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Sample records for static batch conditions

  1. Virus inactivation in the presence of quartz sand under static and dynamic batch conditions at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V; Aravantinou, Andriana F

    2012-09-30

    Virus inactivation is one of the most important factors that controls virus fate and transport in the subsurface. In this study the inactivation of viruses in the presence of quartz sand was examined. The bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 were used as model viruses. Experiments were performed at 4°C and 20°C, under constant controlled conditions, to investigate the effect of virus type, temperature, sand size, and initial virus concentration on virus inactivation. The experimental virus inactivation data were satisfactorily represented by a pseudo-first order expression with time-dependent rate coefficients. Furthermore, the results indicated that virus inactivation was substantially affected by the ambient temperature and initial virus concentration. The inactivation rate of MS2 was shown to be greater than that of ΦX174. However, the greatest inactivation was observed for MS2 without the presence of sand, at 20°C. Sand surfaces offered protection against inactivation especially under static conditions. However, no obvious relationship between sand particle size and virus inactivation could be established from the experimental data. Moreover, the inactivation rates were shown to increase with decreasing virus concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction between viruses and clays in static and dynamic batch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2010-06-15

    Bacteriophage MS2 and PhiX174 were used as surrogates for human viruses in order to investigate the interaction between viruses and clay particles. The selected phyllosilicate clays were kaolinite and bentonite (>90% montmorillonite). A series of static and dynamic experiments were conducted at two different temperatures (4 and 25 degrees C) to investigate the effect of temperature and agitation (dynamic experiments) on virus adsorption onto clays. Appropriate adsorption isotherms were determined. Electrokinetic features of bacteriophages and clays were quantified at different pH and ionic strength (IS). Moreover, interaction energies between viruses and clays were calculated for the experimental conditions (pH 7 and IS = 2 mM) by applying the DLVO theory. The experimental results shown that virus adsorption increases linearly with suspended virus concentration. The observed distribution coefficient (K(d)) was higher for MS2 than PhiX174. The observed K(d) values were higher for the dynamic than static experiments, and increased with temperature. The results of this study provided basic information for the effectiveness of clays to remove viruses by adsorption from dilute aqueous solutions. No previous study has explored the combined effect of temperature and agitation on virus adsorption onto clays.

  3. Biotransformation of sweet lime pulp waste into high-quality nanocellulose with an excellent productivity using Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37 under static intermittent fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, R P

    2017-09-15

    Herein, sweet lime pulp waste (SLPW) was utilized as a low- or no-cost feedstock for the production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) alone and in amalgamation with other nutritional supplements by the isolate K. europaeus SGP37 under static batch and static intermittent fed-batch cultivation. The highest yield (26.2±1.50gL-1) was obtained in the hot water extract of SLPW supplemented with the components of HS medium, which got further boosted to 38±0.85gL-1 as the cultivation strategy was shifted from static batch to static intermittent fed-batch. BNC obtained from various SLPW medium was similar or even superior to that obtained with standard HS medium in terms of its physicochemical properties. The production yields of BNC thus obtained are significantly higher and fit well in terms of industrial scale production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decolorization efficiency of Funalia trogii under static condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of physical conditions (pH and temperature), carbon and nitrogen source on decolorization of Reactive black 5 (RB5) by Funalia trogii were investigated under the static condition. Optimization of temperature and pH were also examined. Moreover, two different carbon sources (sucrose and starch), four different ...

  5. Interaction between viruses and clays in static and dynamic batch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngouna, V. I.; Chrysikopoulos, C. V.

    2009-04-01

    The transport and fate of viruses in subsurface formations are mainly governed by virus attachment onto the solid matrix and inactivation. Furthermore, virus attachment onto clay colloids is primarily controlled by electrostatic interactions between surfaces. Consequently, bacteriophage MS2 and ΦX174 were used as surrogates for human viruses in order to investigate the interaction between viruses and clay particles. The selected phyllosilicate clays were kaolinite and bentonite. Numerous reactor vessels were filled with 0.5 g of clay and 50 mL of sterile phosphate buffered saline solution (1.2 mM sodium chloride, 0.027 mM potassium chloride, and 0.1 mM phosphate buffer salts) and adjusted to a pH of 7. A series of static and dynamic experiments for various bacteriophage concentrations were conducted at two different temperatures. Half of the reactor vessels were placed in a refrigerator at 4

  6. Lactate and acrylate metabolism by Megasphaera elsdenii under batch and steady-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Rupal; Altman, Elliot; Eiteman, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    The growth of Megasphaera elsdenii on lactate with acrylate and acrylate analogues was studied under batch and steady-state conditions. Under batch conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and propionate, and acrylate was converted into propionate. Acrylate analogues 2-methyl propenoate and 3-butenoate containing a terminal double bond were similarly converted into their respective saturated acids (isobutyrate and butyrate), while crotonate and lactate analogues 3-hydroxybutyrate and (R)-2-hydroxybutyrate were not metabolized. Under carbon-limited steady-state conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and butyrate with no propionate formed. As the acrylate concentration in the feed was increased, butyrate and hydrogen formation decreased and propionate was increasingly generated, while the calculated ATP yield was unchanged. M. elsdenii metabolism differs substantially under batch and steady-state conditions. The results support the conclusion that propionate is not formed during lactate-limited steady-state growth because of the absence of this substrate to drive the formation of lactyl coenzyme A (CoA) via propionyl-CoA transferase. Acrylate and acrylate analogues are reduced under both batch and steady-state growth conditions after first being converted to thioesters via propionyl-CoA transferase. Our findings demonstrate the central role that CoA transferase activity plays in the utilization of acids by M. elsdenii and allows us to propose a modified acrylate pathway for M. elsdenii.

  7. Study of the adsorption of mercury (II) on lignocellulosic materials under static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Arias, Fabian E; Beneduci, Amerigo; Chidichimo, Francesco; Furia, Emilia; Straface, Salvatore

    2017-08-01

    WHO has declared mercury as one of the most dangerous pollutants for human health. Unfortunately, several cases of rivers and aquifers contaminated by mercury inevitably poses the problem on how to remediate them. Considerable efforts are being addressed to develop cost-effective methodologies, among which the use of low-cost adsorbing materials. In this paper, the adsorption performances of an alternative lignocellulosic material derived from the Spanish broom plant, are presented. This plant is widely diffused in the world and its usage for Hg(II) removal from water in real working conditions requires only minimal pretreatment steps. A thoroughly investigation on the kinetics and thermodynamics of Hg(II) adsorption on Spanish broom is presented, by using Hg(II) polluted aqueous solutions specifically prepared in order to simulate typical groundwater conditions. Several batch experiments, under static conditions, were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, temperature. A maximum adsorption capacity of 20 mg L -1 can be obtained at pH 5, following a pseudo second order kinetics. Moreover, adsorption experiments in dynamic conditions were carried out using Spanish broom filters. Interestingly, a systematic, unconventional double S-shape breakthrough curve was observed under different experimental conditions, revealing the occurrence of two adsorption processes with different time scales. This behavior has been fitted by a bimodal Thomas model which, unlike the single Thomas fitting, gives satisfactory results with the introduction of a new parameter related to the fraction of surface active sites involved in the adsorption processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Operational conditions for successful partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based on process kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Kim, Mingu; Nakhla, George

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using kinetic models. During the 4-month operation, dissolved oxygen (DO) and influent ammonia concentration were selected as operating variables to evaluate nitrite accumulation. Stable partial nitrification was observed with two conditions, influent ammonia concentration of 190 mg N/L and a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg/L as well as influent ammonia concentration of 100 mg N/L and a DO of 0.15-2.0 mg/L with intermittent aeration. At a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg O 2 /L and influent ammonia concentration of 90 mg N/L, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria growth was not suppressed. Kinetic parameters were determined or estimated with batch tests and model simulation. The kinetic model predicted the SBR performance well.

  9. Examination of Technetium Transport Through Soils Under Contrasting Redox Conditions: Batch and Column Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, R.; Montgomery, D.; Wylie, E. M.; Dogan, M.; Moysey, S. M.; Powell, B. A.; Martinez, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments were performed under various reducing conditions to evaluate the transport behavior of technetium-99 (99Tc) in the presence of sandy clay loam soil from the Savannah River Site (SRS) and goethite, magnetite, and iron sulfide, which were selected for their increasing reducing potential. The experiments were conducted to investigate how redox reaction equilibria and rates affect the overall mobility of 99Tc as it transitions between the mobile Tc(VII) and immobile Tc(IV). Under oxygen-rich conditions, batch sorption isotherms measured for TcO4- across the concentration range 0.5 to 50 μg/L were linear with distribution coefficients (Kd) of 0.78 mL/g or lower, with decreasing sorption for goethite, magnetite, and iron sulfide, respectively. Addition of Na2S resulted in a marked increase in apparent 99Tc sorption to the solid phase, with Kd of 43 mL/g, 35 mL/g, and 29 mL/g, following the same mineral trend as previously. The increased Kd values are possibly due to reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), resulting in the formation of TcO2(s). SRS soil batch sorption isotherms measured for TcO4- across the same concentration range were also linear, with Kd of 0.7 mL/g for unadjusted pH, 5.1 mL/g for pH of around 6, and 6.7 mL/g for pH of around 4. Kinetic batch sorption tests showed less than 10% 99Tc sorption in an oxidizing environment and greater than 95% sorption in a reducing environment, with both reactions occurring on the order of minutes. In contrast, desorption experiments initiated by transferring the samples from a reducing environment (0.1% H2(g)/99.9% N2(g)) to atmospheric conditions resulted in a slow desorption step on the order of days. Column experiments conducted with the SRS sands indicate a retardation factor of 1.17 for 99Tc under oxygen rich conditions. Additional column experiments are being conducted to evaluate 99Tc transport dependencies on transitions between oxygen rich and poor conditions.

  10. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2016-01-01

    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  11. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Lauren B., E-mail: lstadler@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Su, Lijuan, E-mail: lijuansu@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Moline, Christopher J., E-mail: christopher.moline@hdrinc.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ernstoff, Alexi S., E-mail: alexer@dtu.dk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Aga, Diana S., E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Love, Nancy G., E-mail: nglove@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical fate was studied in SBRs operated at different redox conditions. • Stable carbon oxidation and nitrification occurred under microaerobic conditions. • Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest under fully aerobic conditions. • Loss of sulfamethoxazole was highest under microaerobic conditions. • Deconjugation occurred during treatment to form sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine. - Abstract: We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss.

  12. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Lauren B.; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated......We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox...... of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss....

  13. Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Shen, Fei; Su, Yi; Khan, Rashid; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-07-01

    Bacillus coagulans IPE22 was used to produce lactic acid (LA) from mixed sugar and wheat straw hydrolysates, respectively. All fermentations were conducted under non-sterilized conditions and sodium hydroxide was used as neutralizing agent to avoid the production of insoluble CaSO4. In order to eliminate the sequential utilization of mixed sugar and feedback inhibition during batch fermentation, membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was used to improve LA productivity. With MIRB, a high cell density was obtained and the simultaneous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose was successfully realized. The separation of LA from broth by membrane in batch fermentation also decreased feedback inhibition. MIRB was carried out using wheat straw hydrolysates (29.72 g/L glucose, 24.69 g/L xylose and 5.14 g/L arabinose) as carbon source, LA productivity was increased significantly from 1.01 g/L/h (batch 1) to 2.35 g/L/h (batch 6) by the repeated batch fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Survey of Sorption Ion-Exchange Properties of Paleozoic Natural Minerals in the Static Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanova, T. V.; Nefedov, V. A.; Valieva, I. R.

    2017-05-01

    An experimental and exploring process’ results of iron’s ion, manganese and ammonium sodium extraction from aqueous solution by some Ural’s natural minerals in a static regime at certain physicochemical conditions: by the zeolite, montmorillonite and vermiculite in the static conditions. Values of maximum sorption capacity are estimated on a gram of natural sorbents for the present conditions. Comparison of the survey’s results shows that effective sorptions from exploring natural minerals can be used as a clinoptilolite and zeolite-mineral montmorillonite type.

  15. The effect of interactions between a bacterial strain isolated from drinking water and a pathogen surrogate on biofilms formation diverged under static vs flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, D; Raskin, L; Xi, C

    2017-12-01

    Interactions with water bacteria affect the incorporation of pathogens into biofilms and thus pathogen control in drinking water systems. This study was to examine the impact of static vs flow conditions on interactions between a pathogen and a water bacterium on pathogen biofilm formation under laboratory settings. A pathogen surrogate Escherichia coli and a drinking water isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was selected for this study. Biofilm growth was examined under two distinct conditions, in flow cells with continuous medium supply vs in static microtitre plates with batch culture. E. coli biofilm was greatly stimulated (c. 2-1000 times faster) with the presence of S. maltophilia in flow cells, but surprisingly inhibited (c. 65-95% less biomass) in microtitre plates. These divergent effects were explained through various aspects including surface attachment, cellular growth, extracellular signals and autoaggregation. Interactions with the same water bacterium resulted in different effects on E. coli biofilm formation when culture conditions changed from static to flow. This study highlights the complexity of species interactions on biofilm formation and suggests that environmental conditions such as the flow regime can be taken into consideration for the management of microbial contamination in drinking water systems. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Nutrient removal in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands under batch and continuous flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Tan, Soon Keat; Gersberg, Richard M; Zhu, Junfei; Sadreddini, Sara; Li, Yifei

    2012-04-15

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of batch versus continuous flow on the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (TP) in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CW). The quantitative role of the higher aquatic plants in nutrient removal in these two operational modes was also investigated. Results indicated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in COD removal between batch and continuous flow modes for either the planted or unplanted treatments. Furthermore, the batch-loaded planted wetlands showed significantly (p hydraulic retention time (HRT), the presence of plants significantly enhanced both ammonia oxidation and TP removal in both batch and continuous modes of operation as compared to that for unplanted beds. An estimation of the quantitative role of aeration from drain and fill operation at a 4-day HRT, as compared to rhizosphere aeration by the higher aquatic plant, indicated that drain and fill operation might account for only less than half of the higher aquatic plant's quantitative contribution of oxygen (1.55 g O2 per m2 per day for batch flow versus 1.13 g O2 per m2 per day for continuous flow). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D shoulder kinematics for static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Allard, Paul; Godbout, Véronique; Begon, Mickael

    2015-09-18

    Shoulder motion analysis provides clinicians with references of normal joint rotations. Shoulder joints orientations assessment is often based on series of static positions, while clinicians perform either passive or active tests and exercises mostly in dynamic. These conditions of motion could modify joint coordination and lead to discrepancies with the established references. Hence, the objective was to evaluate the influence of static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions on shoulder joints orientations. Twenty asymptomatic subjects setup with 45 markers on the upper limb and trunk were tracked by an optoelectronic system. Static positions (30°, 60°, 90° and 120° of thoracohumeral elevation) and dynamic motion both in active condition and passively mobilised by an examiner were executed. Three-dimensional sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joint angles (12 in total) representing the distal segment orientation relative to the proximal segment orientation were estimated using a shoulder kinematical chain model. Separate four-way repeated measures ANOVA were applied on the 12 joint angles with factors of static vs dynamic, passive vs active, thoracohumeral elevation angle (30°, 60°, 90° and 120°) and plane of elevation (frontal and sagittal). Scapulothoracic lateral rotation progressed more during arm elevation in static than in dynamic gaining 4.2° more, and also in passive than in active by 6.6°. Glenohumeral elevation increased more during arm elevation in active than in passive by 4.4°. Shoulder joints orientations are affected by the testing conditions, which should be taken into consideration for data acquisition, inter-study comparison or clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis under static growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Elaine M; McCarthy, Hannah; Hogan, Siobhan; Zapotoczna, Marta; O'Neill, Eoghan; O'Gara, James P

    2014-01-01

    Rapid screening of biofilm forming capacity by Staphylococcus epidermidis is possible using in vitro assays with 96-well plates. This method first developed by Christensen et al. in 1985 is fast and does not require specialized instruments. Thus, laboratories with standard microbiology infrastructure and a 96-well plate reader can easily use this technique to generate data on the biofilm phenotypes of multiple S. epidermidis strains and clinical isolates. Furthermore, this method can be adapted to gain insights into biofilm regulation and the characteristics of biofilms produced by different S. epidermidis isolates. Although this assay is extremely useful for showing whether individual strains are biofilm-positive or biofilm-negative and distinguishing between form weak, moderate or strong biofilm, it is important to acknowledge that the absolute levels of biofilm produced by an individual strain can vary significantly between experiments meaning that strict adherence to the protocol used is of paramount importance. Furthermore, measuring biofilm under static conditions does not generally reflect in vivo conditions in which bacteria are often subjected to shear stresses under flow conditions. Hence, the biofilm characteristics of some strains are dramatically different under flow and static conditions. Nevertheless, rapid measurement of biofilm production under static conditions is a useful tool in the analysis of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype.

  19. Argument structure effects in action verb naming in static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Fix, Steve; Parrish, Todd B; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2009-03-01

    Argument structure, as in the participant roles entailed within the lexical representation of verbs, affects verb processing. Recent neuroimaging studies show that when verbs are heard or read, the posterior temporoparietal region shows increased activation for verbs with greater versus lesser argument structure complexity, usually bilaterally. In addition, patients with agrammatic aphasia show verb production deficits, graded based on argument structure complexity. In the present study, we used fMRI to examine the neural correlates of verb production in overt action naming conditions. In addition, we tested the differential effects of naming when verbs were presented dynamically in video segments versus statically in line drawings. Results showed increased neuronal activity associated with production of transitive as compared to intransitive verbs not only in posterior regions, but also in left inferior frontal cortex. We also found significantly greater activation for transitive versus intransitive action naming for videos compared to pictures in the right inferior and superior parietal cortices, areas associated with object manipulation. These findings indicate that verbs with greater argument structure density engender graded activation of both anterior and posterior portions of the language network and support verb naming deficit patterns reported in lesion studies. In addition, the similar findings derived under video and static picture naming conditions provide validity for using videos in neuroimaging studies, which are more naturalistic and perhaps ecologically valid than using static pictures to investigate action naming.

  20. Influence of static and cyclic climate condition on bending properties of wood plastic composites (WPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood and natural fiber reinforced plastic composites are established for several fields like decking, transportation and automotive applications. In the last decade, extensive researches were conducted to improve the mechanical properties, such as incorporating additives like maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAH-PP. The major challenge is to keep the properties in face of the environmental influence the parts are exposed to. Therefore it’s necessary to find the hardest impact factor concerning the mechanical properties. Water absorption (static and cyclic of the composites was examined at two different temperatures (23, 50°C. A correlation between duration, kind of conditioning, temperature and modification was established. The results indicate that the coupling agent MAH-PP improved significantly the water resistance of the wood plastic composites under climatic conditions and higher temperature accelerated the rate of water absorption of the composites. The decrease of mechanical properties related to cyclic conditions is partially reversible and therefore the cyclic exposition shows less effects compared to static conditions.

  1. Electrochemical study of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells under fed-batch and continuous flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2014-07-01

    Power production of four hydraulically connected microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was compared with the reactors operated using individual electrical circuits (individual), and when four anodes were wired together and connected to four cathodes all wired together (combined), in fed-batch or continuous flow conditions. Power production under these different conditions could not be made based on a single resistance, but instead required polarization tests to assess individual performance relative to the combined MFCs. Based on the power curves, power produced by the combined MFCs (2.12 ± 0.03 mW, 200 ω) was the same as the summed power (2.13 mW, 50 ω) produced by the four individual reactors in fed-batch mode. With continuous flow through the four MFCs, the maximum power (0.59 ± 0.01 mW) produced by the combined MFCs was slightly lower than the summed maximum power of the four individual reactors (0.68 ± 0.02 mW). There was a small parasitic current flow from adjacent anodes and cathodes, but overall performance was relatively unaffected. These findings demonstrate that optimal power production by reactors hydraulically and electrically connected can be predicted from performance by individual reactors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the acid properties of aluminossilicate MCM-22 material synthesized under static conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Meiry G. F.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal synthesis of MCM-22 zeolite was carried out using silica, sodium aluminate and hexamethyleneimine, under static conditions at 150 °C for a period of 10 days, followed by washing with deionized water, drying overnight and calcination at 650 °C. The obtained material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The XRD analysis evidenced that MCM-22 presented a well defined MWW structure. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the efficiency of the hexamethyleneimine as an organic template used to direct the structure of the MCM-22 zeolite under static conditions. The SEM image indicated that the particles are spherical in shape, with a diameter of ca. 10 μm. The acid properties of the MCM-22 zeolite, as determined by n-buthylamine adsorption, were investigated in the temperature ranges of 105 to 300 °C and 300 to 525 °C, relative to medium and strong acid sites, respectively.

  3. Determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in pure solutions and some of its pharmaceutical preparations under batch and FIA conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T; Hussein, Salwa H

    2003-08-01

    New ambroxol (Amb) ion selective plastic membrane electrodes of both conventional and coated graphite types based on the ion-pair of ambroxolium tetraphenylborate (Amb-TPB) ion-pair are prepared. The conventional type electrode was fully characterized in terms of membrane composition, life span, pH, ionic strength and temperature. It was applied to potentiometric determination of ambroxol in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow injection conditions. The potentiometric determination was used in the determination of ambroxol in muco syrup in four batches of different expiry dates, also the amounts of ambroxol released after 1, 8 and 16 h from the muco sustained release type (S.R.) capsules were also assayed. The selectivity of the electrode toward a large number of excipient like inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids was tested. The solubility product of the ion-pair and the formation constant of the precipitation reaction leading to the ion-pair formation were determined conductimetrically.

  4. Biomass and lipid production from Nannochloropsis oculata growth in raceway ponds operated in sequential batch mode under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Oropeza, Aarón; Fernández-Linares, Luis

    2017-11-01

    The effect of sequential batch cultures of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata on lipid and biomass production was studied in 200-L raceway ponds for 167 days (nine harvesting cycles) during winter and spring seasons under greenhouse conditions. The highest biomass concentration and productivity were 1.2 g/L and 49.8 mg/L/day on days 73 (5th cycle) and 167 (9th cycle), respectively. The overall interval of lipid production was between 131 and 530 mg/L. Despite the daily and seasonal variations of light irradiance (0-1099 μmol photon/m2 s), greenhouse temperature (2.1-50.7 °C), and culture temperature (12.5-31.4 °C), ANOVA analysis showed no statistical difference (p value > 0.01) on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAMES) composition over the nine harvesting cycles evaluated. The most abundant FAMES were palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and palmitoleic (C16:1∆9) acids with 37.1, 28.6, and 8.4 %, respectively. The sequential batch cultures of N. oculata in raceway ponds showed an increasing biomass production in each new cycle while keeping the quality of the fatty acid mixture under daily and seasonal variations of light irradiance and temperature.

  5. Thermal runaway detection of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion battery under quasi-static loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Muhammad; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Elkady, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on state of charge (SOC) dependent mechanical failure analysis of 18650 lithium-ion battery to detect signs of thermal runaway. Quasi-static loading conditions are used with four test protocols (Rod, Circular punch, three-point bend and flat plate) to analyse the propagation of mechanical failures and failure induced temperature changes. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to model single battery cell with the concentric layered formation which represents a complete cell. The numerical simulation model is designed with solid element formation where stell casing and all layers followed the same formation, and fine mesh is used for all layers. Experimental work is also performed to analyse deformation of 18650 lithium-ion cell. The numerical simulation model is validated with experimental results. Deformation of cell mimics thermal runaway and various thermal runaway detection strategies are employed in this work including, force-displacement, voltage-temperature, stress-strain, SOC dependency and separator failure. Results show that cell can undergo severe conditions even with no fracture or rupture, these conditions may slow to develop but they can lead to catastrophic failures. The numerical simulation technique is proved to be useful in predicting initial battery failures, and results are in good correlation with the experimental results.

  6. Hydraulic performance and fouling characteristics of a membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) for landfill leachate treatment under various operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsis, Petros; Tsilogeorgis, Jason; Zouboulis, Anastasios

    2017-09-13

    This study investigates the hydraulic performance and the fouling characteristics of a bench-scale membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR), treating mature landfill leachate under various time-based operating conditions. The MSBR system operated initially under a high-flux condition (Period 1) which resulted in a rapid trans-membrane pressure (TMP) rise due to intense fouling. Following the characterization of Period 1 as super-critical, the system was subsequently operated under a near-critical condition (Period 2). The overall filtration resistance analysis showed that cake layer formation was the dominant fouling mechanism during Period 1, contributing to 85.5% of the total resistance. However, regarding the MSBR operation during Period 2, adsorption was found to also be a dominant fouling mechanism (Days 1 to 47), contributing to 29.1% of the total resistance. Additionally, the irregular total resistance variation, which was observed during the subsequent operation (Days 48 to 75), and the respective filtration resistance analysis suggested also the formation of an initial sludge cake layer on the membrane surface, contributing to the 47.7% of the total resistance.

  7. Pressure Balance Characteristic of a Double Structure Blade under Quasi-Statically Reciprocal Loading Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Darulihsan Abdul; Nagasawa, Shigeru; Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Kojima, Kiyoshi; Hine, Akira

    One of the blades that are widely used for cutting of paperboard in paperboard converting industry is called ‘double structure blade’. Other than a hardened center bevel cutting tip, this blade has a soft tapered bottom for pressure adjustment. This paper reports on pressure balance characteristics of this blade under a quasi-static reciprocal loading condition in small number of cutting using a crank type press machine that has four load cells mounted under its cutting table. From this research, the following results were observed: (1) The four load cells force difference method was proposed in order to evaluate pressure unbalance of a blade under reciprocal loading condition. (2) A plastic deformation has occurred on the blade bottom tip at a certain applied force and has resulted in reducing the crank machine force balance. (3) In any number of cutting, the first cutting was found to have the biggest load cell force different (max-min) before stabilizing in the subsequent cutting. (4) The blade bottom tip pressure has decreased at certain applied forces caused by upsetting and lateral bending deformation of the bottom tip. (5) The blade crushed tip thickness tangency measured along its cutting line has showed reducing at a certain high applied forces caused by the cutting tip hazard layer and the bottom tip plastic crushing.

  8. Nitrous oxide production from sequencing batch reactor sludge under nitrifying conditions: effect of nitrite concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youkui; Wang, Shuying; Wang, Sai; Peng, Yongzhen

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas which contributes to the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer, can be emitted from nitrifying processes during wastewater treatment. The pathway of N2O production was studied using a lab-scale nitrifying reactor. Allylthiourea was used to inhibit NH4+ oxidation and provide information on processes that happen under nitrifying condition. Our study confirmed that besides heterotrophic bacteria, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria could perform denitrification processes, during which NO2- was the electron acceptor and NH4+ was the electron donor, with N2 and N2O as final products. The relative contribution of the heterotrophic denitrification process to total N2O emissions varied from 46.1% to 60.4% depending on NO2(-)-N addition. Correspondingly, 21.8% to 51.5% of total N2O emissions can be attributed to nitrifier denitrification. Little N2O is emitted during the NO2- oxidation process.

  9. Production of functional killer protein in batch cultures upon a shift from aerobic to anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildo Almeida da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of functional protein in yeast culture. The cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Embrapa 1B (K+R+ killed a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Embrapa 26B (K-R-in grape must and YEPD media. The lethal effect of toxin-containing supernatant and the effect of aeration upon functional killer production and the correlation between the products of anaerobic metabolism and the functional toxin formation were evaluated. The results showed that at low sugar concentration, the toxin of the killer strain of Sacch. cerevisiae was only produced under anaerobic conditions . The system of killer protein production showed to be regulated by Pasteur and Crabtree effects. As soon as the ethanol was formed, the functional killer toxin was produced. The synthesis of the active killer toxin seemed to be somewhat associated with the switch to fermentation process and with concomitant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH activity.

  10. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from phenol in an acclimated consortium: Batch study and impacts of operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wusiman, Apiredan; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, JooHwa

    2018-01-02

    Microbial intracellular biopolymer PHA was synthesized from toxic pollutant phenol by an acclimated consortium. Various operational conditions were experimented for their effects on biomass growth and PHA accumulation. Carbon to nitrogen ratios from 5 to 40 (w/w) showed little impact, as did the levels of Fe, Ca and Mg in a short term. Acidic pH inhibited both growth and PHA synthesis, and an optimal dissolved oxygen level of 1-4 mg L-1 was identified. Low temperature (7 °C) significantly slowed but did not totally repress microbial activities. A 2% NaCl shock retarded reactions and 4% NaCl caused irreversible damage. Various initial phenol (S0) and biomass concentrations (X0) were combined to study the effect of food to microbe (F/M) ratio. High S0 and F/M exerted toxicity, reducing reaction rates but generating higher ultimate PHA wt% in biomass. Increasing X0 alleviated phenol inhibition and improved productivity and carbon conversion from phenol. A pseudo-optimized F/M ratio of 0.2-0.4 and a maximum PHA% rate of 1.15% min-1 were identified under medium S0/high X0. This study is the first to systematically investigate the feasibility of toxic industrial waste as the carbon source for PHA production, and likely the only one indicating potential for scaling-up and industrialization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scaling capillary imbibition during static thermal and dynamic fracture flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babadagli, T. [Department of Petroleum and Min. Res. Eng., College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)

    2002-05-01

    To incorporate the effect of temperature, previously reported scaling formulations were modified considering the wettability, change in oil properties, and thermal expansion. The results of static imbibition experiments conducted using different types of heavy-oil samples at different temperatures up to 90 C were used to verify the formulation. The modified scaling formulations responded well if the thermal expansion effect is included, except in high-temperature crude oil imbibition cases. The results obtained through water injection experiments in artificially fractured core samples with matrix permeabilities ranging from 300 to 0.075 mD were used to verify the numerical model of core scale displacements. Then the convergence constant in Aranofsky's abstract recovery-time relationship was correlated to an imbibition group consisting of the injection rate and matrix properties. Three different formulations were presented and tested. Good agreement with the experimental observations could be achieved when the wettability and permeability of the matrix and the flow rate in fracture is included in the formulations. When the matrix size is included in the regression analysis, not all correlation types yielded a good agreement with the experimental data. This study will provide an insight into the scaling of the laboratory scale experiments to the reservoir conditions and constitute a base to define matrix fracture interaction in numerical models dealing with fractured reservoir modeling.

  12. Opto-mechanical coupling in interfaces under static and propagative conditions and its biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Shamit; Schneider, Matthias F

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes are vital for studying static and dynamic patterns and pattern formation in cell biology. Emission properties of the dyes incorporated in a biological interface are known to be sensitive to their local environment. We report that the fluorescence intensity of dye molecules embedded in lipid interfaces is indeed a thermodynamic observable of the system. Opto-mechanical coupling of lipid-dye system was measured as a function of the thermodynamic state of the interface. The corresponding state diagrams quantify the thermodynamic coupling between intensity I and lateral pressure π. We further demonstrate that the coupling is conserved upon varying the temperature T. Notably, the observed opto-mechanical coupling is not limited to equilibrium conditions, but also holds for propagating pressure pulses. The non-equilibrium data show, that fluorescence is especially sensitive to dynamic changes in state such as the LE-LC phase transition. We conclude that variations in the thermodynamic state (here π and T, in general pH, membrane potential V, etc also) of lipid membranes are capable of controlling fluorescence intensity. Therefore, interfacial thermodynamic state diagrams of I should be obtained for a proper interpretation of intensity data.

  13. Opto-mechanical coupling in interfaces under static and propagative conditions and its biological implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamit Shrivastava

    Full Text Available Fluorescent dyes are vital for studying static and dynamic patterns and pattern formation in cell biology. Emission properties of the dyes incorporated in a biological interface are known to be sensitive to their local environment. We report that the fluorescence intensity of dye molecules embedded in lipid interfaces is indeed a thermodynamic observable of the system. Opto-mechanical coupling of lipid-dye system was measured as a function of the thermodynamic state of the interface. The corresponding state diagrams quantify the thermodynamic coupling between intensity I and lateral pressure π. We further demonstrate that the coupling is conserved upon varying the temperature T. Notably, the observed opto-mechanical coupling is not limited to equilibrium conditions, but also holds for propagating pressure pulses. The non-equilibrium data show, that fluorescence is especially sensitive to dynamic changes in state such as the LE-LC phase transition. We conclude that variations in the thermodynamic state (here π and T, in general pH, membrane potential V, etc also of lipid membranes are capable of controlling fluorescence intensity. Therefore, interfacial thermodynamic state diagrams of I should be obtained for a proper interpretation of intensity data.

  14. Sorption of vanillin on highly basic anion exchanger under static conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholokhova, A. Yu.; Eliseeva, T. V.; Voronyuk, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of vanillin by a granulated anion exchanger is studied under static conditions. A comparison of the kinetic curves of the uptake of hydroxybenzaldehyde by gel and macroporous anion exchanger shows that macroporous sorbent has better kinetic characteristics. The effect temperature has on the capacity of an anion exchanger and the time needed to establish sorption equilibrium is found, and the activation energy of vanillin uptake is determined. Studying the effect experimental factors have on the rate of sorption and using the formal kinetics approach, it is established that in the investigated range of concentrations, the limiting stage of the uptake of vanillin by an anion exchanger with the functional groups of a quaternary ammonium base is that of external diffusion. Vanillin sorption by a highly basic anion exchanger in hydroxyl form is characterized by polymolecular uptake best described by a BET isotherm; at the same time, the uptake of sorbate by a chloride form is of a monomolecular character and can be described by a Freindlich isotherm. Structural changes in the anion exchanger sorbed hydroxybenzaldehyde are identified via FTIR spectroscopy.

  15. Dimensionamento do volume do reator seqüencial em batelada (RSB com enchimento estático Sizing of the sequential batch reactor (SBR with static filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altemar Vilar dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo propor uma metodologia de dimensionamento para o volume do RSB. O desenvolvimento do modelo matemático para calcular o volume do reator foi realizado a partir da modelagem fenomenológica do comportamento do lodo. A metodologia ora proposta foi aplicada em estudo de caso para comparação com metodologias já consolidadas no dimensionamento do sistema de lodos ativados em batelada. A partir da metodologia apresentada neste trabalho, a determinação do volume do reator e do ciclo operacional mostrou que é possível contribuir para o dimensionamento do RSB sem transgredir o conhecimento da ação do lodo sobre a matéria orgânica e sem admitir fluxo contínuo no comportamento hidráulico do reator.The purpose of this study was to propose a methodology for sizing SBR volumes. The mathematical model to calculate reactor volume was developed by modeling sludge behavior phenomena. The methodology proposed here was applied to a case study in order to compare it to already consolidated methods used to size the activated sludge batch system. The reactor volume and operational cycle were determined based on the method presented here, showing that it is possible to help size the SBR without challenging knowledge regarding the action of sludge on organic matter, and without allowing continuous flow into the hydraulic compartment of the reactor.

  16. Impact of ultrasonic pretreatment under different operational conditions on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake in batch mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cegrí, V; de la Rubia, M A; Raposo, F; Borja, R

    2012-09-01

    In this study ultrasonic (US) pretreatment was investigated with the aim of improving the anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), the solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. Five ultrasonic pretreatment assays were conducted at specific energy (SE) and sonication times in a range from 24,000 kJ/kg TS and 16.6 min (assay 1: US1) to 597,600 kJ/kg TS and 331.2 min (assay 5: US5), respectively, all operating at a constant sonication frequency (20 kHz) and ultrasonic power (120 W). As regards ultrasonic pretreatment, the working conditions of the first assay (US1) using samples of SuOC at 2% (w/v) showed to be the most appropriate in terms of both lignin and hemicellulose degradation (57.7% and 66.7%, respectively) and cellulose increase (54% increase with respect to its initial concentration). The percentage of COD solubilization increased from only 14% to 21% when SE was 25 times higher. Results obtained in batch anaerobic digestion experiments (biochemical methane potential - BMP - tests) conducted at 35°C of the solid and liquid fractions released from the different ultrasonic conditions tested, indicated that for the first experiment (US1) the average ultimate methane yield obtained was 53.8% higher than that achieved for untreated SuOC. Finally, the kinetic constants of the anaerobic digestion of the solid and liquid fractions released after the ultrasonic pretreatment were virtually independent of the operation conditions assayed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bio-hydrogen production from waste fermentation. Mixing and static conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, X.; Cuetos, M.J.; Prieto, J.I.; Moran, A. [Chemical Engineering Dept. IRENA, University of Leon, Avda. de Portugal 41, 24071 Leon (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    One of the main disadvantages of the dark fermentation process is the cost associated with the stages needed for obtaining H{sub 2} producing microorganisms. Using anaerobic microflora in fermentation systems directly is an alternative which is gaining special interest when considering the implementation of large-scale plants and the use of wastes as substrate material. The performance of two H{sub 2} producing microflora obtained from different anaerobic cultures was studied in this paper. Inoculum obtained from a waste sludge digester and from a laboratory digester treating slaughterhouse wastes were used to start up H{sub 2} fermentation systems. Inoculum acclimatized to slaughterhouse wastes gave better performance in terms of stability. However, due to the limited availability of this seed material, further work was performed to study the behaviour of the inoculum obtained from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. The process was evaluated under static and mixing conditions. It was found that application of a low organic loading rate favoured the performance of the fermentation systems, and that agitation of the reacting mass could alleviate unsteady performance. Specific H{sub 2} production obtained was in the range of 19-26 L/kg SV{sub fed} with maximum peak production of 38-67 L/kg SV{sub fed}. Although the performance of the systems was unsteady, recovery could be achieved by suspending the feeding process and controlling the pH in the range of 5.0-5.5. Testing the recovery capacity of the systems under temperature shocks resulted in total stoppage of H{sub 2} production. (author)

  19. Subharmonic contrast microbubble signals for noninvasive pressure estimation under static and dynamic flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Dave, Jaydev K; Leodore, Lauren M; Eisenbrey, John R; Park, Suhyun; Hall, Anne L; Thomenius, Kai; Forsberg, Flemming

    2011-07-01

    Our group has proposed the concept of subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) utilizing microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agent signals for the noninvasive estimation of hydrostatic blood pressures. An experimental system for in vitro SHAPE was constructed based on two single-element transducers assembled confocally at a 60 degree angle to each other. Changes in the first, second and subharmonic amplitudes of five different ultrasound contrast agents were measured in vitro at static hydrostatic pressures from 0-186 mmHg, acoustic pressures from 0.35-0.60 MPa peak-to-peak and frequencies of 2.5-6.6 MHz. The most sensitive agent and optimal parameters for SHAPE were determined using linear regression analysis and implemented on a Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). This implementation of SHAPE was then tested under dynamic-flow conditions and compared to pressure-catheter measurements. Over the pressure range studied, the first and second harmonic amplitudes reduced approximately 2 dB for all contrast agents. Over the same pressure range, the subharmonic amplitudes decreased by 9-14 dB and excellent linear regressions were achieved with the hydrostatic pressure variations (r = 0.98, p < 0.001). Optimal sensitivity was achieved at a transmit frequency of 2.5 MHz and acoustic pressure of 0.35 MPa using Sonazoid (GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway). A Logiq 9 scanner was modified to implement SHAPE on a convex transducer with a frequency range from 1.5-4.5 MHz and acoustic pressures from 0-3.34 MPa. Results matched the pressure catheter (r2 = 0.87). In conclusion, subharmonic contrast signals are a good indicator of hydrostatic pressure. Out of the five ultrasound contrast agents tested, Sonazoid was the most sensitive for subharmonic pressure estimation. Real-time SHAPE has been implemented on a commercial scanner and offers the possibility of allowing pressures in the heart and elsewhere to be obtained noninvasively.

  20. Microrheology: Structural evolution under static and dynamic conditions by simultaneous analysis of confocal microscopy and diffusing wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Yves; Paques, Marcel; Knaebel, Alexandra; Steyer, Alain; Munch, Jean-Pierre; Blijdenstein, Theo B. J.; van Aken, George A.

    2003-08-01

    An oscillatory shear configuration was developed to improve understanding of structural evolution during deformation. It combines an inverted confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and a special sample holder that can apply to the sample specific deformation: oscillatory shear or steady strain. In this configuration, a zero-velocity plane is created in the sample by moving two plates in opposite directions, thereby providing stable observation conditions of the structural behavior under deformation. The configuration also includes diffusion wave spectroscopy (DWS) to monitor the network properties via particle mobility under static and dynamic conditions. CSLM and DWS can be performed simultaneously and three-dimensional images can be obtained under static conditions. This configuration is mainly used to study mechanistic phenomena like particle interaction, aggregation, gelation and network disintegration, interactions at interfaces under static and dynamic conditions in semisolid food materials (desserts, dressings, sauces, dairy products) and in nonfood materials (mineral emulsions, etc.). Preliminary data obtained with this new oscillatory shear configuration are described that demonstrate their capabilities and the potential contribution to other areas of application also.

  1. User-friendly optimization approach of fed-batch fermentation conditions for the production of iturin A using artificial neural networks and support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fudi Chen

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: According to the modeling results, the GRNN is considered as the most suitable ANN model for the design of the fed-batch fermentation conditions for the production of iturin A because of its high robustness and precision, and the SVM is also considered as a very suitable alternative model. Under the tolerance of 30%, the prediction accuracies of the GRNN and SVM are both 100% respectively in repeated experiments.

  2. Adaptive Batch Mode Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shayok; Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2015-08-01

    Active learning techniques have gained popularity to reduce human effort in labeling data instances for inducing a classifier. When faced with large amounts of unlabeled data, such algorithms automatically identify the exemplar and representative instances to be selected for manual annotation. More recently, there have been attempts toward a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data points is simultaneously selected from an unlabeled set. Real-world applications require adaptive approaches for batch selection in active learning, depending on the complexity of the data stream in question. However, the existing work in this field has primarily focused on static or heuristic batch size selection. In this paper, we propose two novel optimization-based frameworks for adaptive batch mode active learning (BMAL), where the batch size as well as the selection criteria are combined in a single formulation. We exploit gradient-descent-based optimization strategies as well as properties of submodular functions to derive the adaptive BMAL algorithms. The solution procedures have the same computational complexity as existing state-of-the-art static BMAL techniques. Our empirical results on the widely used VidTIMIT and the mobile biometric (MOBIO) data sets portray the efficacy of the proposed frameworks and also certify the potential of these approaches in being used for real-world biometric recognition applications.

  3. Static and dynamic mechanical characteristic comparison research of v-type insulator string under gale condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. C.; Zhu, S. W.; Peng, B.; Duan, S. B.; Li, P.

    2017-04-01

    Application of V-type insulator string is most effective method in gale area to reduce wind deflection flashover, and dynamic characteristic of the V-type insulator string under action of pulse wind is an important factor to affect design of the V string. In order to clarify mechanical characteristic of the V-type insulator string under action of dynamic wind load, which is different to traditional rigid straight rod static mechanical method, finite element method is taken to calculate forcing of the V-type insulator string under action of pulse wind. Pulse wind speed time history with space relativity is considered and is converted to wind load time history, establishing non-linear finite element coupling model of insulator string - conductor, calculating mechanical characteristic of V-type insulator string under excitation of pulse wind, analyzing dynamic yield characteristic of the insulator under different angle of the V string, and providing theoretical basis for engineering design through comparison analysis between dynamic calculation result and static calculation result.

  4. High cell density lipid rich cultivation of a novel microalgal isolate Chlorella sorokiniana FC6 IITG in a single-stage fed-batch mode under mixotrophic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikram; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Das, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    A single-stage mixotrophic cultivation strategy was developed with a novel microalgal isolate Chlorella sorokiniana FC6 IITG for high cell density lipid-rich biomass generation. The strain was evaluated for growth and lipid content under different physico-chemical parameters, nutritional conditions and trophic modes. Finally, a single-stage mixotrophic fed-batch cultivation strategy was demonstrated with intermittent feeding of key nutrients along with dynamic increase in light intensity for high cell density biomass and sodium acetate as elicitor for lipid enrichment. The key findings: (i) glucose and sodium acetate was identified as growth supporting and lipid inducing nutrients, respectively; (ii) mixotrophic batch cultivation resulted in maximum biomass and lipid productivity (mgL(-1)day(-1)) of 455.5 and 111.85, respectively; (iii) single-stage mixotrophic fed-batch cultivation showed maximum biomass productivity of 1.93gL(-1)day(-1) (biomass titer 15.81gL(-1)) and lipid productivity of 550mgL(-1)day(-1); (iv) biodiesel properties were in accordance with international standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Finite element analysis for interfacial stress and fatigue behaviors of biomimetic titanium implant under static and dynamic loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangjian; Guo, Xiaoping; Li, Yimin; Li, Ting

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the stress distributions on implant-bone interface and fatigue behaviors of biomimetic titanium implant under static and dynamic loading conditions to provide theoretical basis for a new implant which may effectively transfer the stress to surrounding bones. A 3-D finite element model of a posterior mandible segment with an implant bone was constructed by a CAD (Pro/E Widefire 2.0) software. Two different implant models (a dense implant No.1 and a biomimetic implant No.2) were designed. The stress distributions on bone-implant interface under dynamic and static loading conditions were analyzed by Ansys Workbench 10.0 software, as well as the fatigue behavior of the biomimetic implant. The cervical cortical bones in the 2 implants were all high stress region under the same loading condition. The maximum von Mises stress on the interface and high-stress region in the cancellous bone region, and the maximum stress in the root region of the biomimetic implant were lower than those of the dense implant. The stress on the implant-bone interface decreased from the top to the bottom. The stress in the cervical cortical bone under the dynamic loading was 17.15% higher than that of the static loading. There was no significant difference in maximum stress at the cortical bone region between the dynamic and static loading conditions. The maximum stress of the dense implant in the cancellous bone region was 75.97% higher and that in the root region was 22.46% higher than that of the biomimetic implant. The maximum stress on the implant-bone interface was far less than the yield strength of pure titanium. The stress distribution in the cortical region of the biomimetic implant was 7.85% higher than that of the dense implant, and the maximum stress in the cortical bone was smaller than the yield stress of cortical bone. Within the dynamic loading of 50-300 N, the safety coefficient was all higher than 10, and with the increase of loading pressure, interface stress

  6. Modeling of fungal and bacterial spore germination under static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Micha; Normand, Mark D

    2013-11-01

    Isothermal germination curves, sigmoid and nonsigmoid, can be described by a variety of models reminiscent of growth models. Two of these, which are consistent with the percent of germinated spores being initially zero, were selected: one, Weibullian (or "stretched exponential"), for more or less symmetric curves, and the other, introduced by Dantigny's group, for asymmetric curves (P. Dantigny, S. P.-M. Nanguy, D. Judet-Correia, and M. Bensoussan, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 146:176-181, 2011). These static models were converted into differential rate models to simulate dynamic germination patterns, which passed a test for consistency. In principle, these and similar models, if validated experimentally, could be used to predict dynamic germination from isothermal data. The procedures to generate both isothermal and dynamic germination curves have been automated and posted as freeware on the Internet in the form of interactive Wolfram demonstrations. A fully stochastic model of individual and small groups of spores, developed in parallel, shows that when the germination probability is constant from the start, the germination curve is nonsigmoid. It becomes sigmoid if the probability monotonically rises from zero. If the probability rate function rises and then falls, the germination reaches an asymptotic level determined by the peak's location and height. As the number of individual spores rises, the germination curve of their assemblies becomes smoother. It also becomes more deterministic and can be described by the empirical phenomenological models.

  7. Mechanical properties and supporting effect of CRLD bolts under static pull test conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Hui-chen; He, Man-chao

    2017-01-01

    A device for supporting soft rock masses combined with a constant resistance structure characterized by constant resistance and large deformation at the end of a steel bar, known as the constant resistance and large deformation (CRLD) bolt, has recently been developed to counteract soft rock swelling that often occurs during deep mining. In order to further study the mechanical properties of the CRLD bolt, we investigated its mechanical properties by comparison with the conventional strength bolt (rebar) using static pull tests on many aspects, including supporting capacity, elongation, radial deformation, and energy absorption. The tests verified that the mechanical defects of the rebar, which include the decrease of bolt diameter, reduction of supporting capacity, and emergence and evolution of fracture until failure during the whole pull process, were caused by the Poisson's ratio effect. Due to the special structure set on the CRLD bolt, the bolt presents a seemingly unusual phenomenon of the negative Poisson's ratio effect, i.e., the diameter of the constant resistance structure increases while under-pulling. It is the very effect that ensures the extraordinary mechanical properties, including high resistance, large elongation, and strong energy absorption. According to the comparison and analysis of numerical simulation and field test, we can conclude that the CRLD bolt works better than the rebar bolt.

  8. Production of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2A by high density culture of Escherichia coli with stationary dissolved oxygen fed-batch condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Chen, C; Pu, Q; Chen, S

    1998-01-01

    The optimization of cultivation condition in 500 ml shake flasks was carried out to produce recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2A (BMP-2A) in recombinant Escherichia coli YK537/pDH-B2m, followed by a 5L fermenter batch and condition-controlled fed-batch culture to obtain BMP-2A. The comparison of these two methods indicated that cultivation by keeping dissolved oxygen at 30%-40% and limiting glucose concentration could obtain BMP-2A 2.78 g/L broth, the final cell density was OD600 53 (dry cell weight 21.2 g/L), and expressed BMP-2A was 25% of the total amount of protein in E.coli. The critical fermentation conditions included: (1) keeping appropriate dissolved oxygen concentration in the process; (2) limiting glucose concentration; (3) taking heat induction at the middle-log phase and maintaining 42 degrees C for 4 hours; (4) controlling specific growth rate around 0.3 h-1 in the duration of growth.

  9. Challenges of Cold Conditioning and Static Testing the Second Ares Demonstration Motor (DM-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Shyla; Davis, Larry C.

    2011-01-01

    On August 31, 2010, a five-segment demonstration motor (DM) for the Ares program was successfully tested. A series of demonstration motors (DMs) will be tested in different conditioned environments to confirm they meet their design specifications. The second demonstration motor (DM-2) was the first cold motor. The motor needed to be subjected to sub-freezing temperatures for two months so that its internal propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was approximately 40 F. Several challenges had to be overcome to make this a successful test. One challenge was to condition four field joints to get the O-rings approximately 32 F. This would be done by applying conditioning shrouds to externally cool each field joint after the test bay was pulled off. The purpose of this conditioning was to validate the new O-ring design and allow joint heaters to be eliminated. Another challenge was maintaining temperature requirements for components in the nozzle vectoring system. A separate heating system was used to warm these components during cold conditioning. There were 53 test objectives that required 764 channels of data to be recorded; 460 were specific to DM-2. This instrumentation had to be installed prior to conditioning, which meant the baseline process and timeline had to be modified to meet this time critical schedule.

  10. Use of a Viscous Flow Simulation Code for Static Aeroelastic Analysis of a Wing at High-Lift Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaydin, H. Dogus; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Nhan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a static aeroelastic analysis of a wind tunnel test model of a wing in high-lift configuration using a viscous flow simulation code. The model wing was tailored to deform during the tests by amounts similar to a composite airliner wing in highlift conditions. This required use of a viscous flow analysis to predict the lift coefficient of the deformed wing accurately. We thus utilized an existing static aeroelastic analysis framework that involves an inviscid flow code (Cart3d) to predict the deformed shape of the wing, then utilized a viscous flow code (Overflow) to compute the aerodynamic loads on the deformed wing. This way, we reduced the cost of flow simulations needed for this analysis while still being able to predict the aerodynamic forces with reasonable accuracy. Our results suggest that the lift of the deformed wing may be higher or lower than that of the non-deformed wing, and the washout deformation of the wing is the key factor that changes the lift of the deformed wing in two distinct ways: while it decreases the lift at low to moderate angles of attack simply by lowering local angles of attack along the span, it increases the lift at high angles of attack by alleviating separation.

  11. A one-loop study of matching conditions for static-light flavor currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Dirk [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Parma Univ. (Italy); Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2012-11-15

    Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) computations of semi-leptonic decays, e.g. B{yields}{pi}l{nu}, require the knowledge of the parameters in the effective theory for all components of the heavy-light flavor currents. So far non-perturbative matching conditions have been employed only for the time component of the axial current. Here we perform a check of matching conditions for the time component of the vector current and the spatial component of the axial vector current up to one-loop order of perturbation theory and to lowest order of the 1/m-expansion. We find that the proposed observables have small higher order terms in the 1/m-series and are thus excellent candidates for a non-perturbative matching procedure.

  12. Performance and microbial population dynamics during stable operation and reactivation after extended idle conditions in an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiulai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shilu; Zou, Zhuocheng; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of removal performance and bacterial population dynamics of an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor were investigated during stable operation and reactivation after prolonged storage. The system was run for a period of 130days including the stable condition phase, storage period and the subsequent reactivation process. Excellent removal performance was obtained during the stable operation period, which was decayed by the extended idle conditions. The removal efficiencies for both carbon and nitrogen decayed while phosphorus removal remained unaffected. Both granules structure and physical properties could be fully restored. Microbial populations shifted sharply and the storage perturbations irreversibly altered the microbial communities at different levels. Extracellular polymeric substances (especially protein) and key groups were identified as contributors for storage and re-startup of the aerobic granular system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Challenges of Cold Conditioning and Static Testing the Ares Demonstration Motor (DM-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Shyla; Davis, Larry C.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares first stage rocket is a "human-rated" motor capable of producing and sustaining 3.5 million pounds of thrust throughout it s two-minute burn period. A series of demonstration motors (DM) will be tested in different conditioned environments to confirm they meet all design specifications. The second demonstration motor (DM-2) was designated to be a "cold motor", this means the internal propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 40 +5\\-3 F. The motor was subjected to subfreezing temperatures for two months.

  14. Static flexural properties of hedgehog spines conditioned in coupled temperature and relative humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily B; Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Swift, Nathan B; Tan, Kwek-Tze

    2017-11-01

    Hedgehogs are agile climbers, scaling trees and plants to heights exceeding 10m while foraging insects. Hedgehog spines (a.k.a. quills) provide fall protection by absorbing shock and could offer insights for the design of lightweight, material-efficient, impact-resistant structures. There has been some study of flexural properties of hedgehog spines, but an understanding of how this keratinous biological material is affected by various temperature and relative humidity treatments, or how spine color (multicolored vs. white) affects mechanics, is lacking. To bridge this gap in the literature, we use three-point bending to analyze the effect of temperature, humidity, spine color, and their interactions on flexural strength and modulus of hedgehog spines. We also compare specific strength and stiffness of hedgehog spines to conventional engineered materials. We find hedgehog spine flexural properties can be finely tuned by modifying environmental conditioning parameters. White spines tend to be stronger and stiffer than multicolored spines. Finally, for most temperature and humidity conditioning parameters, hedgehog spines are ounce for ounce stronger than 201 stainless steel rods of the same diameter but as pliable as styrene rods with a slightly larger diameter. This unique combination of strength and elasticity makes hedgehog spines exemplary shock absorbers, and a suitable reference model for biomimicry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical Properties of High-Mn Austenitic Steel Tested under Static and Dynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to investigate X73MnSiAlNbTi25-1-3 high manganese austenitic steel containing 0.73% C to determine structural mechanisms decisive for increasing a reserve of cold deformation energy of such steel. The influence of a strain rate on the structure of the investigated steels and on the structural mechanisms decisive for their properties was analysed. Specialist research instrumentation was used for this purpose such as Scanning Transmission Microscopy (including EBSD examinations, conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy together with diffraction examinations and metallographic examinations. It was found that the principal cause of an increased reserve of cold deformation energy of the investigated steels in dynamic conditions is the activation of mechanical twinning in the mutually intersecting systems in austenite grains and annealing twins, which are densifying when a cold deformation rate is growing, thereby confirming the basic mechanism of TWIP (TWinning Induced Plasticity.

  16. Dental ceramics coated with bioactive glass: Surface changes after exposure in a simulated body fluid under static and dynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, L.; Kontonasaki, E.; Zorba, T.; Chatzistavrou, X.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K.; Sklavounos, S.; Koidis, P.

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive materials develop a strong bond with living tissues through a carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite layer, similar to that of bone. The fabrication of a thin bioactive glass coating on dental ceramics used in metal-ceramic restorations, could provide a bioactive surface, which in combination with a tissue regenerative technique could lead to periodontal tissues attachment. The aim of this study was the in vitro investigation of the surface structure changes of dental ceramics used in metal-ceramic restorations, coated with a bioactive glass heat-treated at 950 °C, after exposure in a simulated body fluid (SBF) under two different soaking conditions. Coating of dental ceramics with a bioactive glass resulted in the formation of a stable and well bonded with the ceramic substrate thin layer. The growth of a well-attached carbonate apatite layer on their surface after immersion in a simulated body fluid is well evidenced under both experimental conditions, although in static environment the rate of apatite growth is constant and the grown layers seem to be more dense and compact compared with the respective layers observed on specimens under dynamic conditions.

  17. Experimental Analysis of a 2-D Lightcraft in Static and Hypersonic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Minucci, Marco A. S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Rego, Israel S.; Toro, Paulo G. P.; Channes, José B.

    2010-05-01

    Aiming at the hypersonic phase of the Earth-to-Orbit trajectory for a laser propelled vehicle, a 2-D Lightcraft model was designed to be tested at the T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at the Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory for Aerodynamics and Hypersonics. A high energy laser pulse was supplied by a Lumonics TEA 620 laser system operating in unstable resonator cavity mode. The experiments were performed at quiescent (no flow) conditions and at a nominal Mach number of 9.2. A Schlieren visualization apparatus was used in order to access both the cold hypersonic flowfield structure (without laser deposition) and the time dependent flowfield structure, taking place after the laser induced breakdown inside the absorption chamber. The model was fitted with piezoelectric pressure transducers and surface junction thermocouples in an attempt to measure pressure and heat transfer time dependent distributions at the internal surfaces of the model's absorption chamber. The 2-D model followed a modular design for flexibility on the analysis of geometrical features contribution on the expansion of the laser induced blast wave. Finally, future evolution of the experiments being currently pursued is addressed.

  18. Determination of some significant batch culture conditions affecting acetyl-xylan esterase production by Penicillium notatum NRRL-1249

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar MN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetyl-xylan esterase (AXE, EC 3.1.1.72 hydrolyses acetate group from the linear chain of xylopyranose residues bound by β-1,4-linkage. The enzyme finds commercial applications in bio-bleaching of wood pulp, treating animal feed to increase digestibility, processing food to increase clarification and converting lignocellulosics to feedstock and fuel. In the present study, we report on the production of an extracellular AXE from Penicillium notatum NRRL-1249 by solid state fermentation (SSF. Results Wheat bran at a level of 10 g (with 4 cm bed height was optimized as the basal substrate for AXE production. An increase in enzyme activity was observed when 7.5 ml of mineral salt solution (MSS containing 0.1% KH2PO4, 0.05% KCl, 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.3% NaNO3, 0.001% FeSO4.2H2O and 0.1% (v/w Tween-80 as an initial moisture content was used. Various nitrogen sources including ammonium sulphate, urea, peptone and yeast extract were compared for enzyme production. Maximal enzyme activity of 760 U/g was accomplished which was found to be highly significant (p ≤ 0.05. A noticeable enhancement in enzyme activity was observed when the process parameters including incubation period (48 h, initial pH (5, 0.2% (w/w urea as nitrogen source and 0.5% (v/w Tween-80 as a stimulator were further optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. Conclusion From the results it is clear that an overall improvement of more than 35% in terms of net enzyme activity was achieved compared to previously reported studies. This is perhaps the first report dealing with the use of P. notatum for AXE production under batch culture SSF. The Plackett-Burman model terms were found highly significant (HS, suggesting the potential commercial utility of the culture used (df = 3, LSD = 0.126.

  19. Static and dynamic mooring analysis – Stability of floating production storage and offloading (FPSO risers for extreme environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ho Rho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Floating production storage and offloading (FPSO facilities are used at most of the offshore oil fields worldwide. FPSO usage is expected to grow as oil fields move to deeper water, thus requiring the reliability and stability of mooring wires and risers in extreme environmental conditions. Except for the case of predictable attack angles of external loadings, FPSO facilities with turret single point mooring (SPM systems are in general use. There are two types of turret systems: permanent systems and disconnectable turret mooring systems. Extreme environment criteria for permanent moorings are usually based on a 100-year return period event. It is common to use two or three environments including the 100-year wave with associated wind and current, and the 100-year wind with associated waves and current. When fitted with a disconnectable turret mooring system, FPSOs can be used in areas where it is desirable to remove the production unit from the field temporarily to prevent exposure to extreme events such as cyclones or large icebergs. Static and dynamic mooring analyses were performed to evaluate the stability of a spider buoy after disconnection from a turret during cyclone environmental conditions.

  20. Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans IPE22 was used to produce lactic acid (LA) from mixed sugar and wheat straw hydrolysates, respectively. All fermentations were conducted under non-sterilized conditions and sodium hydroxide was used as neutralizing agent to avoid the production of insoluble CaSO4. In order to e...

  1. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  2. Evaluation of quasi-static fracture characteristics considering surface conditions of silicon nitride for a space component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimoto, Y; Kitazono, K [Tokyo Metropolitan University Department of Aerospace Engineering, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065 (Japan); Motoyashiki, Y; Sato, E, E-mail: kakimoto.yuuki@acjaxa.j [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    ISAS/JAXA is now planning to adopt a thruster made of monolithic silicon nitride (SN282 manufactured by Kyocera Co.) onto a Venus exploration probe, PLANET-C, in replacement of conventional niobium heat-resistant alloy. Silicon nitride is still brittle and requires precise analysis on multiaxial thermal stresses induced during firing, though it has high toughness among other structural ceramics. This study evaluated quasi-static fracture characteristics of SN282 considering the surface conditions through compression-torsion biaxial fracture tests as well as the conventional four-point-bending tests. The samples were applied to the mechanical tests either as-ground or after annealing at 1300{sup 0}C in air for 1 h, which formed an oxidation layer of more than 250nm on the specimen surface. Symmetry four-point-bending tests showed that annealing improves flexure strength and reduce the difference caused by grinding directions. Biaxial stress fracture tests showed the high compressive stress makes the influence of facial crack insensitive.

  3. Effectiveness of solar disinfection using batch reactors with non-imaging aluminium reflectors under real conditions: Natural well-water and solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navntoft, C; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; McGuigan, K G; Fernández-Ibáñez, P

    2008-12-11

    Inactivation kinetics are reported for suspensions of Escherichia coli in well-water using compound parabolic collector (CPC) mirrors to enhance the efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS) for batch reactors under real, solar radiation (cloudy and cloudless) conditions. On clear days, the system with CPC reflectors achieved complete inactivation (more than 5-log unit reduction in bacterial population to below the detection limit of 4CFU/mL) one hour sooner than the system fitted with no CPC. On cloudy days, only systems fitted with CPCs achieved complete inactivation. Degradation of the mirrors under field conditions was also evaluated. The reflectivity of CPC systems that had been in use outdoors for at least 3 years deteriorated in a non-homogeneous fashion. Reflectivity values for these older systems were found to vary between 27% and 72% compared to uniform values of 87% for new CPC systems. The use of CPC has been proven to be a good technological enhancement to inactivate bacteria under real conditions in clear and cloudy days. A comparison between enhancing optics and thermal effect is also discussed.

  4. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices

  5. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis eHoneine

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a subtract or integrate sensory inputs, (b move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa, and (c adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1-2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training

  6. Effect of emulsion properties on release of esters under static headspace, in vivo, and artificial throat conditions in relation to sensory intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Jacobs, M.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of oil content and droplet size distributions of dilute oil-in-water emulsions on release of four esters with different hydrophobicities were studied under in vivo, static headspace, and artificial throat conditions. The effect of oil content on orthonasal and retronasal perceived

  7. Batch salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid mixture under isothermal, isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, R; Canterino, M; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R

    2006-12-01

    Runaway phenomena and thermal explosions can originate during the nitration of salicylic acid by means of a nitric acid/acetic acid mixture when the thermal control is lost, mainly as a result of the formation and thermal decomposition of picric acid. The prediction of the behaviour of this system is thus of great importance in view of possible industrial applications and the need to avoid the occurrence of unwanted dangerous events. During a previous investigation a model was developed to simulate its behaviour when the starting concentration of the substrate is too low, thus, preventing the precipitation of poor soluble intermediates. In this work this model is extended to deal with more concentrated systems even in case of a solid phase separating during the process. To this purpose the previously assessed dependence of the solubility of 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids upon temperature and nitric acid concentration is included in the model. It is assumed that when 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids are partially suspended in the reacting medium a kinetic regime of "dissolution with reaction" is established; that is, the redissolution of these species is a fast process compared to the successive nitration to give dinitroderivatives. Good results are obtained in the comparison of the experimental data with those calculated both in isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions when the revised model is used.

  8. Dissipative properties of materials with microplastic mechanism of damping under conditions of separate and joint action of static stresses and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpak, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Static stress and temperature are studied experimentally for their separate and joint effect on dissipative properties of VT3-1 and Ehp 718 alloys whose dissipation energy is conditioned by microplastic strains. The results of the study are presented. It is shown that for the materials studied in contrast to the materials with other basic damping mechanisms joint effect of static stresses and temperature is close to a simple summation of the separate effect of these factors without any changes in the character of energy dissipation dependence.

  9. Removal of diuron and amitrole from water under static and dynamic conditions using activated carbons in form of fibers, cloth, and grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ramón, M V; Fontecha-Cámara, M A; Alvarez-Merino, M A; Moreno-Castilla, C

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated the removal of the herbicides diuron and amitrole from water under static and dynamic conditions using different activated carbons in the form of fibers, cloth, and grains. In all cases, there was much greater adsorption of diuron than of amitrole due to the lower solubility, greater hydrophobicity, and larger dipolar moment of the former. The activated carbon cloth was the best adsorbent for diuron under dynamic conditions because it had the largest mesopore volume, water-accessible pore volume, and surface area. However, the best adsorbent for amitrole under dynamic conditions was the granular activated carbon due to its higher surface basicity. Comparisons using the best adsorbent for each herbicide showed that diuron was removed by the activated carbon more efficiently compared with amitrole under both dynamic and static conditions.

  10. Effective treatment of olive mill effluents from two-phase and three-phase extraction processes by batch membranes in series operation upon threshold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando-Pulido, J M; Hodaifa, G; Victor-Ortega, M D; Rodriguez-Vives, S; Martinez-Ferez, A

    2013-12-15

    Production of olive oil results in the generation of high amounts of heavy polluted effluents characterized by extremely variable contaminants degree, leading to sensible complexity in treatment. In this work, batch membrane processes in series comprising ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are used to purify the effluents exiting both the two-phase and tree-phase extraction processes to a grade compatible to the discharge in municipal sewer systems in Spain and Italy. However, one main problem in applying this technology to wastewater management issues is given by membrane fouling. In the last years, the threshold flux theory was introduced as a key tool to understand fouling problems, and threshold flux measurement can give valuable information regarding optimal membrane process design and operation. In the present manuscript, mathematical approach of threshold flux conditions for membranes operation is addressed, also implementing proper pretreatment processes such as pH-T flocculation and UV/TiO2 photocatalysis with ferromagnetic-core nanoparticles in order to reduce membranes fouling. Both influence the organic matter content as well as the particle size distribution of the solutes surviving in the wastewater stream, leading, when properly applied, to reduced fouling, higher rejection and recovery values, thus enhancing the economic feasibility of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Batch cultivation of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. 5: Characterization of poly-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate production under methane-dependent growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, N.N.; Hanna, M.L.; Taylor, R.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-01-20

    Methanotrophs have promising applications in the bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and in the production of a biopolymer, poly-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Batch bioreactor culture conditions were studied for the accumulation of PHB by methane-grown Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, and to evaluate the effect of PHB on the bacterial capacity to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant. The PHB content of the washed and lyophilized cells was measured by gas chromatography (GC), after hydrochloric acid (HCl) propanolysis. A differential GC-based assay was developed for the monomer and the polymer of {beta}-hydroxybutyrate utilizing 1% and 10% HCl (v/v) reaction mixtures, respectively. During bioreactor growth in a Cu-deficient modified Higgins` medium, the cells accumulated PHB upon depletion of nitrate. A biomass yield of 3.2 g dry wt/L and a PHB accumulation of {approximately}10% (w/w) were reached after 140 to 160 h, without adversely affecting the propene or TCE epoxidation specific rate given by whole cells containing soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). The TCE biotransformation capacity ({approximately}0.25 mg TCE oxidized/mg dry cell wt) of resting cells containing {approximately}10% PHB was consistently {approximately}1.6-fold greater than that of cells containing only {approximately}2% PHB. Higher levels (>10%) of accumulated PHB did not enhance this biotransformation capacity further.

  12. Effect of bacterial lipase on anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater and grease in batch condition and continuous fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, Maha; Aloui, Fathi; Hadrich, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-10-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial lipase on biogas production of anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and hydrolyzed grease (HG). A neutrophilic Staphylococcus xylosus strain exhibiting lipolytic activity was used to perform microbial hydrolysis pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse lipid rich waste. Optimum proportion of hydrolyzed grease was evaluated by determining biochemical methane potential. A high biogas production was observed in batch containing a mixture of slaughterhouse composed of 75% SHWW and 25% hydrolyzed grease leading to a biogas yield of 0.6 L/g COD introduced. Fixed bed reactor (FBR) results confirmed that the proportion of 25% of hydrolyzed grease gives the optimum condition for the digester performance. Biogas production was significantly high until an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g COD/L. d. This study indicates that the use of biological pre-treatment and FBR for the co-digestion of SHWW and hydrolyzed grease is feasible and effective.

  13. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  14. Pathophysiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis induced pes planovalgus in static and walking condition: a functional view using 3D gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, Josephine; Hartmann, Matthias; Kreuzpointner, Florian; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Haas, Johannes-Peter

    2015-06-10

    Patients suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) frequently have affected ankle joints, which can lead to foot deformities such as pes planovalgus (JIA-PPV). Usually, JIA-PPV is diagnosed by examining the foot in non-weightbearing or in weightbearing, static condition. However, functional limitations typically appear during dynamic use in daily activities such as walking. The aim of this study was to quantify the pathophysiology of JIA-PPV in both static and dynamic condition, i.e. in upright standing and during the stance phase of walking using three-dimensional (3d) gait analysis. Eleven JIA patients (age = 12y) with at least one affected ankle joint and fixed pes planovalgus (≥5°) were compared to healthy controls (CG) (n = 14, age = 11y). Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in barefoot standing and walking condition (1.1-1.3 m/s) with an 8-camera 3d motion analysis system including two force-plates and one pressure distribution plate. All participants were prepared using reflecting markers according to the Oxford Foot and Plug-in-Gait Model. Results were compared using the Mann-Whitney-U-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p pathophysiology of JIA-PPV during walking indicated that excessive hindfoot eversion produces accessory symptoms such as a reduced arch height, increased forefoot supination and reduced propulsion effect of the ankle. Muscular and coordinative insufficiency caused by arthritis can lead to the observed increased hindfoot eversion from static to dynamic condition. Conventional static or passive foot examination techniques probably underestimate deformity in JIA pes planovalgus. 3d gait analysis might be helpful in early diagnosis of this condition, especially in JIA patients with affected ankle joints.

  15. Prediction of plastic deformation under contact condition by quasi-static and dynamic simulations using explicit finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siswanto, W. A.; Nagentrau, M.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Tamin, M. N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2016-11-15

    We compared the quasi-static and dynamic simulation responses on elastic-plastic deformation of advanced alloys using Finite element (FE) method with an explicit numerical algorithm. A geometrical model consisting of a cylinder-on-flat surface contact under a normal load and sliding motion was examined. Two aeroengine materials, Ti-6Al-4V and Super CMV (Cr-Mo-V) alloy, were employed in the FE analysis. The FE model was validated by comparative magnitudes of the FE-predicted maximum contact pressure variation along the contact half-width length with the theoretical Hertzian contact solution. Results show that the (compressive) displacement of the initial contact surface steadily increases for the quasi-static load case, but accumulates at an increasing rate to the maximum level for the dynamic loading. However, the relatively higher stiffness and yield strength of the Super CMV alloy resulted in limited deformation and low plastic strain when compared to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The accumulated equivalent plastic strain of the material point at the initial contact position was nearly a thousand times higher for the dynamic load case (for example, 6.592 for Ti-6Al-4V, 1.0 kN) when compared to the quasi-static loading (only 0.0072). During the loading step, the von Mises stress increased with a decreasing and increasing rate for the quasi-static and dynamic load case, respectively. A sudden increase in the stress magnitude to the respective peak value was registered due to the additional constraint to overcome the static friction of the mating surfaces during the sliding step.

  16. Effect of turbulent gas-liquid contact in a static mixer on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation by ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Stephen A; Smith, Daniel W; Chandrakanth, Mysore; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2003-09-01

    Static mixers may be used to dissolve gaseous ozone in water treatment facilities in order to provide protection against the waterborne parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a brief exposure to turbulent gas-liquid mixing conditions in a static mixer on inactivation of C. parvum oocysts by ozone. Inactivation measured in an ozone contacting apparatus that employed a static mixer for ozone dissolution was compared to predictions based on a previously published kinetic model of C. parvum inactivation by dissolved ozone in gently stirred batch reactors. Although initial contact in the static mixer had no immediate effect on the oocysts, a 20% increase in the rate of inactivation during subsequent contact with dissolved ozone was observed. Increasing the degree of turbulence within the static mixer did not yield additional inactivation. Use of static mixers for dissolution of ozone in drinking water treatment systems may provide limited enhancement of C. parvum inactivation by dissolved ozone.

  17. Microstructural evolution and constitutive equations of Inconel 718 alloy under quasi-static and quasi-dynamic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Cabrera Marrero, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation behavior of IN718 superalloy was investigated using the hot compression tests in the temperature range of 950-1100 °C, and strain rates covering the quasi-static to the quasi-dynamic regions (0.001-10 s-1). The shape of flow curves as well as the corresponding work hardening rates analysis was utilized to reveal the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) phenomena. DRX was the dominant restoration mechanism in the whole temperature and strain rate domains, which was characterized by ...

  18. Osteoinduction and survival of osteoblasts and bone-marrow stromal cells in 3D biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds under static and dynamic culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Subha N; Strobel, Leonie A; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P; Maier, Anne-Kathrin; Greil, Peter; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2012-10-01

    In many tissue engineering approaches, the basic difference between in vitro and in vivo conditions for cells within three-dimensional (3D) constructs is the nutrition flow dynamics. To achieve comparable results in vitro, bioreactors are advised for improved cell survival, as they are able to provide a controlled flow through the scaffold. We hypothesize that a bioreactor would enhance long-term differentiation conditions of osteogenic cells in 3D scaffolds. To achieve this either primary rat osteoblasts or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) were implanted on uniform-sized biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds produced by a 3D printing method. Three types of culture conditions were applied: static culture without osteoinduction (Group A); static culture with osteoinduction (Group B); dynamic culture with osteoinduction (Group C). After 3 and 6 weeks, the scaffolds were analysed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dsDNA amount, SEM, fluorescent labelled live-dead assay, and real-time RT-PCR in addition to weekly alamarBlue assays. With osteoinduction, increased ALP values and calcium deposition are observed; however, under static conditions, a significant decrease in the cell number on the biomaterial is observed. Interestingly, the bioreactor system not only reversed the decreased cell numbers but also increased their differentiation potential. We conclude from this study that a continuous flow bioreactor not only preserves the number of osteogenic cells but also keeps their differentiation ability in balance providing a suitable cell-seeded scaffold product for applications in regenerative medicine. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentation System on Ethanol Production from Whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reserve of fossil fuel has gradually depleted. This condition forces many researchers to  find energy alternatives which is renewable and sustainable in the future. Ethanol derived from cheese industrial waste (whey using fermentation process can be a new perspective in order to secure both energy and environment. The aim of this study was  to compare the operation modes (batch and fed-batch of fermentation system on ethanol production from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. The result showed that the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system was higher at some point of parameters compared with batch system. Growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of fed-batch fermentation were 0.122/h and 0.21 gP/gS respectively; growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of batch fermentation were 0.107/h, and 0.12 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively. Based on the data of biomass and ethanol concentrations, the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system were higher at some point of parameters compared to batch system. Periodic substrate addition performed on fed-batch system leads the yeast growth in low substrate concentrations and consequently  increasing their activity and ethanol productivity. Keywords: batch; ethanol; fed-batch; fermentation;Kluyveromyces marxianus, whey

  20. Model-theoretic Optimization Approach to Triathlon Performance Under Comparative Static Conditions – Results Based on The Olympic Games 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fröhlich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Olympic-distance triathlon, time minimization is the goal in all three disciplines and the two transitions. Running is the key to winning, whereas swimming and cycling performance are less significantly associated with overall competition time. A comparative static simulation calculation based on the individual times of each discipline was done. Furthermore, the share of the discipline in the total time proved that increasing the scope of running training results in an additional performance development. Looking at the current development in triathlon and taking the Olympic Games in London 2012 as an initial basis for model-theoretic simulations of performance development, the first fact that attracts attention is that running becomes more and more the crucial variable in terms of winning a triathlon. Run times below 29:00 minutes in Olympic-distance triathlon will be decisive for winning. Currently, cycle training time is definitely overrepresented. The share of swimming is considered optimal.

  1. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  2. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  3. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Hoffman, Kevin; Mercogliano, Juan; Smith, Trevor R; Hammond, Jack; Davis, Bobbie J; Brodie, Matt; Dripps, James E

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 2013-2014 to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to STATIC Spinosad ME a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment (MAT) formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with methyl eugenol (ME) and spinosad compared with the standard treatment of Min-U-Gel mixed with ME and naled (Dibrom). Our approach used a behavioral methodology for evaluation of slow-acting reduced-risk insecticides. ME treatments were weathered for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d under operational conditions in California and Florida and shipped to Hawaii for bioassays. In field tests using bucket traps to attract and capture wild males, and in toxicity studies conducted in 1-m(3) cages using released males of controlled ages, STATIC Spinosad ME performed equally as well to the standard formulation of Min-U-Gel ME with naled for material aged up to 28 d in both California and Florida. In laboratory feeding tests in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different ME treatments, mortality induced by STATIC Spinosad ME recorded at 24 h did not differ from mortality caused by Min-U-Gel ME with naled at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d in California and was equal to or higher for all weathered time periods in Florida during two trials. Spinosad has low contact toxicity, and when mixed with an attractant and slow release matrix, offers a reduced-risk alternative for eradication of B. dorsalis and related ME attracted species, without many of the potential negative effects to humans and nontargets associated with broad-spectrum contact insecticides such as naled.

  4. Performance of various types of containment support under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions, Part I.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuijpers, JS

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismicity causes the most severe loading conditions for tunnel support systems in deep-level South African gold mines. The design of such support systems should therefore incorporate the potential effect of seismicity on support requirements...

  5. The artificial neural network approach based on uniform design to optimize the fed-batch fermentation condition: application to the production of iturin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenjing; Zhong, Juan; Yang, Jie; Ren, Yanli; Xu, Tan; Xiao, Song; Zhou, Jinyan; Tan, Hong

    2014-04-13

    Iturin A is a potential lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Bacillus subtilis. Optimization of iturin A yield by adding various concentrations of asparagine (Asn), glutamic acid (Glu) and proline (Pro) during the fed-batch fermentation process was studied using an artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) and uniform design (UD). Here, ANN-GA based on the UD data was used for the first time to analyze the fed-batch fermentation process. The ANN-GA and UD methodologies were compared based on their fitting ability, prediction and generalization capacity and sensitivity analysis. The ANN model based on the UD data performed well on minimal statistical designed experimental number and the optimum iturin A yield was 13364.5 ± 271.3 U/mL compared with a yield of 9929.0 ± 280.9 U/mL for the control (batch fermentation without adding the amino acids). The root-mean-square-error for the ANN model with the training set and test set was 4.84 and 273.58 respectively, which was more than two times better than that for the UD model (32.21 and 483.12). The correlation coefficient for the ANN model with training and test sets was 100% and 92.62%, respectively (compared with 99.86% and 78.58% for UD). The error% for ANN with the training and test sets was 0.093 and 2.19 respectively (compared with 0.26 and 4.15 for UD). The sensitivity analysis of both methods showed the comparable results. The predictive error of the optimal iturin A yield for ANN-GA and UD was 0.8% and 2.17%, respectively. The satisfactory fitting and predicting accuracy of ANN indicated that ANN worked well with the UD data. Through ANN-GA, the iturin A yield was significantly increased by 34.6%. The fitness, prediction, and generalization capacities of the ANN model were better than those of the UD model. Further, although UD could get the insight information between variables directly, ANN was also demonstrated to be efficient in the sensitivity analysis. The results of these comparisons indicated

  6. Optimization of Large-Scale Culture Conditions for the Production of Cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by Liquid Static Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes.

  7. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  8. A static organization in a dynamic context--A qualitative study of changes in working conditions for Swedish engine officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Rydstedt, Leif W

    2016-07-01

    During the last decades the shipping industry has undergone rapid technical developments and experienced hard economic conditions and increased striving for profitability. This has led to reduced staffing and changes in task performance, which has been reported to increase workload for the remaining seafarers. The working conditions on board have a number of distinct and in many ways unique characteristics, which makes the job demands and resources for seafarers unique in several ways. The purpose of this study was to assess how engine room staff perceives how these major technical and organizational changes in the shipping industry have affected job demands as well as resources. The study compiled individual interviews and focus groups interviews with engine crew members where they were asked to elaborate on the psychosocial work environment and the major changes in the working conditions on board. Engine crew describes a work situation where they feel a lack of resources. The content of the work has changed, staffing has been reduced, new tasks are being added but the organization of the crew and the design of the work place remains unaltered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Turbulence in Wind Turbine Wakes under Different Stability Conditions from Static Doppler LiDAR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie-Marie Kumer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wake characteristics are of great importance for wind park performance and turbine loads. While wind tunnel experiments provided a solid base for the basic understanding of the structure and dynamics of wind turbine wakes, the consequent step forward to characterize wakes is full-scale measurements in real atmospheric boundary layer conditions under different stability regimes. Scanning Doppler LiDAR measurements have proven to be a flexible and useful tool for such measurements. However, their advantage of measuring spatial fluctuation is accompanied by the limited temporal resolution of individual sampling volumes within the scanned area. This study presents results from LiDAR Doppler Beam Swing (DBS measurements and highlights the potential of information retrieved from a spectral analysis of wake measurements. Data originate from three Windcube v1 and sonic anemometers, collected during the Wind Turbine Wake Experiment–Wieringermeer. Despite the ongoing research on the reliability of turbulence retrievals based on DBS data, our results show wake peak frequencies consistent with sonic anemometer measurements. The energy spectra show rather distinct maxima during stable conditions, which broaden during unstable and neutral conditions. Investigations on the effect of blade pitch on downstream wind speed and turbulence intensity profiles indicate the potential for the development of stability-dependent wind farm control strategies.

  10. The effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Aydan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that some sinkholes or subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The author has been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in the long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu and 2011 Great East Japan earthquakes caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The author presents the effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions and discusses the implications on the areas above abandoned lignite mines in this paper.

  11. Performance of on-site pilot static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for treating dairy processing wastewater and chemical oxygen demand balance modeling under different operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin Hwan; Park, Jaeyoung; Ellis, Timothy G

    2015-02-01

    The performance and operational stability of a pilot-scale static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for the treatment of dairy processing wastewater were investigated under a wide range of organic and hydraulic loading rates and temperature conditions. The SGBR achieved average chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS)-removal efficiencies higher than 90% even at high loading rates up to 7.3 kg COD/m(3)/day, with an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9 h, and at low temperatures of 11 °C. The average methane yield of 0.26 L CH4/g COD(removed) was possibly affected by a high fraction of particulate COD and operation at low temperatures. The COD mass balance indicated that soluble COD was responsible for most of the methane production. The reactor showed the capacity of the methanogens to maintain their activity and withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads.

  12. Treatability of cheese whey for single-cell protein production in nonsterile systems: Part I. Optimal condition for lactic acid fermentation using a microaerobic sequencing batch reactor (microaerobic SBR) with immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 2265 and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkoondee, Sarawut; Kuntiya, Ampin; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Techapun, Charin; Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit

    2016-05-18

    Cheese whey contains a high organic content and causes serious problems if it is released into the environment when untreated. This study aimed to investigate the optimum condition of lactic acid production using the microaerobic sequencing batch reactor (microaerobic SBR) in a nonsterile system. The high production of lactic acid was achieved by immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 2265 to generate an acidic pH condition below 4.5 and then to support single-cell protein (SCP) production in the second aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR). A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days and a whey concentration of 80% feeding gave a high lactic acid yield of 12.58 g/L, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 62.38%, and lactose utilization of 61.54%. The microbial communities in the nonsterile system were dominated by members of lactic acid bacteria, and it was shown that the inoculum remained in the system up to 330 days.

  13. Comparative evaluation of direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors with antiplatelet agents under flow and static conditions: an in vitro flow chamber model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are novel oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. The aim of this study is to elucidate antithrombotic properties of these anticoagulant agents under arterial and venous shear conditions. Whole blood samples treated with dabigatran or rivaroxaban at 250, 500, and 1000 nM, with/without aspirin and AR-C66096, a P2Y12 antagonist, were perfused over a microchip coated with collagen and tissue thromboplastin at shear rates of 240 and 600 s(-1. Fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation was quantified by monitoring flow pressure changes. Dabigatran at higher concentrations (500 and 1000 nM potently inhibited thrombus formation at both shear rates, whereas 1000 nM of rivaroxaban delayed, but did not completely inhibit, thrombus formation. Dual antiplatelet agents weakly suppressed thrombus formation at both shear rates, but intensified the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban. The anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban were also evaluated under static conditions using thrombin generation (TG assay. In platelet-poor plasma, dabigatran at 250 and 500 nM efficiently prolonged the lag time (LT and moderately reduce peak height (PH of TG, whereas rivaroxaban at 250 nM efficiently prolonged LT and reduced PH of TG. In platelet-rich plasma, however, both anticoagulants efficiently delayed LT and reduced PH of TG. Our results suggest that dabigatran and rivaroxaban may exert distinct antithrombotic effects under flow conditions, particularly in combination with dual antiplatelet therapy.

  14. Qualitative separation of the effect of voids on the static mechanical properties of hygrothermally conditioned carbon/epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of voids and hygrothermal conditions on bending, compressive, and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS of T300/914 composite laminates. By adopting different autoclave pressures during a cure cycle, specimens with three different void contents ranging from 0.33% to 1.50% were obtained. Experimental results reveal that compressive, bending strength, and ILSS decrease with increasing void contents and immersion time. The most significant decrease in strength of aged specimens is in the ILSS and compressive strength, followed by the bending strength. The effect of voids on the absorption/desorption behavior is also discussed. For a similar porosity, the compressive strength and ILSS of dried specimens are higher than that of the aged specimens, while they are lower than that of the unaged specimens. The bending strength of the dried specimens is higher than that of the unaged specimens. The experimental results are explained by the supportive micrographs that illustrate different types of voids and their morphology before and after moisture absorption/desorption.

  15. Acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and cheese whey for bio-plastic precursors recovery - Effects of process conditions during batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Francesca; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Pivato, Alberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-12-01

    The problem of fossil fuels dependency is being addressed through sustainable bio-fuels and bio-products production worldwide. At the base of this bio-based economy there is the efficient use of biomass as non-virgin feedstock. Through acidogenic fermentation, organic waste can be valorised in order to obtain several precursors to be used for bio-plastic production. Some investigations have been done but there is still a lack of knowledge that must be filled before moving to effective full scale plants. Acidogenic fermentation batch tests were performed using food waste (FW) and cheese whey (CW) as substrates. Effects of nine different combinations of substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio (2, 4, and 6) and initial pH (5, 7, and 9) were investigated for metabolites (acetate, butyrate, propionate, valerate, lactate, and ethanol) productions. Results showed that the most abundant metabolites deriving from FW fermentation were butyrate and acetate, mainly influenced by the S/I ratio (acetate and butyrate maximum productions of 21.4 and 34.5g/L, respectively, at S/I=6). Instead, when dealing with CW, lactate was the dominant metabolite significantly correlated with pH (lactate maximum production of 15.7g/L at pH = 9). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase transformation of PZST-86/14-5-2Nb ceramic under quasi-static loading conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broome, Scott Thomas; Scofield, Timothy W.; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hofer, John H.

    2010-02-01

    Specimens of poled and unpoled PZST ceramic were tested under hydrostatic loading conditions at temperatures of -55, 25, and 75 C. The objective of this experimental study was to obtain the electro-mechanical properties of the ceramic and the criteria of FE (Ferroelectric) to AFE (Antiferroelectric) phase transformations of the PZST ceramic to aid grain-scale modeling efforts in developing and testing realistic response models for use in simulation codes. As seen in previous studies, the poled ceramic from PZST undergoes anisotropic deformation during the transition from a FE to an AFE phase at -55 C. Warmer temperature tests exhibit anisotropic deformation in both the FE and AFE phase. The phase transformation is permanent at -55 C for all ceramics tests, whereas the transformation can be completely reversed at 25 and 75 C. The change in the phase transformation pressures at different temperatures were practically identical for both unpoled and poled PZST specimens. Bulk modulus for both poled and unpoled material was lowest in the FE phase, intermediate in the transition phase, and highest in the AFE phase. Additionally, bulk modulus varies with temperature in that PZST is stiffer as temperature decreases. Results from one poled-biased test for PZST and four poled-biased tests from PNZT 95/5-2Nb are presented. A bias of 1kV did not show noticeable differences in phase transformation pressure for the PZST material. However, with PNZT 95/5-2Nb phase transformation pressure increased with increasing voltage bias up to 4.5kV.

  17. GIDEP Batching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Danny; Odell,Dorice; Barry, Peter; Abrahamian, Tomik

    2008-01-01

    This software provides internal, automated search mechanics of GIDEP (Government- Industry Data Exchange Program) Alert data imported from the GIDEP government Web site. The batching tool allows the import of a single parts list in tab-delimited text format into the local JPL GIDEP database. Delimiters from every part number are removed. The original part numbers with delimiters are compared, as well as the newly generated list without the delimiters. The two lists run against the GIDEP imports, and output any matches. This feature only works with Netscape 2.0 or greater, or Internet Explorer 4.0 or greater. The user selects the browser button to choose a text file to import. When the submit button is pressed, this script will import alerts from the text file into the local JPL GIDEP database. This batch tool provides complete in-house control over exported material and data for automated batch match abilities. The batching tool has the ability to match capabilities of the parts list to tables, and yields results that aid further research and analysis. This provides more control over GIDEP information for metrics and reports information not provided by the government site. This software yields results quickly and gives more control over external data from the government site in order to generate other reports not available from the external source. There is enough space to store years of data. The program relates to risk identification and management with regard to projects and GIDEP alert information encompassing flight parts for space exploration.

  18. Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentation System on Ethanol Production from Whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    OpenAIRE

    H Hadiyanto; Ariyanti, D; Aini, A.P; D.S. Pinundi

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays reserve of fossil fuel has gradually depleted. This condition forces many researchers to  find energy alternatives which is renewable and sustainable in the future. Ethanol derived from cheese industrial waste (whey) using fermentation process can be a new perspective in order to secure both energy and environment. The aim of this study was  to compare the operation modes (batch and fed-batch) of fermentation system on ethanol production from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. The r...

  19. Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Han; Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeon Shup; Han, Nam Soo; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Beom Soo

    2010-09-30

    Nattokinase was produced by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis in flask and fermentor. Effect of supplementing complex media (peptone, yeast extract, or tryptone) was investigated on the production of nattokinase. In flask culture, the highest cell growth and nattokinase activity were obtained with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. In this condition, nattokinase activity was 630 unit/ml at 12 h. In batch culture of B. subtilis in fermentor, the highest nattokinase activity of 3400 unit/ml was obtained at 10h with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. From the batch kinetics data, it was shown that nattokinase production was growth-associated and culture should be harvested before stationary phase for maximum nattokinase production. In fed-batch culture of B. subtilis using pH-stat feeding strategy, cell growth (optical density monitored at 600 nm) increased to ca. 100 at 22 h, which was 2.5 times higher than that in batch culture. The highest nattokinase activity was 7100 unit/ml at 19 h, which was also 2.1 times higher than that in batch culture. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  1. Influence of the redox state on the neptunium sorption under alkaline conditions. Batch sorption studies on titanium dioxide and calcium silicate hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tits, Jan; Laube, Andreas; Wieland, Erich [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Waste Management; Gaona, Xavier [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    2014-07-01

    Wet chemistry experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the redox state and aqueous speciation on the uptake of neptunium by titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and by calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) under alkaline conditions. TiO{sub 2} was chosen as a reference sorbent to determine the surface complexation behaviour of neptunium under alkaline conditions. C-S-H phases are important constituents of cement and concrete. They may contribute significantly to radionuclide retention due to their high recrystallization rates making incorporation the dominating sorption mechanism for many radionuclides (e.g. the actinides) on these materials. The sorption of neptunium on both solids was found to depend strongly on the degree of hydrolysis. On TiO{sub 2}R{sub d} values for Np(IV), Np(V) and Np(VI) are identical at pH = 10 and decrease with progressing hydrolysis in case of Np(V) and Np(VI). On C-S-H phases, R{sub d} values for the three redox states are also identical at pH = 10. While the R{sub d} values for Np(VI) sorption on C-S-H phases decrease with progressing hydrolysis, the R{sub d} values for Np(IV) and Np(V) sorption are not affected by the pH. In addition to the effect of hydrolysis, the presence of Ca is found to promote Np(V) and Np(VI) sorption on TiO{sub 2} whereas on C-S-H phases, the present wet chemistry data do not give unambiguous evidence. Thus, the aqueous speciation appears to have a similar influence on the sorption of the actinides on both types of solids despite the different sorption mechanism. The similar R{sub d} values for Np(IV,V,VI) sorption at pH = 10 can be explained qualitatively by invoking inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion between OH groups in the coordination sphere of Np(V) and Np(VI). This mechanism was proposed earlier in the literature for the prediction of actinide complexation constants with inorganic ligands. A limiting coordination number for each Np redox state, resulting from the inter-ligand electrostatic

  2. Under conditions of large geometric miss, tumor control probability can be higher for static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy compared to volume-modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balderson, Michael, E-mail: michael.balderson@rmp.uhn.ca; Brown, Derek; Johnson, Patricia; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) under scenarios involving large geometric misses, i.e., those beyond what are accounted for when margin expansion is determined. Using a planning approach typical for these treatments, a linear-quadratic–based model for TCP was used to compare mean TCP values for a population of patients who experiences a geometric miss (i.e., systematic and random shifts of the clinical target volume within the planning target dose distribution). A Monte Carlo approach was used to account for the different biological sensitivities of a population of patients. Interestingly, for errors consisting of coplanar systematic target volume offsets and three-dimensional random offsets, static gantry IMRT appears to offer an advantage over VMAT in that larger shift errors are tolerated for the same mean TCP. For example, under the conditions simulated, erroneous systematic shifts of 15 mm directly between or directly into static gantry IMRT fields result in mean TCP values between 96% and 98%, whereas the same errors on VMAT plans result in mean TCP values between 45% and 74%. Random geometric shifts of the target volume were characterized using normal distributions in each Cartesian dimension. When the standard deviations were doubled from those values assumed in the derivation of the treatment margins, our model showed a 7% drop in mean TCP for the static gantry IMRT plans but a 20% drop in TCP for the VMAT plans. Although adding a margin for error to a clinical target volume is perhaps the best approach to account for expected geometric misses, this work suggests that static gantry IMRT may offer a treatment that is more tolerant to geometric miss errors than VMAT.

  3. Synthesis of zero effluent multipurpose batch processes using effective scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available that characterize today’s markets. Secondly, batch processes tend to produce highly toxic effluent streams, albeit in relatively small quantities in comparison to their continuous counterparts. The stringent environmental conditions militate against the latter...

  4. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Kasemier, D.

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractNone of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to our favourite programming languages. This research proposes BatchJS as a JavaScript implementation of batches. Since server-side JavaScript has become a popular solution for data-heavy web applicatio...

  5. Covariance adjustment for batch effect in gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ae; Dobbin, Kevin K; Ahn, Jeongyoun

    2014-07-10

    Batch bias has been found in many microarray gene expression studies that involve multiple batches of samples. A serious batch effect can alter not only the distribution of individual genes but also the inter-gene relationships. Even though some efforts have been made to remove such bias, there has been relatively less development on a multivariate approach, mainly because of the analytical difficulty due to the high-dimensional nature of gene expression data. We propose a multivariate batch adjustment method that effectively eliminates inter-gene batch effects. The proposed method utilizes high-dimensional sparse covariance estimation based on a factor model and a hard thresholding. Another important aspect of the proposed method is that if it is known that one of the batches is produced in a superior condition, the other batches can be adjusted so that they resemble the target batch. We study high-dimensional asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator and compare the performance of the proposed method with some popular existing methods with simulated data and gene expression data sets. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Repeated-Batch Ethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum Juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Immobilized on Sweet Sorghum Stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Jaisil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum stalks were used as a low cost carrier for immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 to produce ethanol from sweet sorghum juice. The effects on ethanol production of carrier size (6 × 6 × 6 to 20 × 20 × 20 mm3 and initial cell concentrations (5 × 107 to 2 × 108 cells mL−1 for cell immobilization were investigated. The ethanol production medium was the juice containing 230 g L−1 of total sugar without nutrient supplementation. The fermentations were carried out under static conditions in 500-mL air-locked Erlenmeyer flasks at 30 °C. The results showed that the optimum size of sorghum stalk pieces for repeated-batch ethanol production was 6 × 6 × 6 mm3, while the optimum initial cell concentration for the immobilization was 1.0 × 108 cells mL−1. The immobilized yeast under these conditions could be used for at least eight successive batches without any losses of ethanol production efficiencies. The average ethanol concentration, productivity and yield of the eight successive batches were 99.28 ± 3.53 g L−1, 1.36 ± 0.05 g L−1 h−1 and 0.47 ± 0.03 g g−1, respectively.

  7. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  8. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  9. The Synergistic Effect of Thermal Collectors Rotation in relation to Their Energy Efficiency and Stagnation Compared with the Static Thermal System in the Conditions of Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Rimar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of the efficient use of solar energy potential gained from thermal panels via tracking the Sun’s trajectory. Based on long-term measurements of the selected parameters, the efficiency of the installed system in relation to the ecliptic was evaluated in the static regime as well as in a rotary regime. In the comparison of rotary and fixed system of the collectors the presented results show an increase of the effectiveness of rotary one during the period of the day. On closer view the increase is not constant. During the day it varies: the most significant increase is in the afternoon, while the time from 10:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. the effectiveness of both systems almost identical. The utilisation of the rotary system as a suitable instrument for the elimination of the system stagnation was also evaluated.

  10. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  11. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  12. BatchJobs and BatchExperiments: Abstraction Mechanisms for Using R in Batch Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Bischl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of statistical algorithms often demands time-consuming experiments. We present two R packages which greatly simplify working in batch computing environments. The package BatchJobs implements the basic objects and procedures to control any batch cluster from within R. It is structured around cluster versions of the well-known higher order functions Map, Reduce and Filter from functional programming. Computations are performed asynchronously and all job states are persistently stored in a database, which can be queried at any point in time. The second package, BatchExperiments, is tailored for the still very general scenario of analyzing arbitrary algorithms on problem instances. It extends package BatchJobs by letting the user define an array of jobs of the kind apply algorithm A to problem instance P and store results. It is possible to associate statistical designs with parameters of problems and algorithms and therefore to systematically study their influence on the results. The packages main features are: (a Convenient usage: All relevant batch system operations are either handled internally or mapped to simple R functions. (b Portability: Both packages use a clear and well-defined interface to the batch system which makes them applicable in most high-performance computing environments. (c Reproducibility: Every computational part has an associated seed to ensure reproducibility even when the underlying batch system changes. (d Abstraction and good software design: The code layers for algorithms, experiment definitions and execution are cleanly separated and enable the writing of readable and maintainable code.

  13. Modelling of hydrogen production in batch cultures of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, Jamila; Magnin, Jean-Pierre [Grenoble Institute of Technology, LEPMI, UMR 5631 (CNRS-INPG-UJF), BP 75, 38402 St Martin d' Heres (France); Flaus, Jean-Marie; Adrot, Olivier [Grenoble Institute of Technology, Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l' optimisation et la production, 46, avenue Felix Viallet, 38031 Grenoble (France); Willison, John C. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Metaux (UMR 5249 CEA-CNRS-UJF), iRTSV/LCBM, CEA-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France); Zlatev, Roumen [Autonomous University of Baja California, Institute of Engineering, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    The photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus, produces hydrogen under nitrogen-limited, anaerobic, photosynthetic culture conditions, using various carbon substrates. In the present study, the relationship between light intensity and hydrogen production has been modelled in order to predict both the rate of hydrogen production and the amount of hydrogen produced at a given time during batch cultures of R. capsulatus. The experimental data were obtained by investigating the effect of different light intensities (6000-50,000 lux) on hydrogen-producing cultures of R. capsulatus grown in a batch photobioreactor, using lactate as carbon and hydrogen source. The rate of hydrogen production increased with increasing light intensity in a manner that was described by a static Baly model, modified to include the square of the light intensity. In agreement with previous studies, the kinetics of substrate utilization and growth of R. capsulatus was represented by the classical Monod or Michaelis-Menten model. When combined with a dynamic Leudekong-Piret model, the amount of hydrogen produced as a function of time was effectively predicted. These results will be useful for the automatization and control of bioprocesses for the photoproduction of hydrogen. (author)

  14. Heterogeneous batch structures in throughput scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, P.J.; Weeda, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recently a few papers appeared on throughput scheduling, dealing with the relationship between batch structure and process structure in discrete batch production, while maximizing time-constrained throughput. Results have been concentrated on the class of homogeneous batch structures, i.e. batch

  15. Statics with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Marghitu, Dan B; Madsen, Nels H

    2013-01-01

    Engineering mechanics involves the development of mathematical models of the physical world. Statics addresses the forces acting on and in mechanical objects and systems. Statics with MATLAB®  develops an understanding of the mechanical behavior of complex engineering structures and components using MATLAB®  to execute numerical calculations and to facilitate analytical calculations.   MATLAB® is presented and introduced as a highly convenient tool to solve problems for theory and applications in statics. Included are example problems to demonstrate the MATLAB® syntax and to also introduce specific functions dealing with statics. These explanations are reinforced through figures generated with MATLAB® and the extra material available online which includes the special functions described. This detailed introduction and application of MATLAB® to the field of statics makes Statics with MATLAB® a useful tool for instruction as well as self study,  highlighting the use of symbolic MATLAB® for both theo...

  16. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  17. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kasemier

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractNone of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to

  18. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  19. Osteoinduction and survival of osteoblasts and bone-marrow stromal cells in 3D biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds under static and dynamic culture conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Subha N; Strobel, Leonie A; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P; Maier, Anne-Kathrin; Greil, Peter; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In many tissue engineering approaches, the basic difference between in vitro and in vivo conditions for cells within three-dimensional (3D) constructs is the nutrition flow dynamics. To achieve comparable results in vitro, bioreactors are advised for improved cell survival, as they are able to provide a controlled flow through the scaffold. We hypothesize that a bioreactor would enhance long-term differentiation conditions of osteogenic cells in 3D scaffolds. To achieve this either primary ra...

  20. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in batch and fed batch systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmood, Sajid; Gulfraz, M.; Rana, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to find the best combination of different experimental conditions during pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production. The optimization of pre-treatment using different...... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red (TM) and it was observed that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation ( SSF) with both batch and fed batch resulted in better ethanol yield as compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation ( SHF). Detoxification of furan during SHF facilitated reduction...... in fermentation time from 96 to 48 h. 98.5% theoretical yield was achieved in SHF with detoxification experiment attaining an ethanol concentration and yield of 23.01 gL(-1) and 0.115 gg(-1) DM respectively. During the SSF batch and fed batch fermentation, the maximum yields of ethanol per gram of dry matter were...

  1. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluid Statics and Archimedes. Jaywant H Arakeri C Dharuman. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 28- ... Keywords. Fluid statics; buoyancy; stratification; instability. Author Affiliations. Jaywant H Arakeri1 C Dharuman1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 ...

  2. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Vallejo-Castillo, Luis; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  3. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Medina-Rivero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  4. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  5. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  6. Keeping Quality of Strawberry Batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Kooten, van O.

    2001-01-01

    Post-harvest life of strawberries is largely limited by Botrytis cinerea infection. It is assumed that there are two factors influencing the batch keeping quality: the botrytis pressure and the resistance of the strawberry against infection. The latter factor will be discussed here. A model is

  7. Fed-batch production of citric acid by Candida lipolytica grown on n-paraffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolla, A; Kennedy, K J

    2004-05-13

    This study reports on the effects of fermentor agitation and fed-batch mode of operation on citric acid production from Candida lipolytica using n-paraffin as the carbon source. An optimum range of agitation speeds in the 800-1000 rpm range corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 50000-63000 (based on initial batch conditions) seemed to give the best balance between substrate utilization for biomass growth and citric acid production. Application of multiple fed-batch feedings can be used to extend the batch fermentation and increase final citric acid concentrations and product yield. The three-cycle fed-batch system increased overall citric acid yields to 0.8-1.0 g citricacid/g n-paraffin, approximately a 100% improvement in product yield from those observed in the single cycle fed-batch system and a 200% improvement over normal batch operation. The three-cycle fed-batch mode of operation also increased the final citric acid concentration to 42 g/l from about 12 and 6g/l for single fed-batch cycle and normal batch modes of operation, respectively. Increased citric acid concentrations in three-cycle fed-batch mode was achieved at longer fermentation times.

  8. Dynamic-energetic balance of agricultural tractors: active systems for the measurement of the power requirements in static tests and under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern tractors are characterized by the introduction of devices designed to increase the operative performances of the machines, such as systems for monitoring and controlling various functions (through a massive use of electronics and hydraulics, or deputed to improve the comfort of the driver (paying more attention to ergonomics, air-conditioning, noise and vibration. Such devices need energy to be operated, affecting the energetic balance of the tractor. In this context, the availability of suitable methodologies and instrumental systems could be useful to provide objective, accurate and reliable measurements of the performances of the tractors under different conditions, also considering the power requirements from ancillary services and/or simulating the coupling with operating machines. The tests on the performances of tractors are now made using different methods, including the trial codes issued by the OECD Codes. Beyond their undoubted validity, they fix standard test conditions that often do not adequately represent the operative reality, so that, much remains to investigate on the actual performances provided by the tractors. From this point of view and with reference to fixed point tests, a test bench was developed for the measurement of the power required by various devices, such as transmission and air conditioning. It was used in experimental tests on a tracked tractor and on a wheeled tractor, aimed at validating the test device, measuring the power absorption related to the rotational speed of the organs of propulsion and to the characteristics curves, in order to quantify the power drawn by the transmission and by the air conditioning and assess the residual power for other tractor functions. As to field conditions, a study is being conducted at CRA-ING, within the project PTO (Mi.P.A.A.F., to develop a mobile test bench aimed at evaluating the power required by different operations, such as self displacement, traction, use of

  9. Reactive power static sources in the diagnosis of insulation condition of the induction motor and the power supply cable in terms of local compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерій Єгорович Кривоносов

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power compensation is particularly relevant for the industrial companies, major power consumers of which are asynchronous motors (АM. The most effective reactive power compensation is at placing the capacitor bank (CB directly at the points of AM connection. The capacity of the CB and the method of controlling the power factor depend on the AM loading conditions. Under operating conditions ensuring AM reliable start-up after a technological pause is an important task. Reliable motor start-up is possible when the insulation resistance of the stator windings is equal to or above 0.5 megohms. The discharge of the capacitor bank at the moment of the AM disconnection from the network, makes it possible to use the power stored in the CB to diagnose insulation condition and suitability of the AM to a safe start. The speed of the CB discharge is the criterion showing that the AM winding insulation resistance is of critical value. The capacitors discharge simulation made it possible to develop a method to protect the AM and the power cable as well as to formulate an algorithm to identify one-, two-, three- and interphase short circuit when operating, and at the time of the AM disconnection from the network and to define the critical value of the insulation resistance according to the capacitor discharge speed

  10. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    CERN Document Server

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  11. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  12. Batch and Pulsed Fed-Batch Cultures of Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 Growing on Lemon Peel at Stirred Tank Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Márquez, V E; García-García, E; García-Rivero, M; Aguilar-Osorio, G; Martínez Trujillo, M A

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 grew up on submerged cultures using lemon peel as the only carbon source, developing several batch and pulsed fed-batch trials on a stirred tank reactor. The effect of carbon source concentration, reducing sugar presence and initial pH on exopectinase and endopectinase production, was analyzed on batch cultures. From this, we observed that the highest substrate concentration favored biomass (X max) but had not influence on the corresponding specific production (q p) of both pectinases; the most acid condition provoked higher endopectinase-specific productions but had not a significant effect on those corresponding to exopectinases; and reducing sugar concentrations higher than 1.5 g/L retarded pectinase production. On the other hand, by employing the pulsed fed-batch operation mode, we observed a prolonged growth phase, and an increase of about twofold on endopectinase production without a significant raise on biomass concentration. So, pulsed fed-batch seems to be a good alternative for obtaining higher endopectinase titers by using high lemon peel quantities without having mixing and repression problems to the system. The usefulness of unstructured kinetic models for explaining, under a theoretic level, the behavior of the fungus along the batch culture with regard to pectinase production was evident.

  13. Investigation of vinegar production using a novel shaken repeated batch culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlepütz, Tino; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, bioprocesses are developed or optimized on small scale. Also, vinegar industry is motivated to reinvestigate the established repeated batch fermentation process. As yet, there is no small-scale culture system for optimizing fermentation conditions for repeated batch bioprocesses. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a new shaken culture system for parallel repeated batch vinegar fermentation. A new operation mode - the flushing repeated batch - was developed. Parallel repeated batch vinegar production could be established in shaken overflow vessels in a completely automated operation with only one pump per vessel. This flushing repeated batch was first theoretically investigated and then empirically tested. The ethanol concentration was online monitored during repeated batch fermentation by semiconductor gas sensors. It was shown that the switch from one ethanol substrate quality to different ethanol substrate qualities resulted in prolonged lag phases and durations of the first batches. In the subsequent batches the length of the fermentations decreased considerably. This decrease in the respective lag phases indicates an adaptation of the acetic acid bacteria mixed culture to the specific ethanol substrate quality. Consequently, flushing repeated batch fermentations on small scale are valuable for screening fermentation conditions and, thereby, improving industrial-scale bioprocesses such as vinegar production in terms of process robustness, stability, and productivity. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Static formation and dissociation of methane+methylcyclohexane hydrate for gas hydrate production and regasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Liang, D.; Li, D. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Guangzhou Center for Gas Hydrate Research, Guangzhou (China); Ma, L. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-08-15

    The formation and decomposition of methane+methylcyclohexane (MCH) hydrate in a static batch reactor, which was also designed as a high-pressure microwave reactor, were investigated. The addition of 300 ppm sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) provides continuous formation of CH{sub 4}+MCH hydrate under static conditions. Increasing the initial pressure within the narrow range of 2.7 to 4.6 MPa at 274 K enhances the formation rate by even several times. The gas storage capacity can be largely improved with partial coexisting of sI CH{sub 4} hydrate. Unlike a stirred formation, an increase of nonaqueous MCH inhibits the static formation of sH hydrate. The following regasification by 2.45 GHz microwave heating indicates that the dissociation is rate-controlled by the parallel connection of efficient internal heating and conventional external heating. The multiphase convection characterized by osmotic dehydration and driven by intensified regasification is considered as the dominant mechanism affecting the quiescent dissociation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  16. Anthracycline production by Streptomyces capoamus in batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracyclines have been intensely studied worldwide due to their importance as anticancer agents. In this work investigation was made on the production of ciclamycin, an antitumour complex of the anthracycline class, produced by Streptomyces capoamus. The fermentation medium consisted of glucose, as the main carbon source, and soymilk, as the sole nitrogen source. Experiments were performed in a 5-liter batch bioreactor under nitrogen and carbon-limiting conditions. Increasing antibiotic activity was observed both intra and extracellularly during growth under the two conditions used. Progressive loss of activity occurred in both cases after glucose was depleted from the medium. The results obtained showed that harvest of ciclamycin in a batch process should be controlled by the level of glucose in the reactor and that nitrogen should preferably be the limiting substrate. Alternatively, results indicate that extended production might be achieved in a fed-batch process where nitrogen was the limiting substrate.

  17. Static phantom wormholes of finite size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Orellana, Fabian

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we derive new static phantom traversable wormholes by assuming a shape function with a quadratic dependence on the radial coordinate r . We mainly focus our study on wormholes sustained by exotic matter with positive energy density (as seen by any static observer) and a variable equation of state pr/ρ wormhole spacetimes extending to infinity, we show that a quadratic shape function allows us to construct static spacetimes of finite size, composed of a phantom wormhole connected to an anisotropic spherically symmetric distribution of dark energy. The wormhole part of the full spacetime does not fulfill the dominant energy condition, while the dark energy part does.

  18. Static potential in baryon

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmenko, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    The baryon static potential is calculated in the framework of field correlator method and is shown to match the recent lattice results. The effects of the nonzero value of the gluon correlation length are emphasized.

  19. Static and dynamic stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tishin, A.M.; Spichkin, Yu.I.; Bohr, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    can display themselves in static magnetostriction deformations (this effect is not considered here) and in the changing of the magnetic state under mechanical stress. The latter causes variation of the magnetic phase transition temperatures, magnetization and magnetic structures, and leads...

  20. Optimal online-list batch scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, J.J.; Ye, Deshi; Zhang, Guochuan

    We consider the online-list batch scheduling problem. Jobs arrive one by one and have to be assigned upon arrival to a scheduled batch such that the makespan is minimized. Each batch can accommodate up to B jobs. We give a complete classification of the tractability of this online problem.

  1. Static vs Dynamic SAGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lanese

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available SAGAs calculi (or simply SAGAs have been proposed by Bruni et al. as a model for long-running transactions. The approach therein can be considered static, while a dynamic approach has been proposed by Lanese and Zavattaro. In this paper we first extend both static SAGAs (in the centralized interruption policy and dynamic SAGAs to deal with nesting, then we compare the two approaches.

  2. MODEL PENJADWALAN BATCH PADA SATU MESIN YANG MENGALAMI DETERIORASI UNTUK MINIMASI TOTAL BIAYA SIMPAN DAN BIAYA KUALITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S. Indrapriyatna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses batch scheduling model accommodating the condition of machine deterioration. The proposed model has changed the formulation of quality cost from that discussed in Indrapriyatna et al. (2007a, especially in the internal and external failure costs. It is assumed that the distribution of time between out-of-control conditions follows the exponential distribution. An algorithm has been proposed. This research concludes that, for continue batch size, the greater the sample size proportion of the batch size, the greater the total cost and number of batches. In addition, the greater the probability of producing nonconforming products, the greater the total cost. For any values of the probability, the number of batches will be the same, but the batch sizes are different. On the other hand, for model with discrete batch sizes, we used Indrapriyatna et al. (2007b approach to solve the problem. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini membahas model penjadwalan batch yang mengakomodasikan kondisi mesin terdeteriorasi, yang akan menyebabkan produk menjadi nonconforming. Pengembangan ini mengubah formulasi biaya kualitas yang telah dirumuskan pada model Indrapriyatna et al. (2007a, khususnya untuk Biaya Kegagalan Internal dan Biaya Kegagalan Eksternal. Dalam model usulan, waktu antar kondisi out-of-control diasumsikan berdistribusi eksponensial. Sebuah algoritma penyelesaian dirancang untuk model usulan tersebut. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa, untuk model dengan ukuran batch kontinu, semakin besar proporsi ukuran sampel menyebabkan biaya total dan jumlah batch yang semakin besar. Selain itu, semakin besar peluang produk nonconforming dihasilkan maka akan menyebabkan semakin besar total biaya. Observasi lain menunjukkan bahwa jumlah batch selalu sama untuk sebarang nilai peluang; walaupun ukuran masing-masing batch berbeda. Pada model dengan ukuran batch diskrit digunakan 3 buah metode untuk mengubah ukuran batch menjadi integer yang

  3. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring Approach to a Cocrystallization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Dos Santos, Adenilson O; Lopes, João A

    2015-12-01

    Cocrystals are defined as crystalline structures composed of two or more compounds that are solid at room temperature held together by noncovalent bonds. Their main advantages are the increase of solubility, bioavailability, permeability, stability, and at the same time retaining active pharmaceutical ingredient bioactivity. The cocrystallization between furosemide and nicotinamide by solvent evaporation was monitored on-line using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical technology tool. The near-infrared spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis. Batch statistical process monitoring was used to create control charts to perceive the process trajectory and define control limits. Normal and non-normal operating condition batches were performed and monitored with NIRS. The use of NIRS associated with batch statistical process models allowed the detection of abnormal variations in critical process parameters, like the amount of solvent or amount of initial components present in the cocrystallization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. BATCH SETTLING IN VERTICAL SETTLERS

    OpenAIRE

    Lama Ramirez, R.; Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias Av. Venezuela cdra. 34 sin, Lima - Perú; Condorhuamán Ccorimanya, C.; Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias Av. Venezuela cdra. 34 sin, Lima - Perú

    2014-01-01

    lt has been studied the batch sedimentation of aqueous suspensions of precipitated calcium carbonate, barium sulphate and lead oxide , in vertical thickeners of rectangular and circular cross sectional area. Suspensions vary in concentration between 19.4 and 617.9 g/I and the rate of sedimentation obtained between 0.008 and 7.70 cm/min. The effect of the specific gravity of the solid on the rate of sedimentation is the same for all the suspensions, that is, the greater the value of the specif...

  5. Rock fracture under static stress conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hoek, E

    1965-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Hoek_1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 237 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Hoek_1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30 FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10 g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59 g/L, 0.68 g/g stover, and 1.63 g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel; Danvy, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...

  8. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  9. A Model-based B2B (Batch to Batch) Control for An Industrial Batch Polymerization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Morimasa

    This paper describes overview of a model-based B2B (batch to batch) control for an industrial batch polymerization process. In order to control the reaction temperature precisely, several methods based on the rigorous process dynamics model are employed at all design stage of the B2B control, such as modeling and parameter estimation of the reaction kinetics which is one of the important part of the process dynamics model. The designed B2B control consists of the gain scheduled I-PD/II2-PD control (I-PD with double integral control), the feed-forward compensation at the batch start time, and the model adaptation utilizing the results of the last batch operation. Throughout the actual batch operations, the B2B control provides superior control performance compared with that of conventional control methods.

  10. EKC: Static or Dynamic?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the robustness of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, using dynamic model specification for the long panel data set rather than static model. The monotonic income - CO2 emission relationship exists in most of the under developed or developing economies but EKC exists mostly in developed economies.

  11. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we derive equations for variation of pressure in a static fluid or in one that is moving as a rigid body. Also, we show that surfaces of constant pressure and constant density should coincide. Various types of instabilities related to submerged bodies and multi layerd fluids are briefly discussed. Pressure in Fluids.

  12. Why Static Clings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naab, Laurie; Henry, David

    2009-01-01

    Using Wiggins and McTighe's (1998) concept of Big Ideas, the authors planned and designed an electricity investigation to address common student misconceptions about static electricity. With Styrofoam plates and transparent tape, elementary students investigated many properties of electrically charged and uncharged objects in a 5E learning cycle…

  13. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  14. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new co...

  15. An Experimental Study on Production of Intracellular β-Galactosidase at Different Conditions by Batch Process Using Isolated Bacillus safensis (JUCHE 1) and Characterization of Synthesized β-Galactosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Arijit; Sarkar, Shubhrajit; Maitra, Madhumita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2013-08-01

    Production of intracellular β-galactosidase has been performed by isolated facultative anaerobic consortium Bacillus safensis (JUCHE1) in lab-scale fermentor by batch mode. Two types of microbial growth media, namely, lactose broth and modified de-Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MMRS) media were tested for microbial growth and β-galactosidase production. It was observed that microbial growth was high in MMRS medium compared with lactose broth. Under the present investigation, growth kinetic parameters, namely maximum specific growth rate (μmax), Monod constant (Ks), yield coefficient (Yx/s) and maintenance coefficient ( ms) of this organism have been determined to be 0.75/h, 12 g/l, 0.1 g biomass/g. substrate and 0.688/h respectively considering lactose as the limiting carbohydrate source. Optimum concentrations of lactose and tryptone, a nitrogen source, in microbial growth medium have been determined to be 20 g/l and 10 g/l, respectively. Optimum temperature, pH and stirrer speed for microbial growth have been found to be 37 °C, 7.0 and 170 rpm, respectively. To isolate intracellular β-galactosidase, sonication was adopted and optimum sonication time was found 300 s with inter stage cooling for 10 s after an operating time of 30 s. Intracellular β-galactosidase was characterized by enzymatic reaction kinetics, optimum pH and temperature. Maximum reaction velocity (vmax), Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), optimum temperature and pH were found 5.1 μmol/min mg/protein, 20 mM, 45 °C and 7, respectively using ortho-nitrophenyl-β-galactoside (ONPG) as a substrate.

  16. Influence of batch annealing conditions on the mechanical properties of a drawing steel. Influencia de las condiciones de recocido en campaa sobre las propiedades mecanicas de un acero de embuticion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saura, J.J.; Carcel, A.; Cembrero, J.; Villena, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y de Materiales, ETSI. Industriales Valencia (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish correlations between annealing conditions and mechanical properties of extra low carbon deep drawing steel sheets. The mechanical properties can be interpreted on the basis of the microstructures obtained and crystallographic textures. The relationship between process parameters allow to select annealing conditions to achieve the required mechanical and metallurgical characteristics. Author (7 refs.)

  17. Axial static mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, H.E.

    1982-05-06

    Static axial mixing apparatus includes a plurality of channels, forming flow paths of different dimensions. The axial mixer includes a flow adjusting device for adjustable selective control of flow resistance of various flow paths in order to provide substantially identical flows through the various channels, thereby reducing nonuniform coating of interior surfaces of the channels. The flow adjusting device may include diaphragm valves, and may further include a pressure regulating system therefor.

  18. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered

  19. A Progression of Static Equilibrium Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Kutzner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although simple architectural structures like bridges, catwalks, cantilevers, and Stonehenge have been integral in human societies for millennia, as have levers and other simple tools, modern students of introductory physics continue to grapple with Newton's conditions for static equilibrium. As formulated in typical introductory physics…

  20. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The work of Abadi and Fournet introduces the notion of a frame to describe the knowledge of the environment of a cryptographic protocol. Frames are lists of terms; two frames are indistinguishable under the notion of static equivalence if they satisfy the same equations on terms. We present a first......-order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...

  1. Static ankle-foot orthosis improves static balance and gait functions in hemiplegic patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jen-Suh; Chang, Hsuan-Sung; Lung, Chi-Wen; Wu, Ching-Yi; Tang, Simon F D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of static anterior and posterior ankle-foot orthoses (AAFOs & PAFOs) using with regular shoes on improving static and gait function in patients recovering from stroke. Static and dynamic balance control were measured under four conditions: barefeet, wearing regular shoes only, and wearing regular shoes with AAFOs or PAFOs. The results indicated that wearing regular shoes markedly increased the center of pressure (CoP) sway (p static standing conditions. Both AAFOs and PAFOs decreased CoP sway and increased bilateral limb loading symmetry compared to barefoot and wearing shoes alone (p 0.05) and also boosted medial-lateral weight shifting more effectively (p static and dynamic balance control when they were used with regular shoes and PAFOs appeared to be more efficient than AAFOs. Shoes worn daily with AFOs is a key consideration influencing balance control in stroke patients. However, AFOs with static design impeded the function of the three rocker systems of the foot during ambulation.

  2. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  3. Static magnets: what are they and what do they do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Laakso

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic static magnets have gained wide community acceptance for neuromusculoskeletal pain relief in many countries yet, apart from strong anecdotal reports of benefit, there is a paucity of scientific evidence for their use. OBJECTIVES: In this review we describe the physical characteristics of traditional and commonplace unipolar and bipolar static magnets as well as newer quadripolar magnetic arrays; discuss what is known of the physiological effects of static magnets and the strength of the literature; and make suggestions for targeted future research for static magnets in the management of neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions.

  4. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  5. The Static Baryon Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Tsapalis, A; Forcrand, Ph. de

    2002-01-01

    Using state of the art lattice techniques we investigate the static baryon potential. We employ the multi-hit procedure for the time links and a variational approach to determine the ground state with sufficient accuracy that, for distances up to $\\sim 1.2$ fm, we can distinguish the $Y$- and $\\Delta$- Ans\\"atze for the baryonic Wilson area law. Our analysis shows that the $\\Delta$-Ansatz is favoured. This result is also supported by the gauge-invariant nucleon wave function which we measure for the first time.

  6. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  7. Slipping and Tipping: Measuring Static Friction with a Straightedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Aguilar, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Following a discussion of forces, torques, and the conditions for static equilibrium, I tell my introductory mechanics class that I will show them how to measure the coefficient of static friction, us, between the surfaces of a block and the front bench using "nothing but a straightedge". After a few seconds of hushed anticipation, I nudge the…

  8. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    as well as large-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to low vertical load are performed during this work. Numerical simulations of the tests performed are carried out using the Mohr Coulomb material model and the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the present work, the finite element......One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...

  9. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the remaining static strains and the temperature field shows apparent linear characteristics, which can be mathematically modeled for the description of static performance. Therefore, multivariate linear regression function combined with principal component analysis is introduced to mathematically model the correlation. Furthermore, the residual static strains of mathematical model are adopted as assessment indicator and three kinds of degradation regulations of static performance are obtained after simulation of the residual static strains. Finally, it is concluded that the static performance of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge was in a good condition during that period.

  10. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  11. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR) to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiu; Zheng, Fengzhu; Guo, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR) to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L) were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%). In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02%) was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  12. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR) to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiu; Zheng, Fengzhu; Guo, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR) to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L) were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%). In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02%) was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches. PMID:26177093

  13. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%. In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02% was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  14. Functional Unfold Principal Component Regression Methodology for Analysis of Industrial Batch Process Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregaard, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    . It is shown that application of functional data analysis and the choice of variance scaling method have the greatest impact on the prediction accuracy. Considering the vast amount of batch process data continuously generated in industry, this methodology can potentially contribute as a tool to identify...... desirable process operating conditions from complex industrial datasets. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2016......This work proposes a methodology utilizing functional unfold principal component regression (FUPCR), for application to industrial batch process data as a process modeling and optimization tool. The methodology is applied to an industrial fermentation dataset, containing 30 batches of a production...

  15. Static traversable wormholes in Lyra manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, A. Sayahian; Moradpour, H.

    At first, considering the Einstein framework, we introduce some new static traversable wormholes and study the effects of a dark energy-like source on them. Thereinafter, a brief review on Einstein field equations in Lyra manifold is presented, and we address some static traversable wormholes in the Lyra manifold which satisfy the energy conditions. It is also shown that solutions introduced in the Einstein framework may also meet the energy conditions in the Lyra manifold. Finally, we focus on vacuum Lyra manifold and find some traversable asymptotically flat wormholes. In summary, our study shows that it is theoretically possible to find a Lyra displacement vector field in a manner in which traversable wormholes satisfy the energy conditions in a Lyra manifold.

  16. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...... contribution furthermore presents how the asymptotic convergence of Iterative Learning Control is combined with the closed-loop performance of Model Predictive Control to form a robust and asymptotically stable optimal controller for ensuring reliable and reproducible operation of batch processes...

  17. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  18. APPLICATION OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL TO BATCH POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a stable operational state in polymerization reactors that operates in batches is factor that determine the need of a special control system. In this study, advanced control methodology is implemented for controlling the operation of a batch polymerization reactor for polystyrene production utilizingmodel predictive control. By utilizing a model of the polymerization process, the necessary operational conditions were determined for producing the polymer within the desired characteristics. The maincontrol objective is to bring the reactor temperature to its target temperature as rapidly as possible with minimal temperature overshoot. Control performance for the proposed method is encouraging. It has been observed that temperature overshoot can be minimized by the proposed method with the use of both reactor and jacket energy balance for reactor temperature control.

  19. Static Analysis Using Abstract Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthaud, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Short presentation about static analysis and most particularly abstract interpretation. It starts with a brief explanation on why static analysis is used at NASA. Then, it describes the IKOS (Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers) tool chain. Results on NASA projects are shown. Several well known algorithms from the static analysis literature are then explained (such as pointer analyses, memory analyses, weak relational abstract domains, function summarization, etc.). It ends with interesting problems we encountered (such as C++ analysis with exception handling, or the detection of integer overflow).

  20. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable and....... Experimental work in the new batch oven will increase knowledge of how the environment and baking conditions influence the quality of bakery products in continuous tunnel ovens. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  1. Establishing column batch repeatability according to Quality by Design (QbD) principles using modeling software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Norbert; Kormány, Róbert; Fekete, Jenő; Molnár, Imre

    2015-04-10

    Column technology needs further improvement even today. To get information of batch-to-batch repeatability, intelligent modeling software was applied. Twelve columns from the same production process, but from different batches were compared in this work. In this paper, the retention parameters of these columns with real life sample solutes were studied. The following parameters were selected for measurements: gradient time, temperature and pH. Based on calculated results, batch-to-batch repeatability of BEH columns was evaluated. Two parallel measurements on two columns from the same batch were performed to obtain information about the quality of packing. Calculating the average of individual working points at the highest critical resolution (R(s,crit)) it was found that the robustness, calculated with a newly released robustness module, had a success rate >98% among the predicted 3(6) = 729 experiments for all 12 columns. With the help of retention modeling all substances could be separated independently from the batch and/or packing, using the same conditions, having high robustness of the experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SOUND POWER LEVEL EMITTED BY AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR UNDER STATIC AND DINAMIC CONDITIONS NÍVEIS DE POTÊNCIA SONORA EMITIDOS POR TRATOR AGRÍCOLA EM CONDIÇÕES ESTÁTICAS E DINÂMICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Christie da Silva Dantas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The noise produced by farm machinery may cause hearing problems to its operators along the time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sound power level emitted by agricultural tractor under static and dynamic conditions, in relation to the IEC651 and IEC61672 norms. It was conducted at the Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2009, by using a Valtra 785 TDA tractor without cabin and equipment to measure its sound power level. The measurements were: static (anterior, posterior, right, and left positions, in relation to the operator’s seat, for each meter along the maximum distance of 10 m, and different engine rotation speeds, with two measuring devices and dynamic (five speeds on concrete and soil test tracks, with two devices. Two measurement devices were used to evaluate the sound power level. For the devices in accordance with the IEC651 and IEC62672 norms, the second one always presented higher sound power levels, due to the fact that the first one was equipped with a wind protector. In all positions, the sound power level was higher than allowed by law. As the engine rotation speed increases, the sound power level also increases. It was noticed that both test tracks can be used for sound power level analysis, due to their similar results. The tractor speed affected its sound power level, with higher values for longer gears.

    KEY-WORDS: Noise; ergonomics; agricultural mechanization.

    O ruído das máquinas agrícolas, com o passar do tempo, pode provocar problemas auditivos em seus operadores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o nível de potência sonora emitido por trator agrícola, em condições estáticas e dinâmicas, comparando-o às normas IEC651 e IEC61672. O trabalho foi

  3. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...

  4. Effects of insoles contact on static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  5. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  6. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    to a multi-valued setting, and we therefore obtain a multivalued analysis for temporal properties specied by CTL formulas. In particular, we have shown that the three-valued CTL model checking problem over Kripke modal transition systems can be exactly encoded in three-valued ALFP. Last, we come back to two-valued......Both model checking and static analysis are prominent approaches to detecting software errors. Model Checking is a successful formal method for verifying properties specified in temporal logics with respect to transition systems. Static analysis is also a powerful method for validating program...... properties which can predict safe approximations to program behaviors. In this thesis, we have developed several static analysis based techniques to solve model checking problems, aiming at showing the link between static analysis and model checking. We focus on logical approaches to static analysis...

  7. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Applying prior knowledge to model batch keeping-quality of cucumber batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.; Jongbloed, G.

    2004-01-01

    Keeping-quality of individual cucumbers is limited by the green colour; the keeping-quality of batches of cucumbers is limited by the time it takes before 5␘f the cucumbers in the batch reach a predefined colour limit. From literature concerning the synthesis and degradation of chlorophyll and a

  9. Design and Construction of a Batch Oven for Investigation of Industrial Continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Mette; Nielsen, Brian; Risum, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulate...... adjustments are still needed in the batch oven setup, it is clear that the batch oven, with its continuous data collection and high degree of process control will be a very valuable tool in the future work with modelling of baking process and products.......A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulated...... aspects is a unique feature of this batch oven. Initial experiments of reproducing tunnel oven baking in the batch oven have shown good results, based on comparisons of weight loss, dry matter content and surface colour. The measured quality parameters did not differ significantly. Even though a few...

  10. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner of the tr......The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  11. The review of cellular effects of a static magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Miyakoshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of static magnetic fields at the cellular level are reviewed. Past studies have shown that a static magnetic field alone does not have a lethal effect on the basic properties of cell growth and survival under normal culture conditions, regardless of its magnetic density. It has also been shown that cell cycle distribution is not influenced by extremely strong static magnetic fields (up to a maximum of 10 tesla (T. A further area of interest is whether static magnetic fields cause DNA damage, which can be evaluated by determination of the frequency of micronucleus formation. The presence or absence of such micronuclei can confirm whether a particular treatment damages cellular DNA. This method has been used to confirm that a static magnetic field alone has no such effect. However, the frequency of micronucleus formation changes significantly when certain treatments (for example, X-irradiation and mitomycin C are given during exposure to a strong static magnetic field. It has also been reported that treatment with trace amounts of ferrous ions in the cell culture medium and exposure to a static magnetic field increases DNA damage, which is detected using the comet assay. Several reports suggest that a strong static magnetic field may affect the ion transport and the gene expression. In addition, many studies have found a strong magnetic field can induce orientation phenomena in cell culture.

  12. AFTER: Batch jobs on the Apollo ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstadler, P.

    1987-07-01

    This document describes AFTER, a system that allows users of an Apollo ring to submit batch jobs to run without leaving themselves logged in to the ring. Jobs may be submitted to run at a later time or on a different node. Results from the batch job are mailed to the user through some designated mail system. AFTER features an understandable user interface, good on line help, and site customization. This manual serves primarily as a user's guide to AFTER although administration and installation are covered for completeness.

  13. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  14. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  15. Application of statistical techniques for elucidating flow cytometric data of batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Nishikant; Avesh, Mohd; English, Niall J; Glennon, Brian; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop structured, segregated stochastic models for bioprocesses using time-series flow cytometric (FC) data. To this end, mammalian CHO cells were grown in both batch and fed-batch cultures, and their viable cell numbers (VCDs), monoclonal antibody (MAb), cell cycle phases, mitochondria membrane potential/mitochondria mass, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were analyzed. For the fed-batch mode, soy hydrolysate was introduced at 24-H intervals. The cytometric data were analyzed for early indicators of growth and productivity by multiple linear regression analysis, which involved taking into account multicollinearity diagnostics, Durbin-Watson statistics, and Houston tests to determine and refine statistically significant correlations between categorical variables (FC parameters) and response variables (yield parameters). The results indicate that the percentage of G1 cells and ER was significantly correlated with VCD and MAb in the case of batch culture, whereas for fed-batch culture, the percentage of G2 cells and ER was correlated significantly. There was a significant difference between cells in the batch and fed-batch cultures in their ER content, suggesting that the increase in protein synthesis as reflected by the ER content and consequent increase in growth rate and MAb productivity both can be monitored at the cellular level by FC analysis of ER content. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Static spherical metrics: a geometrical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A. K.; Maharaj, S. D.; Narain, R.

    2017-08-01

    There exist several solution generating algorithms for static spherically symmetric metrics. Here we use the geometrical approach of Lie point symmetries to solve the condition of pressure isotropy by finding the associated five-dimensional Lie algebra of symmetry generators. For the non-Abelian subalgebras the underlying equation is solved to obtain a general solution. Contained within this class are vacuum models, constant density models, metrics with linear equations of state and the Buchdahl representation of the polytrope with index five. For a different particular symmetry generator the condition of pressure isotropy is transformed to a Riccati equation which admits particular solutions.

  17. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  18. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  19. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  20. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...... are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis...... determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods...

  1. Dynamic time warping of spectroscopic BATCH data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H.J.; van Sprang, E.N.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Smilde, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for warping spectral batch data. This method is a modification of a procedure proposed by Kassidas et al. [AIChE Journal 44 (1998) 864; Journal of Process Control 8 (1998) 381]. This iterative procedure is based on the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm. The symmetric

  2. Dynamic time warping of spectroscopic BATCH data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H. J.; van Sprang, E. N. M.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for warping spectral batch data. This method is a modification of a procedure proposed by Kassidas et al. [AlChE Journal 44 (1998) 864; Journal of Process Control 8 (1998) 381]. This iterative procedure is based on the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm. The symmetric

  3. Predictability of Keeping Quality for Strawberry Batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Kessler, D.; Orcaray, L.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    Postharvest life of strawberries is largely limited by Botrytis cinerea infection. It is assumed that there are two factors influencing the batch keeping quality: the Botrytis pressure and the resistance of the strawberry to infection. The latter factor will be discussed in this article. A colour

  4. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reducing agent: batch, spectroscopic and column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Cetin; Ari, Cihan; Keskin, Selda; Dogaroglu, Zeynep Gorkem; Karadeniz, Aykut; Alten, Akin

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory batch and column experiments, in conjunction with geochemical calculations and spectroscopic analysis, were performed to better understand reaction mechanisms and kinetics associated with Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reactive material under both static and dynamic flow conditions similar to those observed in in situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and geochemical calculations suggest that the Cr(VI) removal by pyrite occurred due to the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), coupled with the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and S2(2-) to SO4(2-) at the pyrite surface. Zeta potential measurements indicate that although the pyrite surface was negatively charged under a wide pH range in the absence of Cr(VI), it behaved more like a "metal oxide" surface with the surface potential shifting from positive to negative values at pH values >pH 6 in the presence of Cr(VI). Batch experiments show that increasing solution pH led to a significant decrease in Cr(VI) removal. The decrease in Cr(VI) removal at high Cr(VI) concentrations and pH values can be explained through the precipitation of sparingly soluble Cr(OH)(3(s)), Fe(OH)(3(s)) and Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy) hydroxides onto pyrite surface which may, then, lead to surface passivation for further Cr(VI) reduction. Batch results also suggest that the reaction kinetics follow a first order model with rate constants decreasing with increasing solution pH, indicating proton consumption during Cr(VI) reduction by pyrite. Column experiments indicate that nearly 100% of total Fe in the column effluent was in the form of Fe(II) species with a [SO4(2-)]/[Fe(2+)] stoichiometric ratio of 2.04, indicating that the reduction of Cr(VI) by pyrite produced about 2 mol of sulfate per mole of Fe (II) release under excess surface sites relative to Cr(VI) concentration. Column experiments provide further evidence on the accumulation of oxidation products which

  5. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reducing agent: Batch, spectroscopic and column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Cetin; Ari, Cihan; Keskin, Selda; Dogaroglu, Zeynep Gorkem; Karadeniz, Aykut; Alten, Akin

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory batch and column experiments, in conjunction with geochemical calculations and spectroscopic analysis, were performed to better understand reaction mechanisms and kinetics associated with Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reactive material under both static and dynamic flow conditions similar to those observed in in situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and geochemical calculations suggest that the Cr(VI) removal by pyrite occurred due to the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), coupled with the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and S22 - to SO42 - at the pyrite surface. Zeta potential measurements indicate that although the pyrite surface was negatively charged under a wide pH range in the absence of Cr(VI), it behaved more like a "metal oxide" surface with the surface potential shifting from positive to negative values at pH values > pH 6 in the presence of Cr(VI). Batch experiments show that increasing solution pH led to a significant decrease in Cr(VI) removal. The decrease in Cr(VI) removal at high Cr(VI) concentrations and pH values can be explained through the precipitation of sparingly soluble Cr(OH)3(s), Fe(OH)3(s) and Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy) hydroxides onto pyrite surface which may, then, lead to surface passivation for further Cr(VI) reduction. Batch results also suggest that the reaction kinetics follow a first order model with rate constants decreasing with increasing solution pH, indicating proton consumption during Cr(VI) reduction by pyrite. Column experiments indicate that nearly 100% of total Fe in the column effluent was in the form of Fe(II) species with a [SO42 -]/[Fe2 +] stoichiometric ratio of 2.04, indicating that the reduction of Cr(VI) by pyrite produced about 2 mol of sulfate per mole of Fe (II) release under excess surface sites relative to Cr(VI) concentration. Column experiments provide further evidence on the accumulation of oxidation products which consequently led

  6. Batch testing for noroviruses in frozen raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keuckelaere, Ann; Li, Dan; Deliens, Bart; Stals, Ambroos; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-02

    Berries, in particular raspberries, have been associated with multiple recalls due to norovirus contamination and were linked to a number of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. In the present study a total of 130 samples of frozen raspberries were collected from 26 batches in four different raspberry processing companies. In two companies the samples consisted of bulk frozen raspberries serving as raw material for the production of raspberry puree (an intermediate food product in a business to business setting). In two other companies, the samples consisted of bulk individually quick frozen (IQF) raspberries serving as raw material for the production of frozen fruit mixes (as a final food product for consumer). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms was performed as well as real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) detection of GI and GII NoV (in 2 × 10 g). In addition, in cases where positive NoV GI or GII RT-qPCR signals were obtained, an attempt to sequence the amplicons was undertaken. Six out of 70 samples taken from the 14 batches of frozen raspberries serving raspberry puree production provided a NoV RT-qPCR signal confirmed by sequencing. Four of these six positive samples clustered in one batch whereas the other two positive samples clustered in another batch from the same company. All six positive samples showed NoV RT-qPCR signals above the limit of quantification of the RT-qPCR assay. These two positive batches of frozen raspberries can be classified as being of insufficient sanitary quality. The mean NoV level in 20 g of these raspberry samples was 4.3 log genomic copies NoV GI/20 g. The concern for public health is uncertain as NoV RT-qPCR detection is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious virus particles. For the IQF raspberries, one batch out of 12 tested NoV positive, but only 1 out of the 5 samples analyzed in this batch showed a positive RT-qPCR GI NoV signal confirmed by sequencing. The RT-qPCR signal was below the

  7. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    multiple layers of object-oriented abstractions. Our hypothesis has been that static analysis techniques have reached the point that sound, precise and...important features of STAMP are: • An interface for reading and interpreting DEX bytecode, allowing analysis of libraries in compiled form, both statically...describe a new bottom-up, subset-based, and context-sensitive pointer analysis for Java. The main novelty of our technique is the constraint-based handling

  8. The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Radical Semi-Batch Copolymerization of Butyl Acrylate and 2-Hydroxyethyl Acrylate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan E S Schier; David Cohen-Sacal; Owen R Larsen; Robin A Hutchinson

    2017-01-01

    .... The effect of hydrogen bonding on HEA to BA relative incorporation rates during copolymerization, previously seen in low-conversion kinetic studies, was also observed under high-conversion semi-batch conditions...

  9. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  10. A Single Dynamic Metabolic Model Can Describe mAb Producing CHO Cell Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures on Different Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Julien; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CHO cell culture high productivity relies on optimized culture medium management under fed-batch or perfused chemostat strategies enabling high cell densities. In this work, a dynamic metabolic model for CHO cells was further developed, calibrated and challenged using datasets obtained under four different culture conditions, including two batch and two fed-batch cultures comparing two different culture media. The recombinant CHO-DXB11 cell line producing the EG2-hFc monoclonal antibody was studied. Quantification of extracellular substrates and metabolites concentration, viable cell density, monoclonal antibody concentration and intracellular concentration of metabolite intermediates of glycolysis, pentose-phosphate and TCA cycle, as well as of energetic nucleotides, were obtained for model calibration. Results suggest that a single model structure with a single set of kinetic parameter values is efficient at simulating viable cell behavior in all cases under study, estimating the time course of measured and non-measured intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Model simulations also allowed performing dynamic metabolic flux analysis, showing that the culture media and the fed-batch strategies tested had little impact on flux distribution. This work thus paves the way to an in silico platform allowing to assess the performance of different culture media and fed-batch strategies.

  11. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  12. THE EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF INVERT SUGAR ON THE PRODUCTION OF CEPHALOSPORIN C IN A FED-BATCH BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Silva

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalosporin C, a b -lactam antibiotic, is the starting molecule for industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins. The bioprocess for its production is carried out in batch stirred and aerated tank reactors utilizing strains of the filamentous fungus Cephalosporium acremonium. In this work a comparison was made between the processes of production of cephalosporin C in a conventional batch bioreactor, with synthetic medium containing glucose and sucrose, and in a fed-batch reactor at several flowrates of supplementary medium containing invert sucrose. In general, the fed-batch process was shown to be more efficient than the conventional batch one, and the process in which the lowest supplementation flowrate was used presented an antibiotic production significantly higher than those obtained under the other conditions.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  14. Revisiting Verhulst and Monod models: analysis of batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Nishikant; Mohd, Avesh; Whelan, Jessica; English, Niall J; Glennon, Brian; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    The paper re-evaluates Verhulst and Monod models. It has been claimed that standard logistic equation cannot describe the decline phase of mammalian cells in batch and fed-batch cultures and in some cases it fails to fit somatic growth data. In the present work Verhulst, population-based mechanistic growth model was revisited to describe successfully viable cell density (VCD) in exponential and decline phases of batch and fed-batch cultures of three different CHO cell lines. Verhulst model constants, K, carrying capacity (VCD/ml or μg/ml) and r, intrinsic growth factor (h(-1)) have physical meaning and they are of biological significance. These two parameters together define the course of growth and productivity and therefore, they are valuable in optimisation of culture media, developing feeding strategies and selection of cell lines for productivity. The Verhulst growth model approach was extended to develop productivity models for batch and fed-batch cultures. All Verhulst models were validated against blind data (R(2) > 0.95). Critical examination of theoretical approaches concluded that Monod parameters have no physical meaning. Monod-hybrid (pseudo-mechanistic) batch models were validated against specific growth rates of respective bolus and continuous fed-batch cultures (R(2) ≈ 0.90). The reduced form of Monod-hybrid model CL/(KL + CL) describes specific growth rate during metabolic shift (R(2) ≈ 0.95). Verhulst substrate-based growth models compared favourably with Monod-hybrid models. Thus, experimental evidence implies that the constants in the Monod-hybrid model may not have physical meaning but they behave similarly to the biological constants in Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics, the basis of the Monod growth model.

  15. Development and validation of a novel monitoring system for batch flocculant solids settling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Pérez, Borja; Zhang, Xueqian; Penkarski-Rodon, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Secondary sedimentation is the main hydraulic bottleneck of effective pollution control WWTP under wetweather flow conditions. Therefore, online monitoring tools are required for control and optimization of the settling process under dynamic conditions. In this work we propose a novel monitoring...... system able to monitor batch settling tests by tracking the sludge blanket height and solid concentration along the column in the range of 1 to 8 g L-1. The system could be efficiently applied to monitor the batch settling tests of several full scale treatment plants run under different operational...

  16. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  17. Neuro-estimator based GMC control of a batch reactive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K J Jithin; Patle, Dipesh S; Jana, Amiya K

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear control algorithm is proposed for a simulated batch reactive distillation (RD) column. In the homogeneously catalyzed reactive process, an esterification reaction takes place for the production of ethyl acetate. The fundamental model has been derived incorporating the reaction term in the model structure of the nonreactive distillation process. The process operation is simulated at the startup phase under total reflux conditions. The open-loop process dynamics is also addressed running the batch process at the production phase under partial reflux conditions. In this study, a neuro-estimator based generic model controller (GMC), which consists of an ANN-based state predictor and the GMC law, has been synthesized. Finally, this proposed control law has been tested on the representative batch reactive distillation comparing with a gain-scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller and with its ideal performance (ideal GMC). Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  19. Optimal temperature control for batch beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, D A; Ramirez, W F

    1988-02-20

    Optimal control theory was applied to the process of batch beer fermentation. The performance functional considered was a weighted sum of maximum ethanol production and minimum time. Calculations were based on the model of Engasser et al. modified to include temperature effects. Model parameters were determined from isothermal batch fermentations. The fermentor cooling duty was the single available control. Temperature state variable constraints as well as control variable constraints were considered. The optimal control law is shown to be bang-bang control with the existence of a singular arc corresponding to isothermal operation at the maximum temperature constraint. An iterative algorithm is presented for computing appropriate switching times using a penalty-function-augmented performance functional.

  20. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop...... a model for cultivation behaviour. This model is validated against 13 data sets and demonstrated to explain a significant amount of variation in the data. The multivariate model may directly be used for process monitoring. With this method faults are detected in real time and the responsible measurements...... are directly identified. The fault detection and identification is enabled through inspection of a few simple plots. Thus, the presented methodology allows the process operator to actively monitor data from several cultivations simultaneously....

  1. Batch Ingesting into EPrints Digital Repository Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Neugebauer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the batch importing strategy and workflow used for the import of theses metadata and PDF documents into the EPrints digital repository software. A two-step strategy of importing metadata in MARC format followed by attachment of PDF documents is described in detail, including Perl source code for scripts used.  The processes described were used in the ingestion of 6,000 theses metadata and PDFs into an EPrints institutional repository.

  2. Batch Covariance Relaxation (BCR) Adaptive Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    techniques dictates the need for processing flexibility which may be met most easily by a digital mechanization. The effort conducted addresses the...essential aspects of Batch Covariance Relaxation (BCR) adaptive processing applied to a digital adaptive array processing. In contrast to dynamic... libarary , RADAR:LIB. An extensive explanation as to how to use these programs is given. It is shown how the output of each is used as part of the input for

  3. On-line scheduling of multi-server batch operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, Durk Jouke van der; Harten, Aart van; Schuur, Peter

    The batching of jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in many industries. The main reasons for batching are the avoidance of setups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are the ovens that are found in the aircraft industry and in

  4. On-line Scheduling Of Multi-Server Batch Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; van Harten, A.; Schuur, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of setups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing.

  5. A Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevjanik, Mario; Badri, Solmaz; Barat, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an economic yet challenging semi-batch reactor experience. Household bleach is pumped at a controlled rate into a batch reactor containing pharmaceutical hydrogen peroxide solution. Batch temperature, product molecular oxygen, and the overall change in solution conductivity are metered. The reactor simulation…

  6. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor... reactor batch process vent located at a new affected source shall control organic HAP emissions by...

  7. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis......The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...... of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related strength of materials subjects in greater detail; these include stress and strain, failure criteria, and normal and shear stresses in general beam flexure and in beam torsion....

  8. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  9. Static Correctness of Hierarchical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1990-01-01

    basis for a general type hierarchy with static type checking, which enables first-order polymorphism combined with multiple inheritance and specialization in a language with assignments. We extend the results to include opaque types. An opaque version of a type is different from the original but has......A system of hierarchical, fully recursive types in a truly imperative language allows program fragments written for small types to be reused for all larger types. To exploit this property to enable type-safe hierarchical procedures, it is necessary to impose a static requirement on procedure calls....... We introduce an example language and prove the existence of a sound requirement which preserves static correctness while allowing hierarchical procedures. This requirement is further shown to be optimal, in the sense that it imposes as few restrictions as possible. This establishes the theoretical...

  10. Propagation of Cigarette Static Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagation model of cigarette static burn at the cigarette periphery is proposed. Propagation of cigarette static burn is characterized by intermittent burn of the cigarette paper. The burning rate depends on the period of flash burn of the paper and is independent of the burning width. By measuring the local temperature near the front line of the burning propagation, the rate-determining step was identified as the time required to ignite the paper. A mathematical analysis was performed by calculating the heat transfer at the periphery during the paper heating period, and it was revealed that the thermal properties of the cigarette are the dominant factors of cigarette static burn. Modeling results showed good agreement with measured data.

  11. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Superconductor in a weak static gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummarino, Giovanni Alberto [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI-Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gallerati, Antonio [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    We provide the detailed calculation of a general form for Maxwell and London equations that takes into account gravitational corrections in linear approximation. We determine the possible alteration of a static gravitational field in a superconductor making use of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, providing also an analytic solution in the weak field condition. Finally, we compare the behavior of a high-T{sub c} superconductor with a classical low-T{sub c} superconductor, analyzing the values of the parameters that can enhance the reduction of the gravitational field. (orig.)

  13. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  14. Batch and fed-batch bioreactor studies for the enhanced production of glutaminase-free L-asparaginase from Pectobacterium carotovorum MTCC 1428.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Prabhu, Ashish A; Dasu, V Venkata; Pakshirajan, Kannan

    2017-01-02

    The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) level and pH (controlled/uncontrolled) was first studied to enhance the production of novel glutaminase-free L-asparaginase by Pectobacterium carotovorum MTCC 1428 in a batch bioreactor. The optimum level of DO was found to be 20%. The production of L-asparaginase was found to be maximum when pH of the medium was maintained at 8.5 after 12 h of fermentation. Under these conditions, P. carotovorum produced 17.97 U/mL of L-asparaginase corresponding to the productivity of 1497.50 U/L/h. The production of L-asparaginase was studied in fed-batch bioreactor by feeding L-asparagine (essential substrate for production) and/or glucose (carbon source for growth) at the end of the reaction period of 12 h. The initial medium containing both L-asparagine and glucose in the batch mode and L-asparagine in the feeding stream was found to be the best combination for enhanced production of glutaminase-free L-asparaginase. Under this condition, the L-asparaginase production was increased to 38.8 U/mL, which corresponded to a productivity of 1615.8 U/L/h. The production and productivity were increased by 115.8% and 7.9%, respectively, both of which are higher than those obtained in the batch bioreactor experiments.

  15. Biological Treatment of Dairy Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohseni-Bandpi, H Bazari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A bench scale aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR was investigated to treat the wastewater from an industrial milk factory. The reactor was constructed from plexi glass material and its volume was 22.5 L. The reactor was supplied with oxygen by fine bubble air diffuser. The reactor was fed with milk factory and synthetic wastewater under different operational conditions. The COD removal efficiency was achieved more than 90%, whereas COD concentration varied from 400 to 2500 mg/l. The optimum dissolved oxygen in the reactor was 2 to 3 mg/l and MLVSS was around 3000 mg/l. Easy operation, low cost and minimal sludge bulking condition make the SBR system an interesting option for the biological medium strength industrial wastewater treatment. The study demonstrated the capability of aerobic SBR for COD removal from dairy industrial wastewater.

  16. Batch Model for Batched Timestamps Data Analysis with Application to the SSA Disability Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingqi; Yuan, Ao; Che, Xuan; Huynh, Minh; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2016-08-01

    The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) is responsible for holding hearings, issuing decisions, and reviewing appeals as part of the Social Security Administration's disability determining process. In order to control and process cases, the ODAR has established a Case Processing and Management System (CPMS) to record management information since December 2003. The CPMS provides a detailed case status history for each case. Due to the large number of appeal requests and limited resources, the number of pending claims at ODAR was over one million cases by March 31, 2015. Our National Institutes of Health (NIH) team collaborated with SSA and developed a Case Status Change Model (CSCM) project to meet the ODAR's urgent need of reducing backlogs and improve hearings and appeals process. One of the key issues in our CSCM project is to estimate the expected service time and its variation for each case status code. The challenge is that the systems recorded job departure times may not be the true job finished times. As the CPMS timestamps data of case status codes showed apparent batch patterns, we proposed a batch model and applied the constrained least squares method to estimate the mean service times and the variances. We also proposed a batch search algorithm to determine the optimal batch partition, as no batch partition was given in the real data. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Finally, we applied the method to analyze a real CPMS data from ODAR/SSA.

  17. Screen-printed sensor for batch and flow injection potentiometric chromium(VI) monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Moreno, Raul A.; Gismera, M.J.; Sevilla, M.T.; Procopio, Jesus R. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A disposable screen-printed electrode was designed and evaluated for direct detection of chromium(VI) in batch and flow analysis. The carbon screen-printed electrode was modified with a graphite-epoxy composite. The optimal graphite-epoxy matrix contains 37.5% graphite powder, 12.5% diphenylcarbohydrazide, a selective compound for chromium(VI), and 50% epoxy resin. The principal analytical parameters of the potentiometric response in batch and flow analysis were optimized and calculated. The screen-printed sensor exhibits a response time of 20 {+-} 1 s. In flow analysis, the analytical frequency of sampling is 70 injections per hour using 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution at pH 3 as the carrier, a flow rate of 2.5 mL.min{sup -1}, and an injection sample volume of 0.50 mL. The sensor shows potentiometric responses that are very selective for chromium(VI) ions and optimal detection limits in both static mode (2.1 x 10{sup -7} M) and online analysis (9.4 x 10{sup -7} M). The disposable potentiometric sensor was employed to determine toxicity levels of chromium(VI) in mineral, tap, and river waters by flow-injection potentiometry and batch potentiometry. Chromium(VI) determination was also carried out with successful results in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills. (orig.)

  18. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    the necessary information, it was possible to locate the end destinations of the fish batches. The batch sizes and the number of companies involved clearly rose when batch joining occurred. Thus, a fault in a small batch can potentially have widespread implications. The study also underlines the importance......Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...

  19. Transfer bonding technology for batch fabrication of SMA microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, T.; Guerre, R.; Despont, M.; Kohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    Currently, the broad market introduction of shape memory alloy (SMA) microactuators and sensors is hampered by technological barriers, since batch fabrication methods common to electronics industry are not available. The present study intends to overcome these barriers by introducing a wafer scale transfer process that allows the selective transfer of heat-treated and micromachined shape memory alloy (SMA) film or foil microactuators to randomly selected receiving sites on a target substrate. The technology relies on a temporary adhesive bonding layer between SMA film/foil and an auxiliary substrate, which can be removed by laser ablation. The transfer technology was tested for microactuators of a cold-rolled NiTi foil of 20 μm thickness, which were heat-treated in free-standing condition, then micromachined on an auxiliary substrate of glass, and finally selectively transferred to different target substrates of a polymer. For demonstration, the new technology was used for batch-fabrication of SMA-actuated polymer microvalves.

  20. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  1. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...

  2. Batch studies on nitrate removal from potable water | Darbi | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sulphur / limestone autotrophic denitrification process was used to achieve the biological removal of nitrate from groundwater. The feasibility of the system was evaluated under anaerobic conditions using laboratory-scale batch reactors. The optimum sulphur / limestone ratio was determined to be 1:1 (wt/wt). Different ...

  3. Thermally safe operation of a cooled semi-batch reactor: slow liquid-liquid reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Thermally safe operation of a semi-batch reactor (SBR) implies that conditions leading to strong accumulation of unreacted reactants must be avoided. All thermal responses of a SBR, in which a slow liquid-liquid reaction takes place, can be represented in a diagram with the kinetics, cooling

  4. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Hobley, Timothy John; Calabrò, V.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22gL−1 were found from whey containing ca. 44gL−1 lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h......, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the metabolic...... coefficients within a physically meaningful range thereby providing valuable and reliable insight into fermentation processes....

  5. Mechanistic Models for Process Development and Optimization of Fed-batch Fermentation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albæk, Mads O.

    2016-01-01

    . This is based on on-line gas measurements and ammonia addition flow rate measurements. Additionally, a mechanistic model is applied offline as a tool for batch planning, based on definition of the process back pressure, aeration rate and stirrer speed. This allows the batch starting fill to be planned, taking...... into account the oxygen transfer conditions, as well as the evaporation rates of the system. Mechanistic models are valuable tools which are applicable for both process development and optimization. The state estimator described will be a valuable tool for future work as part of control strategy development...... for on-line process control and optimization....

  6. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  8. The Quality Prediction in Small-batch Producing Based on Weighted Least Squares Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel quality prediction method with mobile time window is proposed for small-batch producing process based on weighted least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR. The design steps and learning algorithm are also addressed. In the method, weighted LS-SVR is taken as the intelligent kernel, with which the small-batch learning is solved well and the nearer sample is set a larger weight, while the farther is set the smaller weight in the history data. A typical machining process of cutting bearing outer race is carried out and the real measured data are used to contrast experiment. The experimental results demonstrate that the prediction accuracy of the weighted LSSVR based model is only 20%-30% that of the standard LS-SVR based one in the same condition. It provides a better candidate for quality prediction of small-batch producing process.

  9. Optimization of cyclosporin A production by Beauveria nivea in continuous fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the effective control method for fed-batch culture of cyclosporin A production, we chose fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 as feeding nutrients and compared their productivities in relation to different concentrations. The feeding rate of three kinds of feeding materials was controlled to maintain the suitable residual concentration. The fed-batch fermentation results indicated that the optimal concentrations of fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 were about 20 g/L, 0.5 g/L and 0.6 g/L for cyclosporin A production, respectively. The cultivation of Beauveria nivea could produce cyclosporin A up to 6.2 g/L for 240 hrs through a continuous feeding-rate-controlled-batch process under the optimal feeding conditions.

  10. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Mayer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch distillation applied to hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production on a small scale still requires operating conditions that ensure optimal top product quality and productivity. The aim of this study is to statistically validate a batch still through the employment of response surface methodology (RSM. Operational and productivity parameters were formulated in order to guarantee quality compliance with the legal requirements for the top product concentration, besides providing support information to control the production of HEF on a small scale. The reboiler control and dephlegmator temperatures maintained within the range of 97.5 to 99.5°C and 60 to 70°C, respectively, combined with a variable reflux ratio, was satisfactory in obtaining a top product concentration, in accordance with legal regulations, as well as high productivity. The results of this study may contribute to the assembly of a simple and low-cost batch distillation control system.

  11. Visual processing of moving and static self body-parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Francesca; Pavani, Francesco; Zamagni, Elisa; Fusaroli, Giulia; Vescovi, Massimo; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Avanzi, Stefano; Farnè, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    Humans' ability to recognize static images of self body-parts can be lost following a lesion of the right hemisphere [Frassinetti, F., Maini, M., Romualdi, S., Galante, E., & Avanzi, S. (2008). Is it mine? Hemispheric asymmetries in corporeal self-recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 1507-1516]. Here we investigated whether the visual information provided by the movement of self body-parts may be separately processed by right brain-damaged (RBD) patients and constitute a valuable cue to reduce their deficit in self body-parts processing. To pursue these aims, neurological healthy subjects and RBD patients were submitted to a matching-task of a pair of subsequent visual stimuli, in two conditions. In the dynamic condition, participants were shown movies of moving body-parts (hand, foot, arm and leg); in the static condition, participants were shown still images of the same body-parts. In each condition, on half of the trials at least one stimulus in the pair was from the participant's own body ('Self' condition), whereas on the remaining half of the trials both stimuli were from another person ('Other' condition). Results showed that in healthy participants the self-advantage was present when processing both static and dynamic body-parts, but it was more important in the latter condition. In RBD patients, however, the self-advantage was absent in the static, but present in the dynamic body-parts condition. These findings suggest that visual information from self body-parts in motion may be processed independently in patients with impaired static self-processing, thus pointing to a modular organization of the mechanisms responsible for the self/other distinction.

  12. Computational time reduction for sequential batch solutions in GNSS precise point positioning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Furones, Angel; Anquela Julián, Ana Belén; Dimas-Pages, Alejandro; Cos-Gayón, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) is a well established Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technique that only requires information from the receiver (or rover) to obtain high-precision position coordinates. This is a very interesting and promising technique because eliminates the need for a reference station near the rover receiver or a network of reference stations, thus reducing the cost of a GNSS survey. From a computational perspective, there are two ways to solve the system of observation equations produced by static PPP either in a single step (so-called batch adjustment) or with a sequential adjustment/filter. The results of each should be the same if they are both well implemented. However, if a sequential solution (that is, not only the final coordinates, but also those observed in previous GNSS epochs), is needed, as for convergence studies, finding a batch solution becomes a very time consuming task owing to the need for matrix inversion that accumulates with each consecutive epoch. This is not a problem for the filter solution, which uses information computed in the previous epoch for the solution of the current epoch. Thus filter implementations need extra considerations of user dynamics and parameter state variations between observation epochs with appropriate stochastic update parameter variances from epoch to epoch. These filtering considerations are not needed in batch adjustment, which makes it attractive. The main objective of this research is to significantly reduce the computation time required to obtain sequential results using batch adjustment. The new method we implemented in the adjustment process led to a mean reduction in computational time by 45%.

  13. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  14. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  15. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods...... are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis...... of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related strength of materials subjects in greater detail; these include stress and strain, failure criteria, and normal and shear stresses in general beam flexure and in beam torsion....

  16. Static Validation of XSL Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Olesen, Mads Østerby; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2007-01-01

    XSL Transformations (XSLT) is a programming language for defining transformations among XML languages. The structure of these languages is formally described by schemas, for example using DTD or XML Schema, which allows individual documents to be validated. However, existing XSLT tools offer...... and XACT XML transformations. Being able to provide static guarantees, we can detect a large class of errors in an XSLT stylesheet at the time it is written instead of later when it has been deployed, and thereby provide benefits similar to those of static type checkers for modern programming languages....... Our analysis takes a pragmatic approach that focuses its precision on the essential language features but still handles the entire XSLT language. We evaluate the analysis precision on a range of real stylesheets and demonstrate how it may be useful in practice....

  17. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  18. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  19. Static and Dynamic Membrane Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While originally P systems were defined to contain multiset rewriting rules, it turned out that considering different types of rules may produce important results, such as increasing the computational power of the rules. This paper focuses on factoring out the concept of a membrane structure out of various P system models with the goal of providing useful formalisations. Both static and dynamic membrane structures are considered.

  20. The development of an accelerometer-based measure of human upright static anterior- posterior postural sway under various sensory conditions: test-retest reliability, scoring and preliminary validity of the Balance Accelerometry Measure (BAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Gregory F; Bellanca, Jennica; Whitney, Susan L; Lin, James Chia-Cheng; Musolino, Mark C; Furman, Gabriel R; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Accelerometers are being used to assess postural control in adults, but there is little to support their reliability and validity. To estimate the test-retest reliability of the balance accelerometry measure (BAM) and to describe the known-groups validity of the BAM composite score. Two measures of standing postural sway were taken across six sensory (vision/stance surface) and motor stance (feet together or tandem) positions from eighteen patients with vestibular disorders and 84 healthy subjects. Test-retest reliability for postural sway was estimated across all conditions using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). A composite measure of sway standardized to young healthy subjects on eyes open firm surface stance was compared between groups. Test-retest reliability of postural sway was good (ICC ⩾ 0.74) under all sensory conditions except eyes closed/tandem stance, which was slight to poor. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve for composite scores indicated significant accuracy at identification of subjects in the vestibular/balance disorder groups. Composite standard scores equal or greater than 21.1 identified subjects with vestibular disorders with an accuracy of 72% sensitivity and 68% specificity. The BAM displays good-excellent reliability for five of six sensory-motor conditions. The composite score appears to differentiate healthy from subjects with vestibular disorders.

  1. Quasi-Static Ultrasound Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Tomy

    2010-01-01

    Elastography is a new imaging modality where elastic tissue parameters related to the structural organization of normal and pathological tissues are imaged. Basic principles underlying the quasi-static elastography concept and principles are addressed. The rationale for elastographic imaging is reinforced using data on elastic properties of normal and abnormal soft tissues. The several orders of magnitude difference between the elastic modulus of normal and abnormal tissues which is the primary contrast mechanism in elastographic imaging underlines the probability of success with this imaging modality. Recent advances enabling the clinical practice of elastographic imaging in real-time on clinical ultrasound systems is also discussed. In quasi-static elastography, radiofrequency echo signals acquired before and after a small (about 1%) of applied deformation are correlated to estimate tissue displacements. Local tissue displacement vector estimates between small segments of the pre- and post-deformation signals are estimated and the corresponding strain distribution imaged. Elastographic imaging techniques are based on the hypothesis that soft tissues deform more than stiffer tissue, and these differences can be quantified in images of the tissue strain tensor or the Young’s modulus. Clinical applications of quasi-static elastography have mushroomed over the last decade, with the most commonly imaged areas being the breast, prostate, thyroid, cardiac, treatment monitoring of ablation procedures and vascular imaging applications. PMID:20798841

  2. Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

  3. Acid protease and formation of multiple forms of glucoamylase in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Thomas; Reeslev, Morten; Jensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify factors responsible for production of multiple forms of glucoamylase (GA) by Aspergillus niger Bo-1, the fungus was cultured in both complex and defined media in pH-controlled batch fermenters and chemostats. At all culture conditions three forms of GA were produced...... was cultivated in batch and continuous fermentations with a constant pH of 3.0 or 5.0, whereas acidification of both complex and defined batch culture media after 20 h of growth induced a significant secretion of acid protease(s). The protease(s) present in the complex medium catalysed modification...... with molecular weights of approx. 91 (GAI), 73 (GAII), and 59 kDa (GAIII). Data from batch fermentations with constant pH 3.0 and 5.0 showed a uniform distribution of extracellular GA forms throughout the fermentations and independent of culture growth phases. Furthermore, steady-state data from chemostat...

  4. Acid protease and formation of multiple forms of glycoamylase in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Thomas; Reeslev, Morten; Jensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify factors responsible for production of multiple forms of glucoamylase (GA) by Aspergillus niger Bo-1, the fungus was cultured in both complex and defined media in pH-controlled batch fermenters and chemostats. At all culture conditions three forms of GA were produced...... was cultivated in batch and continuous fermentations with a constant pH of 3.0 or 5.0, whereas acidification of both complex and defined batch culture media after 20 h of growth induced a significant secretion of acid protease(s). The protease(s) present in the complex medium catalysed modification...... with molecular weights of approx. 91 (GAI), 73 (GAII), and 59 kDa (GAIII). Data from batch fermentations with constant pH 3.0 and 5.0 showed a uniform distribution of extracellular GA forms throughout the fermentations and independent of culture growth phases. Furthermore, steady-state data from chemostat...

  5. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity. ...

  6. 14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173 Section 25.173 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... longitudinal stability. Under the conditions specified in § 25.175, the characteristics of the elevator control...

  7. Static stretch induces active morphological remodeling and functional impairment of alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanhong; Zhan, Qingyuan; Hu, Qinghua; Sun, Bing; Yang, Chun; Wang, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Static stretch is frequently observed in the lung. Both static stretch and cyclic stretch can induce cell death and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase trafficking, but stretch-induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) functions are much less responsive to static than to cyclic stretch. AEC remodeling under static stretch may be partly explained. The aim of this study was to explore the AEC remodeling and functional changes under static stretch conditions. We used A549 cells as a model of AEC type II cells. We assessed F-actin content and cell viability by fluorescence staining at various static-stretch magnitudes and time points. Specifically, we used scanning electron microscopy to explore the possible biological mechanisms used by A549 cells to 'escape' static-stretch-induced injury. Finally, we measured choline cytidylyltransferase-alpha (CCT alpha) mRNA and protein by real-time PCR and Western blot to evaluate cellular secretory function. The results showed that the magnitude of static stretch was the primary determinant of static-stretch-induced cell death and cytoskeleton organization, but an extended duration of high static deformation/stretch (37% change in surface area) had no cumulative effects on cell death and cytoskeleton organization. AEC remodeling (expansion-contraction-reexpansion) under static stretch conditions may explain this interesting phenomenon partly. After cell remodeling, CCT alpha expression in A549 cells was influenced not only by stretch magnitude but also by stretch time. Under static stretch conditions, A549 cells undergo morphological and functional changes. They can survive stress failure from overstretching by remodeling their body to 'escape' the injury. During this complex course of remodeling, cellular function was partly damaged. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Batch sequential designs for computer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Leslie M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Loeppky, Jason L [UBC-OKANAGAN

    2009-01-01

    Computer models simulating a physical process are used in many areas of science. Due to the complex nature of these codes it is often necessary to approximate the code, which is typically done using a Gaussian process. In many situations the number of code runs available to build the Guassian process approximation is limited. When the initial design is small or the underlying response surface is complicated this can lead to poor approximations of the code output. In order to improve the fit of the model, sequential design strategies must be employed. In this paper we introduce two simple distance based metrics that can be used to augment an initial design in a batch sequential manner. In addition we propose a sequential updating strategy to an orthogonal array based Latin hypercube sample. We show via various real and simulated examples that the distance metrics and the extension of the orthogonal array based Latin hypercubes work well in practice.

  9. Batch Cultivation Model for Biopolymer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Torres-Cerna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model to evaluate the kinetics of two different Pseudomonas putida strains, wild and mutant-type for the microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs. Model parameters were estimated to represent adequately experimental data from the batch reactor using the differential evolution algorithm. Based on the mathematical model with the best-fit parameter values, simulations suggested that the high production of PHA by the mutant strain can be attributed not only to the higher production of PHA but also to a reduction in the consumption rate of the substrates of approximately 66 %. Remarkably, the cell growth rate value is higher for the wild type than the mutant type, suggesting that the PHA increase is not only to an increase in the production rate but also to the metabolism of the cells. This mathematical model advances comprehension of the PHA production capacity by P. putida paving the road towards environmentally friendly plastics.

  10. Fracture characterisation of float glass under static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nyounguè

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of float glass fracture under static and dynamic loading, with the use of experimental and numerical fracture mechanics methods. It has been shown that the value of notch fracture toughness under static loading depends neither on the kind of test nor on specimen geometry. This makes it possible to replace the three-points-bending specimens with the Brazilian discs which are, under certain test conditions, simpler and convenient to study. For both types of specimens, an analysis of the fracture strength, the notch stress intensity factor and fragmentation of specimens was carried out.

  11. Thermal stabilization of static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Michael; Schwaller, Christian; Tremmel, Anton J.; Koch, Alexander W.

    2017-05-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has become a standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. With this method, an interferogram is created by two beam interference which is subsequently Fourier-transformed. Most Fourier transform spectrometers used today provide the interferogram in the temporal domain. In contrast, static Fourier transform spectrometers generate interferograms in the spatial domain. One example of this type of spectrometer is the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer which offers a high etendue in combination with a simple, miniaturized optics design. As no moving parts are required, it also features a high vibration resistance and high measurement rates. However, it is susceptible to temperature variations. In this paper, we therefore discuss the main sources for temperature-induced errors in static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers: changes in the refractive index of the optical components used, variations of the detector sensitivity, and thermal expansion of the housing. As these errors manifest themselves in temperature-dependent wavenumber shifts and intensity shifts, they prevent static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers from delivering long-term stable spectra. To eliminate these shifts, we additionally present a work concept for the thermal stabilization of the spectrometer. With this stabilization, static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers are made suitable for infrared process spectroscopy under harsh thermal environmental conditions. As the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer uses the so-called source-doubling principle, many of the mentioned findings are transferable to other designs of static Fourier transform spectrometers based on the same principle.

  12. DEVELOPING A MODEL OF COOKING GRAIN BATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Konstantinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. By batch cooking of grain accumulated considerable experimental and production material. However, the theory of this process has not been developed to the desired extent. It is shown that the mathematical modeling of the process of cooking the grain batch can be used as a basis for non-stationary diffusion equation and its numerical solution based on the grid method. It is shown that in addition to non-stationary diffusion process by using the grid method can take into account the temperature processes and the theory of swelling of the starch granules. The values of the activation energy of diffusion bound moisture in grains and the pre-exponential value were determined. To describe the swelling of the starch granules used solutions sufficiently numerous studies, and the selected model based on chemical reaction kinetics of the second order. Elaboration of the model of cooking done on experimental data for wheat grits, and concluded the need to address the gap of the starch granules during swelling and separation of layers of material adjacent to the liquid phase during the entire process until the complete cooking of cereal grits. An enlarged under a microscope photos edge dry and tenderized particles showing swelling of the starch granules and the isolation of the outer layer of the particle. Simultaneously taken into account in the model dynamics of temperature changes during heating and mixing the grain of cooking. The simulation results are identified according to a pilot study of cooking barley grits. Found that the developed model accurately describes the results of the pilot study. It is shown that the mathematical model based on the non-stationary diffusion equation, excluding the effects of temperature and swelling of the starch granulestheory gives too high of cooking time.

  13. Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic programming languages are highly popular and widely used. Java-Script is often called the lingua franca of the web and it is the de facto standardfor client-side web programming. On the server-side the PHP, Python andRuby languages are prevalent. What these languages have in common isan expressive power which is not easily captured by any static type system.These, and similar dynamic languages, are often praised for their ease-of-useand flexibility. Unfortunately, this dynamism comes ...

  14. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  15. Fate of 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol in batch and column studies simulating managed aquifer recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory-scale batch and soil columns experiments were conducted to investigate the attenuation of estrogens (17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) during managed aquifer recharge. The role of microbial activity in the removal of selected estrogens was evaluated by comparing the results from biotic and abiotic batch experiments. Moreover, batch experiments were carried out using the sand media prepared over different acclimation periods to investigate the impact of acclimation periods on the removal of selected estrogens. Batch studies showed that adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism in the removal of 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol. 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol were attenuated by 99% and 96%, respectively, in batch experiments under oxic conditions. Redox conditions did not show any significant effect on the attenuation of 17β-estradiol. However, the net estrogenicity of 17β-estradiol remaining was lower under oxic conditions (130 ng estradiol-equivalents/L) than anoxic conditions (970 ng estradiol-equivalents/L) . Column studies operated at 17 h of empty bed contact time also demonstrated that removal mechanism of 17α-ethinylestradiol was more dependent on adsorption than biodegradation. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  16. The influence of pH adjustment on kinetics parameters in tapioca wastewater treatment using aerobic sequencing batch reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Happy; Budianto, Gregorius Prima Indra; Margono, Kaavessina, Mujtahid

    2018-02-01

    The present investigation deals with the aerobic sequencing batch reactor system of tapioca wastewater treatment with varying pH influent conditions. This project was carried out to evaluate the effect of pH on kinetics parameters of system. It was done by operating aerobic sequencing batch reactor system during 8 hours in many tapioca wastewater conditions (pH 4.91, pH 7, pH 8). The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) of the aerobic sequencing batch reactor system effluent at steady state condition were determined at interval time of two hours to generate data for substrate inhibition kinetics parameters. Values of the kinetics constants were determined using Monod and Andrews models. There was no inhibition constant (Ki) detected in all process variation of aerobic sequencing batch reactor system for tapioca wastewater treatment in this study. Furthermore, pH 8 was selected as the preferred aerobic sequencing batch reactor system condition in those ranging pH investigated due to its achievement of values of kinetics parameters such µmax = 0.010457/hour and Ks = 255.0664 mg/L COD.

  17. Enhancement of sedimentation and coagulation with static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Hajduk, Anna; Rusanowska, Paulina

    2017-11-01

    The static magnetic field can be an alternative method for wastewater treatment. It has been proved that this physical factor, accelerates the biochemical processes, catalyzes advanced oxidation, intensifies anaerobic and aerobic processes or reduces swelling of activated sludge. There are also reports proving the positive impact of the static magnetic field on the coagulation and sedimentation, as well as the conditioning and dewatering of sludge. In order to be applied in larger scale the published results should be verified and confirmed. In the studies, the enhancement of sedimentation by the static magnetic field was observed. The best sedimentation was noted in the experiment, where magnetizers were placed on activated sludge bioreactor and secondary settling tank. No effect of the static magnetic field on coagulation with the utilization of PIX 113 was observed. However, the static magnetic field enhanced coagulation with the utilization of PAX-XL9. The results suggest that increased sedimentation of colloids and activated sludge, can in practice mean a reduction in the size of the necessary equipment for sedimentation with an unchanged efficiency of the process.

  18. Landau problem in the static schwarzschild universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  This paper considers the Landau problem in an elected static space time and the are erased levels shifts which are erased as a metric deviation from the Minkowski space time. This research is based on the Weber’s method. We try to rewrite the equation of motion of particles in the presence of the gravitational effects and consider the regions limited with the tangent spaces conditions. I t would be reasonable to assume the nonrelativistic particles with low speed. We show that due to the Weber’s method, the tangent space is always available. Another assumption of this article is time independent tangent space of Schwarzschild universe and use of Riemann’s normal coordinates.

  19. Axially symmetric static sources of gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pastora, J. L.; Herrera, L.; Martin, J.

    2016-12-01

    A general procedure to find static and axially symmetric, interior solutions to the Einstein equations is presented. All the so obtained solutions, verify the energy conditions for a wide range of values of the parameters, and match smoothly to some exterior solution of the Weyl family, thereby representing globally regular models describing non-spherical sources of gravitational field. In the spherically symmetric limit, all our models converge to the well known incompressible perfect fluid solution. The key stone of our approach is based on an ansatz allowing to define the interior metric in terms of the exterior metric functions evaluated at the boundary source. Some particular sources are obtained, and the physical variables of the energy-momentum tensor are calculated explicitly, as well as the geometry of the source in terms of the relativistic multipole moments. The total mass of different configurations is also calculated, it is shown to be equal to the monopole of the exterior solution.

  20. Fructose Production by Inulinase Covalently Immobilized on Sepabeads in Batch and Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Iorio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is an experimental study of the performance of a recently designed immobilized enzyme: inulinase from Aspergillus sp. covalently immobilized on Sepabeads. The aim of the work is to test the new biocatalyst in conditions of industrial interest and to assess the feasibility of the process in a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR. The catalyst was first tested in a batch reactor at standard conditions and in various sets of conditions of interest for the process. Once the response of the catalyst to different operating conditions was tested and the operational stability assessed, one of the sets of conditions tested in batch was chosen for tests in FBBR. Prior to reaction tests, preliminary fluidization tests were realized in order to define an operating range of admissible flow rates. As a result, the FBR was run at different feed flow rates in a closed cycle configuration and its performance was compared to that of the batch system. The FBBR proved to be performing and suitable for scale up to large fructose production.

  1. Electrowetting -- from statics to dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longquan; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2014-08-01

    More than one century ago, Lippmann found that capillary forces can be effectively controlled by external electrostatic forces. As a simple example, by applying a voltage between a conducting liquid droplet and the surface it is sitting on we are able to adjust the wetting angle of the drop. Since Lippmann's findings, electrocapillary phenomena - or electrowetting - have developed into a series of tools for manipulating microdroplets on solid surfaces, or small amounts of liquids in capillaries for microfluidic applications. In this article, we briefly review some recent progress of fundamental understanding of electrowetting and address some still unsolved issues. Specifically, we focus on static and dynamic electrowetting. In static electrowetting, we discuss some basic phenomena found in DC and AC electrowetting, and some theories about the origin of contact angle saturation. In dynamic electrowetting, we introduce some studies about this rather recent area. At last, we address some other capillary phenomena governed by electrostatics and we give an outlook that might stimulate further investigations on electrowetting. © 2013.

  2. Improved trehalose production from biodiesel waste using parent and osmotically sensitive mutant of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhal, Rohit; Choudhury, Bijan

    2012-08-01

    Trehalose is an important nutraceutical of wide commercial interest in the food processing industry. Recently, crude glycerol was reported to be suitable for the production of trehalose using a food microbe, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, under static flask conditions. Similarly, enhanced trehalose yield was reported in an osmotically sensitive mutant of the same strain under anaerobic conditions. In the present study, an effort was made to achieve higher production of trehalose, propionic acid, and lactic acid using the parent and an osmotically sensitive mutant of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii under aeration conditions. Under aeration conditions (200 rpm in shake flasks and 30 % air saturation in a batch reactor), biomass was increased and approximately 98 % of crude glycerol was consumed. In the parent strain, a trehalose titre of 361 mg/l was achieved, whereas in the mutant strain a trehalose titre of 1.3 g/l was produced in shake flask conditions (200 rpm). In the mutant strain, propionic and lactic acid yields of 0.53 and 0.21 g/g of substrate were also achieved with crude glycerol. Similarly, in controlled batch reactor culturing conditions a final trehalose titre of approximately 1.56 g/l was achieved with the mutant strain using crude glycerol as the substrate. Enhanced production of trehalose using P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii from waste under aeration conditions is reported here. Higher production of trehalose was not due to a higher yield of trehalose but to a higher final biomass concentration.

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors Operating time (% of year) Equivalent continuous process monitoring frequency time in use Monthly Quarterly...

  4. Dynamic Scheduling Of Batch Operations With Non-Identical Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; van Harten, A.; Schuur, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Batch-wise production is found in many industries. A good example of production systems which process products batch-wise are the ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. These systems mostly consist of multiple machines of different types, given the range and volumes of

  5. Communication and control in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part

  6. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  7. development of an automated batch-process solar water disinfection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (Joules) preset at the beginning of the experiment/disinfection process. Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of the automated batch- process solar water disinfection system. Fig. 3: Pictorial view of the automated batch-process solar water disinfection system. Figure 4: Circuitry of Arduino® microcontroller with the different sensors ...

  8. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.panneels@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, OFLC/103, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  9. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expression in engineered Escherichia coli: improved performance in high cell-density batch cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Tania E; Mora, Eugenio Meza; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Ramírez, Octavio T; Gosset, Guillermo; Lara, Alvaro R

    2011-08-01

    High cell-density cultivations are the preferred system for biomolecules production by Escherichia coli. It has been previously demonstrated that a strain of E. coli with a modified substrate transport system is able to attain high cell densities in batch mode, due to the very low overflow metabolism displayed. The use of elevated amounts of glucose from the beginning of the cultivation, eliminates the existence of substrate gradients due to deficient mixing at large-scale. However, the large amounts of oxygen demanded resulted in microaerobic conditions after some hours of cultivation, even at small-scale. In this work, the effect of expressing the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) in the engineered strain during batch cultures using high-glucose concentrations was tested. Together, the expression of VHb and the modified substrate transport system resulted in a 33% increase of biomass production compared to the parental strain (W3110) lacking the VHb in batch cultivations using 25 g/L of glucose. When 50 g/L of glucose were used, expression of VHb in the modified strain led to 11% higher biomass production compared to W3110. The VHb also increased the growth rates of the strains by about 30% in the aerobic phase and more than 200% in the microaerobic phase of batch cultivation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A high-throughput media design approach for high performance mammalian fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Yolande; Périlleux, Arnaud; Collet, Natacha; Jordan, Martin; Stettler, Matthieu; Broly, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    An innovative high-throughput medium development method based on media blending was successfully used to improve the performance of a Chinese hamster ovary fed-batch medium in shaking 96-deepwell plates. Starting from a proprietary chemically-defined medium, 16 formulations testing 43 of 47 components at 3 different levels were designed. Media blending was performed following a custom-made mixture design of experiments considering binary blends, resulting in 376 different blends that were tested during both cell expansion and fed-batch production phases in one single experiment. Three approaches were chosen to provide the best output of the large amount of data obtained. A simple ranking of conditions was first used as a quick approach to select new formulations with promising features. Then, prediction of the best mixes was done to maximize both growth and titer using the Design Expert software. Finally, a multivariate analysis enabled identification of individual potential critical components for further optimization. Applying this high-throughput method on a fed-batch, rather than on a simple batch, process opens new perspectives for medium and feed development that enables identification of an optimized process in a short time frame.

  11. Optimization of high solids fed-batch saccharification of sugarcane bagasse based on system viscosity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunyun; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xie, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Viscosity trends in alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) slurries undergoing high solids fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis were measured for a range of solids loading from 15% to 36%. Solids liquefaction times were related to system viscosity changes. The viscosity decreased quickly for low solids loading, and increased with increasing solids content. Fed-batch hydrolysis was initiated with 15% solids loading, and an additional 8%, 7% and 6% were successively added after the system viscosity decreased to stable values to achieve a final solids content of 36%. Two enzyme-adding modes with 8.5FPU/g solid were investigated. The batch mode with all enzyme being added at the beginning of the reaction produced the highest yields, with approximately 231.7g/L total sugars and 134.9g/L glucose being obtained after 96h with nearly 60% of the final glucan conversion rate. This finding indicates that under the right conditions, the fed-batch strategy might be a plausible way to produce high sugars under high solids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Predictive Validity of the Static-99, Static-99R, and Static-2002/R: Which One to Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sophie G; Ogloff, James R P; Simmons, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    The use of Static tools (Static-99, Static-99R, Static-2002, and Static-2002R) in risk decision making involving sexual offenders is widespread internationally. This study compared the predictive accuracy and incremental validity of four Static risk measures in a sample of 621 Australian sexual offenders. Results indicated that approximately 45% of the sample recidivated (with 18.8% committing sexual offenses). All of the Static measures investigated yielded moderate predictive validity for sexual recidivism, which was comparable with other Australian and overseas studies. Area under the curve (AUC) values for the four measures across the 5-, 10-, and 15-year intervals ranged from .67 to .69. All of the Static measures discriminated quite well between low-risk and high-risk sexual offenders but less well for the moderate risk categories. When pitted together, none of the tools accounted for additional variance in sexual recidivism, above and beyond what the other measures accounted for. The overall results provide support for the use of Static measures as a component of risk assessment and decision making with Australian sexual offending populations. The limitations of this study and recommendations for further research are also discussed.

  13. Batch-to-batch learning for model-based control of process systems with application to cooling crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forgione, M.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, the term process refers to a conversion of raw materials into intermediate or final products using chemical, physical, or biological operations. Industrial processes can be performed either in continuous or in batch mode. There exist for instance continuous and batch

  14. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  15. Explosive biodegradation in soil slurry batch reactors amended with exogenous microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C F; Hawari, J A; Paquet, L; Ampleman, G; Thiboutot, S; Guiot, S R

    2001-01-01

    The present study explores the feasibility of biotreatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-contaminated soils in slurry batch reactors. Radiorespirometric assays showed that anaerobic sludge was able to mineralize 59% RDX to CO2 although significant mineralization of TNT was not observed in all cases. TNT and RDX at concentrations higher than 50 and 100 mg/L respectively were inhibitory to methanogenesis (used as a bioindicator), however, methanogenesis recovered after TNT was transformed into less toxic triaminotoluene. Bioslurry batch reactors containing 40% of contaminated soil (2000 mg RDX and 1000 mg TNT/kg dry soil) were operated under various conditions. Both TNT and RDX were persistent to soil indigenous microbes. Degradation of both TNT and RDX was enhanced by the municipal sludge amendment, although degradation of RDX was only achieved under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  17. Ares I Static Tests Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, William; Lindemuth, Kathleen; Mich, John; White, K. Preston; Parker, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic engineering design enhances safety and reduces costs by incorporating risk assessment directly into the design process. In this paper, we assess the format of the quantitative metrics for the vehicle which will replace the Space Shuttle, the Ares I rocket. Specifically, we address the metrics for in-flight measurement error in the vector position of the motor nozzle, dictated by limits on guidance, navigation, and control systems. Analyses include the propagation of error from measured to derived parameters, the time-series of dwell points for the duty cycle during static tests, and commanded versus achieved yaw angle during tests. Based on these analyses, we recommend a probabilistic template for specifying the maximum error in angular displacement and radial offset for the nozzle-position vector. Criteria for evaluating individual tests and risky decisions also are developed.

  18. Glycolysis and the regulation of glucose transport in Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis in batch and fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiousis George

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that many reports deal with glycolysis in Lactococcus lactis, there is not much information on the regulation of uptake of glucose itself. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of the glucose level on its specific uptake rate. Results Studies on aeration levels in pH controlled L. lactis spp. lactis batch cultures on glucose (55 mM showed that product formation is extremely homolactic and the highest yield of lactate on glucose is obtained under microaerobic conditions (5% dissolved oxygen. Microaerobic conditions were therefore applied in experiments carried out to investigate the regulation of the uptake of glucose. The tool of glucostat fed-batch culture was employed, in which glucose was added at a rate suitable to maintain a stable concentration throughout the runs with glucose concentration ranging from 13.75 to 555 mM. The glucostat experiments showed that the concentration of glucose influences its specific uptake rate and consequently the glycolytic flux, as well as the fermentation pattern. The highest specific activities of the key glycolytic enzymes PFK, PYK and the LDH were obtained at 55 mM glucose, the area of the highest observed glycolytic flux. Reduction of the glycolytic flux by 55% in the 277 mM glucostat corresponded to an almost identical reduction in PFK activity, indicating a certain controlling influence of this enzyme on the flux, through the glucose effect. Conclusion Determination of intracellular metabolites' pools showed that FBP cannot be regarded as a direct regulator of product formation, since almost identical concentrations were obtained at both low (13.75 mM and high (138 mM glucose levels, at which neither the glucose uptake rates and the glycolytic flux, nor the fermentation patterns were similar (mixed acids vs homolactic, respectively. Glucostat data showed instead that the control of the flux through the glycolytic pathway under the examined

  19. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    2013-01-01

    Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools.One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scriptingin the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poortool support compared to other languages. This dissertation describes thedesign and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assistprogrammers in finding bugs in code during development.We describe the design of a static analysis tool for J...

  20. An investigation on inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort of static posture holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin; Son, Minseok

    2015-01-01

    Realizing population-level discomfort evaluation and control of common static posture holding tasks requires an understanding of the inter-individual variation in discomfort perception. However, little research is available. This study aimed to determine the types of mathematical probability distribution suitable for modeling population discomfort distributions of various static posture holding tasks and characterize how the magnitude of inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort varies across static posture holding tasks. Ten male and ten female subjects participated. The participants conducted static posture holding for a set of 180 short-duration (20-second-long) static posture holding tasks and subjectively rated the overall perceived discomfort for each task using the Borg CR-10 discomfort scale. Statistical analyses were conducted according to the study objectives. The static posture holding tasks exhibited multifarious discomfort distribution patterns. Probability distribution identification analyses indicated that no single distribution type could represent population discomfort distributions universally across different static posture holding tasks. Sample standard deviation of discomfort ratings data quantifying the magnitude of inter-individual variation in discomfort perception varied considerably across static posture holding tasks. It seemed to have a positive relationship with sample mean within the range of the experimental conditions. Population-level evaluation of discomforts associated with static posture holding tasks must be based on careful examinations of empirical discomfort distributions.

  1. Convergence of Batch Split-Complex Backpropagation Algorithm for Complex-Valued Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisheng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The batch split-complex backpropagation (BSCBP algorithm for training complex-valued neural networks is considered. For constant learning rate, it is proved that the error function of BSCBP algorithm is monotone during the training iteration process, and the gradient of the error function tends to zero. By adding a moderate condition, the weights sequence itself is also proved to be convergent. A numerical example is given to support the theoretical analysis.

  2. Effect of glutamic acid on copper sorption onto kaolinite. Batch experiments and surface complexation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimzadeh, Lotfallah; Barthen, Robert; Gruendig, Marion; Franke, Karsten; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport; Stockmann, Madlen [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we study the mobility behavior of Cu(II) under conditions related to an alternative, neutrophile biohydrometallurgical Cu(II) leaching approach. Sorption of copper onto kaolinite influenced by glutamic acid (Glu) was investigated in the presence of 0.01 M NaClO{sub 4} by means of binary and ternary batch adsorption measurements over a pH range of 4 to 9 and surface complexation modeling.

  3. Static Dalvik Bytecode Optimization for Android Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Jeehong; Kim, Inhyeok; Min, Changwoo; Jun, Hyung Kook; Lee, Soo Hyung; Kim, Won‐Tae; Eom, Young Ik

    2015-01-01

    .... In this paper, we introduce a novel static Dalvik bytecode optimization framework, as a complementary compilation of the Dalvik virtual machine, to improve the performance of Android applications...

  4. Decolorization efficiency of Funalia trogii under static condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... (textile wastewater may contain large quantities of starch resulting from the desizing process) and sucrose (find in molasses discharged from sugar industry) were used in decolorization experiments as carbon sources. Amounts of these carbon sources were fixed in decolorization experiments. (1.8 g/L).

  5. Electromagnetic angular momentum in quasi-static conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J. L.; Campos, I.; E Roa-Neri, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    The correct definition of electromagnetic momentum in matter, either Abraham’s g A = (1/4πc) (E × H), or Minkowski’s g M = (1/4πc) (D × B) has been a theme of controversy for a century. Therefore, we can find those who favor one or the other of these proposals. We present here an alternative view, considering that both of the aforementioned equations are equivalent since they pertain to different balance equations derived from the macroscopic Maxwell equations. This is done through their application to a device proposed by Lai in 1980, and recovering his results. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students can find in this work an introduction to a controversial issue and an alternative point of view about it.

  6. Batch process solar disinfection is an efficient means of disinfecting drinking water contaminated with Shigella dysenteriae type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, S C; Barer, M R; Devlin, L O; McGuigan, K G

    2004-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity rate caused by Shigella dysenteriae type I infection is increasing in the developing world each year. In this paper, the possibility of using batch process solar disinfection (SODIS) as an effective means of disinfecting drinking water contaminated with Sh. dysenteriae type I is investigated. Phosphate-buffered saline contaminated with Sh. dysenteriae type I was exposed to simulated solar conditions and the inactivation kinetics of this organism was compared with that of Sh. flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhimurium. Recovery of injured Sh. dysenteriae type I may be improved by plating on medium supplemented with catalase or pyruvate. Sh. dysenteriae type I is very sensitive to batch process SODIS and is easily inactivated even during overcast conditions. Batch process SODIS is an appropriate intervention for use in developing countries during Sh. dysenteriae type I epidemics.

  7. Optimization of glutathione production in batch and fed-batch cultures by the wild-type and recombinant strains of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha DL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyshev Alexander Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tripeptide glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most abundant non-protein thiol that protects cells from metabolic and oxidative stresses and is widely used as medicine, food additives and in cosmetic industry. The methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is regarded as a rich source of glutathione due to the role of this thiol in detoxifications of key intermediates of methanol metabolism. Cellular and extracellular glutathione production of H. polymorpha DL-1 in the wild type and recombinant strains which overexpress genes of glutathione biosynthesis (GSH2 and its precursor cysteine (MET4 was studied. Results Glutathione producing capacity of H. polymorpha DL-1 depending on parameters of cultivation (dissolved oxygen tension, pH, stirrer speed, carbon substrate (glucose, methanol and type of overexpressed genes of glutathione and its precursor biosynthesis during batch and fed-batch fermentations were studied. Under optimized conditions of glucose fed-batch cultivation, the glutathione productivity of the engineered strains was increased from ~900 up to ~ 2300 mg of Total Intracellular Glutathione (TIG or GSH+GSSGin, per liter of culture medium. Meantime, methanol fed-batch cultivation of one of the recombinant strains allowed achieving the extracellular glutathione productivity up to 250 mg of Total Extracellular Glutathione (TEG or GSH+GSSGex, per liter of the culture medium. Conclusions H. polymorpha is an competitive glutathione producer as compared to other known yeast and bacteria strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis etc. with good perspectives for further improvement especially for production of extracellular form of glutathione.

  8. Bone Response to Static Compressive Stress at Bone-Implant Interface: A Pilot Study of Critical Static Compressive Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikumi, Noriharu; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical imbalance caused by mechanical overload or poor bone quality around a dental implant can result in osseointegration failure. To avoid that, it is important to identify an appropriate safety stress margin (critical stress level). For this study, a novel device was developed to generate a quantitative amount of static compressive stress under an aseptic closed condition. The aim was to clarify the amount of critical stress produced on the cortical bone when static compression is applied to the osseointegrated bone-implant interface. Small parts for bone sustaining, load generation, and load transmittance were developed to generate quantitative static compressive stress at the bone-implant interface and implanted inside the tibial cortical bone in adult beagle dogs. Each tibia in two dogs received bone-sustaining parts, then after 2 months, the load-transmitting parts were placed into the bone-sustaining parts. After another 2 months, various magnitudes of static compressive stress (0-180 MPa) were generated by tightening the load-generating part to the osseointegrated bone-implant interface. After 7 days, the animals were euthanized, and dissected blocks were prepared for histomorphometric analyses. There were no obvious signs of bone resorption or loss of osseointegration in any of the dogs. The change in shape of osteon was not influenced by the amount of static compressive stress. However, periosteal reactions were observed under the cortical bone on the opposite side. These results indicate that osseointegrated bone-implant interfaces show minimal response based on the magnitude of static compressive stress, even when such stress is greater than 120 MPa.

  9. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC AND STATIC STRETCHING WITHIN GENERAL AND ACTIVITY SPECIFIC WARM-UP PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Samson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1 general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2 general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3 general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4 general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance, countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013 in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083 than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance

  10. Kinetic characterization and fed-batch fermentation for maximal simultaneous production of esterase and protease from Lysinibacillus fusiformis AU01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, K; Suryia Prabha, M; Nandhinidevi, G; Gautam, P

    2017-04-21

    The simultaneous production of intracellular esterase and extracellular protease from the strain Lysinibacillus fusiformis AU01 was studied in detail. The production was performed both under batch and fed-batch modes. The maximum yield of intracellular esterase and protease was obtained under full oxygen saturation at the beginning of the fermentation. The data were fitted to the Luedeking-Piret model and it was shown that the enzyme (both esterase and protease) production was growth associated. A decrease in intracellular esterase and increase in the extracellular esterase were observed during late stationary phase. The appearance of intracellular proteins in extracellular media and decrease in viable cell count and biomass during late stationary phase confirmed that the presence of extracellular esterase is due to cell lysis. Even though the fed-batch fermentation with different feeding strategies showed improved productivity, feeding yeast extract under DO-stat fermentation conditions showed highest intracellular esterase and protease production. Under DO-stat fed-batch cultivation, maximum intracellular esterase activity of 820 × 10(3) U/L and extracellular protease activity of 172 × 10(3) U/L were obtained at the 16th hr. Intracellular esterase and extracellular protease production were increased fivefold and fourfold, respectively, when compared to batch fermentation performed under shake flask conditions.

  11. Static and non-static black holes with the Liouville mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalets, T. M.; Nurmagambetov, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new class of static and non-static quasi-spherical black hole solutions in four-dimensional Minkowski and Anti-de Sitter spaces and briefly discuss its employing in the Gauge/Gravity duality.

  12. INFLUENCE OF STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD ON REMOVAL OF BIOGENIC COMPOUNDS FROM DAIRY WASTEWATER IN SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zieliński

    2017-08-01

    During the research it proved that the use of CMF was conducive to the elimination of biogenic compounds, although the significance of this factor in the majority of variants was not significant. Regardless of the variant of the experiment was observed very high removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus from waste water dairy tested.

  13. Model Checking as Static Analysis: Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion...

  14. Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachera, David; Pichardie, David

    2009-01-01

    A certified static analysis is an analysis whose semantic validity has been formally proved correct with a proof assistant. The recent increasing interest in using proof assistants for mechanizing programming language metatheory has given rise to several approaches for certification of static analysis. We propose a panorama of these techniques and compare their respective strengths and weaknesses.

  15. The Neglect of Monotone Comparative Statics Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Carol Horton; Tremblay, Victor J.

    2010-01-01

    Monotone methods enable comparative static analysis without the restrictive assumptions of the implicit-function theorem. Ease of use and flexibility in solving comparative static and game-theory problems have made monotone methods popular in the economics literature and in graduate courses, but they are still absent from undergraduate…

  16. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... incrementalizing a broad range of static analyses....

  17. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be...

  18. Static Material Strength Determined Using a DAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynn, H; Evans, W; Klepeis, J P; Lipp, M; Liermann, P; Yang, W

    2009-06-04

    By measuring sample thickness and pressure gradient using x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction, respectively, the accurate static yield strengths of Ta and Fe were determined at high pressure. This improved method has several advantages over other similar methods to quantitatively determine static material strength.

  19. Static balance and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, RH

    2003-01-01

    The development of static balance is a basic characteristic of normal motor development. Most of the developmental motor tests include a measure of static balance. Children with a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often fail this item. Twenty-four children at risk for DCD with balance

  20. Static Complexity Analysis of Higher Order Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Kristiansen, Lars; Moyen, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^Mautomatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^Mprograms.......The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^Mautomatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^Mprograms....

  1. A Minimum Leakage Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Teman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As SRAMs continue to grow and comprise larger percentages of the area and power consumption in advanced systems, the need to minimize static currents becomes essential. This brief presents a novel 9T Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell that provides aggressive leakage reduction and high write margins. The quasi-static operation method of this cell, based on internal feedback and leakage ratios, minimizes static power while maintaining sufficient, albeit depleted, noise margins. This paper presents the concept of the novel cell, and discusses the stability of the cell under hold, read and write operations. The cell was implemented in a low-power 40 nm TSMC process, showing as much as a 12× reduction in leakage current at typical conditions, as compared to a standard 6T or 8T bitcell at the same supply voltage. The implemented cell showed full functionality under global and local process variations at nominal and low voltages, as low as 300 mV.

  2. Environmental Hazard Assessment of Jarosite Waste Using Batch Leaching Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kerolli – Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste samples from Trepça Zinc Industry in Kosovo were subjected to two batch leaching tests as an attempt to characterize the leaching behavior and mobility of minor and major elements of jarosite waste. To achieve this, deionized water and synthetic acidic rain leaching tests were employed. A two-step acidic treatment in microwave digestion system were used to dissolve jarosite waste samples, followed by determination of Al, Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Si, Sr, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of two geochemical reference materials, S JR-3 and S Jsy-1. Two toxicity leaching tests revealed a high metal releasing of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, and the metal release risk for these elements is still very high due the low pH and acid rain. The statistical analysis showed useful data information on the relationship between elements in jarosite samples in two different extraction conditions (deionized water and synthetic acid rain.

  3. Catalytic hydroliquefaction of coal: about the methodology in batch experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, M.; Bacaud, R.; Charcosset, H.; Cebolla-Burillo, V.; Oberson, M.

    1986-03-01

    The results of catalytic hydroliquefaction under batch conditions depend on a large number of variables. The present results concern a few of these variables, in particular the influence of the catalyst concentration, of the mode of sulfidation or (and) of introduction of the catalyst in the coal/solvent mixture, and of the nature of the model compound solvent. The results indicate that increasing the concentration of catalyst increase the conversion of coal into toluene soluble products and the hydrogen consumption but has a small effect on oil formation. An inhibition of the figst fractions of a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst added is shown. Strong effects of the sulfiding mode of an iron oxide catalyst, and of the temperature of introduction of the iron oxide into the autoclave are observed relative to the hydrogenation activity of the iron catalyst, when at the same time there is no influence on coal conversions. The replacement of tetralin by a non-donor solvent, 1-methylnaphthalene, suggests that the direct hydrogen transfer process from molecular hydrogen to coal fragment radicals on the catalyst surface may be important. 9 tabs., 4 firs., 16 refs.

  4. Apoptosis in CHO cell batch cultures: examination by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A; Donahue, C J; Hooley, J; Stocks, D L; Bauer, K D; Mather, J P

    1995-02-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells grown under conditions which are optimal for the production of a genetically engineered protein in batch culture, lose significant viability shortly after entering the stationary phase. This cell death was investigated morphologically and was found to be almost exclusively via apoptosi. Furthermore, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry using a fluorescent DNA end-labeling assay to label apoptotic cells, in conjunction with cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide. Apoptotic cells could be detected by this method, and by the radioactive end-labeling of extracted DNA, on all days of culture from day 1 to day 7; however, the degree of apoptotic cell death increased dramatically when the cells entered the stationary phase, rising to 50-60% of the total cell number at the termination of the culture. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the majority of cells underwent apoptosis whilst in G(1)/G(0) and formed an apoptotic population with high DNA FITC end-labeling and hypodiploid propidium iodide binding. Additionally, the ability or inability to secrete specific protein products did not appear to interfere with the development of the apoptotic population with time.

  5. Virtual Sensors for Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Y. López-Zapata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel combustion produces around 98% of coal emissions. Therefore, liquid and gaseous biofuels have become more attractive due to their environmental benefits. The biodiesel production process requires measurements that help to control and supervise the variables involved in the process. The measurements provide valuable information about the operation conditions and give estimations about the critical variables of the process. The information from measurements is essential for monitoring the state of a process and verifying if it has an optimal performance. The objective of this study was the conception of a virtual sensor based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the model of a batch biodiesel reactor for estimating concentrations of triglycerides (TG, diglycerides (DG, monoglycerides (MG, methyl ester (E, alcohol (A, and glycerol (GL in real-time through measurement of the temperature and pH. Estimation of the TG, DG, MG, E, A, and Gl through this method eliminates the need for additional sensors and allows the use of different types of control. For the performance analysis of the virtual sensor, the data obtained from the EKF are compared with experimental data reported in the literature, with the mean square error of the estimate then being calculated. In addition, the results of this approach can be implemented in a real system, since it only uses measurements available in a reactor such as temperature and pH.

  6. Batch and continuous extraction of bromelain enzyme by reversed micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Frattini Fileti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for bromelain extraction by reversed micelles from pineapple juice (Ananas comosus. The purification was carried out in batch extraction and a micro-column with pulsed caps for continuous extraction. The cationic micellar solution was made of BDBAC as a surfactant, isooctane as a solvent and hexanol as a co-solvent. For the batch process, a purification factor of 3 times at the best values of surfactant agent, co-solvent and salt concentrations, pH of the back and forward extractions were, 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3.5 and 8, respectively. For the continuous operation, independent variables optimal point was determined: ratio between light phase flow rate and total flow rate equal to 0.67 and 1 second for the time interval between the pulses. This optimal point led to a productivity of 1.29 mL/min and a purification factor of 4.96.Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal otimizar as condições para extração da bromelina do suco do abacaxi (Ananas comosus por micelas reversas. A purificação foi feita usando o processo de extração em batelada e contínuo, este último em uma micro-coluna de campânulas pulsantes. A solução micelar catiônica foi preparada com o surfactante BDBAC, i-octano como solvente e hexanol como co-solvente. Na extração em batelada encontrou-se um fator de purificação de 3 vezes, e seus melhores valores de concentração do agente surfactante, co-solvente e sal, de pH da re-extração e extração, foram respectivamente iguais a: 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3,5 e 8. Para a operação contínua, as variáveis independentes ótimas foram: 0,67 para a razão entre as taxas de fluxos da fase leve e a total e 1 s para o intervalo de tempo entre pulsos das campânulas. Este ponto ótimo leva a uma produtividade de 1,29 mL/min e a um fator de purificação igual a 4,96.

  7. Stability Monitoring of Batch Processes with Iterative Learning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the iterative learning control (ILC is widely used in batch processes to improve the quality of the products. Stability is a preoccupation of batch processes when the ILC is applied. Focusing on the stability monitoring of batch processes with ILC, a method based on innerwise matrix with considering the uncertainty of the model and disturbance was proposed. First, the batch process with ILC was derived as a two-dimensional autoregressive and moving average (2D-ARMA model. Then two kinds of stability indices are constructed based on the innerwise matrix through the identification of the 2D-ARMA. Finally, the statistical process control (SPC chart was adopted to monitor those stability indices. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Supply Chain Batching Problem with Identical Orders and Lifespan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shanlin; Li, Maoqin; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    .... In this paper, we consider an integrated production and distribution batch scheduling problem on a single machine for the orders with a short lifespan, because it may be cheaper or faster to process...

  9. Removal of batch effects using distribution-matching residual networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaham, Uri; Stanton, Kelly P; Zhao, Jun; Li, Huamin; Raddassi, Khadir; Montgomery, Ruth; Kluger, Yuval

    2017-08-15

    Sources of variability in experimentally derived data include measurement error in addition to the physical phenomena of interest. This measurement error is a combination of systematic components, originating from the measuring instrument and random measurement errors. Several novel biological technologies, such as mass cytometry and single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq), are plagued with systematic errors that may severely affect statistical analysis if the data are not properly calibrated. We propose a novel deep learning approach for removing systematic batch effects. Our method is based on a residual neural network, trained to minimize the Maximum Mean Discrepancy between the multivariate distributions of two replicates, measured in different batches. We apply our method to mass cytometry and scRNA-seq datasets, and demonstrate that it effectively attenuates batch effects. our codes and data are publicly available at https://github.com/ushaham/BatchEffectRemoval.git. yuval.kluger@yale.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Magneto-static vortices in two dimensional Abelian gauge theories

    OpenAIRE

    Bellazzini, J.; Bonanno, C.; Siciliano, G

    2008-01-01

    We study the existence of vortices of the Klein-Gordon-Maxwell equations in the two dimensional case. In particular we find sufficient conditions for the existence of vortices in the magneto-static case, i.e when the electric potential $\\phi=0$. This result, due to the lack of suitable embedding theorems for the vector potential $\\A$ is achieved with the help of a penalization method.

  11. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-03-07

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  12. Robust Analysis and Parameters Identification of the Nonlinear Multistage Dynamical System in Batch Fermentation of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a complex biological problem which is the fermentation of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae in batch culture. We set up an improved multistage model involving the concentration of intracellular substances. Furthermore, the existence, uniqueness, and continuity of solutions with respect to the parameters are discussed. On the condition that glycerol and 1,3-propanediol are assumed to pass the cell membrane by passive diffusion coupled with facilitated transport, we take the relative errors between experimental data and computational values of the extracellular substances concentrations and the biological robustness of the intracellular substances concentrations as the performance index. Then we establish a parameter identification model and construct the particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve it. Finally, the numerical result shows that the improved model could describe the glycerol fermentation in batch culture well.

  13. Processing of sodium sulphate solutions using the EED method: from a batch toward a continuous process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarska Bożenna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a batch electro-electrodialysis (EED, sodium sulphate solution with an initial concentration of 80.90 g/dm3 was converted to obtain solutions of sodium hydroxide (13.96% and sulphuric acid (10.15% and a dialysate (3.23 g/dm3 of sulphate ions. Changes in the EED process′ performance (temperature, cell voltage, concentrations, energy consumption with an increasing conversion degree of salt are presented. Based on the presented results of the batch experiment, conditions necessary to run the process continuously are discussed. A single pass method is inapplicable due to excessive heating of the electro-electrodialyser. A cascade method enables interstage cooling of the solutions, providing temperatures suitable for ion-exchange membranes to work. Increasing the number of stages in the cascade reduces both the number of electro-electrodialysers and specific electric energy consumption, providing the same production capacity. However, this increases the investment cost.

  14. Production of nattokinase by high cell density fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Yeong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Beom Soo

    2011-09-01

    Bacillus subtilis was cultivated to high cell density for nattokinase production by pH-stat fed-batch culture. A concentrated mixture solution of glucose and peptone was automatically added by acid-supplying pump when culture pH rose above high limit. Effect of the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution was investigated on cell growth and nattokinase production by changing the ratio from 0.2 to 5 g glucose/g peptone. The highest cell concentration was 77 g/L when the ratio was 0.2 g glucose/g peptone. Cell concentration decreased with increasing the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution, while the optimum condition existed for nattokinase production. The highest nattokinase activity was 14,500 unit/mL at a ratio of 0.33 g glucose/g peptone, which was 4.3 times higher than that in batch culture.

  15. Experimental Research of Batch Co-Anaerobic Fermentation under Constant Temperature of Mixed Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of batch anaerobic fermentation under constant temperature of mixed biomass (cow dung and wheat straw and make sure the optimum mixing ratio, the experiment which mixed cow dung and wheat straw in batch anaerobic fermentation was under CO2. Contrastive analysis the experimental results which shows that the single material of cow dung was superior to the other three groups in the incipient stage, however, co-digestion was just a way which have a cost effective and environmental protection, and needed a reasonable co-digestion ratio of cow dung and wheat straw could increase the biogas production rate and utilization of crop straw. These experimental results were great of instruction for mixed materials anaerobic fermentation under the thermostatic condition.

  16. A batch and fixed bed column study for fluorescein removal using chitosan modified by epichlorohydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P M O; Francisco, J E; Cajé, J C M; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2018-01-02

    This study evaluates the feasibility of commercial chitosan (CQ) and modified chitosan (MQ) by epichlorohydrin to be used as a solid phase to remove fluorescein (FSC) from aqueous solutions by two different approaches: in batch and on a fixed column bed. For the batch study, all parameters that influence sorption capacity were evaluated, such as: pH, mass, ionic strength, temperature and time of contact. In the optimized condition, 75% removal was obtained for FSC using CQ, while the modification allowed an increase up to 99%, as well as an increase in the stability of the polymer. In the fixed column bed study, the influence of all the parameters was evaluated through breakthrough curves, and the thermodynamics parameters of each approach were obtained. The results of these studies demonstrate that the modification with epichlorohydrin enhanced the sorptive properties (from 35% to 95% in fixed bed experiments) and the polymer stability (making it insoluble), making it suitable to be used in wastewater treatment.

  17. Effects of Dynamic and Static Stretching Within General and Activity Specific Warm-Up Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Michael; Button, Duane C.; Chaouachi, Anis; Behm, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1) general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2) general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3) general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4) general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance), countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013) in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM) by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083) than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance. Key pointsActivity specific warm-up may improve sprint performance.Static stretching was more effective than dynamic stretching for increasing static range of motion.There was no effect of the warm-up protocols on countermovement jump height or movement time. PMID:24149201

  18. Batch distillation employing cyclic rectification and stripping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodman, Hunter R; Timm, Delmar C

    2012-05-01

    Several strategies have been proposed to increase the operating efficiency of batch distillation. In this study, conventional batch rectification and inverted batch stripping are used cyclically to promote high product flow rates for a binary fractionation. Process controls are implemented to maintain constant product purity specifications by varying the slope of the operating line. While rectifying, the light component is removed as distillate, concentrating the heavy component in the reboiler. As a result, the distillate rate decreases with time. The column is then changed from rectification to stripping modes, and the heavy component is removed as bottoms product, concentrating the light component in the distillate drum. This causes the bottoms rate to diminish with time, and the column is once again converted back to rectifying mode. Cyclic operation, transitioning from batch rectifying to stripping back to rectifying, continues until all of the initial charge is fractionated or is combined with a new charge. The fractionation of ethanol and 1-propanol using the proposed operating strategy is shown to provide several advantages including energy and time savings when compared to conventional batch or inverted batch distillation alone. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polynomial Batch Codes for Efficient IT-PIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Private information retrieval (PIR is a way for clients to query a remote database without the database holder learning the clients’ query terms or the responses they generate. Compelling applications for PIR are abound in the cryptographic and privacy research literature, yet existing PIR techniques are notoriously inefficient. Consequently, no such PIRbased application to date has seen real-world at-scale deployment. This paper proposes new “batch coding” techniques to help address PIR’s efficiency problem. The new techniques exploit the connection between ramp secret sharing schemes and efficient information-theoretically secure PIR (IT-PIR protocols. This connection was previously observed by Henry, Huang, and Goldberg (NDSS 2013, who used ramp schemes to construct efficient “batch queries” with which clients can fetch several database records for the same cost as fetching a single record using a standard, non-batch query. The new techniques in this paper generalize and extend those of Henry et al. to construct “batch codes” with which clients can fetch several records for only a fraction the cost of fetching a single record using a standard non-batch query over an unencoded database. The batch codes are highly tuneable, providing a means to trade off (i lower server-side computation cost, (ii lower server-side storage cost, and/or (iii lower uni- or bi-directional communication cost, in exchange for a comparatively modest decrease in resilience to Byzantine database servers.

  20. Degradation of toluene and trichloroethylene by Burkholderia cepacia G4 in growth-limited fed-batch culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, Astrid E.; Houwing, Joukje; Dolfing, Jan; Janssen, Dick B.

    Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4 was cultivated in a fed-batch bioreactor on either toluene or toluene plus trichloroethylene (TCE), The culture was allowed to reach a constant cell density under conditions in which the amount of toluene supplied equals the maintenance energy demand of the

  1. Semi-batch reactor for kinetic measurements of catalyzed olefin co-polymerizations in gas and slurry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    A multi-purpose setup is presented for homo- and co-polymerizations of ethylene and 1-hexene in slurry and gas phase. Polymerization experiments have been executed semi-batch with a heterogeneous metallocene catalyst under industrial conditions. During the gas phase polymerization, the monomer

  2. The Frozen Face Effect: Why static photographs may not do you justice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert ePost

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When a video of someone speaking is paused, the stationary image of the speaker typically appears less flattering than the video, which contained motion. We call this the Frozen Face Effect (FFE. Here we report six experiments intended to quantify this effect and determine its cause. In Experiment 1, video clips of people speaking in naturalistic settings as well as all of the static frames that composed each video were presented, and subjects rated how flattering each stimulus was. The videos were rated to be significantly more flattering than the static images, confirming the FFE. In Experiment 2, videos and static images were inverted, and the videos were again rated as more flattering than the static images. In Experiment 3, a discrimination task measured recognition of the static images that composed each video. Recognition did not correlate with flattery ratings, suggesting that the FFE is not due to better memory for particularly distinct images. In Experiment 4, flattery ratings for groups of static images were compared with those for videos and static images. Ratings for the video stimuli were higher than those for either the group or individual static stimuli, suggesting that the amount of information available is not what produces the FFE. In Experiment 5, videos were presented under four conditions: forward motion, inverted forward motion, reversed motion, and scrambled frame sequence. Flattery ratings for the scrambled videos were significantly lower than those for the other three conditions. In Experiment 6, as in Experiment 2, inverted videos and static images were compared with upright ones, and the response measure was changed to perceived attractiveness. Videos were rated as more attractive than the static images for both upright and inverted stimuli. Overall, the results suggest that the FFE requires continuous, natural motion of faces, is not sensitive to inversion, and is not due to a memory effect.

  3. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Cassells, Benny; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-07-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes with four different sets of process operating conditions for the stirrer speed, headspace pressure, and aeration rate. The start fills were tested with eight pilot scale experiments using a reference process operation. An on-line control strategy was then developed, utilizing the mechanistic model which is recursively updated using on-line measurements. The model was applied in order to predict the current system states, including the biomass concentration, and to simulate the expected future trajectory of the system until a specified end time. In this way, the desired feed rate is updated along the progress of the batch taking into account the oxygen mass transfer conditions and the expected future trajectory of the mass. The final results show that the target fill was achieved to within 5% under the maximum fill when tested using eight pilot scale batches, and over filling was avoided. The results were reproducible, unlike the reference experiments which show over 10% variation in the final tank fill, and this also includes over filling. The variance of the final tank fill is

  4. Growth of Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus in batch and continuous culture on H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/: Influence of agitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peillex, J.P.; Fardeau, M.L.; Boussand, R.; Belaich, J.P.; Navarro, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    A thermophilic methanogenic bacterium, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, was grown on H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ in both batch and continuous culture, in a fermentor equipped with either a straight blade impeller or a Rushton impeller. Production was continued until 470 l CH/sub 4/.l/sup -1/ per day was obtained with a biomass of 3.5 g dry wt. l/sup -1/ under batch conditions.

  5. Application of a validated stability-indicating chromatographic method to evaluate the reproducibility between batches of small peptides in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabrés, Matías; Fariña, José B

    2010-08-18

    A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines to evaluate the reproducibility of batches of synthetic peptides included in a stability program, in particular cholecystokinin (CCK-4) peptide. Both isothermal and nonisothermal approaches were used to determine stability under experimental conditions and the resulting degradation products were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The principal degradation product was the cyclic dimer, although another two products derived from it were also detected, due to the loss of one or two Phe-NH(2) residues. The dimerization follows first-order kinetics, whereas the hydrolytic cleavage implies both consecutive and in-parallel processes. The linear Arrhenius plot indicates that the degradation mechanism and kinetics do not change with temperature or the batch, but the degradation rate does depend on the batch, for example, the shelf-life at 25 degrees C was 2.54 days for batch 3, which is 13-times lower than batch 2. This variability is caused by a change in the synthesis process introduced by the manufacturer. The combination of these two elements: the analytical and stability-evaluating methods provide enough data to establish a stability-indicating profile, as required by the guideline ICH-Q6B for biotechnological/biological products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  7. Application of Taguchi optimization on the cassava starch wastewater electrocoagulation using batch recycle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudibyo, Hermida, L.; Suwardi

    2017-11-01

    Tapioca waste water is very difficult to treat; hence many tapioca factories could not treat it well. One of method which able to overcome this problem is electrodeposition. This process has high performance when it conducted using batch recycle process and use aluminum bipolar electrode. However, the optimum operation conditions are having a significant effect in the tapioca wastewater treatment using bath recycle process. In this research, The Taguchi method was successfully applied to know the optimum condition and the interaction between parameters in electrocoagulation process. The results show that current density, conductivity, electrode distance, and pH have a significant effect on the turbidity removal of cassava starch waste water.

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not

  9. Evolution of Coextruded Structures in Static Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollogoub, C.; Guinault, A.; Pedros, M.

    2007-04-01

    Coextrusion allows to combine two thermoplastics in different ways, creating structures with different cross-sectional geometries (side-by-side structure or concentric ring structure). We use static mixers after the feedblock, in order to homogenise these initial structures and obtain different blend morphologies. The control of these morphologies is of prime importance in order to predict the final properties of the polymer blends. The aim of this paper is to study the evolution of some initial coextruded structures in different static mixers. Different static mixers, with adjustable number of mixing elements, are tested. The experimental observations are confronted with numerical simulation results.

  10. Memory for moving and static images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W J; Benjamin, Clare; Osborne, Claire

    2007-10-01

    Despite the substantial interest in memory for complex pictorial stimuli, there has been virtually no research comparing memory for static scenes with that for their moving counterparts. We report that both monochrome and color moving images are better remembered than static versions of the same stimuli at retention intervals up to one month. When participants studied a sequence of still images, recognition performance was the same as that for single static images. These results are discussed within a theoretical framework which draws upon previous studies of scene memory, face recognition, and representational momentum.

  11. Comparison of heavy metal toxicity in continuous flow and batch reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengor, S. S.; Gikas, P.; Moberly, J. G.; Peyton, B. M.; Ginn, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of heavy metals may significantly affect microbial growth. In many cases, small amounts of particular heavy metals may stimulate microbial growth; however, larger quantities may result in microbial growth reduction. Environmental parameters, such as growth pattern may alter the critical heavy metal concentration, above which microbial growth stimulation turns to growth inhibition. Thus, it is important to quantify the effects of heavy metals on microbial activity for understanding natural or manmade biological reactors, either in situ or ex situ. Here we compare the toxicity of Zn and Cu on Arthrobacter sp., a heavy metal tolerant microorganism, under continuous flow versus batch reactor operations. Batch and continuous growth tests of Arthrobacter sp. were carried out at various individual and combined concentrations of Zn and Cu. Biomass concentration (OD) was measured for both the batch and continuous reactors, whereas ATP, oxygen uptake rates and substrate concentrations were additionally measured for the continuous system. Results indicated that Cu was more toxic than Zn under all conditions for both systems. In batch reactors, all tested Zn concentrations up to 150 uM showed a stimulatory effect on microbial growth. However, in the case of mixed Zn and Cu exposures, the presence of Zn either eliminated (at the 50 uM level both Zn and Cu) or reduced by ~25% (at the 100 and 150 uM levels both Zn and Cu) the Cu-induced inhibition. In the continuous system, only one test involved combined Cu (40uM) and Zn (125uM) and this test showed similar results to the 40uM Cu continuous test, i.e., no reduction in inhibition. The specific ATP concentration, i.e., ATP/OD, results for the continuous reactor showed an apparent recovery for both Cu-treated populations, although neither the OD nor glucose data showed any recovery. This may reflect that the individual microorganisms that survived after the addition of heavy metals, kept maintaining the usual ATP

  12. Competitive adsorption and selectivity sequence of heavy metals by chicken bone-derived biochar: Batch and column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Ju-Sik; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Choi, Ik-Won; Heo, Jong-Soo; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in single- and ternary-metal forms onto chicken bone biochar (CBB). Competitive sorption of heavy metals by CBB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by CBB were in the order of Cu (130 mg g(-1)) > Cd (109 mg g(-1)) > Zn (93 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (108 mg g(-1)) > Cd (54 mg g(-1)) ≥ Zn (44 mg g(-1)) in the ternary-metal adsorption isotherm. Cu was the most retained cation, whereas Zn could be easily exchanged and substituted by Cu. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the total adsorbed amounts of the metals were in the following order of Cu (210 mg g(-1)) > Cd (192 mg g(-1)) > Zn (178) in single-metal conditions, and Cu (156) > Cd (123) > Zn (92) in ternary-metal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Especially, Zn in single-metal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. Based on the 3D simulation graphs of heavy metals, adsorption patterns under single adsorption condition were different than under competitive adsorption condition. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. The maximum metal adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in CBB.

  13. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  14. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  15. Interference of Different Types of Mastication on Static Balance in Individuals without Temporomandibular Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cid Andre Fidelis de Paula; Politti, Fabiano; El Hage, Yasmin; de Sousa, Dowglas Fernando Magalhães; Amorin, Cesar Ferreira; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study was to determine whether non-habitual (isotonic) bilateral and unilateral mastication with eyes open and eyes closed exerts an influence on static balance in individuals without temporomandibular disorder (TMD). An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 volunteers aged 20 to 40 years without temporomandibular disorder. Static balance was assessed with the individuals in a quiet standing position on a force plate performing different types of mastication under six separate conditions. Significant differences (p center of pressure with eyes closed (p static balance.

  16. Multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) using Raman spectroscopy for in-line culture cell monitoring considering time-varying batches synchronized with correlation optimized warping (COW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Juan; André, Silvère; Saint Cristau, Lydia; Lagresle, Sylvain; Hannas, Zahia; Calvosa, Éric; Devos, Olivier; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2017-02-01

    Multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) is increasingly popular as the challenge provided by large multivariate datasets from analytical instruments such as Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of complex cell cultures in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, Raman spectroscopy for in-line monitoring often produces unsynchronized data sets, resulting in time-varying batches. Moreover, unsynchronized data sets are common for cell culture monitoring because spectroscopic measurements are generally recorded in an alternate way, with more than one optical probe parallelly connecting to the same spectrometer. Synchronized batches are prerequisite for the application of multivariate analysis such as multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) for the MSPC monitoring. Correlation optimized warping (COW) is a popular method for data alignment with satisfactory performance; however, it has never been applied to synchronize acquisition time of spectroscopic datasets in MSPC application before. In this paper we propose, for the first time, to use the method of COW to synchronize batches with varying durations analyzed with Raman spectroscopy. In a second step, we developed MPCA models at different time intervals based on the normal operation condition (NOC) batches synchronized by COW. New batches are finally projected considering the corresponding MPCA model. We monitored the evolution of the batches using two multivariate control charts based on Hotelling's T2 and Q. As illustrated with results, the MSPC model was able to identify abnormal operation condition including contaminated batches which is of prime importance in cell culture monitoring We proved that Raman-based MSPC monitoring can be used to diagnose batches deviating from the normal condition, with higher efficacy than traditional diagnosis, which would save time and money in the biopharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sequence. 204.57-7 Section 204.57-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted or...

  18. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch front...

  19. Fluid motion and mixing in helical static mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. Casey; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2001-11-01

    Helical static mixers are used for mixing in a variety of industrial settings under a wide range of flow conditions. To obtain a more fundamental understanding of how these mixers operate, a detailed computational fluid dynamics model study of the helical static mixer was performed using a second-order accurate method for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on fine computational grids. We investigate the fluid structure in the mixers as a function the Reynolds number and the number of mixer elements. The Reynolds number was varied from 100 to 500, and the number of elements was varied from two to six. Mixing was investigated by applying dynamical systems techniques to the trajectories of a large number of particles released from the inlet of the mixer. We also consider closely two numerical issues: the length of the inlet and outlet sections attached to the mixer and the periodicity of the flow field within the mixer sections.

  20. The electrorheological effect in static squeeze-flow

    CERN Document Server

    Akaiwa, M

    1998-01-01

    The static behaviour of an Electrorheological (ER) fluid in squeeze-flow is investigated both theoretically and experimentally for three types of loading condition namely single and superimposed loading when the fluid in energised by a constant potential, and superimposed loading when the fluid in energised by a constant field. From the experimental work an empirical equation for yield stress as a function of field is derived and there are found to be two values of the exponent in squeeze mode depending on the type of loading. The exponent obtained under single loading is consistent with that commonly quoted for ER fluids in shear mode while the exponent obtained under superimposed loading upon application of a constant potential is seen to be much larger. The theoretical analysis was successfully applied to modelling an ER fluid in static squeeze-flow. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results shows good agreement between them. The distributions of the electric field strength and field lines are inv...

  1. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  2. Static Electricity-Responsive Supramolecular Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jintoku, Hirokuni; Ihara, Hirotaka; Matsuzawa, Yoko; Kihara, Hideyuki

    2017-12-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials can convert between molecular scale and macroscopic scale phenomena. Two macroscopic static electricity-responsive phenomena based on nanoscale supramolecular assemblies of a zinc porphyrin derivative are presented. One example involves the movement of supramolecular assemblies in response to static electricity. The assembly of a pyridine (Py) complex of the above-mentioned derivative in cyclohexane is drawn to a positively charged material, whereas the assembly of a 3,5-dimethylpyridine complex is drawn to a negatively charged material. The second phenomenon involves the movement of a non-polar solvent in response to static electrical stimulation. A cyclohexane solution containing a small quantity of the Py-complexed assembly exhibited a strong movement response towards negatively charged materials. Based on spectroscopic measurements and electron microscope observations, it was revealed that the assembled formation generates the observed response to static electricity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Bypass chromatography--design and analysis of an improved strategy for operating batch chromatography processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siitonen, Jani; Sainio, Tuomo; Rajendran, Arvind

    2012-03-23

    The possibility to improve the performance of batch chromatographic separations by using so-called bypass method is analyzed for the first time. In bypass chromatography, only a part of the feed is introduced into the column and purified to purity larger than the desired value. The resulting fractions are then blended with fresh feed to match the given purity constraints. A general approach is presented for designing bypass batch chromatography. Analytical design equations, based on equilibrium theory of chromatography, are presented for the case of binary systems with linear or competitive Langmuir adsorption isotherms under ideal conditions. The approach allows direct calculation of optimal loading and amount of bypass so that arbitrary purity requirements are satisfied without waste streams. It is shown that the bypass strategy enhances productivity of batch chromatography without an increase in the eluent consumption. In the case of a Langmuir isotherm, maximum productivity and minimum eluent consumption are always obtained when the less retained component is collected from the column at 100% purity. In contrast, the optimal purity of the second fraction from the column is typically less than 100% and depends on the purity constraint of the more retained component. In the case of linear isotherms, operation with touching bands is preferred. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immobilization of yeast inulinase on chitosan beads for the hydrolysis of inulin in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Singh, R P; Kennedy, J F

    2017-02-01

    An extracellular inulinase was partially purified by ethanol precipitation and gel exclusion chromatography from a cell free extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Partially purified inulinase exhibited 420 IU/mg specific activity and it was immobilized on chitosan beads. Activity yield of immobilized inulinase was optimized with glutaraldehyde concentration (1-5%), glutaraldehyde treatment time (30-240min), enzyme coupling-time (2-16h) and enzyme loading (5-30 IU) as functions. Under the optimized conditions maximum yield 65.5% of immobilized inulinase was obtained. Maximum hydrolysis of inulin 84.5% and 78.2% was observed at 125rpm after 4h by immobilized and free enzyme, respectively. A retention-time of 4h and 5h was found optimal for the hydrolysis of inulin under agitation (125rpm) by free and immobilized enzyme, respectively. The recycling of the developed immobilized biocatalyst was carried out after 5h of inulin hydrolysis in a batch system. The developed immobilized biocatalyst was successfully used for the hydrolysis of inulin for 14 batches. This is the first report on the immobilization of yeast inulinase on chitosan beads for the hydrolysis of inulin in a batch system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A discretized model for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in a fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervasmäki, Petri; Sotaniemi, Ville; Kangas, Jani; Taskila, Sanna; Ojamo, Heikki; Tanskanen, Juha

    2017-03-01

    In the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, several phenomena have been proposed to cause a decrease in the reaction rate with increasing conversion. The importance of each phenomenon is difficult to distinguish from batch hydrolysis data. Thus, kinetic models for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose often suffer from poor parameter identifiability. This work presents a model that is applicable to fed-batch hydrolysis by discretizing the substrate based on the feeding time. Different scenarios are tested to explain the observed decrease in reaction rate with increasing conversion, and comprehensive assessment of the parameter sensitivities is carried out. The proposed model performed well in the broad range of experimental conditions used in this study and when compared to literature data. Furthermore, the use of data from fed-batch experiments and discretization of the model substrate to populations was found to be very informative when assessing the importance of the rate-decreasing phenomena in the model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved high-pressure enzymatic biodiesel batch synthesis in near-critical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myunggu; Lee, Dohoon; Cho, Jin Ku; Cho, Jaehoon; Han, Jinmi; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Sangyong

    2012-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel by a high-pressure semi-continuous process in near-critical carbon dioxide (NcCO(2)) was studied. Biodiesel synthesis was evaluated in both batch and semi-continuous systems to develop an effective process. Batch processing demonstrated the advantageous properties of NcCO(2) as an alternative reaction medium. Three immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM, and Lipozyme TL IM from Novozymes) were tested, with Lipozyme TL IM the most effective, showing the highest conversion. Biodiesel conversion from several edible and non-edible oil feedstocks reached >92%. Higher conversion (99.0%) was obtained in a shorter time by employing repeated batch processes with optimized conditions: 44.3 g (500 mM) canola oil, a substrate molar ratio (methanol:oil) of 3:1, an enzyme loading of 20 wt% (of the oil used), at 30 °C, 100 bar, and 300 rpm agitation. The enzyme maintained 80.2% of its initial stability after being reused eight times. These results suggest that this method produces biodiesel energy-efficiently and environment-friendly.

  7. Expression of a mutated SPT15 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances both cell growth and ethanol production in microaerobic batch, fed-batch, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeong-Je; Park, Haeseong; Yang, Jungwoo; Kim, Soo-Jung; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    The SPT15 gene encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TATA-binding protein, which is able to globally control the transcription levels of various metabolic and regulatory genes. In this study, a SPT15 gene mutant (S42N, S78R, S163P, and I212N) was expressed in S. cerevisiae BY4741 (BSPT15-M3), of which effects on fermentative yeast properties were evaluated in a series of culture types. By applying different nitrogen sources and air supply conditions in batch culture, organic nitrogen sources and microaerobic condition were decided to be more favorable for both cell growth and ethanol production of the BSPT15-M3 strain than the control S. cerevisiae BY4741 strain expressing the SPT15 gene (BSPT15wt). Microaerobic fed-batch cultures of BSPT15-M3 with glucose shock in the presence of high ethanol content resulted in a 9.5-13.4% higher glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity than those for the BSPT15wt strain. In addition, BSPT15-M3 showed 4.5 and 3.9% increases in ethanol productivity from cassava hydrolysates and corn starch in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes, respectively. It was concluded that overexpression of the mutated SPT15 gene would be a potent strategy to develop robust S. cerevisiae strains with enhanced cell growth and ethanol production abilities.

  8. Static quarks with improved statistical precision

    CERN Document Server

    Della Morte, M; Heitger, J; Molke, H; Rolf, J; Shindler, A; Sommer, R

    2004-01-01

    We present a numerical study for different discretisations of the static action, concerning cut-off effects and the growth of statistical errors with Euclidean time. An error reduction by an order of magnitude can be obtained with respect to the Eichten-Hill action, for time separations beyond 1.3 fm, keeping discretization errors small. The best actions lead to a big improvement on the precision of the quark mass Mb and F_Bs in the static approximation.

  9. Effects of insoles contact on static balance

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (r...

  10. Effect of Aquatic Immersion on Static Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Louder, Talin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess measures of static balance and limits of stability (LOS) in an aquatic environment compared to on land. Methods Fifteen healthy, young adults (23 + or - 2 years) performed 90 s static balance trials on land and aquatic immersion at two different depths (greater trochanter, xiphoid process). Measures of 95% ellipse area and center of pressure (CoP) mean velocity were computed from the force data. Additionally, participants completed a visual analog scale (VAS...

  11. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali......The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol...

  12. Batch-Orthogonal Locality-Sensitive Hashing for Angular Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianqiu; Yan, Shuicheng; Li, Jianmin; Gao, Guangyu; Tian, Qi; Zhang, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Sign-random-projection locality-sensitive hashing (SRP-LSH) is a widely used hashing method, which provides an unbiased estimate of pairwise angular similarity, yet may suffer from its large estimation variance. We propose in this work batch-orthogonal locality-sensitive hashing (BOLSH), as a significant improvement of SRP-LSH. Instead of independent random projections, BOLSH makes use of batch-orthogonalized random projections, i.e, we divide random projection vectors into several batches and orthogonalize the vectors in each batch respectively. These batch-orthogonalized random projections partition the data space into regular regions, and thus provide a more accurate estimator. We prove theoretically that BOLSH still provides an unbiased estimate of pairwise angular similarity, with a smaller variance for any angle in (0, π), compared with SRP-LSH. Furthermore, we give a lower bound on the reduction of variance. The extensive experiments on real data well validate that with the same length of binary code, BOLSH may achieve significant mean squared error reduction in estimating pairwise angular similarity. Moreover, BOLSH shows the superiority in extensive approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) retrieval experiments.

  13. Towards Batched Linear Solvers on Accelerated Hardware Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, Azzam [University of Tennessee (UT); Dong, Tingzing Tim [University of Tennessee (UT); Tomov, Stanimire [University of Tennessee (UT); Dongarra, Jack J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    As hardware evolves, an increasingly effective approach to develop energy efficient, high-performance solvers, is to design them to work on many small and independent problems. Indeed, many applications already need this functionality, especially for GPUs, which are known to be currently about four to five times more energy efficient than multicore CPUs for every floating-point operation. In this paper, we describe the development of the main one-sided factorizations: LU, QR, and Cholesky; that are needed for a set of small dense matrices to work in parallel. We refer to such algorithms as batched factorizations. Our approach is based on representing the algorithms as a sequence of batched BLAS routines for GPU-contained execution. Note that this is similar in functionality to the LAPACK and the hybrid MAGMA algorithms for large-matrix factorizations. But it is different from a straightforward approach, whereby each of GPU's symmetric multiprocessors factorizes a single problem at a time. We illustrate how our performance analysis together with the profiling and tracing tools guided the development of batched factorizations to achieve up to 2-fold speedup and 3-fold better energy efficiency compared to our highly optimized batched CPU implementations based on the MKL library on a two-sockets, Intel Sandy Bridge server. Compared to a batched LU factorization featured in the NVIDIA's CUBLAS library for GPUs, we achieves up to 2.5-fold speedup on the K40 GPU.

  14. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  15. Static and dynamic postural control in low-vision and normal-vision adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomitsu, Mônica S.V.; Angelica Castilho Alonso; Eurica Morimoto; Bobbio, Tatiana G.; Greve,Julia M.D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reduced visual information on postural control by comparing low-vision and normal-vision adults in static and dynamic conditions. METHODS: Twenty-five low-vision subjects and twenty-five normal sighted adults were evaluated for static and dynamic balance using four protocols: 1) the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance on firm and foam surfaces with eyes opened and closed; 2) Unilateral Stance with eyes opened and ...

  16. Static capacity of laterally pre-cycled monopiles in dense sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This work aims to investigate the change in static capacity of monopiles due to cyclic lateral loading. Results from small-scale tests on a monopile model in dense saturated sand are presented. Three series of tests were carried out to study the response of the monopile to different cyclic lateral...... loading conditions. A formulation to predict the change in static capacity is proposed and applied to confirm the tests results....

  17. Characterization of tributyrin hydrolysis by immobilized lipase on woolen cloth using conventional batch and novel spinning cloth disc reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, X.; Patterson, D.A.; M. Balaban; Emanuelsson, E. A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal loading and operating conditions for a new, superior immobilization of amano lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens on woolen cloth were determined. The optimal enzyme loading was 46.8 mg g dry cloth with activity of 200 U. A batch reactor was used to characterize process conditions important to industrial application of the wool immobilized lipase. The optimal pH for immobilized lipase in tributyrin hydrolysis was 7, slightly lower than that of free lipase (pH 8). The optimal temperatur...

  18. A shear deformable theory of laminated composite shallow shell-type panels and their response analysis. II - Static response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdeir, A. A.; Librescu, L.; Frederick, D.

    1989-01-01

    In the second part of this paper, by using the static counterparts of the governing equations derived in Librescu (1989), the static response of shallow composite shell-type panels subjected to a sinusoidal transverse load is investigated. The numerical applications, encompassing a large number of boundary conditions and various lamination schemes, allow one to obtain some conclusions which are formulated in the paper.

  19. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohsenipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 mgNO3-/L, with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment.

  20. Enhanced static ground power unit based on flying capacitor based h-bridge hybrid active-neutral-point-clamped converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages of the p......Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages...... demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed converter and the modulation method under various operating conditions....

  1. Batch Cooling Crystallization of Potassium Sulphate from Water Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalšan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch cooling crystallization, at the rotation speed of 700 min–1, of an aqueous solution of a potassium sulphate has been investigated on a laboratory scale. The effect of hydrodynamics conditions on the crystallization process were investigated by using different type of impellers. Two types of impellers were investigated; the four-pitched blade impeller which generates axi-al flow and the six-blades Rusthon turbine which generates radial flow. The experiments were performed at four different linear cooling rates in the range from 8-20 °C h–1 for both types of impeller.The influence of the cooling rates on the metastable zone width, the crystallization kinetics and the granulometric properties of the obtained crystals were investigated. The experimental data show that higher cooling rate expands the metastable zone for all the types of impeller (Fig. 2 and influences the crystal size distribution (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.At low cooling rates, supersaturation was kept at a constant value for a longer period. It resulted in improved conditions for mass transfer and the crystals grew. Bigger crystals were obtained at lower cooling rates (Fig. 7.It is stated that radial flow (Rusthon turbine is particularly inappropriate for the nucleation process, and for crystallization. Nucleation started at a lower temperature and higher supersaturation (Fig. 3. These conditions resulted in a high nucleation’s rate and large number of nucleation centres.Also, the obtained crystals settled on the wall of the reactor, baffles and stirrer. A great part of the obtained crystals was agglomerated. The nucleation order, n and coefficient of nucleation, kn were determined for different cooling rates (Fig. 5a. The nucleation order is higher at radial flow (nucleation started at higher supersaturation. The relation between the rate of concentration drop in a solution and supersaturation has beenapproximated with a power low equation (Fig. 5b. For the used impellers

  2. Batch Blast Extractor: an automated blastx parser application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirooznia, Mehdi; Perkins, Edward J; Deng, Youping

    2008-09-16

    BLAST programs are very efficient in finding similarities for sequences. However for large datasets such as ESTs, manual extraction of the information from the batch BLAST output is needed. This can be time consuming, insufficient, and inaccurate. Therefore implementation of a parser application would be extremely useful in extracting information from BLAST outputs. We have developed a java application, Batch Blast Extractor, with a user friendly graphical interface to extract information from BLAST output. The application generates a tab delimited text file that can be easily imported into any statistical package such as Excel or SPSS for further analysis. For each BLAST hit, the program obtains and saves the essential features from the BLAST output file that would allow further analysis. The program was written in Java and therefore is OS independent. It works on both Windows and Linux OS with java 1.4 and higher. It is freely available from: http://mcbc.usm.edu/BatchBlastExtractor/

  3. Object Based System for Batch Job Submission and Monitoring (BOSS)

    CERN Document Server

    Grandi, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC collider is producing large amounts of simulated data in order to provide an adequate statistic for Trigger System design. The event simulation process is composed by several steps and each step needs specific bookkeeping in order to assure the quality of the data produced. Furthermore production is carried on at several production centers, each one with its own hardware and software setup. In this work we present BOSS (Batch Object Submission System). BOSS provides real time monitoring and bookkeeping of jobs. Different job types can be registered to the BOSS System, allowing the storage on a local database of information specific to the task that is being performed by the job itself. BOSS is configured as an interface to local batch schedulers, providing a unique interface to the batch facilities. The use of BOSS as an interface to a GRID scheduler is also discussed.

  4. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  5. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  6. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams...

  7. Upstream process optimization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes latus using two-stage batch and fed-batch fermentation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingqing; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Olson, Jonathan W; Khan, Saad A

    2012-11-01

    This research focused on optimizing the upstream process time for production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from sucrose by two-stage batch and fed-batch fermentation with Alcaligenes latus ATCC 29714. The study included selection of strain, two-stage batch fermentations with different time points for switching to nitrogen limited media (14, 16 or 18 h) and fed-batch fermentations with varied time points (similar to two stage) for introducing nitrogen limited media. The optimal strain to produce PHB using sucrose as carbon source was A. latus ATCC 29714 with maximum-specific growth rate of 0.38 ± 0.01 h(-1) and doubling time of 1.80 ± 0.05 h. Inducing nitrogen limitation at 16 h and ending second stage at 26 h gave optimal performance for PHB production, resulting in a PHB content of 46.7 ± 12.2 % (g PHB per g dry cell weight) at the end of fermentation. This was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) (approximately 7 %) than the corresponding fed batch run in which nitrogen limitation was initiated at 16 h.

  8. Batch-related sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a series of patients with sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection from 2 different batches of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 eyes with severe inflammation after IVB injections from two different batches (7 eyes from one and 4 from the other on two separate days were evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients in one day were treated with one batch and 18 eyes of 17 patients were treated another day using another batch injected for different retinal diseases. Each batch was opened on the day of injection. We used commercially available bevacizumab (100 mg/4 ml kept at 4°C. Severe cases with hypopyon were admitted to the ward and underwent anterior chamber and vitreous tap for direct smear and culture. Results: Pain, redness and decreased vision began after 11-17 days. All had anterior chamber and vitreous reactions and 5 had hypopyon. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were initiated immediately, but the antibiotics were discontinued after negative culture results. Visual acuity returned to pre-injection levels in 10 eyes after 1 month and only in one eye pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Mean VA at the time of presentation with inflammation (1.76 ± 0.78 logMAR decreased significantly (P = 0.008 compared to the initial mean corrected VA (1.18 ± 0.55 logMAR; however, final mean corrected VA (1.02 ± 0.48 logMAR improved in comparison with the baseline but not to a significant level (P = 0.159. Conclusions: We report a cluster of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab from the same batch of bevacizumab that has a favorable prognosis.

  9. Continuous flow technology vs. the batch-by-batch approach to produce pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kevin P; Johnson, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    For the manufacture of small molecule drugs, many pharmaceutical innovator companies have recently invested in continuous processing, which can offer significant technical and economic advantages over traditional batch methodology. This Expert Review will describe the reasons for this interest as well as many considerations and challenges that exist today concerning continuous manufacturing. Areas covered: Continuous processing is defined and many reasons for its adoption are described. The current state of continuous drug substance manufacturing within the pharmaceutical industry is summarized. Current key challenges to implementation of continuous manufacturing are highlighted, and an outlook provided regarding the prospects for continuous within the industry. Expert commentary: Continuous processing at Lilly has been a journey that started with the need for increased safety and capability. Over twelve years the original small, dedicated group has grown to more than 100 Lilly employees in discovery, development, quality, manufacturing, and regulatory designing in continuous drug substance processing. Recently we have focused on linked continuous unit operations for the purpose of all-at-once pharmaceutical manufacturing, but the technical and business drivers that existed in the very beginning for stand-alone continuous unit operations in hybrid processes have persisted, which merits investment in both approaches.

  10. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  11. Algoritma Penentuan Ukuran Batch Integer pada Penjadwalan Flowshop Satu Mesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadigufri Triha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is an important area of production planning and control. Scheduling is required to produce an existing job by allocating existing resources in the proper execution order. Production schedules arranged effectively and efficiently to maximize resources utility, minimize waiting and idle time and increase productivity. The flowshop batch scheduling model for one machine that takes inventory and quality cost into account has been developed by Indrapriyatna et al (2007a. However, the model yet effective in converting the results of batch size into integers. This study tried to resolve this problem by using a modification of Branch and Bound Algorithm approach.

  12. MD2013: Tune shift along the batch at flat top

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Buffat, Xavier; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A series of tests were performed that led to a measurement of the tune shift along a 96 bunch batch with 25ns spacing at flat top. The measurements demonstrated the ability of the transverse damper (ADT) to excite single bunches with minimal pulse leakage to neighbouring bunches (with 25ns bunch spacing). The processes were tested and refined with tests at injection and end of fill (EOF) before carrying out the excitation at flat top before a physics fill. The tune shift along the batch was shown to be less than ≈4x10-4 for both beams, both planes.

  13. Discrimination of Three Panax Species Based on Differences in Volatile Organic Compounds Using a Static Headspace GC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Yi-Tao; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng) are highly valuable tonic herbs derived from the Panax genus that have similar morphological appearances and odors but different pharmacological activities and clinical indications. Thus, the authentication of these three Panax species is crucial for ensuring the quality, safety and efficacy of medication. In the present study, a static headspace gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by a multivariate statistical analysis was developed to globally characterize the volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles in P. ginseng, P. quinquefolium, and P. notoginseng, and subsequently to discover differentiating chemical markers. Under the optimized conditions, the headspace VOCs of a total of 49 batches of Panax herbs derived from the three Panax species were profiled, and the dataset of sample code, [Formula: see text]-m/z pair and ion intensity was processed by unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and by supervised partial least squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical differences in Panax across the species. The results demonstrated that Panax herbs derived from three species possess obviously diverse chemical characteristics of VOCs, PCA, and PLS-DA. According to their VOC profiles, 49 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to species. Chemomarker 1, 2, and 4 might be used as unique chemical markers of P. ginseng, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolium, respectively. Our findings indicate that static headspace GC-MS-based VOC profiling, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, provide a reliable tool to discriminate between the three Panax species and to identify their differentiation markers, which will be helpful for ensuring their quality, safety and efficacy.

  14. Impact of acute static-stretching on the optimal height in drop jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Pasqua

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effect of static stretching on performance during drop jumps. Furthermore, we investigated if a reduction in drop height would compensate the stretching-caused alterations. Ten physically active male subjects performed drop jumps at four different drop heights without static stretching for the optimal drop height determination. After, they performed drop jumps on two drop heights with static stretching previously. The jump height, contact time and reactive strength index were significantly affected by static stretching. However, only the contact time was significantly improved by the reduction in drop height with previous static stretching. Our results suggest that the decrement in performance after static stretching could be partially compensated by a reduction in drop height, which decreases the contact time near a non-stretching jump condition. This can be explained by the lower landing velocity and, possibly, the smaller reduction in the activation of the plantar flexors muscles. In conclusion, the reduction in drop height seems to be interesting after a static stretching session, aiming to expose the athletes to lower impact forces to maintain jump performance.

  15. A Comparison of Quasi-Static Indentation Testing to Low Velocity Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Douglas, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    The need for a static test method for modeling low-velocity foreign object impact events to composites would prove to be very beneficial to researchers since much more data can be obtained from a static test than from an impact test. In order to examine if this is feasible, a series of static indentation and low velocity impact tests were carried out and compared. Square specimens of many sizes and thickness were utilized to cover the array of types of low velocity impact events. Laminates with a n/4 stacking sequence were employed since this is by the most common type of engineering laminate. Three distinct flexural rigidities under two different boundary conditions were tested in order to obtain damage due to large deflections, contact stresses and both to examine if the static indentation-impact comparisons are valid under the spectrum of damage modes that can be experienced. Comparisons between static indentation and low velocity impact tests were based on the maximum applied transverse load. The dependent parameters examined included dent depth, back surface crack length, delamination area and to a limited extent, load-deflection behavior. Results showed that no distinct differences could be seen between the static indentation tests and the low velocity impact tests, indicating that static indentation can be used to represent a low velocity impact event.

  16. A Comparison of Quasi-Static Indentation to Low-Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Douglas, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    A static test method for modeling low-velocity foreign object impact events to composites would prove to be very beneficial to researchers since much more data can be obtained from a static test than from an impact test. In order to examine if this is feasible, a series of static indentation and low-velocity impact tests were carried out and compared. Square specimens of many sizes and thicknesses were utilized to cover the array of types of low velocity impact events. Laminates with a pi/4 stacking sequence were employed since this is by far the most common type of engineering laminate. Three distinct flexural rigidities -under two different boundary conditions were tested in order to obtain damage ranging from that due to large deflection to contact stresses and levels in-between to examine if the static indentation-impact comparisons are valid under the spectrum of damage modes that can be experienced. Comparisons between static indentation and low-velocity impact tests were based on the maximum applied transverse load. The dependent parameters examined included dent depth, back surface crack length, delamination area, and to a limited extent, load-deflection behavior. Results showed that no distinct differences could be seen between the static indentation tests and the low-velocity impact tests, indicating that static indentation can be used to represent a low-velocity impact event.

  17. Static tensioning promotes hamstring tendons force relaxation more reliably than cycling tensioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Sérgio Rocha; Dal Fabbro, Inácio Maria; Mischan, Martha Maria; Piedade, Cezar; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    Graft elongation might be a major reason for increased anterior laxity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study analyzed the force relaxation values and their stabilization when single strands of the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons underwent cyclic and static tensioning at 2.5% strain level, and compared the efficiency of static and cyclic tensioning in promoting force relaxation. Eighteen gracilis tendons and 18 semitendinosus tendons from nine male cadavers (mean age: 22.44years) were subjected to 10 in vitro cyclic loads at 2.5% strain level, or to a static load at 2.5% strain level. During cyclic loading, the reduction in force values tended to stabilize after the sixth cyclic load, while, in the case of static loading, this stabilization occurred by the second minute. Comparing static and cyclic loading, the gracilis tendon had similar mechanical responses in both conditions, while the semitendinosus tendon showed greater force relaxation in static compared with cyclic loading. Considering that the semitendinosus tendon is the main component of the hamstring graft, its biomechanical response to loading should guide the tensioning protocol. Therefore, static tensioning seems more effective for promoting force relaxation of the semitendinosus tendon than cyclic tensioning. The gracilis tendon showed a similar mechanical response to either tensioning protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Compact static stars in minimal dilatonic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiziev, Plamen P.

    2017-09-01

    In the version1 of this paper we presented for the first time the basic equations and relations for relativistic static spherically symmetric stars (SSSS) in the model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG). This model is locally equivalent to the f(R) theory of gravity and gives an alternative description of the effects of dark matter and dark energy using the Brans-Dicke dilaton Φ. To outline the basic properties of the MDG model of SSSS and to compare them with general relativistic results, in this paper we use the relativistic equation of state (EOS) of neutron matter as an ideal Fermi neutron gas at zero temperature. We overcome the well-known difficulties of the physics of SSSS in the f(R) theories of gravity2,3 applying novel highly nontrivial nonlinear boundary conditions, which depend on the global properties of the solution and on the EOS. We also introduce two pairs of new notions: cosmological-energy-pressure densities and dilaton-energy-pressure densities, as well as two new EOSs for them: cosmological EOS (CEOS) and dilaton EOS (DEOS). Special attention is paid to the dilatonic sphere (in brief — disphere) of SSSS, introduced in this paper for the first time. Using several realistic EOS for neutron star (NS): SLy, BSk19, BSk20 and BSk21, and current observational two-solar-masses-limit, we derive an estimate for scalar-field-mass mΦ ˜ 10-13eV/c2 ÷ 4 × 10-11eV/c2. Thus, the present version of the paper reflects some of the recent developments of the topic.

  19. Degradation of estrogens by laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila in fed-batch and enzymatic membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloret, L. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Eibes, G., E-mail: gemma.eibes@usc.es [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G.; Moreira, M.T.; Lema, J.M. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen removal was optimized in fed-batch bioreactors by evaluating the effect of the main process parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An enzyme membrane bioreactor (EMR) was proposed for the continuous degradation of estrogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrone was degraded up to 95% and estradiol was not detected in the effluent of the EMR under steady state conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The residual estrogenic activity of the effluent was largely reduced up to 97%. - Abstract: Several studies reported that natural and synthetic estrogens are the major contributors to the estrogenic activity associated with the effluents of wastewater treatment plants. The ability of the enzyme laccase to degrade these compounds in batch experiments has been demonstrated in previous studies. Nevertheless, information is scarce regarding in vitro degradation of estrogens in continuous enzymatic bioreactors. The present work constitutes an important step forward for the implementation of an enzymatic reactor for the continuous removal of estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) by free laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila. In a first step, the effect of the main process parameters (pH, enzyme level, gas composition (air or oxygen) and estrogen feeding rate) were evaluated in fed-batch bioreactors. E1 and E2 were oxidized by 94.1 and 95.5%, respectively, under the best conditions evaluated. Thereafter, an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was developed to perform the continuous degradation of the estrogens. The configuration consisted of a stirred tank reactor coupled with an ultrafiltration membrane, which allowed the recovery of enzyme while both estrogens and degradation products could pass through it. The highest removal rates at steady state conditions were up to 95% for E1 and nearly complete degradation for E2. Furthermore, the residual estrogenic activity of the effluent was largely reduced up to 97%.

  20. Static and dynamic calibration of radar data for hydrological use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Wood

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The HYREX dense raingauge network over the Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to explore the accuracy of calibrated (raingauge-adjusted weather radar data. Calibration is restricted to the use of any single gauge within the catchment so as to simulate the conditions in a typical rainfall monitoring network. Combination of a single gauge and a radar estimate is used to obtain calibrated radar estimates, with the 'calibration factor' varying dynamically from one time-frame to the next. Comparing this dynamic calibration with a static (long-term calibration factor indicates the distance from a gauge over which the dynamic calibration is useful. A tapered calibration factor is implemented which behaves in the same way as the raw dynamic calibration at short distances, tending towards the static calibration factor at larger distances. This hybrid approach outperforms raingauge, uncalibrated radar, and statically-calibrated radar estimates of rainfall for the majority of raingauges in the catchment. The results provide valuable guidance on the density of raingauge network to employ in combination with a weather radar for flood estimation and forecasting. Keywords: radar, raingauge, calibration, rainfall, accuracy

  1. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  2. Dried Spent Yeast and Its Hydrolysate as Nitrogen Supplements for Single Batch and Repeated-Batch Ethanol Fermentation from Sweet Sorghum Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Laopaiboon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dried spent yeast (DSY and its hydrolysate (DSYH were used as low-cost nitrogen supplements to improve ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP01 under very high gravity (VHG fermentation (280 g·L−1 of total sugar conditions. The supplemented DSY and DSYH concentrations were 11, 16 and 21 g·L−1, corresponding to a yeast extract nitrogen content of 6, 9 and 12 g·L−1, respectively. The initial yeast cell concentration for ethanol fermentation was approximately 5 × 107 cells·mL−1. The fermentation was carried out in single batch mode at 30 °C in 1-L air-locked bottles with an agitation rate of 100 rpm. Ethanol production from the juice with and without yeast extract (9 g·L−1 was also performed as control treatments. The results showed that DSY at 21 g·L−1gave the highest ethanol concentration (PE, 107 g·L−1 and yield (Yp/s, 0.47 g·g−1. The use of DSYH at the same DSY concentration improved ethanol productivity (Qp, but not PE and Yp/s. The ethanol production efficiencies of the juice under DSY and DSYH supplementations were markedly higher than those without nutrient supplementation. However, the PE and Qp values of the juice containing 21 g·L−1 of DSY was approximately 7 g·L−1 and 0.62 g·L−1·h−1 lower than those under the presence of yeast extract (9 g·L−1, respectively. At the end of the single batch fermentation under the optimum DSY concentration, the sugar consumption was approximately 80%. Therefore in the repeated-batch fermentation, the initial total sugar was reduced to 240 g·L−1. The results showed that the system could be carried out at least 20 successive batches with the average PE, Yp/s and Qp of 95 g·L−1, 0.46 g·g−1 and 1.45 g·L−1·h−1, respectively.

  3. A comparative study on thermomechanical pulping pressate treatment using thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Meiru; Liao, B Q

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study on the treatment of thermomechanical pulping (TMP) pressate was conducted under thermophilic (55 degrees C) and mesophilic (30 degrees C) temperatures to explore in-mill biological treatment, with the intention to operate under heat-efficient conditions. The experimental study involved sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated over 114 days. Receiving a total influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 3700-4100 mg L(-1), the COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% and 75-85% were achieved for the mesophilic and thermophilic SBRs, respectively, at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 and 24h. Excellent sludge settleability (sludge volume index pulp and paper mill operation.

  4. Estimation of Temperature Dependent Parameters of a Batch Alcoholic Fermentation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C.; Atala, Daniel I. P.; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work, a procedure was established to develop a mathematical model considering the effect of temperature on reaction kinetics. Experiments were performed in batch mode in temperatures from 30 to 38°C. The microorganism used was Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the culture media, sugarcane molasses. The objective is to assess the difficulty in updating the kinetic parameters when there are changes in fermentation conditions. We conclude that, although the re-estimation is a time-consuming task, it is possible to accurately describe the process when there are changes in raw material composition if a re-estimation of parameters is performed.

  5. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage...... (TES) may be required to achieve these improvements. Further improvements may be achieved if there is a need, in the plant, for heating water at low-or-medium-level temperatures for cleaning purposes and there are significant quantities of medium-to-lowtemperature heat recoverable. Such conditions...

  6. Batch Fermentative Biohydrogen Production Process Using Immobilized Anaerobic Sludge from Organic Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Sekoai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential of organic solid waste for biohydrogen production using immobilized anaerobic sludge. Biohydrogen was produced under batch mode at process conditions of 7.9, 30.3 °C and 90 h for pH, temperature and fermentation time, respectively. A maximum biohydrogen fraction of 48.67%, which corresponded to a biohydrogen yield of 215.39 mL H2/g Total Volatile Solids (TVS, was achieved. Therefore, the utilization of immobilized cells could pave the way for a large-scale biohydrogen production process.

  7. Batch Fermentative Biohydrogen Production Process Using Immobilized Anaerobic Sludge from Organic Solid Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick T. Sekoai; Kelvin O. Yoro; Michael O. Daramola

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential of organic solid waste for biohydrogen production using immobilized anaerobic sludge. Biohydrogen was produced under batch mode at process conditions of 7.9, 30.3 °C and 90 h for pH, temperature and fermentation time, respectively. A maximum biohydrogen fraction of 48.67%, which corresponded to a biohydrogen yield of 215.39 mL H2/g Total Volatile Solids (TVS), was achieved. Therefore, the utilization of immobilized cells could pave the way for a large-scale b...

  8. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes......A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved...

  9. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  10. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Marilyn G; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura

    2012-05-30

    Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100) media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L(-1), 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L(-1) h(-1)) as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass). Lipid production was low (15-19% lipid in biomass) with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass) when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L(-1), with 49% lipid in the biomass) and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L(-1), with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass) cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed carbohydrates than from glucose or xylose. Although high biomass and lipid

  11. 30 CFR 57.6602 - Static electricity dissipation during loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity dissipation during loading... MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6602 Static electricity dissipation... generates a static electricity hazard— (a) An evaluation of the potential static electricity hazard shall be...

  12. Development of Production Control in Small Batch Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Péter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim with this paper is to develop a new performance measurement and control system for small batch production in the automotive industry. For this reason, we present our previous research results for warehouse performance measurement and adopt its methodology to production control. The proposed method is based on artificial intelligence (neural networks.

  13. Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat integration to minimise energy usage in multipurpose batch plants has been in published literature for more than two decades. In most present methods, time is fixed a priori through a known schedule, which leads to suboptimal results...

  14. Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the following chemical batch scheduling problem is considered: a set of orders has to be processed on a set of facilities. For each order a given amount of a product must be produced by means of chemical reactions before a given deadline. The production consists of a sequence of

  15. Novel Batch Titanium Nitride CVD Process for Advanced Metal Electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagwijn, P.M.; Verweij, W.; Pierreux, D.; Noureddine, A.; Bankras, R.; Oosterlaken, E.; Snijders, G.J.; Van den Hout, M.; Fischer, P.; Wilhelm, R.; Knapp, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a novel CVD process for TiN films developed in a 300 mm Vertical Furnace. We have solved Chlorine incorporation at low temperature inside the TiN layer while at the same time the batch process yields a 3 times higher throughput per dual reactor system compared to a single

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED BATCH-PROCESS SOLAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents the development of an automated batch-process water disinfection system aimed at solving this challenge. Locally sourced materials in addition to an Arduinomicro processor were used to control the algorithm of the water disinfection system. A comparison of solar radiation sensing accuracy of the ...

  17. Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the paper is to develop a useful technique for sequencing batches of components through machine shops arranged under the group flowline production system. The approach is to apply a modified version of Petrov's group flowline technique for machining components which follow a unidirectional route.

  18. Continuous Cellulosic Bioethanol Fermentation by Cyclic Fed-Batch Cocultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wu, Liyou

    2013-01-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose fermentation using cocultivation. Cocultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum LQRI and saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus strain X514 were tested in the semicontinuous fermentor as a model system. Initial cellulose concentration and pH were identified as the key process parameters controlling cellulose fermentation performance in the fixed-volume cyclic fed-batch coculture system. At an initial cellulose concentration of 40 g liter−1, the concentration of ethanol produced with pH control was 4.5-fold higher than that without pH control. It was also found that efficient cellulosic bioethanol production by cocultivation was sustained in the semicontinuous configuration, with bioethanol production reaching 474 mM in 96 h with an initial cellulose concentration of 80 g liter−1 and pH controlled at 6.5 to 6.8. These results suggested the advantages of the cyclic fed-batch process for cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by the cocultures. PMID:23275517

  19. On energy optimisation in multipurpose batch plants using heat storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of heat integration in multipurpose batch plants to minimise energy usage has been in the literature for more than two decades. Direct heat integration may be exploited when the heat source and heat sink processes are active over a common...

  20. A recirculating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water flowed out of the incubation unit through a small section of glass and then plastic tubing inserted through a second hole in the rubber stopper to a PVC drain manifold. The system was used to hatch successfully small batches of artificially fer-tilized, naturally spawned eggs (50-150) of isolated blue tilapia Oreochromis ...

  1. A storage assignment model for batch preparation in process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop new model formulation for reducing the workload in pre‐batching at a manufacturer of flavors and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about

  2. Mini-batch stochastic gradient descent with dynamic sample sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Metel, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    We focus on solving constrained convex optimization problems using mini-batch stochastic gradient descent. Dynamic sample size rules are presented which ensure a descent direction with high probability. Empirical results from two applications show superior convergence compared to fixed sample implementations.

  3. The general inefficiency of batch training for gradient descent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D Randall; Martinez, Tony R

    2003-12-01

    Gradient descent training of neural networks can be done in either a batch or on-line manner. A widely held myth in the neural network community is that batch training is as fast or faster and/or more 'correct' than on-line training because it supposedly uses a better approximation of the true gradient for its weight updates. This paper explains why batch training is almost always slower than on-line training-often orders of magnitude slower-especially on large training sets. The main reason is due to the ability of on-line training to follow curves in the error surface throughout each epoch, which allows it to safely use a larger learning rate and thus converge with less iterations through the training data. Empirical results on a large (20,000-instance) speech recognition task and on 26 other learning tasks demonstrate that convergence can be reached significantly faster using on-line training than batch training, with no apparent difference in accuracy.

  4. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... person requesting certification may use such color additive for the purpose of coloring a food, drug, or... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38 Section 80.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  5. State and parameter estimation in biotechnical batch reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the problem of state and parameter estimation in biotechnical batch reactors is considered. Models describing the biotechnical process behaviour are usually nonlinear with time-varying parameters. Hence, the resulting large dimensions of the augmented state vector, roughly > 7, in

  6. State and parameter estimation in biotechnical batch reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the problem of state and parameter estimation in biotechnical batch reactors is considered. Models describing the biotechnical process behaviour are usually non-linear with time-varying parameters. Hence, the resulting large dimensions of the augmented state vector, roughly >7, in

  7. Batch arrival discrete time queue with gated vacation system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A class of single server vacation queues, which have batch arrivals and single server, is considered in discrete time. Here the server goes on vacation of random length as soon as the system becomes empty. On return from vacation, if he finds any customers waiting in the queue, the server starts serving the customers one ...

  8. Comparative Batch and Column Evaluation of Thermal and Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of regenerated spent commercial activated carbon for synthetic dye removal was studied using thermal and wet oxidative regeneration methods. Two types of experiments were carried out, batch adsorption experiments and continous flow (fixed bed) column experiment to study the mechanism of dye removal ...

  9. Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01. ... It was found that sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) containing 100 g l-1 of total sugar without nutrient supplement could be used as the low-cost IP medium instead of the typical IP medium or yeast extract malt ...

  10. Development and testing of a laboratory batch dryer | Ighodalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dryer was used to dry some food materials such as plantain, yam and cassava chips. The results obtained showed that the dryer is effective and compares well with imported types. Keywords: Batch dryer, laboratory, heating element, centrifugal fan, drying chamber. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, ...

  11. PISCO GETTING IN A PACKED DISTILLATION COLUMN BATCH

    OpenAIRE

    Otiniano Cáceres, Manuel Eduardo; Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS.LIMA-PERÚ; Romero, P.; Departamento de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química-Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima-Perú; Vicuña, E.; Departamento de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS. LIMA-PERÚ; Robles, R.; Departamento de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS. LIMA-PERÚ; Garrido, A.; Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS.LIMA-PERÚ; Linares, T.; Departamento de Química Orgánica, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS.LIMA-PERÚ

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of experimental runs performed far obtaining pisco in batch distillation column packed stainless steel from fermented wine of grape Quebranta. Se presentan los resultados de las corridas experimentales realizadas para la obtención de pisco en la columna de desülación disconlirua empacada de acero inoxidable a partir de vino fermentado de uva Quebranta.

  12. Deposition of TiN films in a batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasper, Albert; Hasper, A.; Snijders, Gert-Jan; Vandezande, Lieve; De Blank, Marinus J.; Bankras, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) films are formed in a batch reactor using titanium chloride (TiCl4) and ammonia (NH3) as precursors. The TiCl4 is flowed into the reactor in temporally separated pulses. The NH3 can also be flowed into the reactor in temporally spaced pulses which alternate with the TiCl4

  13. Deposition of TiN films in a batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasper, A.; Hasper, Albert; Snijders, Gert-Jan; Vandezande, Lieve; De Blank, Marinus J.; Bankras, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) films are formed in a batch reactor using titanium chloride (TiCl4) and ammonia (NH3) as precursors. The TiCl4 is flowed into the reactor in temporally separated pulses. The NH3 can also be flowed into the reactor in temporally spaced pulses which alternate with the TiCl4

  14. Shell of Planet Earth – Global Batch Bioreactor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga; Kaštánek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 1959-1965 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : critical raw materials * global batch bioreactor * planet earth Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  15. A fixed-size batch service queue with vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with batch service queues with vacations in which customers arrive according to a Poisson process. Decomposition method is used to derive the queue length distributions both for single and multiple vacation cases. The authors look at other decomposition techniques and discuss some related open problems.

  16. Plastic instabilities in statically and dynamically loaded spherical vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Edward A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Significant changes were made in design limits for pressurized vessels in the 2007 version of the ASME Code (Section VIII, Div. 3) and 2008 and 2009 Addenda. There is now a local damage-mechanics based strain-exhaustion limit as well as the well-known global plastic collapse limit. Moreover, Code Case 2564 (Section VIII, Div. 3) has recently been approved to address impulsively loaded vessels. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the plastic collapse limit as it applies to dynamically loaded spherical vessels. Plastic instabilities that could potentially develop in spherical shells under symmetric loading conditions are examined for a variety of plastic constitutive relations. First, a literature survey of both static and dynamic instabilities associated with spherical shells is presented. Then, a general plastic instability condition for spherical shells subjected to displacement controlled and impulsive loading is given. This instability condition is evaluated for six plastic and visco-plastic constitutive relations. The role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability point is investigated. Calculations for statically and dynamically loaded spherical shells are presented, illustrating the formation of instabilities as well as the role of imperfections. Conclusions of this work are that there are two fundamental types of instabilities associated with failure of spherical shells. In the case of impulsively loaded vessels, where the pulse duration is short compared to the fundamental period of the structure, one instability type is found not to occur in the absence of static internal pressure. Moreover, it is found that the specific role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability strain depends on the form of the constitutive relation assumed.

  17. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Castello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical water gasification (SCWG is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 °C, p > 22 MPa are definitely a challenge for the manufacturing of the reactors. Metal surfaces are indeed subject to corrosion under hydrothermal conditions, and expensive special alloys are needed to overcome such drawbacks. A ceramic reactor could be a potential solution to this issue. Finding a suitable material is, however, complex because the catalytic effect of the material can influence the gas yield and composition. In this work, a research reactor featuring an internal alumina inlay was utilized to conduct long-time (16 h batch tests with real biomasses and model compounds. The same experiments were also conducted in batch reactors made of stainless steel and Inconel 625. The results show that the three devices have similar performance patterns in terms of gas production, although in the ceramic reactor higher yields of C2+ hydrocarbons were obtained. The SEM observation of the reacted alumina surface revealed a good resistance of such material to supercritical conditions, even though some intergranular corrosion was observed.

  18. Static and dynamic removal of aquatic natural organic matter by carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S; Cho, Hyun-Hee; Abbott Chalew, Talia E; Schwab, Kellogg J; Jacangelo, Joseph G; Huang, Haiou

    2014-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated for their capability and mechanisms to simultaneously remove colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) and humic substances from natural surface water. Static removal testing was conducted via adsorption experiments while dynamic removal was evaluated by layering CNTs onto substrate membranes and filtering natural water through the CNT-layered membranes. Analyses of treated water samples showed that removal of humic substances occurred via adsorption under both static and dynamic conditions. Removal of colloidal NOM occurred at a moderate level of 36-66% in static conditions, independent of the specific surface area (SSA) of CNTs. Dynamic removal of colloidal NOM increased from approximately 15% with the unmodified membrane to 80-100% with the CNT-modified membranes. Depth filtration played an important role in colloidal NOM removal. A comparison of the static and dynamic removal of humic substances showed that equilibrium static removal was higher than dynamic (p static and dynamic removal (p time of CNTs with NOM during filtration, it appeared that CNT mat structure was an important determinant of removal efficiencies for colloidal NOM and humic substances during CNT membrane filtration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Utility of the Static-99 and Static-99R With Latino Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguízamo, Alejandro; Lee, Seung C; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Calkins, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    The predictive validity of the Static-99 measures with ethnic minorities in the United States has only recently been assessed with mixed results. We assessed the predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-99R with a sample of Latino sex offenders ( N = 483) as well as with two subsamples (U.S.-born, including Puerto Rico, and non-U.S.-born). The overall sexual recidivism rate was very low (1.9%). Both the Static-99 measures were able to predict sexual recidivism for offenders born in the United States and Puerto Rico, but neither was effective in doing so for other Latino immigrants. Calibration analyses ( N = 303) of the Static-99R were consistent with the literature and provided support for the potential use of the measure with Latinos born in the United States and Puerto Rico. These findings and their implications are discussed as they pertain to the assessment of Latino sex offenders.

  20. On the Geometry of the Level Sets of Bounded Static Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostiniani, Virginia; Mazzieri, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to the study of asymptotically flat static metrics arising in general relativity. In the case where the static potential is bounded, we introduce new quantities which are proven to be monotone along the level set flow of the potential function. We then show how to use these properties to detect the rotational symmetry of the static solutions, deriving a number of sharp inequalities. Among these, we prove the validity—without any dimensional restriction—of the Riemannian Penrose Inequality, as well as of a reversed version of it, in the class of asymptotically flat static metrics with connected horizon. As a consequence of our analysis, a simple proof of the classical 3-dimensional Black Hole Uniqueness Theorem is recovered and some geometric conditions are discussed under which the same statement holds in higher dimensions.

  1. Optimizing Power Heterogeneous Functional Units for Dynamic and Static Power Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinori Sato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption is the major constraint for modern microprocessor designs. In particular, static power consumption becomes a serious problem as the transistor size shrinks via semiconductor technology improvement. This paper proposes a technique that reduces the static power consumed by functional units. It exploits the activity rate of functional units and utilizes the power heterogeneous functional units. From detailed simulations, we investigate the conditions in which the proposed technique works effectively for simultaneous dynamic and static power reduction and find that we can reduce the total power by 11.2% if two out of four leaky functional units are replaced by leakless ones in the situation where the static power occupies half of the total power.

  2. Effect of revised high-heeled shoes on foot pressure and static balance during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, Mansoo; Park, Young-Soul; Lee, Suk-Min

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of revised high-heeled shoes on the foot pressure ratio and static balance during standing. [Subjects and Methods] A single-subject design was used, 15 healthy women wearing revised high-heeled shoes and general high-heeled shoes in a random order. The foot pressure ratio and static balance scores during standing were measured using a SpaceBalance 3D system. [Results] Forefoot and rearfoot pressures were significantly different between the 2 types of high-heeled shoes. Under the 3 conditions tested, the static balance score was higher for the revised high-heeled shoes than for the general high-heeled shoes, but this difference was not statistically significant. [Conclusion] Revised high-heeled shoes are preferable to general high-heeled shoes, as they result in normalization of normalized foot pressure and a positive effect on static balance.

  3. Risk-based Methodology for Validation of Pharmaceutical Batch Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published new process validation guidance for pharmaceutical processes. The new guidance debunks the long-held industry notion that three consecutive validation batches or runs are all that are required to demonstrate that a process is operating in a validated state. Instead, the new guidance now emphasizes that the level of monitoring and testing performed during process performance qualification (PPQ) studies must be sufficient to demonstrate statistical confidence both within and between batches. In some cases, three qualification runs may not be enough. Nearly two years after the guidance was first published, little has been written defining a statistical methodology for determining the number of samples and qualification runs required to satisfy Stage 2 requirements of the new guidance. This article proposes using a combination of risk assessment, control charting, and capability statistics to define the monitoring and testing scheme required to show that a pharmaceutical batch process is operating in a validated state. In this methodology, an assessment of process risk is performed through application of a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (PFMECA). The output of PFMECA is used to select appropriate levels of statistical confidence and coverage which, in turn, are used in capability calculations to determine when significant Stage 2 (PPQ) milestones have been met. The achievement of Stage 2 milestones signals the release of batches for commercial distribution and the reduction of monitoring and testing to commercial production levels. Individuals, moving range, and range/sigma charts are used in conjunction with capability statistics to demonstrate that the commercial process is operating in a state of statistical control. The new process validation guidance published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January of 2011 indicates that the number of process validation batches

  4. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  5. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools. One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scripting in the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poor tool support compared to other languages....... This dissertation describes the design and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assist programmers in finding bugs in code during development. We describe the design of a static analysis tool for JavaScript, built using the monotone framework. This analysis infers detailed type information...... about programs. This information can be used to detect bugs such as null pointer dereferences and unintended type coercions. The analysis is sound, enabling it to prove the absence of certain program errors. JavaScript is usually run within the context of the browser and the DOM API. The major...

  6. Static versus dynamic judgments of spatial extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Marc; Valadao, Derick; Danckert, James

    2011-03-01

    Research exploring how scanning affects judgments of spatial extent has produced conflicting results. We conducted four experiments on line bisection judgments measuring ocular and pointing behavior, with line length, position, speed, acceleration, and direction of scanning manipulated. Ocular and pointing judgments produced distinct patterns. For static judgments (i.e., no scanning), the eyes were sensitive to position and line length with pointing much less sensitive to these factors. For dynamic judgments (i.e., scanning the line), bisection biases were influenced by the speed of scanning but not acceleration, while both ocular and pointing results varied with scan direction. We suggest that static and dynamic probes of spatial judgments are different. Furthermore, the substantial differences seen between static and dynamic bisection suggest the two invoke different neural processes for computing spatial extent for ocular and pointing judgments.

  7. Sawja: Static Analysis Workshop for Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Laurent; Barré, Nicolas; Besson, Frédéric; Demange, Delphine; Jensen, Thomas; Monfort, Vincent; Pichardie, David; Turpin, Tiphaine

    Static analysis is a powerful technique for automatic verification of programs but raises major engineering challenges when developing a full-fledged analyzer for a realistic language such as Java. Efficiency and precision of such a tool rely partly on low level components which only depend on the syntactic structure of the language and therefore should not be redesigned for each implementation of a new static analysis. This paper describes the Sawja library: a static analysis workshop fully compliant with Java 6 which provides OCaml modules for efficiently manipulating Java bytecode programs. We present the main features of the library, including i) efficient functional data-structures for representing a program with implicit sharing and lazy parsing, ii) an intermediate stack-less representation, and iii) fast computation and manipulation of complete programs. We provide experimental evaluations of the different features with respect to time, memory and precision.

  8. Oscillating and static universes from a single barotropic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehayias, John; Scherrer, Robert J. [Physics & Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, PMB 401807,2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN, 37235-1807 United States (United States)

    2015-12-09

    We consider cosmological solutions to general relativity with a single barotropic fluid, where the pressure is a general function of the density, p=f(ρ). We derive conditions for static and oscillating solutions and provide examples, extending earlier work to these simpler and more general single-fluid cosmologies. Generically we expect such solutions to suffer from instabilities, through effects such as quantum fluctuations or tunneling to zero size. We also find a classical instability (“no-go” theorem) for oscillating solutions of a single barotropic perfect fluid due to a necessarily negative squared sound speed.

  9. Static spherically symmetric solutions in f(G) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, H. Ismat

    2016-05-01

    We investigate interior solutions for static spherically symmetric metric in the background of f(G) gravity. We use the technique of conformal Killing motions to solve the field equations with both isotropic and anisotropic matter distributions. These solutions are then used to obtain density, radial and tangential pressures for power-law f(G) model. For anisotropic case, we assume a linear equation-of-state and investigate solutions for the equation-of-state parameter ω = -1.5. We check physical validity of the solutions through energy conditions and also examine its stability. Finally, we study equilibrium configuration using Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation.

  10. The Thermodynamic Efficiency in Static and Dynamic Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzade, Kh.; Sadeghi, J.

    2017-11-01

    We note that, in extended phase space the cosmological constant is a thermodynamic variable. In this paper, this cosmological constant lead us to consider a black hole as a heat engine. So, here we take advantage from holographic heat engine and study two kind of different black holes. We first investigate a static black hole (Dyonic BH) and consider the necessary condition to have high efficiency. Also we continue our investigation for dynamic black hole (rotating charged black hole) and study the effect of rotating parameter on the thermodynamic efficiency of holographic heat engine. We show that the rotating parameter has a more effective role than electric charge in thermodynamic efficiency.

  11. Comparison of batch cultivation strategies for cost-effective biomass production of Micractinium inermum NLP-F014 using a blended wastewater medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seonghwan; Kim, Jeongmi; Park, Younghyun; Son, Suyoung; Cho, Sunja; Kim, Changwon; Lee, Taeho

    2017-06-01

    Two competitive strategies, fed-batch and sequencing-batch cultivation, were compared in cost-effective biomass production of a high lipid microalgae, Micractinium inermum NLP-F014 using a blended wastewater medium. For fed-batch cultivations, additional nutrient was supplemented at day 2 (FB1) or consecutively added at day 2 and 4 (FB2). Through inoculum size test, 1.0g-DCWL -1 was selected for the sequencing-batch cultivation (SB) where about 65% of culture was replaced with fresh medium every 2days. Both fed-batch cultivations showed the maximum biomass productivity of 0.95g-DCWL -1 d -1 , while average biomass productivity in SB was slightly higher as 0.96±0.08g-DCWL -1 d -1 . Furthermore, remained concentrations of organics (426mg-CODL -1 ), total nitrogen (15.4mg-NL -1 ) and phosphorus (0.6mg-PL -1 ) in SB were much lower than those of fed-batch conditions. The results suggested that SB could be a promising strategy to cultivate M. inermum NLP-F014 with the blended wastewater medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECT OF ORTHOTICS AND FOOTWEAR ON STATIC REARFOOT KINEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Winkelmeyer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of foot orthotics and footwear on static rearfoot kinematics. Thirty-four subjects (5 males, 29 females from physical therapy clinics and the college community gave informed consent to participate. Subject age was 42 (18 years; subject height was 1.7 (0.1 meters; subject body mass was 72.6 (12.1 kg. Markers were placed on specific sites of the lower leg and calcaneus to determine the rearfoot angle. Rearfoot angle was measured with a goniometer and digitized with video-based software (Ariel Performance Analysis System. A calcaneal mold was utilized to determine the position of the calcaneus in the shod conditions. Static rearfoot angles were measured in the following conditions: barefoot (B, barefoot with the calcaneal mold (BM, barefoot with the calcaneal mold plus the orthotic (BMO, shod with the calcaneal mold (SM, and shod with the calcaneal mold plus the orthotic (SMO. An independent t-test analyzed differences between each condition as measured with the APAS and goniometer. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was utilized to determine statistically significant differences among the 5 foot conditions (p 0.05 between the APAS and goniometer measurements within each condition. One-way ANOVA showed a significant difference (p < 0.01 among the five conditions as measured by APAS. Post-hoc analysis determined that the difference between BM and SM; and the BM and SMO conditions were significantly different (p < 0.01. It was observed that the orthotic slightly decreased the amount of calcaneal eversion in the standing position. The shoes worn in the study, though neutral in construction, did significantly alter rearfoot kinematics in comparison to BM

  13. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  14. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  15. Static quarks with improved statistical precision

    CERN Document Server

    Della Morte, M; Heitger, J; Molke, H; Rolf, J; Shindler, A; Sommer, R

    2003-01-01

    We present a numerical study for different discretisations of the static action, concerning cut-off effects and the growth of statistical errors with Euclidean time. An error reduction by an order of magnitude can be obtained with respect to the Eichten-Hill action, for time separations up to 2 fm, keeping discretization errors small. The best actions lead to a big improvement on the precision of the quark mass M sub b and F sub B sub sub s in the static approximation.

  16. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand; Bache, Peter Arendorf

    2015-01-01

    We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS....... It is therefore possible that firm-level complementarities manifest themselves more clearly at the industry level than at the firm level during comparative statics. This turns out to be the case for a large number of models and shocks considered in the recent trade literature for which we provide strong, novel...

  17. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  18. Strong static-magnetic field alters operant responding by rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, M.; Matsuda, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Forty male rats of the Wistar ST strain were trained and observed for Sidman avoidance (SA) for 7 weeks or for discriminative avoidance (DA) for 14 weeks to determine the effects of exposure to a strong static-magnetic field. Before avoidance conditioning was completed, rats in the SA group were exposed to the static field at 0.6 T, 16 h/day for 4 days during the fifth week, and those in the DA group were exposed for 6 h/day for 4 days during the seventh week. In the SA conditioning, frequency of lever-pressing by exposed rats gradually decreased during 1 week of exposure and stayed low for at least 2 weeks after exposure. Frequencies of electric shocks received by the rats increased dramatically during the second day of exposure and consistently stayed higher than those of control rats. In the DA condition, exposed rats responded at lower rates than did control rats throughout the observation period. They received more shocks during the 2 weeks following exposure. The data indicate that performance of avoidance responses was inhibited by a comparatively long exposure to a strong magnetic field.

  19. Impact of the duct static pressure reset control strategy on the energy consumption by the HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaszczyk Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses different duct static pressure control strategies which could be implemented in variable air volume air-conditioning systems (VAV. Two pressure reset control strategies are compared to the commonly used control solution based on the “Constant static pressure” method. First pressure reset control strategy, known as PID Control, uses signals from VAV boxes controllers to reset duct static pressure in a way that one of the VAV dampers is maintained almost entirely open. Second strategy decreases static pressure setpoint until an adjustable number of pressure requests occur. As a response to the certain amount of requests, static pressure setpoint is increased. This strategy is called Trim & Respond. Both static pressure reset control strategies described in this paper are considered to have more significant potential for energy savings than the “Constant static pressure” method. In order to validate this potential, several simulations for different control strategies were carried out and the obtained results are compared and analysed. The theoretical limit of the energy savings - set of the optimal control actions, was estimated with Nelder-Mead algorithm and also presented in this article. General description of the static pressure control strategies "Constant static pressure", PID Control and Trim & Respond is given.

  20. Cobalt (II) removal from aqueous solutions by natural hemp fibers: Batch and fixed-bed column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofan, Lavinia; Teodosiu, Carmen; Paduraru, Carmen; Wenkert, Rodica

    2013-11-01

    Natural hemp fibers were explored as sorbent for the removal of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic conditions. The batch Co(II) sorption capacity increased up to pH 5, reached the maximum (7.5-7.8 mg/g) over the initial pH of 4.5-5. As the initial concentration of metal ion increased (in the range of 25-200 mg/L), the cobalt uptake was enhanced, but the Co(II) removal efficiency decreased. The batch sorption of Co(II) on the tested hemp follows a pseudo-second order model, which relies on the assumption that the chemisorptions may be the rate-controlling step. The Langmuir model better described the Co(II) sorption process on the natural hemp fibers in comparison with the Freundlich model. This finding complies with the results of fixed-bed studies which emphasize that the optimal solution for describing the behavior of the investigated hemp bed column is provided by the Thomas model. The sorption capacity of the hemp fibers column (15.44 mg/g) performed better than that of the Co(II)-hemp batch system (13.58 mg/g). The possibility to use hemp fibers as an alternative in the Co(II) wastewater treatment should be studied under pilot scale applications, so as to complete the studies concerning the removal efficiencies with technical and economic factors that influence process scale-up.

  1. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    growth rate of the fungus were independent of pH when grown in batch cultivations. The specific glucoamylase productivity increased linearly with the specific growth rate in the range 0-0.1 h(-1) and was constant in the range 0.1-0.2 h(-1) Maltose and maltodextrin were non-inducing carbon sources...

  2. AAV-ID: A Rapid and Robust Assay for Batch-to-Batch Consistency Evaluation of AAV Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacouret, Simon; Bouzelha, Mohammed; Shelke, Rajani; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Xiao, Ru; Maurer, Anna; Mevel, Mathieu; Turunen, Heikki; Barungi, Trisha; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Broucque, Frédéric; Blouin, Véronique; Moullier, Philippe; Ayuso, Eduard; Vandenberghe, Luk H

    2017-06-07

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising clinical candidates for therapeutic gene transfer, and a number of AAV-based drugs may emerge on the market over the coming years. To insure the consistency in efficacy and safety of any drug vial that reaches the patient, regulatory agencies require extensive characterization of the final product. Identity is a key characteristic of a therapeutic product, as it ensures its proper labeling and batch-to-batch consistency. Currently, there is no facile, fast, and robust characterization assay enabling to probe the identity of AAV products at the protein level. Here, we investigated whether the thermostability of AAV particles could inform us on the composition of vector preparations. AAV-ID, an assay based on differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), was evaluated in two AAV research laboratories for specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility, for six different serotypes (AAV1, 2, 5, 6.2, 8, and 9), using 67 randomly selected AAV preparations. In addition to enabling discrimination of AAV serotypes based on their melting temperatures, the obtained fluorescent fingerprints also provided information on sample homogeneity, particle concentration, and buffer composition. Our data support the use of AAV-ID as a reproducible, fast, and low-cost method to ensure batch-to-batch consistency in manufacturing facilities and academic laboratories. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual Mechanism Conceptual Model for Cr Isotope Fractionation during Reduction by Zerovalent Iron under Saturated Flow Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H; Amos, Richard T; Blowes, David W; Ptacek, Carol J

    2015-05-05

    Chromium isotope analysis is rapidly becoming a valuable complementary tool for tracking Cr(VI) treatment in groundwater. Evaluation of various treatment materials has demonstrated that the degree of isotope fractionation is a function of the reaction mechanism, where reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) induces the largest fractionation. However, it has also been observed that uniform flow conditions can contribute complexity to isotope measurements. Here, laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to assess Cr isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by zerovalent iron under both static and saturated flow conditions. Isotope measurements were accompanied by traditional aqueous geochemical measurements (pH, Eh, concentrations) and solid-phase analysis by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Increasing δ(53)Cr values were associated with decreasing Cr(VI) concentrations, which indicates reduction; solid-phase analysis showed an accumulation of Cr(III) on the iron. Reactive transport modeling implemented a dual mechanism approach to simulate the fractionation observed in the experiments. The faster heterogeneous reaction pathway was associated with minimal fractionation (ε=-0.2‰), while the slower homogeneous pathway exhibited a greater degree of fractionation (ε=-0.9‰ for the batch experiment, and ε=-1.5‰ for the column experiment).

  4. Growth physiology and dimorphism of Mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcintyre, Mhairi; Breum, J.; Arnau, J.

    2002-01-01

    filamentous fungi under similar growth conditions. High levels of ethanol were observed with all growth conditions. The overriding effector of morphological development was found to be oxygen. In batch cultures it was therefore possible to induce the dimorphic shift by controlling the influent gas atmosphere...... of biomass on glucose (Y-SX) was 0.12 (c-mole basis). A high maximum specific growth rate was obtained when the organism grew as the filamentous form under aerobic conditions (0.25 h(-1)), with a Y-SX of 0.24 (c-mole basis). The maximum specific growth rates achieved are comparable to most industrial....... A specific growth rate of 0.19 h(-1) was maintained during the shift from the yeast to the filamentous form....

  5. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  6. Static elimination work stations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, R.S.; Bellah, J.L.

    1978-12-01

    Electrostatic charges, if not properly controlled, can destroy or degrade certain semiconductor devices. Several techniques for controlling static charges were evaluated, using an electronic signal selector as the primary model for investigation. Included in the evaluation were air-ionizing equipment, encapsulant additives and materials, antistatic spray, and the use of x-rays.

  7. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity mech...

  8. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zeyang; Qin Gan; Hu Lingzhi; Li Songjian; Xu Nanyang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: djf@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-05-12

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  9. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal, Volume 27 Series C, 2012: Mathematical Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 13 electromagnetic phenomena is highly needed. This paper studied one of these phenomena, the static equilibrium configurations of charged metallic bodies. The mathematical model of the problem that we investigate in ...

  10. Static and Dynamic Magnetic Response in Ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-30

    REPORT Final Report: Static and Dynamic Magnetic Response in Ferrofluids 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Ferrofluids are technologically...physics of relaxation phenomena in magnetic nanoparticles. We have done systematic DC and AC magnetization studies of ferrofluids composed of Fe3O4...15. SUBJECT TERMS Magnetic nanoparticles, ferrofluids , susceptibility Hariharan Srikanth University of South Florida - Tampa 4202 East Fowler Ave

  11. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  12. Geophysical modeling of the static water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, R.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if a geophysical investigation technique could be used to delineate depth to static water level to within 20 meters in several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Using noninvasive geophysical methods to obtain water-level data is potentially faster and more cost-effective than drilling wells, especially in the areas concerned, where water-level depths vary from approximately 200 to 600 meters. Electrical geophysical methods are well-suited for water-level delineation. The depth to the static water level is often related to that of the saturated zone, and the saturated zone often has a different electrical resistivity character than the adjacent unsaturated material. Most of the time, this will be a resistivity decrease, due to the presence of water instead of air in the pore spaces. However, a saturated zone with a resistive matrix may show a resistivity increase compared to an unsaturated layer composed of more conductive material, such as clay. The analytical method is to use known depths and electrical resistivities of the static water level to obtain simulated geophysical field data. These simulated data are referred to as the synthetic sounding curve. The synthetic sounding curve will be analyzed to see if it can be used to predict the static water level. 8 refs., 22 figs.

  13. PARAMETRIC RESONANSE IN STATICALLY INDETERMINATE FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Vorona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique for development and reduction of discrete dynamics models of frames is presented. Construction of the models is carried out using finite element method, generalized coordinates and tools of modern computer software. Parametric resonance in a statically indeterminate frame caused by external excitations is investigated. Main instability domains of the frame are determined.

  14. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  15. Static Analysis of XML Transformations in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    of XML documents to be defined, there are generally no automatic mechanisms for statically checking that a program transforms from one class to another as intended. We introduce Xact, a high-level approach for Java using XML templates as a first-class data type with operations for manipulating XML values...

  16. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state...

  17. Static and Dynamic Analysis of a Pump Impeller with a Balancing Device Part I: Static Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundera, C.; Martsinkovsky, V. A.

    2014-08-01

    This part of the work presents the design and static analysis of an impeller for a single-stage pump. The impeller is directly connected with a balancing device. The impeller needs to have a properly designed system of longitudinal and lateral clearances on both sides. With the simplifying assumptions concerning the flow and distribution of pressure in the longitudinal and lateral clearances, the static analysis involved deriving relationships between the impeller geometry and the basic performance parameters of the pump. A numerical example was used to show the calculation procedure of static characteristics for the predetermined parameters

  18. Oxygen availability strongly affects chronological lifespan and thermotolerance in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschops, Markus M.; Vos, Tim; Martínez-Moreno, Rubén; Cortés, Pilar T.; Pronk, Jack T.; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Stationary-phase (SP) batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability. PMID:28357268

  19. Removal of veterinary antibiotics from sequencing batch reactor (SBR) pretreated swine wastewater by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Qiang, Zhimin; Pan, Xun; Chen, Meixue

    2009-09-01

    The large-scale application of veterinary antibiotics in livestock industry makes swine wastewater an important source of antibiotics pollution. This work investigated the degradation of six selected antibiotics, including five sulfonamides and one macrolide, by Fenton's reagent in swine wastewater pretreated with sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The dosing mode and practical dosage of Fenton's reagent were optimized to achieve an effective removal of antibiotics while save the treatment cost. The effects of initial pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended solids (SS) of the SBR effluent on antibiotics degradation were examined. The results indicate that the optimal conditions for Fenton's reagent with respect to practical application were as follows: batch dosing mode, 1.5:1 molar ratio of [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(2+)], initial pH 5.0. Under the optimal conditions, Fenton's reagent could effectively degrade all the selected antibiotics and was resistant to the variations in the background COD (0-419 mg/L) and SS (0-250 mg/L) of the SBR effluent. Besides, Fenton's reagent helped to not only remove total organic carbon (TOC), heavy metals (As, Cu and Pb) and total phosphorus (TP), but also inactivate bacteria and reduce wastewater toxicity. This work demonstrates that the integrated process combining SBR with Fenton's reagent could provide comprehensive treatment to swine wastewater.

  20. Oxygen availability strongly affects chronological lifespan and thermotolerance in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M.M. Bisschops

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase (SP batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability.

  1. Fluoride and nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters by batch-mode capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wangwang; Kovalsky, Peter; He, Di; Waite, T David

    2015-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging water desalination technology in which pairs of porous electrodes are electrically charged to remove ionic species from water. In this work, the feasibility of fluoride and nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters by batch-mode CDI was investigated. Initially, the effects of flow rate, initial fluoride concentration, and initial coexisting NaCl concentration on fluoride removal were studied. The steady-state fluoride concentration declined as the initial fluoride concentration decreased while initial NaCl concentration remained constant. Due to the competitive electrosorption between fluoride and chloride for limited pore surface sites, a higher initial chloride concentration resulted in a higher equilibrium dissolved fluoride concentration. A simplified one-dimensional transport model for dual anions was developed and found to reliably describe the dynamic process of removal of both fluoride and chloride ions in CDI cells over a range of well-defined operating conditions. Based on the ability of the model to describe fluoride removal, it was extended to description of nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters and also found to perform well. Thus, the approach to description of ion removal, at least in batch studies, appears robust and should assist in optimization of design and operating conditions such that optimal removal of trace ionic species is achieved even when high background concentrations of salt are present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Static sampling of dynamic processes - a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälicke, Mirko; Neuper, Malte; Jackisch, Conrad; Hassler, Sibylle; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental systems monitoring aims at its core at the detection of spatio-temporal patterns of processes and system states, which is a pre-requisite for understanding and explaining their baffling heterogeneity. Most observation networks rely on distributed point sampling of states and fluxes of interest, which is combined with proxy-variables from either remote sensing or near surface geophysics. The cardinal question on the appropriate experimental design of such a monitoring network has up to now been answered in many different ways. Suggested approaches range from sampling in a dense regular grid using for the so-called green machine, transects along typical catenas, clustering of several observations sensors in presumed functional units or HRUs, arrangements of those cluster along presumed lateral flow paths to last not least a nested, randomized stratified arrangement of sensors or samples. Common to all these approaches is that they provide a rather static spatial sampling, while state variables and their spatial covariance structure dynamically change in time. It is hence of key interest how much of our still incomplete understanding stems from inappropriate sampling and how much needs to be attributed to an inappropriate analysis of spatial data sets. We suggest that it is much more promising to analyze the spatial variability of processes, for instance changes in soil moisture values, than to investigate the spatial variability of soil moisture states themselves. This is because wetting of the soil, reflected in a soil moisture increase, is causes by a totally different meteorological driver - rainfall - than drying of the soil. We hence propose that the rising and the falling limbs of soil moisture time series belong essentially to different ensembles, as they are influenced by different drivers. Positive and negative temporal changes in soil moisture need, hence, to be analyzed separately. We test this idea using the CAOS data set as a benchmark

  3. Using a batch processor to create an interactive menu-driven operating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melvin, W.R.

    1982-02-01

    Many stand-alone mini/microcomputing systems have available batch-processing software. With a bit of creative misuse, this batch-processing software can be turned into an interactive menu-driven operating system.

  4. Enzyme mass-transfer coefficient in aqueous two-phase systems using static mixer extraction column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, K; Alamshahi, M

    2002-09-01

    Recent technical advances in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have made this a sound technique for the extraction of biomacromolecules. The extraction of alpha-amylase was investigated using aqueous two-phase systems formed by sodium sulphate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water in a 47-mm inner diameter spray column packed with three types of static mixers. The effects of dispersed-phase flow rate, phase composition, column height and diameter were studied. The extraction column was operated in a semi-batch manner. It was found that the hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficients increased with an increase in dispersed (PEG-rich) phase velocity and decreased with increasing phase composition. Empirical correlations were developed for fractional dispersed-phase hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficients.

  5. The Static Unbalance Analysis and Its Measurement System For Gimbals Axes of an Inertial Stabilization Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of the static unbalance on an infrared missile guidance system, a new static unbalance measure system for the gimbals axes has been developed. Considering the coupling effects caused by a mass eccentricity, the static balance condition and measure sequence for each gimbal axis are obtained. A novel static unbalance test approach is proposed after analyzing the dynamic model of the measured gimbal axis. This approach is to drive the measured gimbal axis to do sinusoidal reciprocating motion in a small angle and collect its drive currents in real time. Then the static unbalance of the measured gimbal axis can be obtained by the current multi-cycle integration. Also a measuring system using the proposed approach has been developed. A balanced simulator is used to verify the proposed approach by the load and repeatability tests. The results show the proposed approach enhances the efficiency of the static unbalance measurement, and the developed measuring system is able to achieve a high precision with a greater stability.

  6. Quasi-Static Indentation Analysis of Carbon-Fiber Laminates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); English, Shawn Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, Stacy Michelle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A series of quasi - static indentation experiments are conducted on carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates with a systematic variation of thicknesses and fixture boundary conditions. Different deformation mechanisms and their resulting damage mechanisms are activated b y changing the thickn ess and boundary conditions. The quasi - static indentation experiments have been shown to achieve damage mechanisms similar to impact and penetration, however without strain rate effects. The low rate allows for the detailed analysis on the load response. Moreover, interrupted tests allow for the incremental analysis of various damage mechanisms and pr ogressions. The experimentally tested specimens are non - destructively evaluated (NDE) with optical imaging, ultrasonics and computed tomography. The load displacement responses and the NDE are then utilized in numerical simulations for the purpose of model validation and vetting. The accompanying numerical simulation work serves two purposes. First, the results further reveal the time sequence of events and the meaning behind load dro ps not clear from NDE . Second, the simulations demonstrate insufficiencies in the code and can then direct future efforts for development.

  7. Cygnus Pressurized Cargo Module (PCM) Flight Inertial Load Static Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Giovanni; Mancini, Simone; Palmieri, Paolo; Rutigliano, Luigi

    2012-07-01

    Cygnus PCM Flight Inertial Load Static Test campaign has been performed by Thales Alenia Space - Italy (TAS-I) to achieve the Static Qualification of its Primary Structure. A “Proto-flight Approach” has been followed (as per [1] and [2]), thus the first flight unit, the PCM0, has been tested up to qualification level (qualification/acceptance factor equivalent to 1.2 [1]). The PCM0 has been constrained to a dummy Service Module (the second member of Cygnus Spacecraft), representative in terms of interfaces provisions, and flight load conditions have been reproduced with proper forces that have been applied by means of hydraulic jacks at internal PCM secondary structure interfaces. Test load cases have been defined in order to simulate load paths and relevant stress fields associated to the worst flight load conditions by using the FE model analyses. Tests have been monitored by means of gauges and displacement transducers and results have been utilized to correlate the PCM FEM following [3] requirements.

  8. Diffusion experiments for estimating radiocesium and radiostrontium sorption in unsaturated soils from Spain: Comparison with batch sorption data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldaba, D. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rigol, A., E-mail: annarigol@ub.edu [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vidal, M. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    As sorption data obtained from batch tests are often used to estimate pollutant transport in unsaturated soils, comparison between sorption data obtained in the two conditions is required to ensure a correct risk assessment. With this aim, radiostrontium and radiocesium apparent diffusion coefficients (D{sub a}) were quantified in nine unsaturated soils, and the derived distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were compared with K{sub d} data from batch experiments. The D{sub a}(Sr) and the D{sub a}(Cs) ranged from 1.8 x 10{sup -11} to 1.5 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 2} s{sup -1}, and from 1.0 x 10{sup -13} to 5.9 x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The D{sub a}(Sr) varied according to both soil packing parameters and properties governing Sr interaction. For Cs, the soil sorption properties explained the variation on D{sub a}(Cs). The K{sub d} values derived from D{sub a} (from 0.014 to 1.8 L kg{sup -1} for Sr; from 0.55 to 942 L kg{sup -1} for Cs) were lower than from batch tests (from 1 to 97 L kg{sup -1} for Sr; from 10 to 14,600 L kg{sup -1} for Cs), thus indicating that batch data may not accurately describe radionuclide transport in unsaturated soils. However, the two sets of data correlated well, thus suggesting that radionuclide transport can be estimated from batch tests, which are faster than diffusion experiments.

  9. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end... Compliance Status specified in § 63.506(e)(5). (1) For each batch front-end process vent complying with § 63...

  10. Some performance measures for vacation models with a batch Markovian arrival process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrac K. Matendo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server infinite capacity queueing system, where the arrival process is a batch Markovian arrival process (BMAP. Particular BMAPs are the batch Poisson arrival process, the Markovian arrival process (MAP, many batch arrival processes with correlated interarrival times and batch sizes, and superpositions of these processes. We note that the MAP includes phase-type (PH renewal processes and non-renewal processes such as the Markov modulated Poisson process (MMPP.

  11. Bquant - Novel script for batch quantification of LCMS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožman, Marko; Petrović, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative target analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS) is ubiquitous in environmental, metabolomic and toxicological studies. Targeted LCMS methods are capable of the simultaneous determination of literally hundreds of analytes. Although acquiring of instrumental data is very fast, data post-processing i.e. quantification can be time consuming step (and)or dependent to various commercial software packages. In attempt to facilitate this drawback Wolfram Mathematica script for batch quantification of LCMS data was created. Script works with direct outputs of integration algorithms created by different instrument control software's or custom created outputs. Key benefits of Bquant script are: •simple and automated routine for batch mode quantification•vast improvement in processing time (especially compared to manual interpretation)•data can be quickly re-analysed using different inputs Script was validated on various datasets and some of these were provided as working examples.

  12. Continuous Heterogeneous Photocatalysis in Serial Micro-Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomaeus; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Seeberger, Peter H; Gilmore, Kerry

    2018-01-29

    Solid reagents, leaching catalysts, and heterogeneous photocatalysts are commonly employed in batch processes but are ill suited for continuous flow chemistry. Heterogeneous catalysts for thermal reactions are typically used in packed bed reactors that cannot be penetrated by light and thus are not suitable for photocatalytic reactions involving solids. We demonstrate that serial micro-batch reactors (SMBRs) allow for the continuous utilization of solid materials together with liquids and gases in flow. This technology was utilized to develop selective and efficient fluorination protocols using a modified graphitic carbon nitride heterogeneous catalyst instead of costly homogeneous metal polypyridyl complexes. The merger of this inexpensive, recyclable catalyst and the SMBR approach gives access to sustainable and scalable photo catalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. On Bottleneck Product Rate Variation Problem with Batching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Khadka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The product rate variation problem minimizes the variation in the rate at which different models of a common base product are produced on the assembly lines with the assumption of negligible switch-over cost and unit processing time for each copy of each model. The assumption of significant setup and arbitrary processing times forces the problem to be a two phase problem. The first phase determines the size and the number of batches and the second one sequences the batches of models. In this paper, the bottleneck case i.e. the min-max case of the problem with a generalized objective function is formulated. A Pareto optimal solution is proposed and a relation between optimal sequences for the problem with different objective functions is investigated.

  14. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Puerto, Daniel; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-07-02

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  15. Integration of Grid and Local Batch Resources at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christoph; Finnern, Thomas; Gellrich, Andreas; Hartmann, Thomas; Kemp, Yves; Lewendel, Birgit

    2017-10-01

    As one of the largest resource centres DESY has to support differing work flows of users from various scientific backgrounds. Users can be for one HEP experiments in WLCG or Belle II as well as local HEP users but also physicists from other fields as photon science or accelerator development. By abandoning specific worker node setups in favour of generic flat nodes with middleware resources provided via CVMFS, we gain flexibility to subsume different use cases in a homogeneous environment. Grid jobs and the local batch system are managed in a HTCondor based setup, accepting pilot, user and containerized jobs. The unified setup allows dynamic re-assignment of resources between the different use cases. Monitoring is implemented on global batch system metrics as well as on a per job level utilizing corresponding cgroup information.

  16. Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Joe

    2015-01-01

    State estimation techniques effectively provide mean state estimates. However, the theoretical state error covariance matrices provided as part of these techniques often suffer from a lack of confidence in their ability to describe the uncertainty in the estimated states. By a reinterpretation of the equations involved in the weighted batch least squares algorithm, it is possible to directly arrive at an empirical state error covariance matrix. The proposed empirical state error covariance matrix will contain the effect of all error sources, known or not. This empirical error covariance matrix may be calculated as a side computation for each unique batch solution. Results based on the proposed technique will be presented for a simple, two observer and measurement error only problem.

  17. Batch Blast Extractor: an automated blastx parser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirooznia, Mehdi; Perkins, Edward J; Deng, Youping

    2008-01-01

    Motivation BLAST programs are very efficient in finding similarities for sequences. However for large datasets such as ESTs, manual extraction of the information from the batch BLAST output is needed. This can be time consuming, insufficient, and inaccurate. Therefore implementation of a parser application would be extremely useful in extracting information from BLAST outputs. Results We have developed a java application, Batch Blast Extractor, with a user friendly graphical interface to extract information from BLAST output. The application generates a tab delimited text file that can be easily imported into any statistical package such as Excel or SPSS for further analysis. For each BLAST hit, the program obtains and saves the essential features from the BLAST output file that would allow further analysis. The program was written in Java and therefore is OS independent. It works on both Windows and Linux OS with java 1.4 and higher. It is freely available from: PMID:18831775

  18. How a GNSS Receiver Is Held May Affect Static Horizontal Position Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Steven A; Ucar, Zennure; Bettinger, Pete; Merry, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The static horizontal position accuracy of a mapping-grade GNSS receiver was tested in two forest types over two seasons, and subsequently was tested in one forest type against open sky conditions in the winter season. The main objective was to determine whether the holding position during data collection would result in significantly different static horizontal position accuracy. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether the time of year (season), forest type, or environmental variables had an influence on accuracy. In general, the F4Devices Flint GNSS receiver was found to have mean static horizontal position accuracy levels within the ranges typically expected for this general type of receiver (3 to 5 m) when differential correction was not employed. When used under forest cover, in some cases the GNSS receiver provided a higher level of static horizontal position accuracy when held vertically, as opposed to held at an angle or horizontally (the more natural positions), perhaps due to the orientation of the antenna within the receiver, or in part due to multipath or the inability to use certain satellite signals. Therefore, due to the fact that numerous variables may affect static horizontal position accuracy, we only conclude that there is weak to moderate evidence that the results of holding position are significant. Statistical test results also suggest that the season of data collection had no significant effect on static horizontal position accuracy, and results suggest that atmospheric variables had weak correlation with horizontal position accuracy. Forest type was found to have a significant effect on static horizontal position accuracy in one aspect of one test, yet otherwise there was little evidence that forest type affected horizontal position accuracy. Since the holding position was found in some cases to be significant with regard to the static horizontal position accuracy of positions collected in forests, it may be beneficial to have an

  19. Biological effects of exposure to static electric fields in humans and vertebrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Schmiedchen, Kristina; Stunder, Dominik; Dechent, Dagmar; Kraus, Thomas; Bailey, William H; Driessen, Sarah

    2017-04-17

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines are the technology of choice for the transport of large amounts of energy over long distances. The operation of these lines produces static electric fields (EF), but the data reviewed in previous assessments were not sufficient to assess the need for any environmental limit. The aim of this systematic review was to update the current state of research and to evaluate biological effects of static EF. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) recommendations, we collected and evaluated experimental and epidemiological studies examining biological effects of exposure to static EF in humans (n = 8) and vertebrates (n = 40). There is good evidence that humans and animals are able to perceive the presence of static EF at sufficiently high levels. Hair movements caused by electrostatic forces may play a major role in this perception. A large number of studies reported responses of animals (e.g., altered metabolic, immunologic or developmental parameters) to a broad range of static EF strengths as well, but these responses are likely secondary physiological responses to sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the quality of many of the studies reporting physiological responses is poor, which raises concerns about confounding. The weight of the evidence from the literature reviewed did not indicate that static EF have adverse biological effects in humans or animals. The evidence strongly supported the role of superficial sensory stimulation of hair and skin as the basis for perception of the field, as well as reported indirect behavioral and physiological responses. Physical considerations also preclude any direct effect of static EF on internal physiology, and reports that some physiological processes are affected in minor ways may be explained by other factors. While this literature does not support a level of concern about biological effects of exposure to static EF, the conditions

  20. Reliability and differentiation capability of dynamic and static kinematic measurements of rearfoot eversion in patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danilo de Oliveira; Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; Albuquerque, Carlos Eduardo de; Alves, Neri; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de

    2015-02-01

    Excessive rearfoot eversion is thought to be a risk factor for patellofemoral pain development, due to the kinesiological relationship with ascendant adaptations. Individuals with patellofemoral pain are often diagnosed through static clinical tests, in scientific studies and clinical practice. However, the adaptations seem to appear in dynamic conditions. Performing static vs. dynamic evaluations of widely used measures would add to the knowledge in this area. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the reliability and differentiation capability of three rearfoot eversion measures: rearfoot range of motion, static clinical test and static measurement using a three-dimensional system. A total of 29 individuals with patellofemoral pain and 25 control individuals (18-30 years) participated in this study. Each subject underwent three-dimensional motion analysis during stair climbing and static clinical tests. Intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error measurements were performed to verify the reliability of the variables and receiver operating characteristic curves to show the diagnostic accuracy of each variable. In addition, analyses of variance were performed to identify differences between groups. Rearfoot range of motion demonstrated higher diagnostic accuracy (an area under the curve score of 0.72) than static measures and was able to differentiate the groups. Only the static clinical test presented poor and moderate reliability. Other variables presented high to very high values. Rearfoot range of motion was the variable that presented the best results in terms of reliability and differentiation capability. Static variables do not seem to be related to patellofemoral pain and have low accuracy values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.