnets are required. They are made of laminated electrical steel yokes and coils wound from solid copper wire. All magnets have an aperture radius of 50 mm and are required to provide an integrated field gradient of 1.8 T over a magnetic length of 300 mm. This design report summarizes the main magnetic, electrical and mechanical design parameters of the Linac4 Transfer Line Quadrupole Magnets. The effect of the vacuum chamber on the magnetic field quality and the field delay is studied.
Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F
2001-09-10
Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.
Ion-neutral transport through quadrupole interfaces of mass-spectrometer systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jugroot, M.; Groth, C.P.T.; Thomson, B.A.; Baranov, V.; Collings, B.A.; French, J.B.
2004-01-01
The transport of free ions through highly under-expanded jet flows of neutral gases and in the presence of applied electric fields is investigated by continuum-based numerical simulations. In particular, numerical results are described which are relevant to ion flows occurring in quadrupole interfaces of mass spectrometer systems. A five-moment mathematical model and parallel multi-block numerical solution procedure is developed for predicting the ion transport. The model incorporates the effects of ion-neutral collision processes and is used in conjunction with a Navier-Stokes model and flow solver for the neutral gas to examine the key influences controlling the ion motion. The effects of the neutral gas flow, electric fields (both dc and rf), and flow field geometry on ion mobility are carefully assessed. The capability of controlling the charged particle motions through a combination of directed neutral flow and applied electric field is demonstrated for these high-speed, hypersonic, jet flows. (author)
Fast computation of Krawtchouk moments
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Honarvar Shakibaei Asli, B.; Flusser, Jan
2014-01-01
Roč. 288, č. 1 (2014), s. 73-86 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Krawtchouk polynomial * Krawtchouk moment * Geometric moment * Impulse response * Fast computation * Digital filter Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/flusser-0432452.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, K.; Vretenar, D.; Niksic, T.; Otsuka, T.; Shimizu, N.
2011-01-01
Microscopic energy density functionals have become a standard tool for nuclear structure calculations, providing an accurate global description of nuclear ground states and collective excitations. For spectroscopic applications, this framework has to be extended to account for collective correlations related to restoration of symmetries broken by the static mean field, and for fluctuations of collective variables. In this paper, we compare two approaches to five-dimensional quadrupole dynamics: the collective Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrations and rotations and the interacting boson model (IBM). The two models are compared in a study of the evolution of nonaxial shapes in Pt isotopes. Starting from the binding energy surfaces of 192,194,196 Pt, calculated with a microscopic energy density functional, we analyze the resulting low-energy collective spectra obtained from the collective Hamiltonian, and the corresponding IBM Hamiltonian. The calculated excitation spectra and transition probabilities for the ground-state bands and the γ-vibration bands are compared to the corresponding sequences of experimental states.
Crossed-coil detection of two-photon excited nuclear quadrupole resonance
Eles, Philip T.; Michal, Carl A.
2005-08-01
Applying a recently developed theoretical framework for determining two-photon excitation Hamiltonians using average Hamiltonian theory, we calculate the excitation produced by half-resonant irradiation of the pure quadrupole resonance of a spin-3/2 system. This formalism provides expressions for the single-quantum and double-quantum nutation frequencies as well as the Bloch-Siegert shift. The dependence of the excitation strength on RF field orientation and the appearance of the free-induction signal along an axis perpendicular to the excitation field provide an unmistakable signature of two-photon excitation. We demonstrate single- and double-quantum excitation in an axially symmetric system using 35Cl in a single crystal of potassium chlorate ( ωQ = 28 MHz) with crossed-coil detection. A rotation plot verifies the orientation dependence of the two-photon excitation, and double-quantum coherences are observed directly with the application of a static external magnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.
2004-01-01
Moessbauer spectra of hemoglobins have some features in the range of liquid nitrogen temperature: a non-Lorentzian asymmetric line shape for oxyhemoglobins and symmetric Lorentzian line shape for deoxyhemoglobins. A comparison of the approximation of the hemoglobin Moessbauer spectra by a superposition of two quadrupole doublets and by a distribution of the quadrupole splitting demonstrates that a superposition of two quadrupole doublets is more reliable and may reflect the non-equivalent iron electronic structure and the stereochemistry in the α- and β-subunits of hemoglobin tetramers.
Two-pulse and stimulated nuclear-quadrupole-resonance echoes in YAlO3:Pr3+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erickson, L.E.
1991-01-01
The dephasing of trivalent praseodymium dilute in yttrium aluminum oxide (YAlO 3 ) in the ground electronic state 3 H 4 state is evaluated using an optically detected method, to measure two-rf-pulse- and three-rf-pulse-stimulated nuclear quadrupole echoes. The magnitude of the echo is obtained by detecting the weak Raman optical field generated by the interaction of the magnetic moment of the echo and a light beam resonant with the 3 H 4 (0 cm 1 ) to 1 D 2 (16 374 cm -1 ) optical transition. This same light beam is used as an optical pump (37-ms duration) prior the rf-pulse sequence to increase the population difference of the hyperfine energy levels, thereby improving the echo signal. The light is turned off 9 ms before the rf-pulse sequence and remains off until the echo to avoid optical-pumping effects on the measured nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR) echo lifetime. The dephasing time T 2 from two-pulse nuclear-quadrupole-echo measurement is found to be 366±29 μs
Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique
2015-01-01
Typically, quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to determine as many as 57 major, minor, and trace elements in aqueous geochemical samples, including natural surface water and groundwater, acid mine drainage water, and extracts or leachates from geological samples. The sample solution is aspirated into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) which is an electrodeless discharge of ionized argon gas at a temperature of approximately 6,000 degrees Celsius. The elements in the sample solution are subsequently volatilized, atomized, and ionized by the ICP. The ions generated are then focused and introduced into a quadrupole mass filter which only allows one mass to reach the detector at a given moment in time. As the settings of the mass analyzer change, subsequent masses are allowed to impact the detector. Although the typical quadrupole ICP-MS system is a sequential scanning instrument (determining each mass separately), the scan speed of modern instruments is on the order of several thousand masses per second. Consequently, typical total sample analysis times of 2–3 minutes are readily achievable for up to 57 elements.
Static dipole polarizabilities of Scn (n ≤ 15) clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xi-Bo, Li; Jiang-Shan, Luo; Wei-Dong, Wu; Yong-Jian, Tang; Hong-Yan, Wang; Yun-Dong, Guo
2009-01-01
The static dipole polarizabilities of scandium clusters with up to 15 atoms are determined by using the numerically finite field method in the framework of density functional theory. The electronic effects on the polarizabilities are investigated for the scandium clusters. We examine a large highest occupied molecular orbital — the lowest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO–LUMO) gap of a scandium cluster usually corresponds to a large dipole moment. The static polarizability per atom decreases slowly and exhibits local minimum with increasing cluster size. The polarizability anisotropy and the ratio of mean static polarizability to the HOMO–LUMO gap can also reflect the cluster stability. The polarizability of the scandium cluster is partially related to the HOMO–LUMO gap and is also dependent on geometrical characteristics. A strong correlation between the polarizability and ionization energy is observed. (atomic and molecular physics)
PRINCIPLE OF SKEW QUADRUPOLE MODULATION TO MEASURE BETATRON COUPLING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LUO, Y.; PILAT, F.; ROSER, T.
2004-01-01
The measurement of the residual betatron coupling via skew quadrupole modulation is a new diagnostics technique that has been developed and tested at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a very promising method for the linear decoupling on the ramp. By modulating the strengths of different skew quadrupole families the two eigentunes are precisely measured with the phase lock loop system. The projections of the residual coupling coefficient onto the skew quadrupole coupling modulation directions are determined. The residual linear coupling could be corrected according to the measurement. An analytical solution for skew quadrupole modulation based on Hamiltonian perturbation approximation is given, and simulation code using smooth accelerator model is also developed. Some issues concerning the practical applications of this technique are discussed
The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited rotating nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Civitarese, O.; Furui, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Faessler, A.
1983-01-01
The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited, fast rotating nuclei is studied as a function of both the nuclear temperature and the nuclear angular momentum. The photo-absorption cross sections for quadrupole radiation in 156 Dy, 160 Er and 164 Er are evaluated within the linear response theory. The strength functions of the γ-ray spectrum obtained from the decay of highly excited nuclear states by deexcitation of the isoscalar quadrupole mode show a fine structure, which depends on the temperature T, the angular momentum I and the deformation of the nucleus β. The splitting of the modes associated with the signature-conserving and signature-changing components of the quadrupole field is discussed. (orig.)
Beam-based alignment of C-shaped quadrupole magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portmann, G.; Robin, D.
1998-06-01
Many storage rings have implemented a method of finding the positional offset between the electrical center of the beam position monitors (BPM) and the magnetic center of the adjacent quadrupole magnets. The algorithm for accomplishing this is usually based on modulating the current in the quadrupole magnet and finding the beam position that minimizes the orbit perturbation. When the quadrupole magnet is C-shaped, as it is for many light sources, the modulation method can produce an erroneous measurement of the magnetic center in the horizontal plane. When the current in a C-shaped quadrupole is changed, there is an additional dipole component in the vertical field. Due to nonlinearities in the hysteresis cycle of the C-magnet geometry, the beam-based alignment technique at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) deviated horizontally by .5 mm from the actual magnetic center. By modifying the technique, the offsets were measured to an accuracy of better than 50 microm
Semimicroscopic description of the giant quadrupole resonances in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurchev, G.; Malov, L.A.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Soloviev, V.G.
1976-01-01
The calculation results of the giant quadrupole isoscalar and isovector resonances performed within the random phase approximation are represented. The strength functions for E2-transitions are calculated for doubly even deformed nuclei in the regions 150 (<=) A < 190 and 228 (<=) A < 248 in the energy interval (0-40) MeV. The following integral characteristics of giant quadrupole resonances are obtained: the position, widths, the contribution to the energy weighted sum rule and the contribution to the total cross section of photoabsorption. The calculations have shown that giant quadrupole resonances are common for all the considered nuclei. The calculated characteristics of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance agree with the available experimental data. The calculations also show that the semimicroscopic theory can be successfully applied for the description of giant multipole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Lei; Liu Shuxin; Zeng Jinyan
2004-01-01
The microscopic mechanism of the variation with rotational frequency of moments of inertia and their odd-even differences for well-deformed actinide nuclei are analyzed by using the particle-number conserving (PNC) method for treating nuclear pairing interaction. The moments of inertia for bands building on high j intruder orbitals in odd-A nuclei, e.g., the 235 U (ν[743]7/2) band, are found to be much larger than those of ground-state bands in neighboring even-even nuclei. Moreover, there exist large odd-even differences in the ω variation of moments of inertia. All these experimental odd-even differences are reproduced quite well in the PNC calculation, in which the effective monopole and quadrupole pairing interaction strengths are determined by the experimental odd-even differences in binding energies and bandhead moments of inertia, and no free parameter is involved in the PNC calculation
Nuclear quadrupole interactions in ferroelectric compounds of HF181
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunzler, J.V.
1971-01-01
Measurements of nuclear quadrupole interaction constants in perovkite-type compounds of PbHfO 3 , SnhfO 3 , CaHfO 3 e SrHfO 3 have been performed using the perturbed angular correlation technique. A range of fundamental frequencies from 150 to 550 Megaradians persecond was determined. The variation of quadrupole constants has been discussed through the molecular orbital theory
Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernabeu, E; Tornos, J
1985-04-01
The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.
Waferscale Electrostatic Quadrupole Array for Multiple Ion Beam Manipulation
Vinayakumar, K. B.; Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Ardanuc, S.; Lal, A.
2018-01-01
We report on the first through-wafer silicon-based Electrostatic Quadrupole Array (ESQA) to focus high energy ion beams. This device is a key enabler for a wafer based accelerator architecture that lends itself to orders-of-magnitude reduction in cost, volume and weight of charged particle accelerators. ESQs are a key building block in developing compact Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) [1]. In a MEQALAC electrostatic forces are used to focus ions, and elec...
Ellipsoidal universe can solve the cosmic microwave background quadrupole problem.
Campanelli, L; Cea, P; Tedesco, L
2006-09-29
The recent 3 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data have confirmed the anomaly concerning the low quadrupole amplitude compared to the best-fit Lambda-cold dark matter prediction. We show that by allowing the large-scale spatial geometry of our universe to be plane symmetric with eccentricity at decoupling or order 10(-2), the quadrupole amplitude can be drastically reduced without affecting higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum of the temperature anisotropy.
Two qubits in pure nuclear quadrupole resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, G.B.; Goren, S.D.; Meerovich, V.M.; Sokolovsky, V.L.
2002-01-01
It is shown theoretically that by the use of two radio-frequency fields of the same resonance frequency but with the different phases and directions the degeneracy of the energy spectrum of a spin system with I=3/2 is removed. This leads to four non-degenerate spin states which can be used as a platform for quantum computing. The feasibility of quantum computing based on a pure (without DC magnetic fields) nuclear quadrupole resonance technique is investigated in detail. Various quantum logic gates can be constructed by using different excitation techniques allowing different manipulations with the spin system states. Three realizations of quantum logic gates are considered: the application of an additional magnetic field with the resonance frequency, the amplitude modulation of one of the applied RF fields by the resonance frequency field, and the level-crossing method. It is shown that the probabilities of the resonance transitions depend on the method of excitation and on the direction of the excitation field. Feasibility of quantum computing is demonstrated with the examples of constructing a controlled-NOT logic gate using the resonance excitation technique and SWAP and NOT2 logic gates using the level-crossing method. (author)
Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis
Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.
1984-12-01
Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.
Electric moments in molecule interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eibenberger, Sandra; Gerlich, Stefan; Arndt, Markus; Tuexen, Jens; Mayor, Marcel
2011-01-01
We investigate the influence of different electric moments on the shift and dephasing of molecules in a matter wave interferometer. Firstly, we provide a quantitative comparison of two molecules that are non-polar yet polarizable in their thermal ground state and that differ in their stiffness and response to thermal excitations. While C 25 H 20 is rather rigid, its larger derivative C 49 H 16 F 52 is additionally equipped with floppy side chains and vibrationally activated dipole moment variations. Secondly, we elucidate the role of a permanent electric dipole momentby contrasting the quantum interference pattern of a (nearly) non-polar and a polar porphyrin derivative. We find that a high molecular polarizability and even sizeable dipole moment fluctuations are still well compatible with high-contrast quantum interference fringes. The presence of permanent electric dipole moments, however, can lead to a dephasing and rapid degradation of the quantum fringe pattern already at moderate electric fields. This finding is of high relevance for coherence experiments with large organic molecules, which are generally equipped with strong electric moments.
Static electricity: A literature review
Crow, Rita M.
1991-11-01
The major concern with static electricity is its discharging in a flammable atmosphere which can explode and cause a fire. Textile materials can have their electrical resistivity decreased by the addition of antistatic finishes, imbedding conductive particles into the fibres or by adding metal fibers to the yarns. The test methods used in the studies of static electricity include measuring the static properties of materials, of clothed persons, and of the ignition energy of flammable gases. Surveys have shown that there is sparse evidence for fires definitively being caused by static electricity. However, the 'worst-case' philosophy has been adopted and a static electricity safety code is described, including correct grounding procedures and the wearing of anti-static clothing and footwear.
Electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions in carbon isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hagino, Kouichi
2003-01-01
We carry out shell model calculations to study electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions of C isotopes. We point out the configuration dependence of the quadrupole and magnetic moments of the odd C isotopes, which will be useful to find out the deformations and the spin parities of the ground states of these nuclei. We also study the electric dipole states of C isotopes, focusing on the interplay between low energy pigmy strength and giant dipole resonances. As far as the energies of the resonances are concerned, reasonable agreement is obtained with available experimental data for the photoreaction cross sections in 12 C, 13 C, and 14 C, both in the low energy region below (ℎ/2π)ω=14 MeV and in the high energy giant resonance region (14 MeV 15 C is found to exhaust about 12-16 % of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule value and 50-80 % of the cluster sum rule value
Stochastic Generalized Method of Moments
Yin, Guosheng; Ma, Yanyuan; Liang, Faming; Yuan, Ying
2011-01-01
The generalized method of moments (GMM) is a very popular estimation and inference procedure based on moment conditions. When likelihood-based methods are difficult to implement, one can often derive various moment conditions and construct the GMM objective function. However, minimization of the objective function in the GMM may be challenging, especially over a large parameter space. Due to the special structure of the GMM, we propose a new sampling-based algorithm, the stochastic GMM sampler, which replaces the multivariate minimization problem by a series of conditional sampling procedures. We develop the theoretical properties of the proposed iterative Monte Carlo method, and demonstrate its superior performance over other GMM estimation procedures in simulation studies. As an illustration, we apply the stochastic GMM sampler to a Medfly life longevity study. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
Stochastic Generalized Method of Moments
Yin, Guosheng
2011-08-16
The generalized method of moments (GMM) is a very popular estimation and inference procedure based on moment conditions. When likelihood-based methods are difficult to implement, one can often derive various moment conditions and construct the GMM objective function. However, minimization of the objective function in the GMM may be challenging, especially over a large parameter space. Due to the special structure of the GMM, we propose a new sampling-based algorithm, the stochastic GMM sampler, which replaces the multivariate minimization problem by a series of conditional sampling procedures. We develop the theoretical properties of the proposed iterative Monte Carlo method, and demonstrate its superior performance over other GMM estimation procedures in simulation studies. As an illustration, we apply the stochastic GMM sampler to a Medfly life longevity study. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
Analysis of turbulent conical diffuser flow using second moment closures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adane, K.K.; Tachie, M.F.; Ormiston, S.J.
2004-01-01
A commercial CFD code, CFX-TASCflow, is used to predict a turbulent conical diffuser flow. The computation was performed using a low-Reynolds number k-ω model, a low-Reynolds number k-ω based non-linear algebraic Reynolds stress model, and a second moment closure with a wall-function. The experimental data of Kassab are used to validate the numerical results. The results show that all the turbulence models reproduce the static pressure coefficient distribution reasonably well. The low Reynolds number k-ω models give better prediction of the friction velocity than the second moment closure. The models also predict the Reynolds shear stress reasonably well but fail to reproduce the correct level of the turbulent kinetic energy. (author)
Anomalous superconductivity in the tJ model; moment approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Rodriguez-Nunez, J.J.
1997-01-01
By extending the moment approach of Nolting (Z, Phys, 225 (1972) 25) in the superconducting phase, we have constructed the one-particle spectral functions (diagonal and off-diagonal) for the tJ model in any dimensions. We propose that both the diagonal and the off-diagonal spectral functions...... Hartree shift which in the end result enlarges the bandwidth of the free carriers allowing us to take relative high values of J/t and allowing superconductivity to live in the T-c-rho phase diagram, in agreement with numerical calculations in a cluster, We have calculated the static spin susceptibility......, chi(T), and the specific heat, C-v(T), within the moment approach. We find that all the relevant physical quantities show the signature of superconductivity at T-c in the form of kinks (anomalous behavior) or jumps, for low density, in agreement with recent published literature, showing a generic...
SIMS device with quadrupole mass spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szigethy, D.; Riedel, M.
1980-01-01
A versatile secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) has been designed and constructed. The device is applicable for dinamic and static SIMS investigations. The sputtering and ionisation can be studied simultaneously. Oil diffusion pumps and an auxiliary ion-getter pump are used. A commercial ion gun is used in the working chamber. The secondary ion optics assures the preliminary filtering of fast ions, and the collection of sputtered ions for a separate microprobe analysis. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated with examples. (R.J.)
Tidal Love numbers and moment-Love relations of polytropic stars
Yip, Kenny L. S.; Leung, P. T.
2017-12-01
The physical significance of tidal deformation in astronomical systems has long been known. The recently discovered universal I-Love-Q relations, which connect moment of inertia, quadrupole tidal Love number and spin-induced quadrupole moment of compact stars, also underscore the special role of tidal deformation in gravitational wave astronomy. Motivated by the observation that such relations also prevail in Newtonian stars and crucially depend on the stiffness of a star, we consider the tidal Love numbers of Newtonian polytropic stars whose stiffness is characterized by a polytropic index n. We first perturbatively solve the Lane-Emden equation governing the profile of polytropic stars through the application of the scaled delta expansion method and then formulate perturbation series for the multipolar tidal Love number about the two exactly solvable cases with n = 0 and n = 1, respectively. Making use of these two series to form a two-point Padé approximant, we find an approximate expression of the quadrupole tidal Love number, whose error is less than 2.5 × 10-5 per cent (0.39 per cent) for n ∈ [0, 1] (n ∈ [0, 3]). Similarly, we also determine the mass moments for polytropic stars accurately. Based on these findings, we are able to show that the I-Love-Q relations are in general stationary about the incompressible limit irrespective of the equation of state of a star. Moreover, for the I-Love-Q relations, there is a secondary stationary point near n ≈ 0.4444, thus showing the insensitivity to n for n ∈ [0, 1]. Our investigation clearly tracks the universality of the I-Love-Q relations from their validity for stiff stars such as neutron stars to their breakdown for soft stars.
Method of moments in electromagnetics
Gibson, Walton C
2007-01-01
Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t
Neutron star moments of inertia
Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.
1994-01-01
An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.
Magnetic moments of the lowest-lying singly heavy baryons
Yang, Ghil-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Chul
2018-06-01
A light baryon is viewed as Nc valence quarks bound by meson mean fields in the large Nc limit. In much the same way a singly heavy baryon is regarded as Nc - 1 valence quarks bound by the same mean fields, which makes it possible to use the properties of light baryons to investigate those of the heavy baryons. A heavy quark being regarded as a static color source in the limit of the infinitely heavy quark mass, the magnetic moments of the heavy baryon are determined entirely by the chiral soliton consisting of a light-quark pair. The magnetic moments of the baryon sextet are obtained by using the parameters fixed in the light-baryon sector. In this mean-field approach, the numerical results of the magnetic moments of the baryon sextet with spin 3/2 are just 3/2 larger than those with spin 1/2. The magnetic moments of the bottom baryons are the same as those of the corresponding charmed baryons.
Moment scaling at the sol-gel transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botet, R.
1998-01-01
Two standard models of sol-gel transition are revisited here from the point of view of their fluctuations in various moments of both the mass-distribution and the gel-mass. Bond-percolation model is an at-equilibrium system and undergoes a static second-order phase transition, while Monte-Carlo Smoluchowski model is an off-equilibrium one and shows a dynamical critical phenomenon. It is shown that the macroscopic quantities can be splitted into the three classes with different scaling properties of their fluctuations, depending on whether they correspond to: (i) non-critical quantities, (ii) critical quantities or to (iii) an order parameter. (author)
Analysis of electric moments of RNA-binding proteins: implications for mechanism and prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarai Akinori
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-RNA interactions play important role in many biological processes such as gene regulation, replication, protein synthesis and virus assembly. Although many structures of various types of protein-RNA complexes have been determined, the mechanism of protein-RNA recognition remains elusive. We have earlier shown that the simplest electrostatic properties viz. charge, dipole and quadrupole moments, calculated from backbone atomic coordinates of proteins are biased relative to other proteins, and these quantities can be used to identify DNA-binding proteins. Closely related, RNA-binding proteins are investigated in this study. In particular, discrimination between various types of RNA-binding proteins, evolutionary conservation of these bulk electrostatic features and effect of conformational changes by complex formation are investigated. Basic binding mechanism of a putative RNA-binding protein (HI1333 from Haemophilus influenza is suggested as a potential application of this study. Results We found that similar to DNA-binding proteins (DBPs, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs also show significantly higher values of electric moments. However, higher moments in RBPs are found to strongly depend on their functional class: proteins binding to ribosomal RNA (rRNA constitute the only class with all three of the properties (charge, dipole and quadrupole moments being higher than control proteins. Neural networks were trained using leave-one-out cross-validation to predict RBPs from control data as well as pair-wise classification capacity between proteins binding to various RNA types. RBPs and control proteins reached up to 78% accuracy measured by the area under the ROC curve. Proteins binding to rRNA are found to be best distinguished (AUC = 79%. Changes in dipole and quadrupole moments between unbound and bound structures were small and these properties are found to be robust under complex formation. Conclusions Bulk electric
Angular momentum partitioning and the subshell multipole moments in impulsively excited argon ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Khateeb, H.M.; Birdsey, B.G.; Gay, T.J.
2005-01-01
We have investigated collisions between transversely polarized electrons and Ar, in which the Ar is simultaneously ionized and excited to the Ar +* [3p 4 ( 1 D)4p] states. The Stokes parameters of the fluorescence emitted in the following transitions was measured: ( 1 D)4s 2 D 5/2 -( 1 D)4p 2 F 7/2 (461.0 nm), ( 1 D)4s 2 D 5/2 -( 1 D)4p 2 F 5/2 (463.7 nm) ( 1 P)3d 2 D 5/2 -( 1 D)4p 2 D 5/2 (448.2 nm), and ( 1 D)4s 2 D 3/2 -( 1 D)4p 2 P 3/2 (423.7 nm). We develop the angular momentum algebra necessary to extract from these data, starting from the overall atomic J multipoles, the partitioning of orbital angular momentum into the 1 D core electric quadrupole and hexadecapole moments, and the outer 4p electric quadrupole moment. The magnetic dipole of the outer electron is also determined. This procedure requires the assumption of good LS coupling for these states, which is justified. We recouple these individual core- and outer-electron moments to calculate the initial electric quadrupoles, hexadecapoles, and hexacontatetrapoles of the initial excited-state manifold. The detailed time structure of the electron-atom collision is considered, as well as the time evolution of the excited ionic state. The Rubin-Bederson hypothesis is thus shown to hold for the initial ionic L and S terms. The consequences of the breakdown of LS coupling are considered. From the circular polarization data, estimates of the relative importance of direct and exchange excitation cross section are made. We discuss experimental issues related to background contributions, Hanle depolarization of the fluorescence signal, and cascade contributions. Nonlinearity of the equations relating the Stokes parameters to the subshell multipole moments complicates the data analysis. Details of the Monte Carlo terrain-search algorithm used to extract multipole data is discussed, and the implications of correlation between the various subshell multipole moments is analyzed. The physical significance of the
Simulations of the Static Tuning for the TESLA Linear Collider
Schulte, Daniel
2003-01-01
At the heart of the TESLA linear collider are the two 10 km long superconducting linacs. A linac is constructed from 858 cryomodules each containing 12 nine-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting cavities. 355 quadrupoles provide the necessary beam focusing. The advantages of low-frequency superconducting RF in terms of wakefield behaviour are well known, and the TESLA alignment tolerances are relatively loose. However, the effects of cavity tilts and their impact of the linac beam-based alignment algorithms have until recently not been fully investigated. In addition, the strong sensitivity to correlated emittance growth due to the high beam-beam disruption parameter makes it desirable to control the linac emittance down to a few percent. In this report we discuss various static tuning algorithms and present new simulation results. Discussions of the relative merits and applicability of the methods is also discussed.
Equivalent circuit study of beam-loading using a moment method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, T.F.; Machida, S.; Mori, Y.; Ohmori, C.
1997-01-01
In this work, we present a formalism by considering the perturbations in the moments of a bunched beam for the equivalent circuit model to include all harmonics of the synchroton oscillation in a beam-cavity interaction system. The linear coupling among all longitudinal modes under the influence of narrow-band impedance can be naturally incorporated in this new approach. We used this method to re-examine the coupling between the dipole and the quadrupole modes. The dispersion relation obtained by this new method was compared with that derived from the linearized Vlasov equation up to the second harmonic of the synchrotron motion. We found excellent qualitative agreements between two approaches
AUTHOR|(CDS)2083426
The hyperfine structure of the odd-even $^{51−63}$Mn isotopes (N = 26 − 38) were measured using bunched beam collinear laser spectroscopy with the COLLAPS experimental setup at ISOLDE, CERN. The properties of these nuclei were investigated over the course of two experiments. During the first experiment, nuclear spins and magnetic dipole moments were extracted from spectroscopy on manganese atoms. These nuclear properties were then compared to the predictions of two large-scale shell model effective interactions (GXPF1A [1, 2] and LNPS [3]) which use different model spaces. In the case of $^{61,63}$Mn, these results show the increasing importance of neutron excitations across the proposed N = 40 subshell closure, and of proton excitations across the Z = 28 shell gap. These measurements provide the first direct proof that proton and neutron excitations across shell gaps are playing an important role in the ground state wave functions of the neutron-rich Mn isotopes. The electric quadrupole moment provides c...
Quiet Moment around the Campfire
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2014-06-18
Byron Breedlove reads his essay, "Quiet Moment around the Campfire," about the art of Frederic Remington and the transmission of pathogens as frontiers expand. Created: 6/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 6/19/2014.
Particle electric dipole-moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pendlebury, J M [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)
1997-04-01
The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.
Moment of Inertia by Differentiation
Rizcallah, Joseph A.
2015-01-01
The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral--an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the…
Unteachable Moments and Pedagogical Relationships
Wang, Hongyu
2016-01-01
This paper discusses how Julia Kristeva's theory can inform our understanding of unteachable moments. It proposes a pedagogical relationship that can contain breakdowns of meanings and work toward breakthroughs to new awareness, particularly related to social justice pedagogy in teacher education. First, one example from the author's own teaching…
Moment Distributions of Phase Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2011-01-01
Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...
Moment methods and Lanczos methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitehead, R.R.
1980-01-01
In contrast to many of the speakers at this conference I am less interested in average properties of nuclei than in detailed spectroscopy. I will try to show, however, that the two are very closely connected and that shell-model calculations may be used to give a great deal of information not normally associated with the shell-model. It has been demonstrated clearly to us that the level spacing fluctuations in nuclear spectra convey very little physical information. This is true when the fluctuations are averaged over the entire spectrum but not if one's interest is in the lowest few states, whose spacings are relatively large. If one wishes to calculate a ground state (say) accurately, that is with an error much smaller than the excitation energy of the first excited state, very high moments, μ/sub n/, n approx. 200, are needed. As I shall show, we use such moments as a matter of course, albeit without actually calculating them; in fact I will try to show that, if at all possible, the actual calculations of moments is to be avoided like the plague. At the heart of the new shell-model methods embodied in the Glasgow shell-model program and one or two similar ones is the so-called Lanczos method and this, it turns out, has many deep and subtle connections with the mathematical theory of moments. It is these connections that I will explore here
Statics and Mechanics of Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constantinescu, S.
2007-01-01
The refined 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of some static-disordered crystalline media (with melilite and Ca-gallate structure) evidenced observable electric and magnetic crystal field dispersions. It is the fifth in a series of papers published previously in the same journal on this subject. The data of crystalline hyperfine fields and their dispersion parameters have calculated using the modeling procedure given in a paper by Kaminskii, et al. published in 1986. The obtained values of the magnetic and quadrupole splitting parameters compared with to experimental data showed the possibility to predict the crystal fields' dispersion. (author)
Theoretical investigation of flute modes in a magnetic quadrupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, H.S.
1988-01-01
This research developed theories and conducted numerical investigations of electrostatic flute modes in a plasma confined in a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter I presents the discussion of relevant background. Chapter II contains a brief discussion of the basic flute-mode operator L 0 for intermediate- and low-frequency regimes. Chapter III develops a simple theory for a flute mode with frequency between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in the uniform density and temperature regions of a magnetic quadrupole. The frequency is predicted to be inversely proportional to the wave number. Chapter IV describes the kinetic approach. Chapter V contains the derivation of an eigenvalue equation for electrostatic waves with frequencies below the ion frequency in the private flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VI develops a theory for electrostatic waves with frequency below the ion bounce frequency in the shared flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VII contains the derivation of a dispersion equation for flute modes with frequencies between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in a plasma confined to a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VIII presents a summary of the research described
Maximal Electric Dipole Moments of Nuclei with Enhanced Schiff Moments
Ellis, John; Pilaftsis, Apostolos
2011-01-01
The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of heavy nuclei, such as 199Hg, 225Ra and 211Rn, can be enhanced by the Schiff moments induced by the presence of nearby parity-doublet states. Working within the framework of the maximally CP-violating and minimally flavour-violating (MCPMFV) version of the MSSM, we discuss the maximal values that such EDMs might attain, given the existing experimental constraints on the Thallium, neutron and Mercury EDMs. The maximal EDM values of the heavy nuclei are obtained with the help of a differential-geometrical approach proposed recently that enables the maxima of new CP-violating observables to be calculated exactly in the linear approximation. In the case of 225Ra, we find that its EDM may be as large as 6 to 50 x 10^{-27} e.cm.
MEQALAC: (multiple electrostatic quadrupole linac): a new approach to low beta rf acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mobley, R.M.; Brodowski, J.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Keane, J.T.; Maschka, A.W.; Sanders, R.T.
1980-01-01
MEQALAC is an acronym for a multiple-beam electrostatic-quadrupole array linear accelerator. The principle of operation is very simple. It makes use of the fact that electrostatic quadrupoles focus more effectively at low velocities than conventional magnetic quadrupoles. Moreover, the pole-tip field of an electrostatic quadrupole is limited by field emission of electrons, and is not a function of the size of the quadrupole. Conventional magnetic quadrupoles, on the other hand, require increasingly high current densities if one attempts to scale to smaller size
Variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupole for the SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Martinez, R.P.; Meyer, R.E.
1994-01-01
A set of compact variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupoles have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in the SSC linac matching section. The quadrupoles have 24 mm-diameter apertures and 40 mm-long poles. The hybrid (permanent-magnet and iron) design, uses a fixed core of magnet material (NdFeB) and iron (C-1006) surrounded by a rotating ring of the same magnet material and iron. The quadrupole gradient-length product can be smoothly varied from a minimum of 0.7 T up to a maximum of 4.3 T by a 90 degree rotation of the outer ring of iron and magnet material
Collisional damping of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yildirim, S.; Gokalp, A.; Yilmaz, O.; Ayik, S.
2001-01-01
Collisional damping widths of giant monopole and quadrupole excitations for 120 Sn and 208 Pb at zero and finite temperatures are calculated within Thomas-Fermi approximation by employing the microscopic in-medium cross-sections of Li and Machleidt and the phenomenological Skyrme and Gogny forces, and are compared with each other. The results for the collisional widths of giant monopole and quadrupole vibrations at zero temperature as a function of the mass number show that the collisional damping of giant monopole vibrations accounts for about 30 - 40% of the observed widths at zero temperature, while for giant quadrupole vibrations it accounts for only 20 - 30% of the observed widths at zero temperature. (orig.)
Mechanical Design of a Second Generation LHC IR Quadrupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.
2003-01-01
One of the proposed options to increase the LHC luminosity is the replacement of the existing inner triplets at the Interaction Regions with new low-beta larger aperture quadrupoles operating at the same gradient. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is carrying out preliminary studies of a large-bore Nb 3 Sn quadrupole. The mechanical design presents a support structure based on the use of keys and bladders without self-supporting collars. This technology has been proven effective in several successful common coil Nb 3 Sn dipoles built at LBNL, and it is for the first time applied to a cos(2(var t heta)) design. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the quadrupole mechanical behavior, demonstrating the possibility of delivering, through this method, well-controlled coil precompression during assembly, cool-down and excitation. The study has been performed with the finite element program ANSYS
Development of LHC-IR model quadrupoles in the US
Sabbi, G
2007-01-01
Insertion quadrupoles with large aperture and high gradient are required to achieve the luminosity upgrade goal of 1035 cm-2 s-1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In 2004, the US Department of Energy established the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) to develop a technology base for the upgrade. The focus of the magnet program, which is a collaboration of three US laboratories, BNL, FNAL and LBNL, is on development of high gradient quadrupoles using Nb$_{3}$Sn in order to operate at high field and with sufficient temperature margin. Other program components address issues regarding magnet design, radiation-hard materials, long magnet scale-up, quench protection, fabrication techniques and conductor and cable R&D. This paper reports on the development od model quadrupoles and outlines the long-term goals of the program.
Variable-field permanent magnet quadrupole for the SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Martinez, R.P.; Meyer, R.E.
1993-01-01
A set of compact variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupoles have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use In the SSC linac matching section. The quadrupoles have 24 mm-diameter apertures and 40 mm-long poles. The hybrid (permanent-magnet and iron) design, uses a fixed core of magnet material (NdFeB) and iron (C-1006) surrounded by a rotating ring of the same magnet material and iron. The quadrupole gradient-length product can be smoothly varied from a minimum of 0.7 T up to a maximum, of 4.3 T by a 90 degrees rotation of the outer ring of iron and magnet material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menges, R.; Dinger, U.; Boos, N.; Huber, G.; Schroeder, S.
1992-01-01
The hyperfine structure, isotope and isomeric shifts in the atomic transition 6p 2 P 3/2 -7s 2 S 1/2 , λ=535 nm have been measured for the I=7 and I=2 states of 190,192,194,196 Tl, the I=1/2 and I=9/2 states of 191 Tl and the I=7 isomer of 188 Tl. The thallium isotopes were prepared as fast atomic beams at the GSI on-line mass separator following fusion reactions and - in some cases - subsequent β-decay. The nuclear dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments and the change in the nuclear mean square charge radius are evaluated. The uu-isotopes show an isomeric shift which changes sign between 192 Tl and 194 Tl. (orig.)
The Critical Moment of Transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svalgaard, Lotte
2018-01-01
By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programs prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... environment and entering a context characterized by activity and performance. This is a frequently debated challenge for both academics and providers of management learning. Yet, critical moments in this transition remain under-exposed and under-researched. The contribution of this article is a research study......—within the context of an international MBA program—of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an international consultancy project. This article contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing a lens through which subjective experience of critical moments...
2006-01-01
One of the first events reconstructed in the Muon Drift Tubes, the Hadron Calorimeter and elements of the Silicon Tracker (TK) at 3 Tesla. The atmosphere in the CMS control rooms was electric. Everbody was at the helm for the first full-scale testing of the experiment. This was a crunch moment for the entire collaboration. On Tuesday, 22 August the magnet attained almost its nominal power of 4 Tesla! At the same moment, in a tiny improvised control room, the physicists were keyed up to test the entire detector system for the first time. The first cosmic ray tracks appeared on their screens in the week of 15 August. The tests are set to continue for several weeks more until the first CMS components are lowered into their final positions in the cavern.
Moment Distributions of Phase Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....
Electric Dipole Moments of Hadrons
Wirzba, Andreas
2016-01-01
A nonzero electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron, proton, deuteron, helion or any finite system necessarily involves the breaking of a symmetry, either by the presence of external fields (leading to the case of induced EDMs) or explicitly by the breaking of the discrete parity and time-reflection symmetries in the case of permanent EDMs. Recent - and in the case of the deuteron even unpublished - results for the relevant matrix elements of nuclear EDM operators are presented and the rel...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, V.
1995-01-01
The thesis has three main parts. In the first part a fourth order quadrupole boson Hamiltonian is semi classically treated through a time-dependent variational principle (TDVP), the variational states being of coherent type for the boson operators b 20 + and 1/√2 (b 22 + + b 2-2 + ). The static ground state is studied as a function of the parameters involved in the model Hamiltonian. Linearizing the classical equations of motion one obtains the RPA approach for the many boson correlations. There are two RPA roots which describe the beta and gamma vibrations, respectively. Several quantization procedures for both small and large amplitude regimes are discussed. The quantized Hamiltonians are compared with some others which were previously obtained by using different methods. A special attention is paid to the quantal states associated to some of the peaks appearing in the Fourier spectrum of the classical action density. Some of the quantal states exhibit a pronounced anharmonic structure. Therefore the procedure may be used for a unified description of small and large amplitude regimes. In the next part the semiclassical foundations of the Coherent State Model are established using the formalism elaborated in the previous section. In the third part the semiclassical treatment through a time-dependent variational principle (TDVP) of the fourth order quadrupole boson Hamiltonian H is continued. In the parameter space of H there are regions, conventionally called as 'nuclear phases', determining specific static properties. Several ground states corresponding to different equilibrium shapes are found as static solutions of classical equations of motion. The non-integrable system may follow a chaotic trajectory. The mechanism of destroying the tori bearing regular orbits and the onset of chaos may depend on nuclear phase. The regular and chaotic motions are analyzed in terms of Poincare sections and Lyapunov largest exponent. Specific features of various phases are
Polarization of very cold neutron using a permanent magnet quadrupole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshioka, Tamaki, E-mail: tyosioka@post.kek.j [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mishima, Kenji; Ino, Takashi; Taketani, Kaoru; Muto, Suguru; Morishima, Takahiro; Shimizu, Hirohiko M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Junichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Sakai, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sato, Hiromi; Hirota, Katsuya; Otake, Yoshie [RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kitaguchi, Masaaki; Hino, Masahiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Seki, Yoshichika [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Masako [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ichikawa, Masahiro [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2011-04-01
For the future fundamental physics experiments by using cold neutrons, we are developing a device which can measure the neutron polarization degree by accuracy significantly below 10{sup -3}. A quadrupole magnet is one of the promising candidate to measure the neutron polarization degree by such extremely high precision. We have performed a polarization experiment by using the quadrupole magnets at the Very Cold Neutron (VCN) port of the PF-2 in the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL). As a result, we obtained the polarization degree P with very high accuracy P=0.9994{+-}0.0001(stat.){+-}0.0003(syst.), which meet our requirement significantly.
Nuclear quadrupole relaxation and viscosity in liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirmacher, W.
1976-01-01
It is shown that the nuclear quadrupole relaxation rate due to the molecular motions in liquid metals is related to the shear and bulk viscosity and hence to the absorption coefficient of ultrasound. Application of the 'extended liquid phonon' model of Ortoleva and Nelkin - which is the third of a series of continued-fraction-approximations for the van Hove neutron scattering function - gives a relation to the self diffusion constant. The predictions of the theory concerning the temperature dependence are compared with quadrupole relaxation measurements of Riegel et al. and Kerlin et al. in liquid gallium. Agreement is found only with the data of Riegel et al. (orig.) [de
High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.
1985-05-01
Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e + /e - super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%
Characterization and tuning of ultrahigh gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Becker
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The application of quadrupole devices with high field gradients and small apertures requires precise control over higher order multipole field components. We present a new scheme for performance control and tuning, which allows the illumination of most of the quadrupole device aperture because of the reduction of higher order field components. Consequently, the size of the aperture can be minimized to match the beam size achieving field gradients of up to 500 T m^{-1} at good imaging quality. The characterization method based on a Hall probe measurement and a Fourier analysis was confirmed using the high quality electron beam at the Mainz Microtron MAMI.
Conceptual design of a quadrupole magnet for eRHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-05-03
eRHIC is a proposed upgrade to the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which would allow collisions of up to 21 GeV polarized electrons with a variety of species from the existing RHIC accelerator. eRHIC employs an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and an FFAG lattice for the arcs. The arcs require open-midplane quadrupole magnets of up to 30 T/m gradient of good field quality. In this paper we explore initial quadrupole magnet design concepts based on permanent magnetic material which allow to modify the gradient during operation.
Dynamical quadrupole structure factor of frustrated ferromagnetic chain
Onishi, Hiroaki
2018-05-01
We investigate the dynamical quadrupole structure factor of a spin-1/2 J1-J2 Heisenberg chain with competing ferromagnetic J1 and antiferromagnetic J2 in a magnetic field by exploiting density-matrix renormalization group techniques. In a field-induced spin nematic regime, we observe gapless excitations at q = π according to quasi-long-range antiferro-quadrupole correlations. The gapless excitation mode has a quadratic form at the saturation, while it changes into a linear dispersion as the magnetization decreases.
Quadrupole photoionization of endohedral Xe-C60
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govil, Karan; Deshmukh, P C
2009-01-01
The effect of an endohedral confinement on the quadrupole photoionization of atomic Xe is studied using the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). The atom's confinement is modelled by placing atomic Xe at the centre of a C 60 cage represented by an annular potential around it. A new confinement resonance is reported in the 4p quadrupole cross-section along with 'correlation confinement resonances' in 4d, 5s and 5p photoionizations at about 185 eV. The effect of the confinement on the non-dipole photoelectron angular distribution parameter γ is also reported.
Calculation of the quadrupole-lense fringing field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arzumanov, A.A.
1978-01-01
With the aim of decreasing the scattering field effect at electrode edge or quadrupole lens poles with conformal transformations the scattering fields of electric quadrupole lens, two-electrode lens with the electrodes in a hyperbola form, as well as magnetic lens with hyperbolic poles are calculated. For the two-electrode system with kappa=0.1 (kappa - is coefficient, characterizing the rate of field intensity change in the lens) field distortion equals 1.8%. The comparison of experimental data with the calculation data has shown that with a rather high accuracy the scattering field effect in electric and magnetic lenses with hyperbolic poles may be taken into account
Nb3Sn Quadrupoles Designs For The LHC Upgrades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felice, Helene
2008-01-01
In preparation for the LHC luminosity upgrades, high field and large aperture Nb 3 Sn quadrupoles are being studied. This development has to incorporate all the relevant features for an accelerator magnet like alignment and cooling channels. The LARP HQ model is a high field and large bore quadrupole that will meet these requirements. The 2-layer coils are surrounded by a structure based on key and bladder technology with supporting iron yoke and aluminum shell. This structure is aimed at pre-stress control, alignment and field quality. We present here the magnetic and mechanical design of HQ, along with recent progress on the development of the first 1-meter model.
Statics and mechanics of structures
Krenk, Steen
2013-01-01
The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...
Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions
Como, Mario
2013-01-01
Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.
Static Analysis of Mobile Programs
2017-02-01
and not allowed, to do. The second issue was that a fully static analysis was never a realistic possibility, because Java , the programming langauge...scale to large programs it had to handle essentially all of the features of Java and could also be used as a general-purpose analysis engine. The...static analysis of imperative languages. • A framework for adding specifications about the behavior of methods, including methods that were
Static Decoupling in fault detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niemann, Hans Henrik
1998-01-01
An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...
Moment Closure for the Stochastic Logistic Model
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Singh, Abhyudai; Hespanha, Joao P
2006-01-01
..., which we refer to as the moment closure function. In this paper, a systematic procedure for constructing moment closure functions of arbitrary order is presented for the stochastic logistic model...
On the interpretation of the support moment
Hof, AL
2000-01-01
It has been suggested by Winter (J. Biomech. 13 (1980) 923-927) that the 'support moment', the sum of the sagittal extension moments, shows less variability in walking than any of the joint moments separately. A simple model is put forward to explain this finding. It is proposed to reformulate the
Accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of quadrupole magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumada, M.; Sakai, I.; Someya, H.; Sasaki, H.
1983-01-01
We present an accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of the quadrupole magnet. The method of obtaining the information of the field gradient and the effective focussing length is given. A new scheme to obtain the information of the skew field components is also proposed. The relative accuracy of the measurement was 1 x 10 -4 or less. (author)
ISR Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype:preparing the first test
CERN PhotoLab
1976-01-01
The photo shows the first prototype quadrupole (still with an adjustable stainless steel shrinking cylinder) being lifted to be inserted in a vertical cryostat for testing. It attained the design field gradient without any quench.The persons are Pierre Rey and Michel Bouvier. See also 7702690X.
Prototype Superconducting Quadrupole for the ISR low-beta insertion
CERN PhotoLab
1977-01-01
The picture shows the cold mass of the Quadrupole with its outer aluminium alloy rings pre-compressing the superconducting coils via the magnetic yoke split in 4 parts.The end of the inner vacuum chamber,supporting the 6-pole correction windings, can also be seen as well as the electrical connections. See also photos 7702690X, 7702307.
Quadrupole interactions of Au in Be and lattice location studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perscheid, B.; Gayer, H.W.; Krien, K.; Freitag, K.
1978-01-01
The Moessbauer nucleus 197 Au is used as probe for quadrupole interaction (QI) studies in Be metal. The 77 keV Moessbauer level is populated by the β - decay of 197 Pt and the EC decay of 197 Hg. This fact enabled samples prepared in different ways to be studied. (Auth.)
Quadrupole transport experiment with space charge dominated cesium ion beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.; Warwick, A.
1984-08-01
The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the beam current transport limit in a long quadrupole-focussed transport channel in the space charge dominated region where the space charge defocussing force is almost as large as the average focussing force of the channel
Detection of quadrupole relaxation in an optically pumped cesium vapour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernabeu, E; Tornos, J
1985-10-01
The relaxation of quadrupole orientation induced by means of optical pumping in a cesium vapour is experimentally studied, and the results are compared to the theoretical predictions. The optical detection process of this type of orientation is also discussed as a function of the polarization and spectral profile of the detection light.
Correction of chromatic abberation in electrostatic lense systems containing quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranova, L.A.; Ul'yanova, N.S.; Yavor, S.Ya.
1991-01-01
Possibility of chromatic abberation correction in immersion systems consisting of axysimmetric and quadrupole lenses is shown. Concrete examples are presented. A number of new directions in science and technique, using ion beams are intensively developed presently. When using them accute necessity arises in chromatic abberation correction, while large-scale energy scattering is observed as a rule in such cases
Optimization of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet focusing systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussein, Oday A., E-mail: oah@sc.nahrainuniv.edu.iq [Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad (Iraq); Sise, Omer [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)
2017-05-15
Highlights: • The imaging properties of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens were analyzed with the aid of computer simulation. • The optimal electrode voltages which lead to stigmatic image in both planes of the quadrupole doublet lens with minimum spot size at position sensitive detector (PSD) were found for two operation modes: point-to-point focusing and parallel-to-point focusing. • The imaging properties of are very sensitive to the lunching angle of the electron-beam. - Abstract: The imaging properties of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens were analyzed with the aid of computer simulation. The optimal electrode voltages which lead to stigmatic image in both planes of the quadrupole doublet lens with minimum spot size at position sensitive detector (PSD) were found for two operation modes: point-to-point focusing and parallel-to-point focusing. The optical properties as: Magnifications, spot sizes in the image plane and aberration figures were discussed. The results showed that the focusing of the lens was strong in the xy-plane in comparison with the focusing in the xz-plane. The distortion of the image was greater when the image position will be close to the lens in comparison with object position. Also, the imaging properties were very sensitive to the lunching angle of the electron-beam.
BPM Offset Determination by Sinusoidal Quadrupole K-modulation
Baer, T; Wenninger, J
2011-01-01
To ensure an adequate orbit steering that maximizes the machine aperture, a good knowledge of the BPM measurement offsets is crucial. During this MD, a sinusoidal k-modulation of individually powered quadrupoles was performed to determine the offsets of the nearby BPMs. An accuracy of 10µm for the determination of the absolute beam position is reached.
Orce, J. N.; Djongolov, M.; Navratil, P.; Ball, G.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Lassen, J.; Meissner, J.; Pearson, C. J.; Li, R.; Milovanovic, L.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Teigelhoefer, A.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.; Falou, H. Al; Drake, T. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.; Kshetri, R.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Leach, K. G.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Tardiff, E. R.; Wong, J.; Forssen, C.; Hayes, A. B.; Sarazin, F.; Stoyer, M. A.; Wu, C. Y.
2013-03-01
The highly efficient and segmented TIGRESS HPGe γ-ray array at TRIUMF has been used to perform a reorientation effect Coulomb excitation study of the 2+1 state at 3.368 MeV in 10Be. This is the first Coulomb excitation measurement that provides information on diagonal matrix elements for such a high lying first excited state from μ-ray data. With the availability of accurate lifetime data, a restriction on the diagonal matrix element is determined. This result is compared to a no core shell model calculation with the CD-Bonn 2000 two nucleon potential.
Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
The stringent limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron forced the issue on the strong CP-problem. The most elegant solution of which is the axion field proposed by Peccei and Quinn. The current limit on the QCD parameter theta coming from the limit on the neutron EDM is of order 10-10. I am going to describe the present status on the neutron EDM searches and further prospects on getting down to theta_qcd sensitivity of 10-13 with the new deuteron EDM in storage rings proposal. For completeness the current status and prospects of the muon g-2 experiment will also be given.
The Muon Electric Dipole Moment
Barger, Vernon; Kao, Chung; Das, Ashok
1997-01-01
The electric dipole moment of the muon ($d_\\mu$) is evaluated in a two Higgs doublet model with a softly broken discrete symmetry. For $\\tan\\beta \\equiv |v_2|/|v_1| \\sim 1$, contributions from two loop diagrams involving the $t$ quark and the $W$ boson dominate; while for $\\tan\\beta \\gsim 10$, contributions from two loop diagrams involving the $b$ quark and the $\\tau$ lepton are dominant. For $8 \\gsim \\tan\\beta \\gsim 4$, significant cancellation occurs among the contributions from two loop di...
Reconstruction of convex bodies from moments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hörrmann, Julia; Kousholt, Astrid
We investigate how much information about a convex body can be retrieved from a finite number of its geometric moments. We give a sufficient condition for a convex body to be uniquely determined by a finite number of its geometric moments, and we show that among all convex bodies, those which......- rithm that approximates a convex body using a finite number of its Legendre moments. The consistency of the algorithm is established using the stabil- ity result for Legendre moments. When only noisy measurements of Legendre moments are available, the consistency of the algorithm is established under...
Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aase Heidi
2005-08-01
learning long behavioural sequences may ultimately lead to deficient development of verbally governed behaviour and self control. The study represents a new approach to analyzing the moment-to-moment dynamics of behaviour, and provides support for the theory that reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenwood, W.G.; Tang, K.T.
1987-01-01
The R -6 , R -8 , and R -10 terms in the long-range expansion for the hyperfine frequency shift are calculated for hydrogen in the presence of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The R -6 terms are based on the dipole oscillator strength sums. For helium, the R -8 and R -10 terms are based on quadrupole and octupole oscillator strength sums. For the heavier inert gases, the results for the R -8 and R -10 terms are obtained from the sum rules and the static polarizabilities. Upper bounds are also determined for the R -8 and R -10 terms
Stability considerations of permanent magnet quadrupoles for CESR phase-III upgrade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Lou
1998-06-01
Full Text Available The Cornell electron storage ring (CESR phase-III upgrade plan includes very strong permanent magnet quadrupoles in front of the cryostat for the superconducting quadrupoles and physically as close as possible to the interaction point. Together with the superconducting quadrupoles, they provide tighter vertical focusing at the interaction point. The quadrupoles are built with neodymium iron boron (NdFeB material and operate inside the 15 kG solenoid field. Requirements on the field quality and stability of these quadrupoles are discussed and test results are presented.
Statics of historic masonry constructions
Como, Mario
2017-01-01
Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...
Ramachandran, R.; Narasimhan, P. T.
The results of theoretical and experimental studies of Zeeman-perturbed nuclear quadrupole spin echo envelope modulations (ZSEEM) for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens are presented. The response of the Zeeman-perturbed spin ensemble to resonant two pulse excitations has been calculated using the density matrix formalism. The theoretical calculation assumes a parallel orientation of the external r.f. and static Zeeman fields and an arbitrary orientation of these fields to the principal axes system of the electric field gradient. A numerical powder averaging procedure has been adopted to simulate the response of the polycrystalline specimens. Using a coherent pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer the ZSEEM patterns of the 35Cl nuclei have been recorded in polycrystalline specimens of potassium chlorate, barium chlorate, mercuric chloride (two sites) and antimony trichloride (two sites) using the π/2-τ-π/2 sequence. The theoretical and experimental ZSEEM patterns have been compared. In the case of mercuric chloride, the experimental 35Cl ZSEEM patterns are found to be nearly identical for the two sites and correspond to a near-zero value of the asymmetry parameter, η, of the electric field gradient tensor. The difference in the η values for the two 35Cl sites (η ˜0·06 and η˜0·16) in antimony trichloride is clearly reflected in the experimental and theoretical ZSEEM patterns. The present study indicates the feasibility of evaluating η for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens from ZSEEM investigations.
Design of the 70 mm twin aperture superconducting quadrupole for the LHC dump insertion
Kirby, G A; Taylor, T M; Trinquart, G
1996-01-01
The LHC dump insertion features a pair of superconducting quadrupoles located on either side of a 340 m long straight section. Two horizontally deflecting kickers, located in between the quadrupole pairs, and a septum in the centre of the insertion, vertically deflect the two counter-rotating beams past the quadrupoles on the downstream sides, and into the dump areas. Due to the layout, the optical ß function in the quadrupoles is around 640 m, the largest around the LHC at injection. The quadrupoles must therefore have enlarged aperture and specially designed cryostats to allow for the safe passage of both the circulating and ejected beams. In this paper we present the design of the twin aperture dump quadrupole based on the 70 mm four layer coil proposed for the LHC low-ß quadrupoles. In preparation for model construction, we report on improvements of the coil design and a study of the retaining structures.
The Critical Moment of Transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svalgaard, Lotte
2018-01-01
By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programmes prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... – within the context of an international MBA program – of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an International Consultancy Project. This paper contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing lenses to understand subjective experiences of critical...... moments of transition, developing the notion of “mindful avoidance,” and pointing out a major and neglected potential space in the design of management education....
Static Analysis for Systems Biology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da
2004-01-01
This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....
Static Verification for Code Contracts
Fähndrich, Manuel
The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.
Static Analysis for Dynamic XML
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff
2002-01-01
We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...
Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehdizadeh, M.R.; Dehghani, M.H.; Zangeneh, M.K.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)
Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehdizadeh, M.R. [Shahid Bahonar University, Department of Physics, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, M.H. [Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, M.K. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-06-15
In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)
Static Analysis of Functional Programs
van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.
1994-01-01
In this paper, the static analysis of programs in the functional programming language Miranda is described based on two graph models. A new control-flow graph model of Miranda definitions is presented, and a model with four classes of caligraphs. Standard software metrics are applicable to these
Relativistic two-fermion equations with form factors and anomalous magnetic moment interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, S.
1977-04-01
Relativistic equations for two-fermion systems are derived from quantum field theory taking into account the form factors of the particles. When the q 2 dependence of the form factors is disregarded, in the static approximation, the two-fermion equations with Coulomb and anomalous magnetic moment interactions are obtained. Separating the angular variables, a sixteen-component relativistic radial equation are finally given
Performance of an Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole
Gottschalk, Stephen C; Kangas, Kenneth; Spencer, Cherrill M; Volk, James T
2005-01-01
An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic centerline and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic centerline stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic centerline. Calibration procedures as well as centerline measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.
ELECTRON TRAPPING IN WIGGLER AND QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS OF CESRTA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Lanfa
2010-01-01
The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R and D (1). One of the primary goals of the CesrTA program is to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with low emittance positron beam to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies and benchmark predictions by simulation codes. This paper reports the simulation of the electron-cloud formation in the wiggler and quadrupole magnets using the 3D code CLOUDLAND. We found that electrons can be trapped with long lifetime in a quadrupole magnet due to the mirror field trapping mechanism and photoelectrons produced in the wiggler zero field zone have long lifetime due to their complicated trajectory.
Development and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQC) Magnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Whitson, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hannaford, R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.
2007-06-01
In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90 mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5 K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current. Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented.
Development and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQC) Magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Whitson, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hannaford, R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.
2007-01-01
In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90 mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5 K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current. Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented
Development and test of LARP technological quadrupole (TQC) magnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley
2006-08-01
In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90-mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current . Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented.
Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.
2008-06-01
In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence.
Development and test of LARP technological quadrupole (TQC) magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.
2006-01-01
In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90-mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current . Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented
Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.
2008-01-01
In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence
Engineering Design of Electrostatic Quadrupole for ISOL Beam Lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S.
2014-01-01
In the ISOL system, the RI beam should be transported from the target ion source to post accelerator through various analyzing and charge-breeding systems such as PS (pre-seperator), HRMS (High Resolution Mass Seperator), RF cooler and A/q separator. A reference particle for the beam dynamics calculation is 132 Sn 1+ . After charge breeder system, the charge state is boosted from +1 to +19 with ECR charge breeder and to +33 with EBIS charge breeder. Because the beam energy is as low as 50 keV, the electrostatic optics was adopted rather than the magnetic optics. The electrostatic quadrupole triplets were used for the beam focusing and the electrostatic bender is used for 90-degree bending. In this paper, the design procedure and engineering design of the electrostatic quadrupole are presented
Quadrupole deflector of the double Penning trap system MLLTRAP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gartzke, Eva; Kolhinen, Veli; Habs, Dietrich; Neumayr, Juergen; Schuermann, Christian; Szerypo, Jerzy; Thirolf, Peter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching (Germany)
2009-07-01
A cylindrical double Penning trap has been installed and successfully commissioned at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory in Garching. This trap system has been designed to isobarically purify low energy ion beams and perform highly accurate mass measurements. An electrostatic quadrupole deflector has been designed and installed at the injection line of the Penning trap system enabling a simultaneous use of an online ion beam with reference ions from an offline ion source. Alternatively two offline sources can be used concurrently e.g. an {alpha} recoil sources providing heavy radioactive species (e.g {sup 240}U) together with reference mass ions (which in the future will be e.g. a carbon cluster ion source). The bender has been designed for beam energies up to 1 keV with q/A ratios 1/1-1/250. This presentation shows the technical design and the operating parameters of the quadrupole beam bender and its implementation at the MLLTRAP system.
Optimization on the end-shaping of a quadrupole magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumada, M.; Sasaki, H.; Someya, H.; Sakai, I.
1983-01-01
In order to achieve the widest possible aperture of accelerator magnets, end-shaping is a well known method. To do this one has to deal with the three-dimensional fringe field inherent to each geometry. This may be done experimentally by a cut-and-try method or theoretically by a three-dimensional computer code. In any case, considerable time has to be consumed if one wants to get a conclusion which is as general as possible and which is useful in designing magnets. Fringe field optimization on the end-shaping of the conventional quadrupole magnet was done by a cut-and-try method, where a very simple geometry of the end pole was chosen to get a general conclusion. The 'cut-out ratio diagram' given as a conclusion is useful to designers of the conventional quadrupole magnet. (orig.)
The development of compact magnetic quadrupoles for ILSE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faltens, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Brady, V.
1990-08-01
Magnetic focussing is selected for the 4 MeV to 10 MeV section of the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE) to study the transport of magnetically focussed spacecharge-dominated beams and to explore the engineering problems in accurate positioning of the magnetic fields in an array of quadrupoles. A prototype development program for such magnets is currently under way. A compact design was selected to decrease the overall accelerator diameter and its cost. The design evolved from a cosine 2θ current distribution, corrected for end effects. Current-dominated magnets are used in a pulsed mode to allow higher current densities compared to standard dc water-cooled conductors. The POISSON and MAFCO codes were used in the design of the magnets. The construction of the quadrupoles is aimed at achieving location accuracy of the magnetic center to within 1 mil (2.54 x 10 -5 m) of the mechanical center
Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Blednykh
2016-10-01
Full Text Available An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μ_{r}. In the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μ_{r}→∞, and the case in which the magnets are fully saturated (μ_{r}=1.
A high gradient quadrupole magnet for the SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, C.; Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Wandesforde, A.
1987-01-01
A quadrupole magnet for the SSC has been designed with a gradient of 234 T/m at 6500 A. Coil I.D. is 40 mm. The two-layer windings have 9 inner turns and 13 outer turns per pole with a wedge-shaped space in each layer. The 30-strand cable is identical to that used in the outer layer of the SSC dipole magnet. Interlocking aluminum alloy collars are compressed around the coil using a four-way press and are locked with four keys. The collared coil is supported and centered in a cold split iron yoke. A one-meter model was constructed and tested. Design details including quench behavior are presented. The quadrupole magnets proposed for the main SSC rings have a design gradient of 230 T/m. For one proposed 60 degree lattice cell, each 3-m long quad is separated by five 17-m long dipole magnets
Generating Low Beta Regions with Quadrupoles for Final Muon Cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab
2017-05-01
Muon beams and colliders are rich sources of new physics, if muons can be cooled. A normalized rms transverse muon emittance of 280 microns has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL, G4beamline, and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to approach a normalized transverse emittance of 100 microns and finish 6D muon cooling. The low beta regions produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the beta function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 microns at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Work remains to be done on chromaticity correction.
Permanent magnet quadrupoles for the CLIC Drive Beam decelerator
Shepherd, Ben; Collomb, Norbert
2012-01-01
STFC in collaboration with CERN has developed a new type of adjustable permanent magnet based quadrupole for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator. It uses vertical movement of the permanent magnets to achieve an integrated gradient range of 3.6-14.6T, which will allow it to be used for the first 60% of the decelerator line. Construction of a prototype of this magnet has begun; following this, it will be measured magnetically at CERN and Daresbury Laboratory.
Gravitational radiation quadrupole formula is valid for gravitationally interacting systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, M.; Will, C.M.
1980-01-01
An argument is presented for the validity of the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation energy loss in the far field of nearly Newtonian (e.g., binary stellar) systems. This argument differs from earlier ones in that it determines beforehand the formal accuracy of approximation required to describe gravitationally self-interacting systems, uses the corresponding approximate equation of motion explicitly, and evaluate the appropriate asymptotic quantities by matching along the correct space-time light cones
The monopole and quadrupole vibrations of a hot nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okolowicz, J.; Drozdz, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.
1989-03-01
An extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach has been applied to a description of the isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole vibration modes in the excited nuclear system at finite temperature. The temperature dependence of the resonance characteristics is established for both modes. In anticipation of some anharmonic effects the principle of regularity and single-valuedness has been used to extract the energies of the collective modes. (orig.)
Behaviour of quadrupole mass spectrometer towards noble gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasibullah
1980-01-01
This paper describes a quadrupole mass spectrometric set-up for noble gas analysis with its potential application to material accountancy at the input accountability tank of a reprocessing facility. Linear dependence of ion source pressure on the inlet pressure was considered to be practicable criterion for the functionality of the instrument. Short term and long term sensitivity variations have also been discussed. No memory effect was observed under the experimental conditions. (author)
MEASURING LOCAL GRADIENT AND SKEW QUADRUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC IRS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CARDONA, J.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, R.; PTITSYN, V.
2004-01-01
The measurement of local linear errors at RHIC interaction regions using an ''action and phase'' analysis of difference orbits has already been presented [2]. This paper evaluates the accuracy of this technique using difference orbits that were taken when known gradient errors and skew quadrupole errors were intentionally introduced. It also presents action and phase analysis of simulated orbits when controlled errors are intentionally placed in a RHIC simulation model
Short quadrupole, first at the SC, then at LEAR
CERN PhotoLab
1982-01-01
Quadrupoles of this type were built for the beam lines of the 600 MeV Synchro-Cylclotron. Surplus ones were installed in the LEAR injection line. The particularity of these quads is that they are very short and that a special design, resembling the "Lambertson magnet", limits and linearizes their stray field. This was achieved by the iron between the poles extending beyond the poles.
Quantized TDHF for isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.
1988-01-01
The time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory supplemented with the regularity and single-valuedness quantization condition for the gauge invariant component of the wavefunction is applied to the description of the centroid energy and escape width of isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in 16 O, 40 Ca and 110 Zr. Calculations are performed using the Skyrme SIII effective interaction. An important role of the finite oscillation amplitude in the mean-field dynamics is emphasized. (orig.)
Longitudinal capture in the radio-frequency-quadrupole structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inagaki, S.
1980-03-01
The radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure not only can attain easily transverse focusing in the low-beta region, but also can obtain very high capture efficiency because of its low beta-lambda and low-particle rigidity. An optimization study of the zero space-charge longitudinal capture in an RFQ linac that yields configurations with large capture efficiency is described
Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodowski, J.
1982-01-01
An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators
Design and Measurement of the NSLS II Quadrupole Prototypes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rehak,M.; Jain, A. K.; Skaritka, J.; Spataro, C.
2009-05-04
The design and measurement of the NSLS-II ring quadrupoles prototypes are presented. These magnets are part of a larger prototype program described in [1]. Advances in software, hardware, and manufacturing have led to some new level of insight in the quest for the perfect magnet design. Three geometric features are used to minimize the first three allowed harmonics by way of optimization. Validations through measurement and confidence levels in calculations are established.
Linearised collective Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, M.; Heumann, D.; Scheid, W.
1990-11-01
The linearisation of the Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations yields a new spin degree of freedom, which is called collective spin and has a value of 3/2. With the introduction of collective spin dependent potentials, this linearised Schroedinger equation is then used for the description of low energy spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities of some even-odd Xe, Ir and Au nuclei which have a spin 3/2 in their groundstate. (orig.)
Magnetic performance of new Fermilab high gradient quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanft, R.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Gourlay, S.A.; Lamm, M.J.; McInturff, A.D.; Mokhtarani, A.; Riddiford, A.
1991-05-01
For the Fermilab Tevatron low beta insertions installed in 1990--1991 as part of a luminosity upgrade there were built approximately 35 superconducting cold iron quadrupoles utilizing a two layer cos 2θ coil geometry with 76 mm diameter aperature. The field harmonics and strengths of these magnets obtained by measurement at cryogenic conditions are presented. Evidence for a longitudinal periodic structure in the remnant field is shown. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs
Measurement of the transfer function of the main SPS Quadrupoles
Dinius, A; Semanaz, P; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division
1998-01-01
During two short MD's we have measured the transfer function (amplitude and phase) of the main quadrupole string QD. By the word string we mean the global effect of power supplies, magnets and the eddy current effects of the vacuum chamber. This paper presents the measurement procedure and the results, which are needed for the design of a real-time feedback system for the betatron tunes ( Qloop).
A quadrupole mass spectrometer system for nuclear safeguards applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, P.J.
1987-12-01
An on-line enrichment monitor for nuclear safeguards-related surveillance of a pilot-scale gas centrifuge plant is described. This monitor utilises a quadrupole mass spectrometer to measure the isotopic composition of UF 6 in the feed and product gas streams. Details of the design and construction are given, and several difficulties are identified and discussed. Finally, the performance of this system is illustrated with typical results
Working Around Cosmic Variance: Remote Quadrupole Measurements of the CMB
Adil, Arsalan; Bunn, Emory
2018-01-01
Anisotropies in the CMB maps continue to revolutionize our understanding of the Cosmos. However, the statistical interpretation of these anisotropies is tainted with a posteriori statistics. The problem is particularly emphasized for lower order multipoles, i.e. in the cosmic variance regime of the power spectrum. Naturally, the solution lies in acquiring a new data set – a rather difficult task given the sample size of the Universe.The CMB temperature, in theory, depends on: the direction of photon propagation, the time at which the photons are observed, and the observer’s location in space. In existing CMB data, only the first parameter varies. However, as first pointed out by Kamionkowski and Loeb, a solution lies in making the so-called “Remote Quadrupole Measurements” by analyzing the secondary polarization produced by incoming CMB photons via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. These observations allow us to measure the projected CMB quadrupole at the location and look-back time of a galaxy cluster.At low redshifts, the remote quadrupole is strongly correlated to the CMB anisotropy from our last scattering surface. We provide here a formalism for computing the covariance and relation matrices for both the two-point correlation function on the last scattering surface of a galaxy cluster and the cross correlation of the remote quadrupole with the local CMB. We then calculate these matrices based on a fiducial model and a non-standard model that suppresses power at large angles for ~104 clusters up to z=2. We anticipate to make a priori predictions of the differences between our expectations for the standard and non-standard models. Such an analysis is timely in the wake of the CMB S4 era which will provide us with an extensive SZ cluster catalogue.
Giant 4p-quadrupole resonances in the Rare Earths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthew, J.A.D.; Netzer, F.P.; Clark, C.W.; Morar, J.F.
1987-01-01
X-ray absorption of Ce obtained by partial secondary yield, is compared with previously obtained electron-energy loss measurements in reflection mode. The absence of a strong feature below 4p 3/2 threshold in photon absorption provides confirmation that the peak in EELS is nondipole in character. Theoretical analysis supports interpretation in terms of a p-f giant quadrupole resonance, a result which broadens the analogy between giant resonances in atomic and nuclear physics
Radio-frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator
Moretti, A.
1982-10-19
An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.
General quadrupole shapes in the Interacting Boson Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leviatan, A.
1990-01-01
Characteristic attributes of nuclear quadrupole shapes are investigated within the algebraic framework of the Interacting Boson Model. For each shape the Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic and collective parts, normal modes are identified and intrinsic states are constructed and used to estimate transition matrix elements. Special emphasis is paid to new features (e.g. rigid triaxiality and coexisting deformed shapes) that emerge in the presence of the three-body interactions. 27 refs
Noncommutative QED and anomalous dipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riad, I.F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.
2000-09-01
We study QED on noncommutative spaces, NCQED. In particular we present the detailed calculation for the noncommutative electron-photon vertex and show that the Ward identity is satisfied. We discuss that in the noncommutative case moving electron will show electric dipole effects. In addition, we work out the electric and magnetic dipole moments up to one loop level. For the magnetic moment we show that noncommutative electron has an intrinsic (spin independent) magnetic moment. (author)
Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.
1983-01-01
The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the molecules CO, HB, HF and LiH are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. It is discussed the possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment. (Author) [pt
Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.
1983-01-01
The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the CO, HB, HF and LiH molecules are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. The possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment is discussed. (Author) [pt
Restrictions on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duncan, M.J.; Sankar, S.U.; Grifols, J.A.; Mendez, A.
1987-01-01
We examine mechanisms for producing neutrino magnetic moments from a wide class of particle theories which are extensions of the standard model. We show that it is difficult to naturally obtain a moment greater than ≅ 10 -2 electron Bohr magnetons. Thus models of phenomena requiring moments of order ≅ 10 -10 magnetons, such as those proposed as a resolution to the solar neutrino puzzle, are in conflict with current perceptions in particle physics. (orig.)
W-boson electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1990-01-01
The W-boson electric dipole moment is calculated in the SU(3) C xSU(2) L xU(1) Y model with several Higgs-boson doublets. Using the constraint on the CP-violating parameters from the experimental upper bound of the neutron electric dipole moment, we find that the W-boson electric dipole moment is constrained to be less than 10 -4
The electric dipole moment of magnesium deuteride, MgD.
Steimle, Timothy C; Zhang, Ruohan; Wang, Hailing
2014-06-14
The (0,0) A(2)Π-X (2)Σ(+) band of a cold molecular beam sample of magnesium monodeuteride, MgD, has been recorded field-free and in the presence of a static electric field of up to 11 kV/cm. The lines associated with the lowest rotational levels are detected for the first time. The field-free spectrum was analyzed to produce an improved set of fine structure parameters for the A(2)Π (v = 0) state. The observed electric field induced splittings and shifts were analyzed to produce permanent electric dipole moments, μ(el) of 2.567(10)D and 1.31(8)D for A(2)Π (v = 0) and X(2)Σ(+)(v = 0) states, respectively. The recommended value for μ(el)(X(2)Σ(+) (v = 0)) for MgH, based upon the measured value for MgD, is 1.32(8)D.
Final 6D Muon Ionization Colling using Strong Focusing Quadrupoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab
2016-11-15
Abstract Low emittance muon beam lines and muon colliders are potentially a rich source of BSM physics for future exper- imenters. A muon beam normalized emittance of ax,y,z = (280, 280, 1570)µm has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to achieve a normalized transverse emittance of 100 µm and complete 6D cooling. The low beta regions, as low as 5 mm, produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam transversely. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the transverse betatron function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 µm at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Cooling challenges include chromaticity correction, ssband overlap, quadrupole acceptance, and staying in phase with RF.
Design of the PEP-II Interaction Region Septum Quadrupole
Osborn, J.; Tanabe, J.; Yee, D.; Younger, F.
1997-05-01
The PEP-II QF2 magnet is one of the final focus quadrupoles for the Low-Energy Ring (LER) and utilizes a septum aperture to accommodate the adjacent High-Energy Ring (HER) beamline. The LER lattice design specification calls for an extremely high field quality for this magnet. A conventional water-cooled copper coil and laminated steel core design was selected to allow adjustment in the excitation. The close proximity between the LER and HER beamlines and the required integrated quadrupole strength result in a moderately high current density septum design. The QF2 magnets are imbedded in a confined region at each end of the BaBar detector, thus requiring a small magnet core cross section. Pole face windings are included in the QF2 design to buck the skew octupole term induced by the solenoidal fringe field that leaks out of the detector. Back-leg windings are included to buck a small dipole component induced by the lack of perfect quadrupole symmetry in this septum design. 2D pole contour optimization and 3D end chamfers are used to minimize harmonic errors; a separate permanent-magnet Harmonic Corrector Ring compensates for remaining field errors. The design methods and approach, 2D and 3D analyses, and the resulting expected magnet performance are described in this paper.
Quadrupole magnets for IR-FEL at RRCAT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruwali, Kailash; Singh, Kushraj; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Bhaskar
2013-01-01
The IR-FEL project at RRCAT needs quadrupole magnets for focusing 15 to 35 MeV electron beam through a dog-leg type beam line. This bend needs tighter relative tolerances on the central quadrupole triplet . The magnetic design, fabrication and magnetic characterization of five quadrupole magnets were carried out. The poles are detachable and wider than the coils. This significantly improves the good field region of the magnet. The magnet cross-section was optimized using 2D POISON code and entry-exit tapers were optimized using 3D code TOSCA.. The aperture radius of the magnet is 30 mm and the total core length is 180 mm. The integrated gradient of magnet is 0.51 T. The magnetic measurements were carried out using Danfysik make rotating coil bench model 690. Integrated gradient and multipoles present in the magnet aperture were measured at various excitation levels. The details of magnetic development and the magnetic measurements are discussed in this paper. (author)
MQRAD, a computer code for synchrotron radiation from quadrupole magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morimoto, Teruhisa.
1984-01-01
The computer code, MQRAD, is developed for the calculation of the synchrotron radiation from the particles passing through quadrupole magnets at the straight section of the electron-positron colliding machine. This code computes the distributions of photon numbers and photon energies at any given points on the beam orbit. In this code, elements such as the quadrupole magnets and the drift spaces can be divided into many sub-elements in order to obtain the results with good accuracy. The synchrotron radiation produced by inserted quadrupole magnets at the interaction region of the electron-positron collider is one of the main background sources to the detector. The masking system against the synchrotron radiation at TRISTAN is very important because of the relatively high beam energy and the long straight section, which are 30 GeV and 100 meters, respectively. MQRAD has been used to design the masking system of the TOPAZ detector and the result is presented here as an example. (author)
Compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet with holmium poles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walstrom, P.L. (Grumman Space Systems, Los Alamos, NM (United States))
1992-03-15
A compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built with poles made of the rare-earth metal holmium. The magnet is intended for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linear accelerators where compact high-field quadrupoles are needed, but where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out because of trapped-flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm, outside diameter of 11 cm, length of 11 cm, and pole tip length of 6 cm. The effect of using holmium, a material with a higher saturation field than iron, was investigated by replacing poles made of iron with identical poles made of holmium. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and reached a peak quadrupole field gradient of 355 T/m, a 10% increase over the same magnet with iron poles. This increase in performance is consistent with calculations based on B-H curves that were measured for holmium at 4.2 K. (orig.).
How to introduce the magnetic dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezerra, M; Kort-Kamp, W J M; Cougo-Pinto, M V; Farina, C
2012-01-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the magnetic field at distant points, identifying the magnetic dipole moment of the distribution. We also present a simple but general demonstration of the torque exerted by a uniform magnetic field on a current loop of general form, not necessarily planar. For pedagogical reasons we start by reviewing briefly the concept of the electric dipole moment. (paper)
Gross shell structure of moments of inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.
2002-01-01
Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits
Analysis of scaled-factorial-moment data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seibert, D.
1990-01-01
We discuss the two standard constructions used in the search for intermittency, the exclusive and inclusive scaled factorial moments. We propose the use of a new scaled factorial moment that reduces to the exclusive moment in the appropriate limit and is free of undesirable multiplicity correlations that are contained in the inclusive moment. We show that there are some similarities among most of the models that have been proposed to explain factorial-moment data, and that these similarities can be used to increase the efficiency of testing these models. We begin by calculating factorial moments from a simple independent-cluster model that assumes only approximate boost invariance of the cluster rapidity distribution and an approximate relation among the moments of the cluster multiplicity distribution. We find two scaling laws that are essentially model independent. The first scaling law relates the moments to each other with a simple formula, indicating that the different factorial moments are not independent. The second scaling law relates samples with different rapidity densities. We find evidence for much larger clusters in heavy-ion data than in light-ion data, indicating possible spatial intermittency in the heavy-ion events
Unusual temperature dependence of the magnetic moment in URu2Si2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faak, B.; Flouquet, J.; Lejay, P.
1994-01-01
The influence of the sample quality on the magnetic properties of the heavy-fermion superconductor URu 2 Si 2 has been studied by elastic neutron scattering. Two single crystals prepared under identical conditions received different heat treatments. The as-grown crystal shows an unusual temperature dependence of the magnetic Bragg peak intensity. The annealed sample behaves normally. The low-temperature magnetic moment is identical for the two samples, showing that the small moment of 0.023 (3) μ B is intrinsic. By varying the instrumental resolution, we show that the ordered moment as well as the limited correlation length (200-400 A) are of static origin. The finite correlation length appears related to defects. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig
The neutron electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Pakvasa, S.
1989-01-01
A systematic study was made of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of neutron D n in various models of CP violation. It was found that in the standard KM model with 3 families the neutron EDM is in the range 1.4x10 -33 ≤ D n ≤ 1.6x10 -31 ecm; that the two Higgs doublet model has approximately the same value of D n as the standard model; that D n in the Weinberg model is predicted to satisfy D n > 10 -25 ecm; that in a class of left-right symmetric models D n is of the order of 10 -26-11 ecm; that in supersymmetric models D n is of the order 10 -22 φ ecm with φ being the possible phase difference of the phases of gluino mass and the gluino-quark-smark mixing matrix and that the strong CP parameter θ is found to be θ -9 , using the present experimental limit that D n -25 ecm with 90% confidence. 65 refs., 10 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay Foster
2015-11-01
Full Text Available At least two recent collections of essays – Postmodernism and the Enlightenment (2001 and What’s Left of Enlightenment?: A Postmodern Question (2001 – have responded to postmodern critiques of Enlightenment by arguing that Enlightenment philosophes themselves embraced a number of post-modern themes. This essay situates Kant’s essay Was ist Aufklärung (1784 in the context of this recent literature about the appropriate characterization of modernity and the Enlightenment. Adopting an internalist reading of Kant’s Aufklärung essay, this paper observes that Kant is surprisingly ambivalent about who might be Enlightened and unspecific about when Enlightenment might be achieved. The paper argues that this is because Kant is concerned less with elucidating his concept of Enlightenment and more with characterizing a political condition that might provide the conditions for the possibility of Enlightenment. This paper calls this political condition modernity and it is achieved when civil order can be maintained alongside fractious and possibly insoluble public disagreement about matters of conscience, including the nature and possibility of Enlightenment. Thus, the audience for the Aufklärung essay is not the tax collector, soldier or clergyman, but rather the sovereign. Kant enjoins and advises the prince that discord and debate about matters of conscience need not entail any political unrest or upheaval. It is in this restricted (Pocockian sense that the Enlightenment essay is Kant’s Machiavellian moment.
Stereo Correspondence Using Moment Invariants
Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad
Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.
Optical-coupling nuclear spin maser under highly stabilized low static field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshimi, A., E-mail: yoshimi@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Inoue, T.; Uchida, M.; Hatakeyama, N.; Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan)
2008-01-15
A nuclear spin maser of a new type, that employs a feedback scheme based on optical nuclear spin detection, has been fabricated. The spin maser is operated at a low static field of 30 mG by using the optical detection method. The frequency stability and precision of the spin maser have been improved by a highly stabilized current source for the static magnetic field. An experimental setup to search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) in {sup 129}Xe atom is being developed.
Size scaling of static friction.
Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio
2013-02-22
Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.
Statics of historic masonry constructions
Como, Mario
2016-01-01
This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...
Water cooled static pressure probe
Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.
Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research
1943-03-31
if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing
Static and Dynamic Membrane Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergiu Ivanov
2012-10-01
Full Text Available While originally P systems were defined to contain multiset rewriting rules, it turned out that considering different types of rules may produce important results, such as increasing the computational power of the rules. This paper focuses on factoring out the concept of a membrane structure out of various P system models with the goal of providing useful formalisations. Both static and dynamic membrane structures are considered.
Moments and mean square charge radii of short-lived argon isotopes
Klein, A; Georg, U; Keim, M; Lievens, P; Neugart, R; Neuroth, M; Silverans, R E; Vermeeren, L
1996-01-01
We report on the measurement of optical isotope shifts for $^{32-40}$Ar and for $^{46}$Ar from which the changes in mean square nuclear charge radii across the N = 20 neutron shell closure are deducted. The investigations were carried out by collinear laser spectroscopy in fast beams of neutral argon atoms. The ultra-sensitive detection combines optical pumping, state-selective collisional ionization and counting of $\\beta$-radioactivity. By reaching far into the sd-shell, the results add new information to the systematics of radii in the calcium region (Z $\\approx$ 20). Contrary to all major neutron shell closures with N $\\geq$ 28, the N = 20 shell closure causes no significant slope change in the development of the radii. Information from the hyperfine structure of the odd-A isotopes includes includes the magnetic moments of $^{33}$Ar (I=1/2) and $^{39}$Ar (I=7/2), and the quadrupole moments of $^{35}$Ar, $^{37}$Ar (I=3/2) and $^{39}$Ar. The electromagnetic moments are compared to shell-model predictions fo...
Closed forms and multi-moment maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis
2013-01-01
We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are gu...
Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings
Margulis, V. A.; Karpunin, V. V.; Mironova, K. I.
2018-01-01
Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings is investigated. An analytical expression for the magnetic moment as a function of the magnetic field flux through the one-dimensional quantum rings is obtained. This expression has the oscillation character. The oscillation period is equal to one flux quanta.
6-quark contribution to nuclear magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, H.
1985-01-01
The magnetic moments of nuclei with LS closed shell +/-1 particle are calculated. Core polarization and meson exchange current are treated realistically in order to single out the 6-quark contribution. Overall agreement with experimental values is quite good. It is shown that the 6-quark system contributes to the respective iso-vector and iso-scalar moments with reasonable magnitudes
D-dimensional moments of inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, C.M.; Mead, L.R.
1995-01-01
We calculate the moments of inertia of D-dimensional spheres and spherical shells, where D is a complex number. We also examine the moments of inertia of fractional-dimensional geometrical objects such as the Cantor set and the Sierpinski carpet and their D-dimensional analogs. copyright 1995 American Association of Physics Teachers
Dynamical moments of inertia for superdeformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obikhod, T.V.
1995-01-01
The method of quantum groups has been applied for calculation the dynamical moments of inertia for the yrast superdeformed bands in 194 Hg and 192 Hg as well as to calculation of the dynamical moments of inertia of superdeformed bands in 150 Gd and 148 Gd
Droplet-model electric dipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.
1991-01-01
Denisov's recent criticism of the droplet-model formula for the dipole moment of a deformed nucleus as derived by Dorso et al., it shown to be invalid. This helps to clarify the relation of theory to the measured dipole moments, as discussed in the review article by Aberg et al. (orig.)
Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There
Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.
2015-01-01
In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S KH Mousavi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the design and simulation of quadrupole magnets and electron beam optical of that by CST Studio code has been studied. Based on simulation result the magnetic quadrupole has been done for using in beam line of first Iranian powerful electron accelerator. For making the suitable magnetic field the effects of material and core geometry and coils current variation on quadrupole magnetic field have been studied. For test of quadrupole magnet the 10 MeV beam energy and 0.5 pi mm mrad emittance of input beam has been considered. We see the electron beam through the quadrupole magnet focus in one side and defocus in other side. The optimum of distance between two quadrupole magnets for low emittance have been achieved. The simulation results have good agreement with experimental results
Compact quadrupole triplet for the S-DALINAC polarized electron injector SPIN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckardt, C.; Eichhorn, R.; Enders, J.; Hessler, C.; Poltoratska, Y. [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, W.; Mueller, W.F.O.; Steiner, B.; Weiland, T. [Inst. fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)
2007-07-01
An ultra compact quadrupole triplet for the S-DALINAC Polarized Electron Injector SPIN has been developed. This development is due to limiting spatial restrictions. Each individual quadrupole has a length of 8 mm, affixed by two 2 mm aluminum plates, resulting in a length of only 12 mm per quadrupole. The gaps between each quadrupole are set to 18 mm, therefore the complete triplet has a total length of only 72 mm. The quadrupole design includes a large aperture, suitable for CF 35 beam pipes. As fringe fields reach far info neighboring yokes, the assembly requires simulation by a beam dynamics tool for optimal weighting of the current excitation. Measurement of the magnetic field distribution is compared to numerical values and the quadrupole strength is calculated. (orig.)
Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.
1998-08-01
In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)
Isotopic dependence of the giant quadrupole resonance in the stable even-mass molybdenum nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moalem, A.; Gaillard, Y.; Bemolle, A.M.; Buenerd, M.; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; de Saintignon, P.
1979-01-01
Inelastic scattering of 110 MeV 3 He particles is used to probe the quadrupole strength in the even Mo isotopes. The peak position of the giant quadrupole resonance is found to decrease more rapidly than predicted by the A/sup -1/3/ law, a behavior very similar to that exhibited by the photonuclear giant dipole resonance. The width and strength of the giant quadrupole resonance are practically constant in 92 Mo through 100 Mo