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Sample records for states pacific northwest

  1. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  2. Mean annual solar radiation in the United States Pacific Northwest (1991-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent mean annual solar radiation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States...

  3. Balancing conflicting values: ecosystem solutions in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Robert C. Szaro; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem approaches to sustainable forest management in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada have arisen in response to significant changes that have occurred in these societies over the past century or so (Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force, 1995). One such change as been rapid population growth along the Pacific Coast, where the mild...

  4. Pacific Northwest: paradise lost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.V.

    1980-04-18

    An influx of new residents to the Pacific Northwest is changing social patterns and is endangering the region's valued wilderness and resources. A growing population and a feeling that the national govenment is more exploitive than conserving of its resources combines with a political tension between progressive populism and conservative Mormon influences to make residents wary of either newcomers or new prosperity. The abundant hydro power is threatened as power demand increases and utilities, industries, and the state and local governments compete for their fair share. A plan to restructure the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been introduced in Congress to give it a single appointed administrator with the authority to decide how power will be distributed and which new power sources to develop. Concern about the two national nuclear waste repositories at Hanford and Idaho Falls led to a six-month moratorium at Hanford to warn the government that the site was not intended to be a permanent solution. A legislative proposal to set up regional nuclear parks will not relieve the Pacific Northwest's problems for some time. Leaders blame the policymakers for looking on the area as too remote and underpopulated to worry about. 18 references (DCK)

  5. Nonsewered population in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent populations that did not have access to municipal sewer service in the Pacific...

  6. Thresholds for protecting Pacific Northwest ecosystems from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: state of knowledge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Tonnie; Blett, Tamara; Porter, Ellen; Geiser, Linda; Graw, Rick; McMurray, Jill; Perakis, Steven S.; Rochefort, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service manage areas in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington – collectively referred to in this report as the Pacific Northwest - that contain significant natural resources and provide many recreational opportunities. The agencies are mandated to protect the air quality and air pollution-sensitive resources on these federal lands. Human activity has greatly increased the amount of nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere, resulting in elevated amounts of nitrogen being deposited in park and forest ecosystems. There is limited information in the Pacific Northwest about the levels of nitrogen that negatively affect natural systems, i.e., the critical loads. The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service, with scientific input from the U.S. Geological Survey, have developed an approach for accumulating additional nitrogen critical loads information in the Pacific Northwest and using the data in planning and regulatory arenas. As a first step in that process, this report summarizes the current state of knowledge about nitrogen deposition, effects, and critical loads in the region. It also describes ongoing research efforts and identifies and prioritizes additional data needs.

  7. Wet deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of wet deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the Pacific Northwest region...

  8. Total atmospheric deposition of reduced nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of wet and dry deposition of reduced nitrogen in the Pacific Northwest...

  9. Use of state-and-transition simulation modeling in National Forest planning in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayn J. Shlisky; Don. Vandendriesche

    2012-01-01

    Effective national forest planning depends on scientifically sound analyses of land management alternatives relative to desired future conditions and environmental effects. The USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region is currently using state-and-transition simulation models (STMs) to simulate changes in forest composition and structure for the revisions of five...

  10. Nonroad developed land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of non-road developed land in the Pacific Northwest region of the...

  11. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  12. Receiver function imaging of upper mantle complexity beneath the Pacific Northwest, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Kevin C.; Fouch, Matthew J.; James, David E.

    2010-08-01

    Small-scale topographic variations on the upper mantle seismic discontinuities provide important constraints on the thermal influences of upwellings and downwellings in geodynamically complex regions. Subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate and other tectonic processes dominating the Pacific Northwest, United States in the Cenozoic involve massive thermal flux that likely result in an upper mantle that has strong 3-D temperature variations. We address the interaction of such processes in the region using receiver functions to image the upper mantle seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km. We utilized over 15 000 high quality receiver functions gathered from 294 teleseismic earthquakes recorded at 277 regional broadband seismic stations, primarily those of the Earthscope/USArray Transportable Array. We find the average depths of the discontinuities to be 412 km and 658 km, respectively, with no obvious 520 km discontinuity detected. The peak-to-peak range is greater on the '410' than the '660', suggesting the possibility of more significant regional dynamic processes at upper mantle depths. Our results are not consistent with a mantle plume below central Oregon in the High Lava Plains region. Our observation of a thinner transition zone beneath the western Snake River Plain region, however, is consistent with a regional increase in mantle temperatures, perhaps due to either asthenospheric flow from beneath and around the southern edge of the Juan de Fuca plate, or to vertical flow in the form of regional mantle upwelling related to the Snake River Plain / Yellowstone hotspot track. Further, our results are not consistent with a simple subducting Juan de Fuca slab morphology, but rather suggest similar levels of significant complexity in slab structure found by recent regional tomographic studies. We find evidence for a thickened and therefore cooler mantle transition zone beneath the Wallowa / Idaho Batholith region, consistent with tomographic models which suggest

  13. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  14. A systematic surveillance programme for infectious salmon anaemia virus supports its absence in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L L; Creekmore, L H; Snekvik, K R; Ferguson, J A; Warg, J V; Blair, M; Meyers, T R; Stewart, B; Warheit, K I; Kerwin, J; Goodwin, A E; Rhodes, L D; Whaley, J E; Purcell, M K; Bentz, C; Shasa, D; Bader, J; Winton, J R

    2018-02-01

    In response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 2011, U.S. national, state and tribal fisheries managers and fish health specialists developed and implemented a collaborative ISAV surveillance plan for the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Accordingly, over a 3-1/2-year period, 4,962 salmonids were sampled and successfully tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The sample set included multiple tissues from free-ranging Pacific salmonids from coastal regions of Alaska and Washington and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) from Washington, all representing fish exposed to marine environments. The survey design targeted physiologically compromised or moribund animals more vulnerable to infection as well as species considered susceptible to ISAV. Samples were handled with a documented chain of custody and testing protocols, and criteria for interpretation of test results were defined in advance. All 4,962 completed tests were negative for ISAV RNA. Results of this surveillance effort provide sound evidence to support the absence of ISAV in represented populations of free-ranging and marine-farmed salmonids on the northwest coast of the United States. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A systematic surveillance programme for infectious salmon anaemia virus supports its absence in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Lori L.; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Snekvik, Kevin R.; Ferguson, Jayde A.; Warg, Janet V.; Blair, Marilyn; Meyers, Theodore R.; Stewart, Bruce; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Kerwin, John; Goodwin, Andrew E.; Rhodes, Linda D.; Whaley, Janet E.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Bentz, Collette; Shasa, Desiree; Bader, Joel; Winton, James R.

    2018-01-01

    In response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 2011, U.S. national, state and tribal fisheries managers and fish health specialists developed and implemented a collaborative ISAV surveillance plan for the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Accordingly, over a 3-1/2-year period, 4,962 salmonids were sampled and successfully tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The sample set included multiple tissues from free-ranging Pacific salmonids from coastal regions of Alaska and Washington and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) from Washington, all representing fish exposed to marine environments. The survey design targeted physiologically compromised or moribund animals more vulnerable to infection as well as species considered susceptible to ISAV. Samples were handled with a documented chain of custody and testing protocols, and criteria for interpretation of test results were defined in advance. All 4,962 completed tests were negative for ISAV RNA. Results of this surveillance effort provide sound evidence to support the absence of ISAV in represented populations of free-ranging and marine-farmed salmonids on the northwest coast of the United States.

  16. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of composite I-joists produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to update life-cycle assessment (LCA) data associated with I-joist production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary mill data from I-joist production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) research guidelines....

  17. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial...

  18. Identifying blueberry germplasm that is slow to get Blueberry shock virus in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) is a serious problem in blueberry production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. Infection occurs during bloom and the virus moves into other parts of the plant in an uneven but steady manner and may take several years to become fully systemic in mat...

  19. Total atmospheric deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of wet and dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the Pacific...

  20. Application of fertilizer nitrogen to nonfarm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer nitrogen that was applied to nonfarm land in the Pacific...

  1. Application of fertilizer phosphorus to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer phosphorus that was applied to farm land in the Pacific...

  2. Extent of soil with low phosphorus retention potential in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of soils with low phosphorus retention potential in the Pacific...

  3. Extent of soil with high phosphorus retention potential in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of soils with high phosphorus retention potential in the Pacific...

  4. Application of fertilizer nitrogen to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer nitrogen that was applied to farm land in the Pacific...

  5. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  6. Delimiting communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for delimiting communities in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) region of the Pacific Northwest that responds to the need to assess impacts and issues associated with broad-scale ecosystem management. Census block groups are aggregated to provide an alternative to more commonly used geographic delimitations of communities, specifically...

  7. Black carbon and particulate matter optical properties from agricultural residue burning in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, A. L.; Aurell, J.; Urbanski, S. P.; Hays, M. D.; Gullett, B.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of agricultural residues in field is a common management practice that is used to quickly clear fields of post-harvest vegetation and to stimulate seed production in some grass species. Although cropland burning contributes only a minor fraction to the United States particulate matter and black carbon emissions, it can have substantial impacts on local and regional air quality and visibility. During the 2013 burning season in the Pacific Northwest United States emissions were measured from a series of burns carried out on cropland. Kentucky bluegrass residues (Poa pratensis), winter wheat stubble (Triticum aestivum), and chemically fallowed winter wheat stubble were burned in field. Particulate matter, light absorption and scattering, and black carbon concentrations were measured at ground level downwind of the field. Although particulate emissions varied substantially by fuel type and even among fields of the same fuel with different treatments (i.e., light versus heavy residues) the black carbon fraction of particulate matter was consistently less than 5% and accordingly single scattering albedos were above 0.9. The emissions exhibited strong spectral variation, with absorption angstrom exponents in the range of 3 - 5 in the wavelength range of 405 to 532 nm. Laboratory burns with residues collected from the fields produced emissions that were considerably more absorbing with single scattering albedos near 0.65 and lower absorption angstrom exponents of 1 - 2.

  8. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program 1975 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. Such scenarios may themselves result from Federal development policies and programs, from regionally specific actions by the states and energy industries, or from actions taken by international factors currently importing energy resources into the region. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels.

  9. Application of the SPARROW model to assess surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Daniel R.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2013-01-01

    The watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes) was used to estimate mean annual surface-water nutrient conditions (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) and to identify important nutrient sources in catchments of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for 2002. Model-estimated nutrient yields were generally higher in catchments on the wetter, western side of the Cascade Range than in catchments on the drier, eastern side. The largest source of locally generated total nitrogen stream load in most catchments was runoff from forestland, whereas the largest source of locally generated total phosphorus stream load in most catchments was either geologic material or livestock manure (primarily from grazing livestock). However, the highest total nitrogen and total phosphorus yields were predicted in the relatively small number of catchments where urban sources were the largest contributor to local stream load. Two examples are presented that show how SPARROW results can be applied to large rivers—the relative contribution of different nutrient sources to the total nitrogen load in the Willamette River and the total phosphorus load in the Snake River. The results from this study provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to researchers and water-quality managers performing local nutrient assessments.

  10. Survey of Bereavement Practices of Cancer Care and Palliative Care Physicians in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Kenworthy-Heinige, Tawni; Thomas, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Physicians caring for patients with cancer frequently encounter individuals who will die as a result of their disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the frequency and nature of bereavement practices among cancer care and palliative care physicians in the Pacific Northwest United States. Secondary aims included identification of factors and barriers associated with bereavement follow-up. Methods: An institutional review board (IRB) –approved, anonymous online survey of cancer specialists and palliative care physicians in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming was performed in fall 2010. Potential participants were identified through membership in national professional organizations. Summary statistics and logistic regression methods were used to examine frequency and predictors of bereavement practices. Results: A total of 194 (22.7%) of 856 physicians participated in the online survey, with 164 (19.1%) meeting study inclusion criteria. Overall, 70% of respondents reported always or usually making a telephone call to families, sending a condolence letter, or attending a funeral service after a patient's death. The most common perceived barriers to bereavement follow-up were lack of time and uncertainty of which family member to contact. Sixty-nine percent of respondents did not feel that they had received adequate training on bereavement follow-up during postgraduate training. Conclusion: Although a significant portion of respondents engaged in some form of bereavement follow-up, the majority felt inadequately trained in these activities. Efforts to identify available resources and address bereavement activities in postgraduate training may contribute to improved multidisciplinary treatment of patients with cancer and their families. PMID:23277763

  11. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  12. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  13. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

  15. Chapter K: Progress in the Evaluation of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete Construction in the Pacific Northwest, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimer, Fred H.

    2005-01-01

    users of the concrete aggregates mined from these deposits. This situation is complicated by the length of time typically required for AAR to become noticeable in concrete construction in the Pacific Northwest, commonly on such a scale that other deterioration mechanisms may have masked the effects of AAR. Distinguishing between the effects of AAR and those related to other problems in concrete is important for understanding the nature and severity of AAR throughout the Pacific Northwest. Furthermore, developing an understanding of the extent of the problem will assist efforts to maximize the intelligent and stewardly use of aggregate resources in the Pacific Northwest. This chapter illustrates the current 'state of the art' of AAR studies in the Pacific Northwest, a region with a common geologic heritage as well as many distinct geologic elements. The optimal use of aggregates in the construction of concrete structures that will achieve their design life is possible through an understanding of the engineering and geologic properties of these aggregates and of their geologic setting.

  16. Energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.D.; Wensink, R.B.; Wolfe, J.W.; Shearer, M.N.

    1977-09-01

    Irrigation in the Pacific Northwest is an energy-intensive process which represents a major part of the total energy used in farm level food production. Since 1950, several major developments have precipitated pronounced increases in irrigation energy requirements. For example, the invention of efficient high-lift pumps, labor-saving equipment, new uses for irrigation sprinklers, and profitable cropping patterns have substantially escalated irrigation energy consumption in the Pacific Northwest in the past 25 years. Until recently, energy prices have remained relatively low and constant. The next 25 years will continue to experience advanced irrigation technologies. In addition to technological development, however, the cost of energy and water will certainly rise while their availabilities become increasingly constrained. The depletion of ground water in several parts of the United States could also potentially increase the irrigation burden of the Pacific Northwest. Lastly, parts of the Pacific Northwest water supply are directly convertible to energy via hydroelectric generation. This study proposes to make realistic projections relative to present and future interactions of the above components.

  17. Market Quality of Pacific Northwest Pears

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Rosa Karina; Kupferman, Eugene M.; Beaudry, Randolph M.; Blankenship, Sylvia M.; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Watkins, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data collected from retail grocery chains during marketing season 2003-2004 to examine the external quality and price variations of Pacific Northwest pears. Quality refers to overall fruit appearance and presence of external disorders. Results from a bivariate probit model show that fruit weight and firmness had a positive effect on overall appearance. Results from a hedonic price model show that the recurrence of external disorders is not necessarily negatively correlated wit...

  18. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  19. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Surface Transportation in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The states in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska region share interconnected transportation networks for people, goods, and services that support the : regional economy, mobility, and human safety. Regional weather has and will continue to affect the p...

  20. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  1. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  2. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  3. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  4. Synthetic testing of the Pacific Northwest earthquake early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B. W.; Schmidt, D. A.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.; Gomberg, J. S.; Jamison, D.; Minson, S. E.; Hartog, J. R.; Kress, V. C.; Malone, S. D.; Usher, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone poses one of the greatest risks for a megaquake in the continental United States and, because of this, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) at the University of Washington is building a joint seismic and geodetic earthquake early warning system. Our two-stage approach to earthquake early warning includes: (1) detection and initial characterization using strong-motion and broadband data from the PNSN with the ElarmS package, and (2) geodetic modeling modules using GPS data from the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA) and combined seismogeodetic (GPS + strong-motion) data. Because of Cascadia's relatively low seismicity rate and the paucity of data from plate boundary earthquakes, we have prioritized the development of a test system and the creation of several large simulated events. The test system permits us to: (1) replay segments of actual seismic waveform data recorded from the PNSN and neighboring networks to represent both earthquakes and noise conditions, and (2) broadcast synthetic data into the system to simulate signals we anticipate from earthquakes for which we have no actual ground motion recordings. The test system lets us also simulate various error conditions (latent and/or out-of-sequence data, telemetry drop-outs, etc.) and to explore how best to mitigate them. Here, we report on the performance of the joint early warning system and the geodetic modeling modules in a simulated real-time mode using simulated 5-Hz displacements from plausible Cascadian earthquake scenarios. The simulations are created using the FK integration method for hypothetical source models for a wide array of possible faulting types and magnitudes. The results show that the geodetic modeling modules are able to properly characterize the simulated events, and we discuss the limitations with respect to latency, network architecture, and earthquake location throughout the Pacific Northwest.

  5. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  6. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  7. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  8. Restoring the Pacific Northwest: the art and science of ecological restoration in Cascadia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apostol, D; Sinclair, M

    2006-01-01

    Restoring the Pacific Northwest is a handbook that brings together in a single volume a vast array of information on the science and practice of restoration in a broadly defined Pacific Northwest region...

  9. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  10. The rise and fall of the Pacific Northwest log export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels

    2005-01-01

    For decades, softwood log exports were an important component of international wood products trade from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Log exports to the Pacific Rim began in earnest after the Columbus Day Storm of 1962 generated billions of board feet of salvaged timber. This market was maintained and expanded owing to Japan’s demand for high...

  11. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  12. Effect of climate on the distribution of Fusarium spp. causing crown rot of wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Grant J; Smiley, Richard W; Walker, Carl; Huggins, David; Rupp, Richard; Abatzoglou, John; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly; Paulitz, Timothy C

    2013-11-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most widespread root and crown diseases of wheat in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States. Our objectives were to characterize crown rot severity and distribution throughout the PNW by conducting a survey of 210 fields covering the diverse dryland wheat-producing areas of Washington and Oregon and to utilize a factor analysis statistical approach to determine the effects of climate and geography on species distribution and disease severity. Climatic variables were based on 30-year averages and 2008 and 2009 separately (the 2 years of the survey). Mean annual temperature, mean temperature in the coldest month, mean temperature in the warmest month, mean annual precipitation, snowfall, elevation, soil type, and cropping intensity were highly intercorrelated. The factor analysis of the climate variables resulted in the development of two latent factors that could be used as predictor variables in logistic regression models for the presence or absence of Fusarium spp. and of FCR disease scores. Isolates of Fusarium spp. were recovered from 99% of 105 fields sampled in 2008 and 97% of fields in 2009. There were differences between years for responses of FCR and nodes scores, and isolations of Fusarium pseudograminearum with more significant results in 2008, due to warmer drier weather. Results of the factor analysis showed that the distribution of F. pseudograminearum occurred in a greater frequency in areas of the PNW at lower elevations with lower moisture and higher temperatures in 2008, whereas F. culmorum occurred in greater frequency in areas at higher elevations with moderate to high moisture and cooler temperatures consistently across both years. Disease scores increased with increasing levels of factors 1 (primarily temperature) and 2 (primarily precipitation). Both the frequency of pathogen species and disease scores were influenced by the year, indicating that soilborne pathogens are responsive to short

  13. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 2. Technical appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The technical appendix presents the technical aspects of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: the survey questionnaire, exhibit cards, instructions for interviewers, and a description of the survey plan. A description of the sample plan (method used to determine which 4000 households) is given. (MCW)

  14. Interagency strategy for the Pacific Northwest Natural Areas Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd M. Wilson; Reid Schuller; Russ Holmes; Curt Pavola; Robert A. Fimbel; Cynthia N. McCain; John G. Gamon; Pene Speaks; Joan I. Seevers; Thomas E. DeMeo; Steve. Gibbons

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Pacific Northwest Interagency Natural Areas Committee has promoted the establishment and management of natural areas in Oregon and Washington—protected areas devoted to research, education, and conservation of biodiversity. This growing collection of sites is now unmatched in its diversity and representation of both common and unique natural...

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, April 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-14

    This report discusses research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on topics relating to hanford production reactors. The topic deal with: reactor and material technology; reactor physics and instruments; chemistry; biology and medicine; applied mathematics; radiation protection; and test reactor and engineering services.

  16. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  17. 2007 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda. Mazza

    2008-01-01

    As I look back at 2007 for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station, I am very gratified at the contributions of our scientists and support staff in producing scientific knowledge and tools. This year has brought unprecedented recognition of the contributions of our scientists. Ralph Alig (research forester), Ron Neilson (bioclimatologist), and David L. Peterson (...

  18. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  19. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  20. 2009 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights significant research findings and accomplishments by scientists at the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station during fiscal year 2009. The mission of the PNW Research Station is to generate and communicate scientific knowledge that helps people understand and make informed choices about people, natural resources...

  1. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project, Central Arizona Project, and Parker-Davis Project--Rate Order No. WAPA... Western Area Power Administration (Western) Transmission Projects to Enter into WestConnect's Point-to...

  2. Sediment and PM10 flux from no-tillage cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States where the emission of fine particulates from winter wheat – summer fallow (WW/SF) dryland cropping systems during high winds degrade air quality. Although no-tillage cropping systems are not yet economically viable, these ...

  3. Emergent lessons from a century of experience with Pacific Northwest timber markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes

    2008-01-01

    Timber markets in the United States are areas where timber prices tend to be uniform because of the continuous interactions of buyers and sellers. These markets are highly competitive, volatile, and change relentlessly. This paper looks at how market interactions in the Pacific Northwest have responded to changes in underlying determinants of market behavior and...

  4. 2013 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (2013 White Book) is BPA's latest projection of the Pacific Northwest regional retail loads, contract obligations, contract purchases, and resource capabilities. The 2013 White Book is a snapshot of conditions as of October 1, 2013, documenting the loads and resources for the Federal system and region for the 10-year study period OY 2014 through 2023. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). Starting with the 2012 White Book, BPA changed the annual production schedule for future White Books. BPA is scheduled to publish a complete White Book, which includes a Federal System Needs Assessment analysis, every other year (even years). In the odd-numbered years, BPA will publish a biennial summary update (Supplement) that only contains major changes to the Federal System and Regional System analyses that have occurred since the last White Book. http://www.bpa.gov/power/pgp/whitebook/2013/index.shtml.

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1997--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research fundamental knowledge is created of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. Legacy environmental problems are solved by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, today`s environmental needs are addressed with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and the technical foundation is being laid for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also applies its capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. Brief summaries are given of the various tasks being carried out under these broad categories.

  6. Evaluation of electrical power alternatives for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    This study evaluates the concept of implementation of large-scale energy conservation to reduce end-use demand for electrical energy as an alternative to the need for continued construction of new power plants to meet projected energy requirements for the Pacific Northwest. In particular, the numerical accuracy, economic feasibility, and institutional impact of a conservation-oriented scenario developed by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., is assessed, relative to the energy forecast prepared by the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Commission. The results of this study are presented in four detailed sections following an introductory and summary section: Reconstruction and Numerical Evaluation of Alternative Scenario; Economic Analysis; Institutional Impact; and Impact of New National Energy Policy.

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  9. Wheat Cultivar Performance and Stability between No-Till and Conventional Tillage Systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arron H. Carter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Washington, over fifty percent of the wheat produced under rainfed conditions receives less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. Hence, a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system has been established to obtain adequate moisture for winter wheat production. Current tilled fallow systems receive significant soil erosion through both wind and water. As a result, no-till chemical fallow systems are being adopted to mitigate erosion concerns. The objective of this study was to evaluate current Pacific Northwest cultivars under no-till chemical fallow and tilled fallow systems to identify cultivars adapted to a late-planted no-till system. Twenty-one cultivars were planted in a split-plot design with fallow type as the main plot and genotype as the sub-plot. Four replications were planted at two locations over three years. Data was collected on heading date, grain yield and grain volume weight. Analysis of variance was conducted on data from each year and location. Results were significant for all traits. Cultivars in the late-planted no-till system yielded an average of 39% less than the tilled fallow system. It is evident that cultivars vary in their adaptability and yield stability across production systems. Chukar and Eltan displayed the highest levels of yield stability, and growers who wish to plant winter wheat in a late-planted no-till system may benefit from choosing these cultivars.

  10. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  11. Resilience in Pre-contact Pacific Northwest Social Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available If, like other ecosystems, the variable and dynamic ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest exhibited cycles and unpredictable behavior, particularly when humans were present, the indigenous societies of that region had to have been resilient in order to persist for such a long time. They persisted for two millennia prior to contact with people from the "old world." The Resilience Alliance (2002 proposes that social and ecological resilience requires three abilities: the ability to buffer, the ability to self-organize, and the ability to learn. This paper suggests that the characteristics of the potlatch system among Indians on the Northwest Coast, namely property rights, environmental ethics, rules of earning and holding titles, public accountability, and the reciprocal exchange system, provided all three required abilities. The resulting resilience of these societies confirms the validity of many of the ideas now being discussed as important components in providing successful and sustainable relationships between humans and their ecosystems. That so many separate ideas seem to have been linked together into resilient systems in the Pacific Northwest suggests that social ecological resilience is complicated.

  12. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 3. Question-by-question results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Tabulations are presented of responses to approximately 105 questions. Results are tabulated by 9 geographic regions: the four states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington; four climate zones in the region; and a weighted Pacific Northwest total. A description of the tabulated data is given in the Introduction. Tabulated data deal with questions on dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and swelling characteristics; and insulation.

  13. Risks of carbamate and organophosphate pesticide mixtures to salmon in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott

    2013-01-01

    Salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest are being affected by a variety of environmental stressors including intense fishing pressure, parasites and disease, climatic variability and change, land development, hatchery production, hydropower operations, stormwater runoff, and exposure to toxic contaminants. In recent years, there has been much concern that mixtures of pesticides are causing toxic effects to Pacific salmon. In this study, we compared measured stream water concentrations from 2 monitoring studies conducted in the Pacific Northwest with concentration-response curves derived for inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) for mixtures of organophosphate (OPs) and carbamate (CBs) pesticides. In the first monitoring study, samples were collected from 2003 to 2007 in salmonid-bearing waters of 5 urban or agricultural watersheds in Washington State. This study was targeted to areas of high pesticide use and generally involved weekly sampling during the pesticide use season. The second monitoring study was the United States Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment that included samples taken from 2003 to 2010 in California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. OPs and CBs were frequently detected in both studies. The available monitoring data collected since 2003, however, demonstrates that mixtures of OPs and CBs in surface waters rarely occur at levels capable of producing significant physiological and behavioral effects in Pacific salmon. The observed mixtures never reached concentrations capable of causing mortality. We conclude that mixtures of organophosphates and carbamates do not pose a significant direct risk to Pacific salmon. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  14. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  15. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  16. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  18. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  19. Fall Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for FALL CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  20. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  1. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  2. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  3. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  4. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for YELLOWSTONE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  5. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  6. Sockeye Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SOCKEYE SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  7. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  8. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  9. White Sturgeon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WHITE STURGEON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  10. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  11. Bull Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BULL TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  12. Spring Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SPRING CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  13. Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for LAHONTAN CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  14. Summer Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SUMMER CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  15. Summer Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SUMMER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  16. 1998 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: 1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and 2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. The load forecast is derived by using economic planning models to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract

  17. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  18. Validation Efforts of the Pacific Northwest River Restoration Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, J. M.; Katz, S. L.; Morehead, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    The improvement of science in river restoration relies heavily on the evaluation of previously established projects in order to assess the ecosystem response and project outcome (Bernhard et al, 2005). To facilitate this, there needs to be competent project tracking and documentation of outcomes. In the Pacific Northwest, the National Marine Fisheries Service's Northwest Fisheries Science Center has compiled a database containing over 26,000 restoration actions at 36,000 locations in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana (Katz, et al. in review). Recent efforts have been undertaken to validate this database through selection of random samples for telephone interviews and field site visits. 47 project managers were interviewed via telephone regarding their restoration activities within four project category intents. In addition, six Columbia River sub-basins were selected for site validation sampling of 170 projects. The basins included for site validations are the Lemhi and Pahsimeroi Rivers in Idaho, the Methow and Entiat Rivers in Washington, and the Upper and Lower John Day Rivers in Oregon. Survey results are presented with statistical estimators to validate the database. Regional trends in river restoration were found to exist and differences were found between reporting agencies and on the smaller, local scale. The implementation of restoration activities is examined to see if projects are being instigated as intended and case studies are examined to reveal lessons learned from practitioners. In general, the effectiveness of various river restoration activities in the Pacific Northwest would be better charted through standardization in project tracking and documentation. References Bernhardt, E. S., Palmer, M. A., Allan, J. D., Alexander, G., Barnas, K., Brooks, S., Carr, J., Clayton, S., Dahm, C., Follstad-Shah, J., Galat, D., Gloss, S., Goodwin, P., Hart, D., Hassett, B., Jenkinson, J., Katz, S., Kondolf, G. M., Lake, P. S., Lave, R., Meyer, J. L., O

  19. A research framework for natural resource-based communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet H. Christensen; Ellen M. Donoghue

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station developed a problem analysis to direct the research on natural resource-based communities in the Pacific Northwest over the next 5 years. The problem analysis identifies four problem areas: (1) social values related to rural peoples, communities, and development, and their ties to resource management are largely unknown; (2...

  20. Cognitive styles of Forest Service scientists and managers in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    1997-01-01

    Preferences of executives, foresters, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Research Station and executives, District Rangers, foresters, engineers, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Region, National Forest System (USDA Forest Service), were compared for various thinking styles. Herrmann brain dominance profiles from 230 scientists and managers were drawn from...

  1. 1999 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands—firm loads—are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and “contracted for” resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of

  2. Wall-to-wall assessment of carbon stock and flux consequences of forest disturbances in the Pacific Northwest United States using remote sensing and forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.; Moisen, G.; Schleeweis, K.; Ghimire, B.; Zhao, F. A.; Huang, C.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Disturbances profoundly alter the structure and function of forests, imposing long lasting carbon legacies and strongly influencing rates of terrestrial carbon exchange with the atmosphere. Disturbance legacies vary across ecoregions, by forest types, and with disturbance severity and type. The complexity presents a significant challenge for observing and modeling carbon exchange, and hinders assessments of current and likely future states of the global carbon cycle. We demonstrate how carbon legacies vary following harvest, fire and bark beetle for forests in Pacific Norwest (PNW) United States, and how these processes influence carbon stocks and fluxes at pixel and regional scales. This study involves the use of satellite and aerial remote sensing products to characterize the frequency and severity of fire, harvest and insects over the past three decades. We use forest inventory data (FIA) to parameterize a carbon cycle model to represent post-disturbance carbon trajectories of carbon pools and fluxes for harvest, fire and bark beetle disturbances of varying severity across forest types and site productivity. We infer forest stand age and associated uncertainty based on maps of aboveground biomass, disturbance and forest types derived from remote sensing data, as well as carbon stock trajectories and stand productivity map derived from FIA. We then apply the group of carbon flux trajectories to the forest stand age map throughout the study area. Finally, we summarize the net carbon uptake as a consequence of disturbance and regrowth at pixel and regional scales. As such, this study represents a first demonstration of a spatially explicit assessment of carbon stock and flux responses to disturbances by linking remote sensing disturbance products, biomass maps and forest inventory data in a carbon cycle modeling framework. The methodology will be further applied across the conterminous US to provide a comprehensive forest carbon budget assessment.

  3. ShakeMap at the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, R.; Bodin, P.; Gomberg, J.; Gustafson, B.; Malone, S.; Palmer, S.; Pratt, T.; Steele, B.; Vidale, J.; Wald, D.; Weaver, C.; Wong, I.

    2007-12-01

    We summarize efforts to tailor ShakeMap to the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN), and to increase the resolution in the major urban areas. Our initial implementation of ShakeMap employed parameters based on data from mostly larger earthquakes outside the Pacific Northwest. The PNSN automatically generates a 45- arcsec ShakeMap for any earthquake of Md ≥ 3.0 in the Puget Sound region and for Md ≥ 4.0 earthquakes in Washington and Oregon. ShakeMap uses 3-component, real-time data from 91 strong motion, 34 broadband, and 70 Earthscope Transportable Array stations. We also automatically incorporate data from dial- up stations of the National Strong Motion Program. High-resolution (7.2 arcsec) ShakeMaps for the Seattle area have just come on-line thanks to the availability of a new, more detailed geologic map. We use data from the PNSN and other sources to derive new region-specific ground motion attenuation relations and site corrections. Preliminary results suggest that default attenuation relations included with the ShakeMap package over-predict Pacific Northwest ground motions, especially at larger distances and for deep (≥ 20km) earthquakes. We will make similar comparisons with the Next Generation Attenuation relations, to be used in future ShakeMap releases, and modify the relations if warranted. To improve site corrections we compared site amplification measurements and local magnitude residuals (available for most of the PNSN stations) to measured values of Vs30 at co-located and nearby sites. These correlate well and thus provide useful proxies for Vs30 for use in ShakeMap. We also found correlations between Vs30 estimates and the age and rock type of mapped geologic units, providing a geologically constrained means of interpolating between sites with more direct Vs30 estimates. Finally, our ShakeMaps will improve because we continue to add stations to the PNSN, providing additional direct measures of ground motion.

  4. Annualized diameter and height growth equations for Pacific Northwest plantation-grown Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Weiskittel; S.M. Garber; G.P. Johnson; D.A. Maguire; R.A. Monserud

    2007-01-01

    Simulating the influence of intensive management and annual weather fluctuations on tree growth requires a shorter time step than currently employed by most regional growth models. High-quality data sets are available for several plantation species in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, but the growth periods ranged from 2 to 12 years. Measurement...

  5. Synthesis of wind energy development and potential impacts on wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Rebecca A. Gravenmier

    2012-01-01

    Nationally, there is growing public interest in and policy pressure for developing alternative and renewable sources of energy. Wind energy facilities in the Pacific Northwest expanded rapidly over the past decade, as a result of state policies that encourage wind energy development. While much of the development thus far has occurred on private lands, there is...

  6. A review of scientific information on issues related to the use and management of water resources in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred H. Everest; Deanna J. Stouder; Christina Kakoyannis; Laurie Houston; George Stankey; Jeffery Kline; Ralph. Alig

    2004-01-01

    Fresh water is a valuable and essential commodity in the Pacific Northwest States, specifically Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and one provided abundantly by forested watersheds in the region. The maintenance and growth of industrial, municipal, agricultural, and recreational activities in the region are dependent on adequate and sustainable supplies of fresh water...

  7. White rot of garlic and onion (Causal agent, Sclerotium cepivorum): A status report from the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence from literature, state department of agriculture documents, and recent diagnoses that Sclerotium cepivorum, causal agent of white rot of garlic and onion, is spreading and/or becoming more established in the Pacific Northwest. Previously documented distributions are summarized, an...

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  9. Microsatellite Primers for the Pacific Northwest Conifer Callitropsis nootkatensis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara N. Jennings

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis to provide quantitative measures for gene conservation that can assist in guiding management decisions for a species experiencing climate-induced decline. Methods and Results: Using multiplexed massively parallel sequencing, we identified 136,785 microsatellite-containing sequences from 489,625 Illumina paired-end 80-bp reads. After stringent filtering, we selected 144 primer pairs and screened variation at these loci in five populations of C. nootkatensis. Loci show between three and 36 dinucleotide repeats per locus, with an average of 13. Screening of these markers in the Pacific Northwest relative Chamaecyparis lawsoniana demonstrated no marker transferability. This finding highlights the narrow taxonomic utility of microsatellite markers in Callitropsis. Conclusions: These microsatellites show high polymorphism and can be used for routine screening of natural variation in Callitropsis nootkatensis, and will be particularly helpful in identifying clones and inbred relatives at the stand-level.

  10. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  11. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  12. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  13. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P., E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Asbell, A.M., E-mail: aasbell@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Hecht, S.A., E-mail: scott.hecht@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, 510 Desmond Drive S.E., Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Scholz, N.L., E-mail: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Lydy, M.J., E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: > Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. > Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. > Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. > Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. > Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  14. NACP Biome-BGC Modeled Ecosystem Carbon Balance, Pacific Northwest, USA, 1986-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Biome-BGC modeled estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for the years 1986-2010. Fluxes include net ecosystem...

  15. Educating teenage drivers in the Pacific Northwest regarding the dangers of distracted driving (phase I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this outreach project was to examine driver distraction among teenagers in the Pacific Northwest. Specifically, to identify secondary tasks they consider distracting and determine their self-reported engagement in those same secondary tas...

  16. Regional Field Verification -- Operational Results from Four Small Wind Turbines in the Pacific Northwest: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, K.; Raker, J.

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes four small wind turbines installed in the Pacific Northwest under DOE/NREL's Regional Field Verification Program between 2003 and 2004 and summarizes operational data from each site.

  17. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Jordan; Sean O'Neill

    2010-01-01

    .... In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter-fisher...

  18. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: perspective from Portland and the Pacific Northwest : summary of a workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brose, Dominic A

    2014-01-01

    "Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Perspective from Portland and the Pacific Northwest is the summary of a workshop convened by the National Research Council's Science and Technology for Sustainability Program in May 2013 to examine...

  19. Oceanographic and marine meteorological observations in the Northwest Pacific ocean during 1998 (NODC Accession 0000070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, plankton, and nutrients data were collected using buoy and CTD casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 22 January 1998 to...

  20. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.)

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sackschewsky, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tilden, Harold T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su-Coker, Jennifer [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ballinger, Marcel Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoetzel, Gregory A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lowry, Kami L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moon, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendez, Keith M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Raney, Elizabeth A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamness, Michele A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  2. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  3. Forest Management Policy and Community Well-Being in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Ellen M. Donoghue; Cassandra Moseley

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a multiscale, multimethods approach to examine the effects of declining timber harvests on the well-being of forest communities in the Pacific Northwest as a result of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan). We found that the effects of declining timber harvests were variable and depended on the importance of the timber sector in a community in the late...

  4. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Catalysis Highlights for FY2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C.

    2007-11-15

    To reduce the nation’s dependence on imported oil, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal and private agencies are investing in understanding catalysis. This report focuses on catalysis research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its collaborators. Using sophisticated instruments in DOE’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility, research was conducted to answer key questions related to the nation’s use of automotive fuels. Research teams investigated how hydrogen can be safely stored and efficiently released, critical questions to use this alternative fuel. Further, they are answering key questions to design molecular catalysts to control the transfer of hydrogen atoms, hydrides, and protons important to hydrogen production. In dealing with today’s fuels, researchers examined adsorption of noxious nitrous oxides in automotive exhaust. Beyond automotive fuel, researchers worked on catalysts to harness solar power. These catalysts include the rutile and anatase forms of titanium dioxide. Basic research was conducted on designing catalysts for these and other applications. Our scientists examined how to build catalysts with the desired properties atom by atom and molecule by molecule. In addition, this report contains brief descriptions of the outstanding accomplishments of catalysis experts at PNNL.

  6. International Safeguards and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Khris B.; Smith, Leon E.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Orton, Christopher R.; Schanfein, Mark J.; Sayre, Amanda M.; Jones, Rebecca L.

    2016-07-21

    Established in 1965, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) strong technical ties and shared heritage with the nearby U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site were central to the early development of expertise in nuclear fuel cycle signatures, separations chemistry, plutonium chemistry, environmental monitoring, modeling and analysis of reactor systems, and nuclear material safeguards and security. From these Hanford origins, PNNL has grown into a multi-program science and engineering enterprise that utilizes this diversity to strengthen the international safeguards regime. Today, PNNL supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its mission to provide assurances to the international community that nations do not use nuclear materials and equipment outside of peaceful uses. PNNL also serves in the IAEA’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) by providing analysis of environmental samples gathered around the world. PNNL is involved in safeguards research and development activities in support of many U.S. Government programs such as the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Office of Research and Development, NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control, and the U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards. In addition to these programs, PNNL invests internal resources including safeguards-specific training opportunities for staff, and laboratory-directed research and development funding to further ideas that may grow into new capabilities. This paper and accompanying presentation highlight some of PNNL’s contributions in technology development, implementation concepts and approaches, policy, capacity building, and human capital development, in the field of international safeguards.

  7. Pacific northwest vowels: A Seattle neighborhood dialect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Jennifer K.; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia

    2005-04-01

    According to current literature a large region encompassing nearly the entire west half of the U.S. belongs to one dialect region referred to as Western, which furthermore, according to Labov et al., ``... has developed a characteristic but not unique phonology.'' [http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono-atlas/NationalMap/NationalMap.html] This paper will describe the vowel space of a set of Pacific Northwest American English speakers native to the Ballard neighborhood of Seattle, Wash. based on the acoustical analysis of high-quality Marantz CDR 300 recordings. Characteristics, such as low back merger and [u] fronting will be compared to findings by other studies. It is hoped that these recordings will contribute to a growing number of corpora of North American English dialects. All participants were born in Seattle and began their residence in Ballard between ages 0-8. They were recorded in two styles of speech: individually reading repetitions of a word list containing one token each of 10 vowels within carrier phrases, and in casual conversation for 40 min with a partner matched in age, gender, and social mobility. The goal was to create a compatible data set for comparison with current acoustic studies. F1 and F2 and vowel duration from LPC spectral analysis will be presented.

  8. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  9. Indoor air quality measurements in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, B.H.; Brown, J.T.; Geisling-Sobotka, K.; Froehlich, D.A.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Harrison, J.; Revzan, K.L.

    1986-06-01

    A Bonneville Power Administration-funded study monitored ventilation rates and a variety of indoor air pollutants in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings. The buildings ranged in age from 6 months to 90 years, in size from 864 to 34,280 m/sup 2/, and occupancy from 25 to 2500 people. Building average formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were below the 20 ppB detection limit in 48% of the buildings. Nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) concentration averages ranged from 5 ppB to 43 ppB and were lower than outdoor concentrations in 8 of 13 buildings. At only one site, an elementary school classroom, did carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) exceed 1000 ppM. Radon (Rn) levels were elevated in one building with an average concentration of 7.4 pCiL/sup -1/. Respirable particles (RSP) concentrations in smoking areas in 32 buildings had a geometric mean of 44 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and ranged up to 308 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ at one site. In non-smoking areas the geometric mean RSP was 15 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. Outside air ventilation rates did not appear to be the single dominant parameter in determining indoor pollutant concentrations. Measured pollutant concentrations in 2 ''complaint'' buildings were below accepted guidelines. The cause of the complaints was not identified.

  10. Learning from urban growth management in the Pacific Northwest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The development of contemporary urban growth management in the Northwest United States began in the 1970s. The major tool is the implementation of urban containment boundaries, fostering growth within and limiting it outside the boundary. Additionally a set of policies reaching from densification...... Washington and Oregon as e.g. the municipalities in Denmark have strong control options in planning. However, especially the metropolitan co-operation and co-ordination instruments can certainly contribute to the discussion on urban growth management in Denmark and elsewhere....... strategies to the trade of development rights is used to support the growth managements’ goals. The paper reviews the most important elements of the urban growth management in Washington and Oregon State. Based on several semi-structured interviews with planning experts done during a research stay in Seattle...

  11. Windblown Dust and Air Quality Under a Changing Climate in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharratt, B. S.; Tatarko, J.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Fox, F.; Huggins, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Wind erosion is a concern for sustainable agriculture and societal health in the US Pacific Northwest. Indeed, wind erosion continues to cause exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM10 in the region. Can we expect air quality to deteriorate or improve as climate changes? Will wind erosion escalate in the future under a warmer and drier climate as forecast for Australia, southern prairies of Canada, northern China, and United States Corn Belt and Colorado Plateau? To answer these questions, we used 18 global climate models, cropping systems simulation model (CropSyst), and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) to simulate the complex interactions among climate, crop production, and wind erosion. These simulations were carried out in eastern Washington where wind erosion of agricultural lands contribute to poor air quality in the region. Our results suggest that an increase in temperature and CO2 concentration, coupled with nominal increases in precipitation, will enhance biomass production and reduce soil and PM10 losses by the mid-21st century. This study reveals that climate change may reduce the risk of wind erosion and improve air quality in the Inland Pacific Northwest.

  12. Landslide Susceptibility Across the Pacific Northwest: The Heavy Influence of Transportation Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia

    2017-04-01

    Some of the largest and best landslide databases in the United States of America describe the Pacific Northwest region. Nevertheless, these inventories are not a comprehensive listing of historic landslides. In particular, landslide dates tend to be recorded by state transportation agencies, which imposes a spatial bias upon any subsequent analysis. This reporting bias complicates not only the identification of landslide triggering conditions, but also hinders empirical calculations of landslide susceptibility. Although many strategies for bias mitigation could be employed, the simplest approach delivers generally plausible results that are most reliable in the most critical locations: along major highways and rail lines. This work tests logistic regression models that were fitted in zones with landslide reports, then applied regionally. Due to the destabilizing effects of excavation and other anthropogenic disturbances, the models may overestimate susceptibility in undeveloped areas. However, the susceptibility of developed sites should be as accurate as the modeling technique and input data allow.

  13. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  14. WestPro: a computer program for simulating uneven-aged Douglas-fir stand growth and yield in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ralston; Joseph Buongiorno; Benedict Schulte; Jeremy. Fried

    2003-01-01

    WestPro is an add-in program designed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth of uneven-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Given the initial stand state, defined as the number of softwood and hardwood trees per acre by diameter class, WestPro predicts the...

  15. Invaded range of the blackberry pathogen Phragmidium violaceum in the Pacific Northwest of the USA and the search for its provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field surveys in 2006 confirmed the rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum was widespread on Rubus armeniacus and R. laciniatus in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The origin, evidence of a founder effect and dispersal pattern of this obligate biotrophic pathogen in the United States were inve...

  16. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  17. Tracking federal land management: Report No. 3 on federal land management actions impacting geothermal commecialization at selected target prospects in the five Pacific Rim states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-20

    Generic land management actions affecting geothermal commerializtion in Pacific River states are reviewed. Specific federal land management actions affecting geothermal prospects in California and the Pacific Northwest are described. (MHR)

  18. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  19. FY2000 Annual Self-Evaluation Report for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RR Labarge

    2000-11-15

    This self-evaluation report offers a summary of results from FY2000 actions to achieve Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's strategy and provides an analysis of the state of their self-assessment process. The result of their integrated planning and assessment process identifies Laboratory strengths and opportunities for improvement. Critical elements of that process are included in this report; namely, a high-level summary of external oversight activities, progress against Operations Improvement Initiatives, and a summary of Laboratory strengths and areas for improvement developed by management from across the laboratory. Some key areas targeted for improvement in FY2001 are: systems approach to resource management; information protection; integrated safety management flow-down to the benchtop; cost management; integrated assessment; Price Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Program; and travel risk mitigation.

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Climate Resiliency Planning Process and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brandenberger, Jill M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-22

    In 2015, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed its first Climate Resilience Plan for its Richland Campus. PNNL has performed Climate Resilience Planning for the Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy (DOE) over the past 5 years. The assessment team included climate scientists, social scientists, engineers, and operations managers. A multi-disciplinary team was needed to understand the potential exposures to future changes at the site, the state of the science on future impacts, and the best process for “mainstreaming” new actions into existing activities. The team uncovered that the site’s greatest vulnerabilities, and therefore priorities for climate resilience planning, are high temperature due to degraded infrastructure, increased wildfire frequency, and intense precipitation impacts on stormwater conveyance systems.

  1. Collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, L.K.; Eakin, D.E.

    1981-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify potential methods for the collection, transportation and storage of agricultural and forest residues in the Pacific Northwest. Information was gathered from available literature and through contacts with researchers, equipment manufacturers, and other individuals involved in forest and agricultural activities. This information was evaluated, combined, and adapted for situations existing in the Pacific Northwest. A number of methods for collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues using currently available technology are described. Many of these methods can be applied to residue fuel materials along with their current uses in the forest and agricultural industries.

  2. Statistical evaluation of Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Consumption Survey weather data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses an issue relating to energy consumption and conservation in the residential sector. BPA has obtained two meteorological data bases for use with its 1983 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES). One data base consists of temperature data from weather stations; these have been aggregated to form a second data base that covers the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climatic divisions. At BPA's request, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a household energy use model for both electricity and natural gas in order to determine whether the statistically estimated parameters of the model significantly differ when the two different meteorological data bases are used.

  3. Economic impacts of interregional competition in the forest products industry during the 1970's: the South and the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H. Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki

    1986-01-01

    Until the 1970's, the Pacific Northwest dominated national markets for softwood lumber and plywood. During the 1970's, however, the region's share declined while production increased in the South. Meanwhile, the South's and the Pacific Northwest's shares of the Nation's employment in lumber and wood products declined. This resulted mainly...

  4. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  5. Analysis of Extreme Events in Regional Climate Model Simulations for the Pacific Northwest using weatherathome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, R. J.; Mote, P.; Weber, J.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most prominent impacts of climate change over the Pacific Northwest is the potential for an elevated number of extreme precipitation events over the region. Planning for natural hazards such as increasing number of floods related to high-precipitation events have, in general, focused on avoiding development in floodplains and conditioning development to withstand inundation with a minimum of losses. Nationwide, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates that about one quarter of its payments cover damage that has occurred outside mapped floodplains. It is clear that traditional flood-based planning will not be sufficient to predict and avoid future losses resulting from climate-related hazards such as high-precipitation events. In order to address this problem, the present study employs regional climate model output for future climate change scenarios to aid with the development of a map-based inventory of future hazard risks that can contribute to the development of a "planning-scale" decision support system for the Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development (DLCD). Climate model output is derived from the climateprediction.net (CPDN) weatherathome project, an innovative climate science experiment that utilizes volunteer computers from users worldwide to produce hundreds of thousands superensembles of regional climate simulations of the Western United States climate from 1950 to 2050. The spatial and temporal distribution of extreme weather events are analyzed for the Pacific Northwest to diagnose the model's capabilities as an input for map products such as impacts on hydrology. Special attention is given to intensity and frequency of Atmospheric River events in historical and future climate contexts.

  6. ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; An, Soon-Il; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Park, Hey-Jin; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2017-08-01

    Using observational datasets and numerical model experiments, the mechanism on the slowly varying change in the relationship between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is investigated. The decadal-window (11-, 15-, and 21-year) moving correlations show a significant change in the boreal wintertime ENSO-EAWM relationship between two sub-periods of 1976‒1992 and 1997‒2013. Such recent change in ENSO-EAWM relationship is mainly attributed to the changes in the intensity and zonal location of the anomalous lower-tropospheric northwest Pacific anticyclone (NWP-AC). NWP-AC commonly develops near the region of the Philippine Sea during the ENSO's peak phase and plays an important role of bridging the tropical convection and mid-latitude teleconnection. On one hand, the intensity of the NWP-AC is influenced by the interdecadal variation in a linkage between ENSO and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referring that a strong connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans results in the strengthening of NWP-AC response to ENSO. On the other hand, the zonal displacement of the NWP-AC is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). That is, the tropical Pacific mean state (i.e., zonal SST gradient between climatologically warm western Pacific and cold eastern Pacific)—strengthened by either the negative PDO phase or the positive AMO phase—drives the anomalous ENSO-induced convection to be shifted to the west. With this westward shift, the zonal center of the NWP-AC also migrates westward over the Philippine Islands and exerts stronger connection between ENSO and EAWM. In contrast, the relaxed zonal SST contrast associated with either the positive PDO phase or the negative AMO phase tends to exhibit weaker ENSO-EAWM relationship via both of eastward shifted zonal centers of the anomalous ENSO-induced convection and the NWP-AC. Finally, a

  7. Field-trip guide to a volcanic transect of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Dennis; Wolff, John; Harpp, Karen

    2017-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the United States provides world-class and historically important examples of a wide variety of volcanic features. This guide is designed to give a broad overview of the region’s diverse volcanism rather than focusing on the results of detailed studies; the reader should consult the reference list for more detailed information on each of the sites, and we have done our best to recognize previous field trip leaders who have written the pioneering guides. This trip derives from one offered as a component of the joint University of Idaho- Washington State University volcanology class taught from 1995 through 2014, and it borrows in theme from the classic field guide of Johnston and Donnelly-Nolan (1981). For readers interested in using this field guide as an educational tool, we have included an appendix with supplemental references to resources that provide useful background information on relevant topics, as well as a few suggestions for field-based exercises that could be useful when bringing students to these locations in the future. The 4-day trip begins with an examination of lava flow structures of the Columbia River Basalt, enormous lava fields that were emplaced during one of the largest eruptive episodes in Earth’s recent history. On the second day, the trip turns to the High Lava Plains, a bimodal volcanic province that transgressed from southeast to northwest from the Miocene through the Holocene, at the northern margin of the Basin and Range Province. This volcanic field provides excellent examples of welded ignimbrite, silicic lavas and domes, monogenetic basaltic lava fields, and hydrovolcanic features. The third day is devoted to a circumnavigation of Crater Lake, the result of one of the world’s best-documented caldera-forming eruptions. The caldera walls also expose the anatomy of Mount Mazama, a stratovolcano of the Cascade Range. The last day is spent at Newberry Volcano, a back-arc shield volcano topped by a

  8. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Animal damage to conifers on national forests in the Pacific Northwest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn L. Crouch

    1969-01-01

    Animal damage to conifers is a timely topic in the Pacific Northwest. Foresters in this Region are increasingly concerned and perplexed by damage caused by animals to natural and planted seedlings and larger growing stock. Nearly every animal inhabiting for st land is believed to injure seedlings and small trees to some degree. Mice girdle small trees, and bears girdle...

  10. Traditional and local ecological knowledge about forest biodiversity in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; A. Paige Fischer; Eric T. Jones

    2008-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the existing literature about traditional and local ecological knowledge relating to biodiversity in Pacific Northwest forests in order to assess what is needed to apply this knowledge to forest biodiversity conservation efforts. We address four topics: (1) views and values people have relating to biodiversity, (2) the resource use and management...

  11. Ties that bind: Pacific Northwest truffles, trees, and animals in symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Randy Molina; Jane E.  Smith

    2009-01-01

    Soil organisms play essential roles in forest health, and truffle fungi are one of the more fascinating groups of these important organisms. After 40 years of specimen collection and study, scientists with Pacific Northwest Research Station have published a report documenting how truffle fungi affect tree survival and growth, perform valuable functions in nutrient...

  12. Phylogeography of the seaweed Ishige okamurae (Phaeophyceae) : Evidence for glacial refugia in the northwest Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung Min; Yang, Eun Chan; Coyer, James A.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Wang, Wei-Lui; Choi, Chang Geun; Boo, Sung Min

    Although benthic marine algae are essential components of marine coastal systems that have been influenced profoundly by past and present climate change, our knowledge of seaweed phylogeography is limited. The brown alga Ishige okamurae Yendo occurs in the northwest Pacific, where it occupies a

  13. New approaches to forest planning: inventorying and mapping place values in the Pacific Northwest Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy E. Hall; Jennifer O. Farnum; Terry C. Slider; Kathy Ludlow

    2009-01-01

    This report chronicles a large-scale effort to map place values across the Pacific Northwest Region (Washington and Oregon) of the U.S. Forest Service. Through workshops held with Forest Service staff, 485 socioculturally meaningful places were identified. Staff also generated corresponding descriptions of the places’ unique social and biophysical elements—in other...

  14. The biology of amphibians and reptiles in old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.P. Blaustein; J.J. Beatty; D.H. Olson; R.M. Storm

    1995-01-01

    The amphibian and reptile fauna of older forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest includes several endemic species, species with unique behavioral and ecological characteristics, and species whose populations have been in decline in recent years. We review the biology of these species and include information on their distinguishing characteristics, behavior, and...

  15. Predicting landscape sensitivity to present and future floods in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Safeeq; Gordon E. Grant; Sarah L. Lewis; Brian Staab

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent natural disaster, causing more loss of life and property than any other in the USA. Floods also strongly influence the structure and function of watersheds, stream channels, and aquatic ecosystems. The Pacific Northwest is particularly vulnerable to climatically driven changes in flood frequency and magnitude, because snowpacks that...

  16. Mass failures and other processes of sediment production in Pacific northwest forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson; Lee E. Benda; Stanley H. Duncan; Gordon E. Grant; Walter F. Megahan; Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1987-01-01

    Abstract - Accelerated sediment production by mass failures and other erosion processes is an important link between management of forest resources and fish resources. Dominant processes and the rates of sediment production vary greatly throughout the Pacific Northwest in response to geologic and climatic factors. The complex sediment routing systems characteristic...

  17. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service - August 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has r...

  18. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel - CERF 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  19. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  20. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has ...

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-22

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  2. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Collegiality at Protestant Christian Universities in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…

  3. Assessment and management of animal damage in Pacific Northwest forests: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Loucks; H.C. Black; M.L. Roush; S.R. Radosevich

    1990-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of published literature provides a comprehensive source of information on animal damage assessment and management for forest land managers and others in the Pacific Northwest. Citations and abstracts from more than 900 papers are indexed by subject and author. The publication complements and supplements A Silvicultural Approach to...

  4. SALMON IN CRISIS: IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  5. Physical hydrology and the effects of forest harvesting in the Pacific Northwest: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Dan Moore; S.M. Wondzell

    2005-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest encompasses a range of hydrologic regimes that can be broadly characterized as either coastal (where rain and rain on snow are dominant) or interior (where snowmelt is dominant). Forest harvesting generally increases the fraction of precipitation that is available to become streamflow, increases rates of snowmelt, and modifies the runoff pathways...

  6. Thinning ponderosa pine in the Pacific Northwest: a summary of present information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin L. Mowat

    1953-01-01

    Proper thinning of dense young stands of ponderosa pine increases the growth rate of remaining trees and thereby shortens the time required to grow timber of any desired size. The extent of improvement in growth is shown by thinning studies in the Pacific Northwest covering periods of 10 to 24 years. These studies, together with general experience and research in other...

  7. Conservation and development of nontimber forest products in the Pacific Northwest: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettina Von Hagen; James F. Weigand; Rebecca McLain; Roger Fight; Harriet H. Christensen

    1996-01-01

    This bibliography encompasses literature on the historic and current scope of nontimber forest product industries in the Pacific Northwest and includes references on international markets and trade that bear on these industries. Key themes in the bibliography are biological and socioeconomic aspects of resource management for sustainable production; procedures for...

  8. Knowledge-Based Information Management for Watershed Analysis in the Pacific Northwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reynolds; Richard Olson; Michael Saunders; Donald Latham; Michael Foster; Bruce Miller; Lawrence Bednar; Daniel Schmoldt; Patrick Cunningham; John Steffenson

    1996-01-01

    We are developing a knowledge-based information management system to provide decision support for watershed analysis in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The system includes: (1) a GIS interface that allows users to graphically navigate to specific provinces and watersheds and display a variety of themes and other area-specific information, (2) an analysis...

  9. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette M. Karchesy; Rick G. Kelsey; George Constantine; Joseph J. Karchesy

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 μg/ml) was found for 17 extracts from 13 species, with highest activity observed for Angelica arguta...

  10. Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Randy Molina; Daniel L. Luoma; Efren Cázares; David Pilz; Jane E. Smith; Michael A. Castellano; Steven L. Miller; Matthew J. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Forests of the Pacific Northwest have been an epicenter for the evolution of truffle fungi with over 350 truffle species and 55 genera currently identified. Truffle fungi develop their reproductive fruit-bodies typically belowground, so they are harder to find and study than mushrooms that fruit aboveground. Nevertheless, over the last five decades, the Corvallis...

  11. Forest cover dynamics in the Pacific Northwest west side: regional trends and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig; Daolan Zheng; Thomas A. Spies; Brett J. Butler

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to (1) analyze recent rates of transitions among forest cover types on private timberland, (2) identify differences by ownership class, and (3) project future changes under different scenarios related to current policy issues in the Pacific Northwest. Timber harvests are the dominant class of disturbance on private timberland in...

  12. Projected dryland cropping system shifts in the Pacific Northwest in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture in the dryland region of the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW, including northern Idaho, eastern Washington and northern Oregon) is typically characterized based on annual rainfall and associated distribution of cropping systems that have evolved in response to biophysical and socio-econom...

  13. Forest economics research at the Pacific Northwest Research Station, to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora

    2003-01-01

    The contributions for over 80 years by scientists at the Pacific Northwest Research Station to developments in economic theory, economic tools, policies, and economic issues are summarized. This is a story of progressive accomplishments set against a constantly changing background of economic and social events.

  14. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...

  15. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 31, November 30, 1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Briegleb; Theodore Kachin; L.A. Isaac; Fremont McComb; T.T. Munger

    1940-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry in the Pacific Northwest is able to compete successfully in national and world markets primarily bemuse it is favored with dense stands of high-grade pulpwood in its back yard. This natural advantage need not be temporary. Here industry can obtain such stands continuously because it can grow them.

  16. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 23, November 27, 1937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Elton Lodewick; P.A. Briegleb; F.L. Moravets; Leo A. Isaac; William G. Morris; Wade. DeVries

    1937-01-01

    Douglas fir, the most abundant and most used lumber species in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, is being pulped on a commercial scale by the sulfate and soda processes. The markets for unbleached pulps are limited, and there has been much speculation as to the possibilities of developing pulping processes whereby the enormous quantities of otherwise unutilized...

  17. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  18. Soil and water conservation in the Pacific Northwest through no-tillage and intensified crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) summer fallow rotation typically practiced in the intermediate precipitation zone [300-450 mm (12-18 in)] of the inland Pacific Northwest has proven to be economically stable for producers in this region. However multiple tillage operations are used to control...

  19. Feral rye (Secale cereal) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) feral rye is a predominant winter annual grass weed in the low-rainfall region where a winter wheat-tillage fallow rotation has been practiced for more than 130 yrs and winter canola has been introduced recently. A 3-yr study was conducted in Washington to determine th...

  20. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Black, Allison; Kaufman, John; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic rhaboviral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes acute disease in juvenile fish of a number of populations of Pacific salmonid species. Heavily managed in both marine and freshwater environments, these fish species are cultured during the juvenile stage in freshwater conservation hatcheries, where IHNV is one of the top three infectious diseases that cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a comprehensive study of viral genetic surveillance data representing 2590 field isolates collected between 1958 and 2014 was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of IHNV in the Pacific Northwest of the contiguous United States. Prevalence of infection varied over time, fluctuating over a rough 5–7 year cycle. The genetic analysis revealed numerous subgroups of IHNV, each of which exhibited spatial heterogeneity. Within all subgroups, dominant genetic types were apparent, though the temporal patterns of emergence of these types varied among subgroups. Finally, the affinity or fidelity of subgroups to specific host species also varied, where UC subgroup viruses exhibited a more generalist profile and all other subgroups exhibited a specialist profile. These complex patterns are likely synergistically driven by numerous ecological, pathobiological, and anthropogenic factors. Since only a few anthropogenic factors are candidates for managed intervention aimed at improving the health of threatened or endangered salmonid fish populations, determining the relative impact of these factors is a high priority for future studies.

  1. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).

  2. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  3. Farmed Atlantic salmon: potential invader in the Pacific Northwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson; Pete Bisson

    2008-01-01

    Commercial farming of Atlantic salmon in marine net-pens has become a booming industry. At present, approximately 130 salmon farms exist along the Pacific coast of North America. Most of these farms are in cold marine bays within British Columbia, where farmed salmon have become the province’s most valuable agricultural export. Each year, thousands of farmed Atlantic...

  4. Laboratory survival of Drosophila suzukii under simulated winter conditions of the Pacific Northwest and seasonal field trapping in five primary regions of small and stone fruit production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Daniel T; Walton, Vaughn M; Shearer, Peter W; Walsh, Douglas B; Caprile, Janet; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-11-01

    Drosophila suzukii was first found in Oregon in August 2009. The threat of this pest to regional small and stone fruit production industries led to investigations on its overwintering capabilities in fruit-growing regions in the Pacific Northwest. Knowledge of its cold tolerance will help in the development of computer models to forecast seasonal population growth and decline. Of 1500 adults or pupae, 22 (1.4%) individuals survived the 84 day experimental chilling period. Most (86%) of the survivors were subjected to 10 °C temperature treatments. Survival decreased significantly at lower temperature treatments. Freezing temporarily increased the mortality rate but did not significantly affect overall mortality over the trial period. Flies that emerged from pupae are estimated to survive for up to 103-105 days at 10 °C and for shorter periods at lower temperatures. Field trapping in five fruit production areas has demonstrated overwintering survival in California and Oregon, but lower survival is predicted in Eastern Washington and Michigan. The experiments reported here indicate that long-term survival of D. suzukii is unlikely at temperatures below 10 °C. Field data from five climatic regions indicated extended low initial D. suzukii field presence in 2010 in all regions except California, where field presence was recorded earlier. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of Pu in the Northwest Pacific Ocean using modern coral archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Patric; Andersen, Morten B; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Worsfold, Paul; Hyeong, Kiseong; Choi, Min-Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-04-01

    Historical (239)Pu activity concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were determined in skeletons of dated modern corals collected from three locations (Chuuk Lagoon, Ishigaki Island and Iki Island) to identify spatial and temporal variations in Pu inputs to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The main Pu source in the Northwest Pacific is fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing which consists of global fallout and close-in fallout from the former US Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands. PPG close-in fallout dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as was observed with higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) at the Ishigaki site. Specific fallout Pu contamination from the Nagasaki atomic bomb and the Ivy Mike thermonuclear detonation at the PPG were identified at Ishigaki Island from the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios of 0.07 and 0.46, respectively. During the 1960s and 1970s, global fallout was the major Pu source to the Northwest Pacific with over 60% contribution to the total Pu. After the cessation of the atmospheric nuclear tests, the PPG again dominated the Pu input due to the continuous transport of remobilised Pu from the Marshall Islands along the North Equatorial Current and the subsequent Kuroshio Current. The Pu contributions from the PPG in recent coral bands (1984 onwards) varied over time with average estimated PPG contributions between 54% and 72% depending on location. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Apparent Herbivory and Indigenous Pathogens of Invasive Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus L.) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    dark at room temperature (20-22 Co) for approximately one week. Fungal isolates that emerged from the diseased tissue were transferred to Potato ...associated herbivore fauna and pathogenic diseases . The results of these surveys allow researchers to predict potential interactions between native...was completed in the Pacific Northwest portion of the flowering rush range to document baseline herbivory and disease on flowering rush in the U.S

  7. Journey of the Oncorhynchus: A Story of the Pacific Northwest Salmon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-06-01

    This report tells the story of the Pacific Northwest salmon in words that children can understand. The life cycle of chinook salmon is depicted through pictures and elementary language from the egg to juvenile fish in fresh water, to maturing fish in the ocean, and the adults migrating back up to spawning grounds in the Columbia River. This can be very useful in the education of children.

  8. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an alternative scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beers, J.R.; Cavanagh, R.C.; Lash, T.R.; Mott, L.

    1980-05-19

    A strategy is presented for averting the short-term energy supply uncertainties that undermine prospects for stable economic development in the Pacific Northwest. This strategy is based on: an analysis of the present electric power consumption by various end-use sectors; comparison of incentives to promote energy conservation and lower demand growth; analysis of alternatives to current dependency on hydro power; and a study of the cost of planning and implementing future power supply programs. (LCL)

  9. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  10. Effects of climate change on Pacific Northwest water-related resources: Summary of preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Sands, R.D.; Vail, L.W.; Chatters, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Case Study is a multi-agency analysis of atmospheric/climatic change impacts on the Pacific Northwest (which includes Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of the Columbia River Basin in Western Montana). The purpose of the case study, which began in fiscal year 1991, was to develop and test analytical tools, as well as to develop an assessment of the effects of climate change on climate-sensitive natural resources of the Pacific Northwest and economic sectors dependent on them. The overall study, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, was a broad-based, reconnaissance-level study to identify potential climate impacts on agriculture, coastal resources, forest resources, and irrigation in the Pacific Northwest. DOE participated in the reconnaissance study, with responsibility for hydroelectric and water supply issues. While this report briefly discusses a broader array of water issues, attention is mainly focused on three aspects of the water study: (1) the effects of the region`s higher temperatures on the demand for electric power (which in turn puts additional demand on hydroelectric resources of the region); (2) the effects of higher temperatures and changes, both in precipitation amounts and seasonality, on river flows and hydroelectric supply; and (3) the effect of higher temperatures and changed precipitation amounts and seasonality on salmonid resources -- particularly the rearing conditions in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin. Because the meaning of regional climate forecasts is still quite uncertain, most of the preliminary findings are based on sensitivity analyses and historical analog climate scenarios.

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-07-15

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release.

  12. CASCADES: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keillor, M. E.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J. E.; Glasgow, B. D.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Seifert, A.; Stavenger, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    State-of-the-art treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high detection efficiency and reduced instrument backgrounds. Current research is producing an intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive γ—γ coincidence detection. The system design is optimized to accommodate filter paper samples, e.g. samples collected by the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer. The system will provide high sensitivity for weak collections on atmospheric filter samples (e.g.fissions) as well as offering the potential to gather additional information from higher activity filters using gamma cascade coincidence detection. The first of two HPGe crystal arrays in ultra-low-background vacuum cryostats has been assembled, with the second in progress. Traditional methods for constructing ultra-low-background detectors were followed, including use of materials known to be low in radioactive contaminants, use of ultra-pure reagents, and clean room assembly. The cryostat is constructed mainly from copper electroformed into near-final geometry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Details of the detector assembly and initial background and spectroscopic measurement results are presented; also a description of the custom analysis package used by this project is given.

  13. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20-25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  14. Radiological risk guidelines for nonreactor nuclear facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, D.E.; Ikenberry, T.A.

    1993-09-01

    Radiological risk evaluation guidelines for the public and workers have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) based upon the Nuclear Safety Policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) established in Secretary of Energy Notice SEN-35-91. The DOE nuclear safety policy states that the general public shall be protected such that no individual bears significant additional risk to health and safety from the operation of a DOE nuclear facility above the risks to which members of the general population are normally exposed. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines developed at PNL are unique in that they are (1) based upon quantitative risk goals and (2) provide a consistent level of risk management. These guidelines are used to evaluate the risk from radiological accidents that may occur during research and development activities at PNL, and are not intended for evaluation of routine exposures. A safety analyst uses the,frequency of the potential accident and the radiological dose to a given receptor to determine if the accident consequences meet the objectives of the Nuclear Safety Policy. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines are an effective tool for assisting in the management of risk at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. These guidelines (1) meet the nuclear safety policy of DOE, (2) establish a tool for managing risk at a consistent level within the defined constraints, and (3) set risk at an appropriate level, as compared with other risks encountered by the public and worker. Table S.1 summarizes the guidelines developed in this report.

  15. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  16. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Heather M; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F; Wintner, Sabine P; Fordham, Sonja V; Fisk, Aaron T; Hussey, Nigel E

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL) and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated research to

  17. Changing Forest Land Use in the Pacific Northwest and Implications for Ecosystem Processes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B. E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Yang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Human use of forests in the Pacific Northwest US has evolved from underburning for wildlife habitat, to clearing for subsistence living, and an emphasis on timber production. In Oregon, forests older than 200 years now occupy less than 1 percent of private land that accounts for half the forest area, and ranges from 15 to almost 60 percent of public lands depending on the ecoregion. The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was implemented on public lands in 1993 as a region-wide forest management regime intended to conserve species at risk from extensive harvest of older forests. The result was an 82 percent reduction in harvest removals on public forest lands, and subsequently, public forestland became a carbon sink while private forest remained near carbon neutral. Currently, forest management on public lands in the PNW emphasizes widespread thinning of forests to reduce wildfire risk, and thinning and slash removal for bioenergy production. In addition, several states have set ambitious GHG reduction targets. These policies are being implemented even though many aspects have not been adequately assessed for the effects on forests. CLM4 simulations over Oregon show that by the year 2100, net carbon uptake increases by 32-68% depending on the climate and CO2 scenario, suggesting that enhanced productivity from a warmer climate and CO2 fertilization compensates for disturbance losses if business-as-usual management continues. Water cycle implications are also considered. Simulated repeat thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality and fire emissions, and clearcut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for both wood products and bioenergy. CLM input to a Life Cycle Assessment, which tracks emissions off-site, shows that none of the scenarios reduce regional net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by the end of the 21st century. Thinning dry forests to reduce potential fire emissions led to no net change in emissions from BAU

  18. Information Management for the Watershed Approach in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of interviews with leaders and key participants in the statewide watershed approach activities in the State of Washington. Additionally, there are reviews of Washington’s statewide watershed activities in a case study fashion.

  19. NEKTON-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST (USA) ESTUARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekton−habitat associations were determined in Yaquina Bay, Oregon, United States, using a stratified-by-habitat, random, estuary-wide sampling design. Three habitats (intertidal eelgrass [Zostera marina], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], and ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californie...

  20. Nutrient Impaired 303(d) Streams for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — “Under section 303(d) of the 1972 Clean Water Act, states, territories, and authorized tribes are required to develop lists of impaired waters. These impaired waters...

  1. Evaluating an Automated Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbances in the Pacific Northwest from Logging, Fire and Insect Outbreaks with Landsat Time Series Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher S R Neigh; Douglas K Bolton; Jennifer J Williams; Mouhamad Diabate

    2014-01-01

    .... We investigated a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1982 to 1991 in Pacific Northwest forests, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA...

  2. Land use planning ballot initiatives in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Eric M. White

    2010-01-01

    Sustaining farm and forest land has been an important goal in the United States because of the role these lands play in the livelihoods of rural residents while also providing desired open space benefits. However, land use policies to protect rural lands often involve a tension between balancing public interests regarding economic and open space goals with the private...

  3. Assessing rarity of species with low detectability: Lichens in Pacific Northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T.C.; Cutler, D.R.; Geiser, L.; Alegria, J.; McKenzie, D.

    2004-01-01

    We show how simple statistical analyses of systematically collected inventory data can be used to provide reliable information about the distribution and habitat associations of rare species. Using an existing design-based sampling grid on which epiphytic macrolichens had been inventoried in the Northwest Forest Plan area of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, we (1) estimate frequencies and standard errors for each of 25 lichen species having special management designation (i.e., Survey and Manage), (2) assess the probability that individual species were associated with specific land allocation and forest stand age classifications, and (3) provide estimates of sample sizes necessary to ensure sufficient detections for these analyses. We conclude with a discussion of management and conservation information needs that extant data can satisfy and identify advantages and limitations of random vs. nonrandom sampling strategies. Combining design-assisted and model-assisted approaches can overcome some of the limitations of either single strategy.

  4. Simulations of the ENSO Hydroclimate Signals in the Pacific Northwest Columbia River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L. Ruby; Hamlet, Alan F.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Kumar, Arun

    1999-11-01

    Natural fluctuations in the atmosphereocean system related to the El NiñoSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) induce climate variability over many parts of the world that is potentially predictable with lead times from seasons to decades. This study examines the potential of using a model nesting approach to provide seasonal climate and streamflow forecasts suitable for water resources management. Two ensembles of perpetual January simulations were performed with a regional climate model driven by a general circulation model (GCM), using observed climatological sea surface temperature (SST) and the mean SST of the warm ENSO years between 1950 and 1994. The climate simulations were then used to drive a macroscale hydrology model to simulate streamflow. The differences between the two ensembles of simulations are defined as the warm ENSO signals.The simulated hydroclimate signals were compared with observations. The analyses focus on the Columbia River basin in the Pacific Northwest. Results show that the global and regional models simulated a warming over the Pacific Northwest that is quite close to the observations. The models also correctly captured the strong wet signal over California and the weak dry signal over the Pacific Northwest during warm ENSO years. The regional climate model consistently performed better than the GCM in simulating the spatial distribution of regional climate and climate signals. When the climate simulations were used to drive a macroscale hydrology model at the Columbia River basin, the simulated streamflow signal resembles that derived from hydrological simulations driven by observed climate. The streamflow simulations were considerably improved when a simple bias correction scheme was applied to the climate simulations. The coupled regional climate and macroscale hydrologic simulations demonstrate the prospect for generating and utilizing seasonal climate forecasts for managing reservoirs.

  5. The Importance of Reappraisal and Deaccessioning in Collegiate Archives in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Buehn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current reappraisal practices and procedures of archives, and investigates the need for official deaccessioning policies through the analysis of literature in the field and eight personal interviews conducted with professionals in universities in the Pacific Northwest. These persons were asked about the initial appraisal procedure of their repository, the current reappraisal process done without an official policy, and the factors that contribute to the decisions made concerning deaccessioning. Formal policies for appraisal and deaccessioning are important for responsible management of individual archival repositories, and also for the development of archival communities.

  6. Domestic cultivation of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and aquaculture of Malaysian prawns in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.A.; Sandifer, P.A.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1978-07-01

    Aquaculture of salmon and shrimp is discussed. Domsea Farms in the Pacific Northwest has facilities for spawning, hatching, and rearing of coho salmon for U.S. markets. Health management programs operate to keep salmon free from bacterial or viral diseases. Recent developments in technology for the intensive culture of a tropical prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are considered. Commercial facilities in South Carolina consisting of hatchery, nursery, production, and brood stock phases are described. Designs for very intensive grow-out systems include small earthen pond units, modified Shigueno-type tanks, and aquacells. Major problem areas of commercial shrimp production are identified. (10 diagrams, 1 graph, 11 photos, numerous references)

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Apatite Investigation at the 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-28

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the 100-NR-2 Apatite Project. The U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment. The scope of this project covers the technical support needed before, during, and after treatment of the targeted subsurface environment using a new high-concentration formulation.

  8. Energy and Water Conservation Assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Stephanie R.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-05-31

    This report summarizes the results of an energy and water conservation assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The assessment was performed in October 2013 by engineers from the PNNL Building Performance Team with the support of the dedicated RPL staff and several Facilities and Operations (F&O) department engineers. The assessment was completed for the Facilities and Operations (F&O) department at PNNL in support of the requirements within Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007.

  9. Spatial patterns of March and September streamflow trends in Pacific Northwest Streams, 1958-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Steele, Madeline; Gannett, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Summer streamflow is a vital water resource for municipal and domestic water supplies, irrigation, salmonid habitat, recreation, and water-related ecosystem services in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the United States. This study detects significant negative trends in September absolute streamflow in a majority of 68 stream-gauging stations located on unregulated streams in the PNW from 1958 to 2008. The proportion of March streamflow to annual streamflow increases in most stations over 1,000 m elevation, with a baseflow index of less than 50, while absolute March streamflow does not increase in most stations. The declining trends of September absolute streamflow are strongly associated with seven-day low flow, January–March maximum temperature trends, and the size of the basin (19–7,260 km2), while the increasing trends of the fraction of March streamflow are associated with elevation, April 1 snow water equivalent, March precipitation, center timing of streamflow, and October–December minimum temperature trends. Compared with ordinary least squares (OLS) estimated regression models, spatial error regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models effectively remove spatial autocorrelation in residuals. The GWR model results show spatial gradients of local R 2 values with consistently higher local R 2 values in the northern Cascades. This finding illustrates that different hydrologic landscape factors, such as geology and seasonal distribution of precipitation, also influence streamflow trends in the PNW. In addition, our spatial analysis model results show that considering various geographic factors help clarify the dynamics of streamflow trends over a large geographical area, supporting a spatial analysis approach over aspatial OLS-estimated regression models for predicting streamflow trends. Results indicate that transitional rain–snow surface water-dominated basins are likely to have reduced summer streamflow under warming scenarios

  10. Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Project Technology Performance Report Volume 1: Technology Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Ron [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), a $179 million project that was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in late 2009, was one of the largest and most comprehensive demonstrations of electricity grid modernization ever completed. The project was one of 16 regional smart grid demonstrations funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. It was the only demonstration that included multiple states and cooperation from multiple electric utilities, including rural electric co-ops, investor-owned, municipal, and other public utilities. No fewer than 55 unique instantiations of distinct smart grid systems were demonstrated at the projects’ sites. The local objectives for these systems included improved reliability, energy conservation, improved efficiency, and demand responsiveness. The demonstration developed and deployed an innovative transactive system, unique in the world, that coordinated many of the project’s distributed energy resources and demand-responsive components. With the transactive system, additional regional objectives were also addressed, including the mitigation of renewable energy intermittency and the flattening of system load. Using the transactive system, the project coordinated a regional response across the 11 utilities. This region-wide connection from the transmission system down to individual premises equipment was one of the major successes of the project. The project showed that this can be done and assets at the end points can respond dynamically on a wide scale. In principle, a transactive system of this type might eventually help coordinate electricity supply, transmission, distribution, and end uses by distributing mostly automated control responsibilities among the many distributed smart grid domain members and their smart devices.

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY1996 midyear self-evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    As stated in our mission, the Laboratory is concentrated on DOE`s environmental quality mission and the scientific research required to support that mission. The Laboratory also supports the energy resources and national security missions in areas where an overlap between our core competencies and DOE`s goals exists. Our intent for fiscal year l996 is to focus our efforts on the critical outcomes necessary for us to meet DOE`s needs. Six Critical Outcomes were established and substantial progress has been made against five of those outcomes during the first half of the fiscal year. A summary of progress and key issues is provided. The Critical Outcomes are: Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory; Environmental Management; Scientific Excellence and Productivity; ES&H/Conduct of Operations; Leadership; and Economic Development. The Laboratory has also made a significant commitment to the implementation of a fully integrated self-assessment program. Efforts during the first half of the fiscal year have been focused on developing an approach for the overall program and implementation in selected organizations. The approach is holistic and focuses assessment on activities important to the successful completion of our critical outcomes. Progress towards full implementation of the integrated assessment program is meeting expectations in general, but significant effort still needs to be applied to obtain effective implementation across the Laboratory and to ensure integration with the business planning process.

  12. Impact of increased coal consumption in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, J.B. (comp.)

    1978-03-01

    The objectives of the National Coal Utilization Assessment are: Identification of the environmental, health and socioeconomic impacts to be expected from the increased use of coal; investigation of mitigation strategies that might be used to manage these impacts; and establishment of working relationships with state and regional agencies and utilities. A number of energy issues were identified in the course of the study. Probably the most significant issues in this region are the siting of coal-fired power plants and the tradeoff in water allocation between energy and agriculture. Choices of coal-fired generation sites and water use determine the level of impacts to air, water, land, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and human health and socioeconomics. Air quality impacts were studied by incorporating current and projected emission inventories into both short-range and long-range air quality diffusion models. Results indicate that annual average ambient air quality standards will not be exceeded at any of the sites. Surface water supplies are more than adequate to meet the needs of new coal-fired generating plants located in the Columbia or Snake River; however, future conflicts could arise with agriculture over allocation of water rights. Water quality impacts would be minimal, even in the delicate estuarine and coastal sites, under the assumed control and cooling designs. Terrestrial ecosystems do not appear to be threatened as long as specific sites are selected to avoid identified areas of ''critical'' habitat. Impacts on aquatic biota and habitats seem manageable as long as existing regulations are met. Several rare or endangered species are identified. A computer model was used to facilitate the analysis of socioeconomic impacts to be expected from the addition of coal-fired generating capacity at the candidate sites. A number of issues which are still largely unresolved and deserve further attention are mentioned.

  13. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    We have been conducting long-term seafloor electromagnetic (EM) observations at two sites in the northwest Pacific since 2001. The older site was established at the deep seafloor (~5600m) on the northwest Pacific basin (Site NWP), while the new one was installed on the west Philippine basin (Site WPB) in 2006 at the slightly deeper (~5700m) seafloor. The ages of the oceanic basins at those sites are approximately 129 Ma for Site NWP (Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191, 2000) and 49 Ma for Site WPB (Salisbury et al., 2006), respectively. The EM instruments deployed at those sites are seafloor EM stations (SFEMS; Toh et al., 2004 and 2006) and capable of measuring vector EM fields at the seafloor for as long as one year or more with other physical quantities such as the instruments' attitude, orientation and temperature. One of the objectives of the seafloor long-term EM observations by SFEMSs is to make a comparative study of the oceanic mantle with and without influence of the so-called 'stagnant slabs' in terms of their electrical conductivity. It is anticipated that the mantle transition zone under the influence of the stagnant slab has a higher electrical conductivity because the transition zone there could be wetter than that in the absence of the stagnant slab. In this context, the mantle transition zone beneath Site WPB can be said to have influence by the stagnant slab, while that beneath Site NWP does not. It, therefore, is basically possible to estimate how much water is present in each transition zone by comparison of the electrical conductivity profiles of the two. The one-dimensional electrical profile beneath Site NWP has been derived so far using the magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS) methods with significant jumps in the electrical property at 410 and 660km discontinuities. The jumps are approximately factors of 10 and 2, respectively (Ichiki et al., 2009). Here we show a profile beneath Site WPB using both MT and GDS

  14. The Pacific Northwest Hydrological Observatory (PNW HO): Hypothesis and model testing power through diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. J.; Grant, G.; Hulse, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrological Observatory (PNW HO) is a proposed national facility for the examination of the linkages between hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources in the face of increasing human demands and climate change, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, and hydrologic extremes. The PNW HO infrastructure will support research that examines forcings, feedbacks and couplings across hydro-eco-climatic interfaces, process scaling, and development of new predictive schemes and methods to reduce predictive uncertainty. Much of the data collection infrastructure is already in place, in the form of USGS gauging, local and State data recording. The PNW HO includes a novel experimental design that twins two neighboring watersheds-the humid Willamette and arid Deschutes River Basins-that represent a full range of landscape gradients and societal problems relating to water quantity and quality. Workers at the PNW HO will be able to build upon existing synthesis documents in the form of the Willamette River Basin Planning Atlas and recent AGU Monograph on the Deschutes River Basin. The PNW HO design builds upon the HJ Andrews LTER site in the headwaters and recent listing of the Willamette River Basin as a UNESCO HELP international observatory. The PNW HO has access to one of the richest SNOTEL datasets in North America along the divide between the Willamette and Deschutes Basins. The Willamette is a USGS NAWQA basin and the Deschutes has been the focus of a major USGS groundwater investigation, and is one of five sites nationally in the Fire Learning Network. Finally, and perhaps most importantly for technology transfer of HO science to policy and practice, the PNW HO enjoys a rather unique combination of Oregon's state-based land use planning and doctrine of prior appropriations water law (land use planning and water rights). While there are certainly areas in the West where human populations are growing as fast or faster, none

  15. Review of Pacific Northwest Laboratory research on aquatic effects of hydroelectric generation and assessment of research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an overview of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) research on how hydroelectric generation affects aquatic biota and environments. The major accomplishments of this research are described, and additional work needed to permit optimal use of available data is identified. The research goals are to: (1) identify impacts of hydroelectric generation, (2) provide guidance in allocating scarce water resources, and (3) develop techniques to avoid or reduce the impacts on aquatic communities or to compensate for unavoidable impacts. Through laboratory and field experiments, an understanding is being developed of the generic impacts of hydrogeneration. Because PNL is located near the Columbia River, which is extensively developed for hydroelectric generation, it is used as a natural laboratory for studying a large-scale operating system. Although the impacts studied result from a particular system of dams and operating procedures and occur within a specific ecosystem, the results of these studies have application at hydroelectric generating facilities throughout the United States.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Program -- FY 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, Regan S.

    2011-04-20

    During fiscal year (FY) 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Protection and Regulatory Programs Division (before March 1, 2011 known as the Environmental Management Services Department) staff performed a number of activities as part of PNNL’s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance program. These activities helped to verify U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) and Richland Operations Office (RL) compliance with NEPA requirements and streamline the NEPA process for federal activities conducted at PNNL. Self-assessments were performed to address NEPA compliance and cultural and biological resource protection. The NEPA self-assessments focused on implementation within the PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate and routine maintenance activities conducted during the previous calendar year. The cultural and biological resource self-assessments were conducted in accordance with the PNSO Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan, which specifies annual monitoring of important resources to assess and document the status of the resources and the associated protective mechanisms in place to protect sensitive resources.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  18. Intestinal helminths of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P.; Henny, Charles J.; Hedstrom, O.R.; Grove, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of river otters, Lutra canadensis, from the Pacific Northwest was characterized by low species richness and intensity of infection. River otters from the lower Columbia River (n = 23) were infected with 9 species of helminths (83% prevalence); those from a relatively undisturbed reference area near the headwaters of the Trask and Wilson rivers on the Oregon coast (n = 6) were infected by 5 species of helminths (100% prevalence). Single species of Eucestoda (Schistocephalus solidus), Digenea (Euparyphium inerme), Acanthocephala (Corynosoma strumosum), and 8 species of Nematoda (Strongyloides lutrae; larvae of Eustrongylides sp., Anisakis sp., and Contracaecum sp.; 3 of Cystidicolidae, and Hedruris sp.) were collected. Most species are typical of piscine definitive hosts and were present as incidental parasites of river otters. Notably, specimens of Euparyphium inerme are reported for the first time in river otters from North America; occurrence of other helminths constitutes new host or geographic records for parasites in river otters in Oregon and Washington. Parasites with marine life cycles were acquired by river otters in freshwater habitats at a great distance from the ocean. The helminth fauna of river otters in the Pacific Northwest was influenced primarily by ecological factors and was indicative of eclectic food habits and the relatively extensive home ranges occupied by these mustelids.

  19. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an Alternative Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, R.C.; Mott, L.; Beers, J.R.; Lash, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    An Alternative Scenario for the electric energy future of the Pacific Northwest is presented. The Scenario includes an analysis of each major end use of electricity in the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. This approach affords the most direct means of projecting the likely long-term growth in consumption and the opportunities for increasing the efficiency with which electricity is used in each instance. The total demand for electricity by these end uses then provides a basis for determining whether additional central station generation is required to 1995. A projection of total demand for electricity depends on the combination of many independent variables and assumptions. Thus, the approach is a resilient one; no single assumption or set of linked assumptions dominates the analysis. End-use analysis allows policymakers to visualize the benefits of alternative programs, and to make comparison with the findings of other studies. It differs from the traditional load forecasts for the Pacific Northwest, which until recently were based largely on straightforward extrapolations of historical trends in the growth of electrical demand. The Scenario addresses the supply potential of alternative energy sources. Data are compiled for 1975, 1985, and 1995 in each end-use sector.

  20. Coping with drought: A High Resolution Drought Monitoring and Prediction System for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M.; Nijssen, B.; Shukla, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) region in North America (defined here as the Columbia and Klamath River basins plus the coastal drainages) is a diverse geographic region with complex topography and a variety of climates. Agriculture (dryland and irrigated), forestry, fisheries, and hydropower provide significant economic benefit to the region and are directly dependent on the availability of sufficient water at the right time. Additional demands are made on water supplies by recreation, ecosystem services and emerging needs such as hydropower generation in support of wind energy integration. Several major droughts have occurred over the region in recent decades (notably 1977, 2001, and 2004), which have had significant consequences for the region's agricultural, hydropower production, and environment. An emerging need for the region is the coordination of existing regional climate activities, including a better awareness of the current water availability conditions across the region. The University of Washington has operated a surface water monitor for the continental United States since 2005, which provides near real-time estimates of surface water conditions at a spatial resolution of 1/2 degree in terms of soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and total moisture based on a suite of land surface models. A higher resolution Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (DMPS) for Washington State was originally implemented at 1/8 degree and later increased to 1/16 degree. This presentation describes the extension of this system to the entire PNW region at 1/16 degree. The expanded system provides daily updates of three primary drought-related indices based on near real-time station observations in the region: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Runoff Index (SRI), and Soil Moisture Percentiles (SMP). To make the drought measures relevant to water managers, surface water conditions are not only reported on a gridded map, but watershed-level drought summary

  1. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Christiansen

    Full Text Available White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8, Republic of Korea (22, Japan (129, China (32, Taiwan (45, Philippines (1 and Vietnam (3. Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam. Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113. Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases to near term (140 cm TL embryos. On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10 and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  2. Molecular systematics of the anchovy genus Encrasicholina in the Northwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Bertrand, Joris A M; Wang, Hui-Yu; Chen, Wei-Jen; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Motomura, Hiroyuki; Hata, Harutaka; Sado, Tetsuya; Miya, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    The anchovy genus Encrasicholina is an important coastal marine resource of the tropical Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region for which insufficient comparative data are available to evaluate the effects of current exploitation levels on the sustainability of its species and populations. Encrasicholina currently comprises nine valid species that are morphologically very similar. Only three, Encrasicholina punctifer, E. heteroloba, and E. pseudoheteroloba, occur in the Northwest Pacific subregion of the northeastern part of the IWP region. These species are otherwise broadly distributed and abundant in the IWP region, making them the most important anchovy species for local fisheries. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of these three species of Encrasicholina within the Engraulidae. We sequenced 10 complete mitochondrial genomes (using high-throughput and Sanger DNA sequencing technologies) and compared those sequences to 21 previously published mitochondrial genomes from various engraulid taxa. The phylogenetic results showed that the genus Encrasicholina is monophyletic, and it is the sister group to the more-diverse "New World anchovy" clade. The mitogenome-based dating results indicated that the crown group Encrasicholina originated about 33.7 million years ago (nearby the limit Eocene/Oligocene), and each species of Encrasicholina has been reproductively isolated from the others for more than 20 million years, despite their morphological similarities. In contrast, preliminary population genetic analyses across the Northwest Pacific region using four mitogenomic sequences revealed very low levels of genetic differentiation within Encrasicholina punctifer. These molecular results combined with recent taxonomic revisions are important for designing further studies on the population structure and phylogeography of these anchovies.

  3. The Outdoor Leadership Handbook. A Manual for Leaders of Land-based Outdoor Pursuits in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul

    The handbook is intended for three leadership groups: leaders of land-based trips in the Pacific Northwest with youth or adults for an agency such as a city recreation department, experienced leaders, and leaders conducting high-adventure programs for juvenile delinquents. The handbook contains current information regarding: (1) trip planning and…

  4. Twelve-year responses of planted and naturally regenerating conifers to variable-retention harvest in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren S. Urgenson; Charles B. Halpern; Paul D. Anderson

    2013-01-01

    We studied patterns of conifer regeneration over 12 years as part of a regional-scale experiment in variable-retention harvest in the Pacific Northwest, the DEMO Study. We compared survival and height growth of planted conifers and density and seral composition of natural regeneration among treatments with differing retention levels (15% versus 40%) and patterns (...

  5. Drought-triggered western spruce budworm outbreaks in the Interior Pacific Northwest: A multi-century dendrochronological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Flower; D. G. Gavin; E. K. Heyerdahl; R. A. Parsons; G. M. Cohn

    2014-01-01

    Douglas-fir forests in the interior Pacific Northwest are subject to sporadic outbreaks of the western spruce budworm, a species widely recognized as the most destructive defoliator in western North America. Outbreaks of the western spruce budworm often occur synchronously over broad regions and lead to widespread loss of leaf area and decrease in growth rates in...

  6. Climate change adaptation strategies for federal forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA: ecological, policy, and socio-economic perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Spies; Thomas W. Giesen; Frederick J. Swanson; Jerry F. Franklin; Denise Lach; K. Norman. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Conserving biological diversity in a changing climate poses major challenges for land managers and society. Effective adaptive strategies for dealing with climate change require a socioecological systems perspective. We highlight some of the projected ecological responses to climate change in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A and identify possible adaptive actions that...

  7. Amphibians as metrics of critical biological thresholds in forested headwater streams of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell H. Welsh; Garth Hodgson

    2008-01-01

    1. Amphibians are recognized both for their sensitivity to environmental perturbations and for their usefulness as cost-effective biometrics of ecosystem integrity (=system health). 2. Twenty-three years of research in headwater streams in the Klamath-Siskiyou and North Coast Bioregions of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A., showed distinct patterns in the...

  8. 77 FR 49854 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Oregon Portion of the Pacific Northwest Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The federally designated PNWRC has been the subject of high-speed passenger rail... Pacific Northwest Rail Corridor (Portland to Eugene) AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S..., 2012. Corey Hill, Director, Rail Project Development and Delivery. BILLING CODE 4910-06-P ...

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  10. Tree growth and climate in the Pacific Northwest, North America: a broad-scale analysis of changing growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Albright; David L. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Climate change in the 21st century will affect tree growth in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, although complex climate–growth relationships make it difficult to identify how radial growth will respond across different species distributions. We used a novel method to examine potential growth responses to climate change at a broad geographical scale with a...

  11. A Knowledge-Based Information Management System for Watershed Analysis in the Pacific Northwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reynolds; Patrick Cunningham; Larry Bednar; Michael Saunders; Michael Foster; Richard Olson; Daniel Schmoldt; Donald Latham; Bruce Miller; John Steffenson

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Research Station (USDA Forest Service) is developing a knowledge-based information management system to provide decision support for watershed analysis. The system includes: (1) a GIS interface that allows users to navigate graphically to specific provinces and watersheds and display a variety of themes (vegetation, streams, roads, topography, etc...

  12. Forest fuel reduction alters fire severity and long-term carbon storage in three Pacific Northwest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Mitchell; Mark E. Harmon; Kari E.B. O' Connell

    2009-01-01

    Two forest management objectives being debated in the context of federally managed landscapes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest involve a perceived trade-off between fire restoration and carbon sequestration. The former strategy would reduce fuel (and therefore carbon [C]) that has accumulated through a century of fire suppression and exclusion which has led to extreme...

  13. Saprolegniaceae identified on amphibian eggs throughout the Pacific Northwest, USA, by internal transcribed spacer sequences and phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill E. Petrisko; Christopher A. Pearl; David S. Pilliod; Peter P. Sheridan; Charles F. Williams; Charles R. Peterson; R. Bruce Bury

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the diversity and phylogeny of Saprolegniaceae on amphibian eggs from the Pacific Northwest, with particular focus on Saprolegnia ferax, a species implicated in high egg mortality. We identified isolates from eggs of six amphibians with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S gene regions and BLAST of the GenBank database. We...

  14. Climate change predicted to negatively influence surface soil health of dryland cropping systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key indicator of agricultural productivity and overall soil health. Currently, dryland cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW) span a large gradient in mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP). These climatic drivers are major determinants ...

  15. Climate change predicted to negatively influence surface soil organic matter of dryland cropping systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key indicator of agricultural productivity and overall soil health. Currently, dryland cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW) span a large gradient in mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP).These climatic drivers are major determinants o...

  16. Detection and Characters Analysis of Sea Surface Temperature Fronts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Meng; Wang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) front is a typical mesoscale phenomenon in the ocean. The SST field of the Northwest Pacific Ocean is complex and the SST fronts are well developed in this area. In this research, the accuracy of SST fusion data product of RSS is validated by Argo buoys and the standard deviation is found to be 0.6K. Additionally, the performance of two front detection methods (temperature gradient and Jensen-Shannon divergence method) is compared and assessed by a simulated temperature field. Results show that the JSD is superior to GM. Consequently, SST fronts in the study area are detected by the JSD divergence method and some characters such as evolution process, seasonal variation, fronts intensity and length are studied. The results show that the front is active in January and weaken in September. The front intensity is maximum in winter and reaches its minimum in summer.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY96 Annual Self-Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research and development efforts are concentrated on DOE`s environmental quality mission and the scientific research required to support that mission. The Laboratory also supports the energy resources and national security missions in areas where an overlap between our core competencies and DOE`s goals exists. Fiscal year 1996 saw the Laboratory focus its efforts on the results necessary for us to meet DOE`s most important needs and expectations. Six Critical Outcomes were established in partnership with DOE. The Laboratory met or exceeded performance expectations in most areas, including these outcomes and the implementation of the Laboratory`s Integrated Assessment Program. We believe our overall performance for this evaluation period has been outstanding. A summary of results and key issues is provided.

  18. Science To Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brockman, Fred J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Camaioni, Donald M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Felmy, Andrew R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Grate, Jay W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hay, Benjamin P.(PNNL); Hess, Nancy J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Meyer, Philip D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Murray, Christopher J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Pfund, David M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Su, Yali (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thornton, Edward C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Weber, William J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zachara, John M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-06-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, nine in fiscal year 1998, seven in fiscal year 1999, and five in fiscal year 2000. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have published final reports. The 1997 and 1998 award projects have been completed or are nearing completion. Final reports for these awards will be published, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the 1999 and 2000 grants address significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. The 1999 and 2000 EMSP awards at PNNL are focused primarily in two areas: Tank Waste Remediation, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  20. Variability of Stand Structures and Development in Old-Growth Forests in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Sun Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The forest stand structure class “old-growth” has previously been qualitatively described as having several distinct “sub-structures.” Species composition, diameter distribution, and other structural features commonly associated with old-growth in the Pacific Northwest are quite variable. We determined which quantitative stand structure variables are commonly found together using the Spearman correlation and non-metric multidimensional analysis. Some features were more commonly found together than others, indicating different old-growth stand types, or sub-structures. Cluster analysis classified the old-growth forests into four groups: Douglas-fir dominance, shade tolerant species dominance, and intermediate groups. The intermediate groups were split by the density of large logs and large shade tolerant trees. The old-growth sub-structures appear to change from one to another as the old forest develops.

  1. Collapse risk of buildings in the Pacific Northwest region due to subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meera; Liel, Abbie B.; Luco, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Subduction earthquakes similar to the 2011 Japan and 2010 Chile events will occur in the future in the Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out on 24 buildings designed according to outdated and modern building codes for the cities of Seattle, Washington, and Portland, Oregon. The results indicate that the median collapse capacity of the ductile (post-1970) buildings is approximately 40% less when subjected to ground motions from subduction, as compared to crustal earthquakes. Buildings are more susceptible to earthquake-induced collapse when shaken by subduction records (as compared to crustal records of the same intensity) because the subduction motions tend to be longer in duration due to their larger magnitude and the greater source-to-site distance. As a result, subduction earthquakes are shown to contribute to the majority of the collapse risk of the buildings analyzed.

  2. Urea hydrolysis can predict the potential pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysner, C A; Abeyta, C; Trost, P A; Wetherington, J H; Jinneman, K C; Hill, W E; Wekell, M M

    1994-01-01

    The ability of some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to hydrolyze urea (uh+) can be used as a marker to predict which strains isolated from molluscan shellfish harvested in the Pacific Northwest are potentially pathogenic. The thermostable direct hemolysin-producing (TDH+) characteristic is a marker that is correlated with potential pathogenicity, and all of the TDH+ strains that we have isolated have been found to be uh+. Most of the uh+ strains belong to somatic antigen groups O3, O4 and O5. TDH+ strains are usually members of groups O4 and O5. The strains most often associated with human illness are members of the uh+, O4 group. The test for urease production is a simple screening test that can be helpful in predicting which strains are potentially pathogenic. PMID:8085837

  3. Technology development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory high-level waste management history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, J.L. [Geosafe Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Platt, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    During WWII and the post-WWII years, until the late 1950`s, plutonium production was Hanford`s primary mission. This mission produced an enormous legacy of wastes that have themselves become the new mission at Hanford. Waste management, as practiced at Hanford, during the defense production years was in many ways unique to Hanford, taking advantage of the dry climate, distance from the Columbia river and depth to the water table. Near-surface storage in tanks, ion exchange in seepage trenches and cribs, and near surface burial were the norm. Isolation of the wastes by the high and dry nature of the 200 Area plateau, where reprocessing and waste management took place, was one of the reasons Hanford had been selected for it`s nuclear mission. Thus, location was a significant aspect of the initial waste management program at Hanford. Treatment, other than simple chemical steps such as neutralization and ion exchange, had not been considered necessary to the mission and was therefore not developed. To support the development of commercial nuclear power and to provide improved means of handling nuclear wastes, new waste management programs were initiated in the 1950`s by the Atomic Energy Commission. The programs focused on high level waste. They included `spray calcination/vitrification` at Hanford Laboratories. Hanford Labs later became Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) when Battelle Memorial Institute became the Operating Contractor in 1965. In 1996, it was renamed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The purpose of this paper is to describe the HLW projects and programs that followed from this early HLW R&D at PNNL.

  4. Primary productivity of supraglacial snow algae communities on stratovolcanoes of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Havig, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of geomicrobiological research conducted on glacial systems to date have focused on glaciers that override primarily carbonate or granitic bedrock types, with little known of the processes that support microbial life in glacial systems overriding volcanic terrains (e.g., basalt or andesite). To better constrain the role of the supraglacial ecosystems in the carbon and nitrogen cycles, to gain insight into microbiome composition and function in alpine glacial systems overriding volcanic terrains, and to constrain potential elemental sequestration or release through weathering processes associated with snow algae communities, we examined the microbial community structure and primary productivity in snow on and near alpine glaciers on stratovolcanoes in the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest. Here we present the first published values for carbon fixation rates of snow algae communities on alpine glaciers in the Pacific Northwest. We observed varying levels of light-dependent carbon fixation on snowfields on or near glaciers on Mt Hood, Mt Adams and North Sister. Recovery of algal 18S rRNA transcripts is consistent with previous studies indicating the majority of primary productivity on snow and ice can be attributed to photoautotrophic algae. In contrast to previous observations of glacial ecosystems, our geochemical, isotopic and microcosm data suggest these assemblages are not limited by phosphorus or fixed nitrogen availability. Furthermore, our data indicate these snow assemblages actively sequester Fe, Mn, and P leached from minerals sourced from the local rocks. Our observations of light-dependent primary productivity on snow are consistent with similar studies in polar ecosystems; however, our data underscore the need for similar studies on glacier surfaces and seasonal snowfields to better constrain the role of local bedrock and nutrient delivery on carbon fixation and biogeochemical cycling in these ecosystems.

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 300 area facility liquid effluent monitoring: 1994 and 1995 field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Thompson, C.J.; Damberg, E.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Effluent Management Services manages liquid waste streams from some of the 300 Area buildings on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to ensure liquid discharges to the Columbia River are in compliance with permit requirements. The buildings are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In fiscal year (FY) 1994 and FY 1995, three field tests were conducted to gather information that could be used to (1) increase the understanding of 300 Area building liquid waste streams based on the characterization and monitoring data collected during calendar year (CY) 1994 and CY 1995 and (2) establish improved methods for evaluating facility releases. The three field tests were (1) an evaluation of a continuous monitoring/event-triggered sampling system, (2) a volatile organic compound hold-time study, and (3) an investigation of the dilution and retention properties of the 300 Area process sewer. The results from the first field test showed that future characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams could benefit significantly from augmenting continuous monitoring with event-triggered sampling. Current continuous-monitoring practices (i.e., monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow) cannot detect discharges of organic pollutants. Effluent control effectiveness would be enhanced by incorporating a continuous total organic carbon analyzer in the system to detect events involving releases of organic compounds. In the second field test, sample hold times were shown to have a significant effect on volatile organic compound data. Samples analyzed in the field within 1 hour of collection generally had 1.5 to 3 times higher volatile organic compound concentrations than those analyzed 1.5 to 4 weeks later at on-site and off-site laboratories, respectively. The number of volatile organic compounds detected also decreased with increasing hold times.

  6. Quantifying vertical and horizontal stand structure using terrestrial LiDAR in Pacific Northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, Alexandra N.

    Stand level spatial distribution is a fundamental part of forest structure that influences many ecological processes and ecosystem functions. Vertical and horizontal spatial structure provides key information for forest management. Although horizontal stand complexity can be measured through stem mapping and spatial analysis, vertical complexity within the stand remains a mostly visual and highly subjective process. Tools and techniques in remote sensing, specifically LiDAR, provide three dimensional datasets that can help get at three dimensional forest stand structure. Although aerial LiDAR (ALS) is the most widespread form of remote sensing for measuring forest structure, it has a high omission rate in dense and structurally complex forests. In this study we used terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) to obtain high resolution three dimensional point clouds of plots from stands that vary by density and composition in the second-growth Pacific Northwest forest ecosystem. We used point cloud slicing techniques and object-based image analysis (OBIA) to produce canopy profiles at multiple points of vertical gradient. At each height point we produced segments that represented canopies or parts of canopies for each tree within the dataset. The resulting canopy segments were further analyzed using landscape metrics to quantify vertical canopy complexity within a single stand. Based on the developed method, we have successfully created a tool that utilizes three dimensional spatial information to accurately quantify the vertical structure of forest stands. Results show significant differences in the number and the total area of the canopy segments and gap fraction between each vertical slice within and between individual forest management plots. We found a significant relationship between the stand density and composition and the vertical canopy complexity. The methods described in this research make it possible to create horizontal stand profiles at any point along the vertical

  7. Interactions between fuel choice and energy-efficiency in new homes in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    In recent years the Bonneville Power Administration has instituted programs to prompt the implementation of the residential Model Conservation Standards (MCS) issued by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1983. These standards provide alternative methods for designing and constructing homes to cost effectively reduce residential energy consumption. Authority exists to apply them only to new, electrically heated homes. Because they apply to electrically heated homes, concerns have arisen about how the standards might affect buyers' decisions to purchase a new home, in particular, their choice of a heating fuel. Early data suggested that electricity started losing market share in Tacoma about when the MCS went into effect in 1984, and recent data have shown that about half of electricity's share of the new home market has shifted to natural gas. This decline in electric heating was consistent with concerns about the possible detrimental effect of the cost of MCS on sales of electrically heated homes. A desire to understand the causes of the perceived decline in electricity's market share was part of the impetus for this study. Multiple techniques and data sources are used in this study to examine the relationship between residential energy-efficiency and fuel choice in the major metropolitan areas in Washington: Spokane, Clark, Pierce, and King Counties. Recent regional surveys have shown that electricity is the predominant space heating fuel in the Pacific Northwest, but it appears to be losing its dominance in some markets such as Tacoma.

  8. Forecast simulation of rapidly-intensified typhoon in the Eddy-Rich Northwest Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ok; Yuk, Jin-Hee; Jung, Kyung Tae; Kuh Kang, Suk

    2017-04-01

    The real-time typhoon predictions in the Northwest Pacific (NWP) are being distributed by various agencies (for example, KMA, JMA, JTWC, NMC, CWB, HKO and PAGASA). Currently the movement of the typhoon can be predicted with an error of less than 100 km in 48 hours, however it is difficult to the predict of the intensity of the typhoon especially the Rapidly Intensified (RI) Typhoons. The mean occurrence of RI typhoon amounts to 5.4 times a year during 39 years (1977-2015), occupying 21% of typhoons in NWP. Especially the RI typhoon in the Eddy-Rich Northwest Pacific (ER-NWP) occurred 1.8 times a year, covering 29% of typhoons in ER-NWP. A RI typhoon, NEPARTAK (T201601), occurred in July 2016. It was formed in Caroline Islands and moved northwest, straightly heading for Taiwan. However, at the beginning stage many forecasting agencies predicts as move to the Yellow Sea. The accuracy of prediction data of the Typhoon NEPARTAK (T201601) from KMA, JMA and JTWC was compared with the adjusted best-track data from Digital-Typhoon (JMA-RSMC). The sequential prediction data are summarized with 6-hour interval from 3th to 10th July 2016.The JMA prediction of the typhoon track and the JTWC predictions of the maximum wind speed were found to be best. The numerical simulations using WRF model forced with NCEP GFS prediction data and microwave SST is compared. The simulations using one domain (D1), two domains (D2) using a moving nest scheme, and with or without the spectral nudging (-SN) are compared. Comparison of the errors on the track shows the differences of 100 km in 48-hour prediction and200 km in 72-hour prediction on average. The best results on the track prediction are shown in the D2 case of WRF model. However, underestimation of the maximum wind speed of WRF prediction still exists, obviously requiring better understanding of RI-related processes to improve the model prediction.

  9. Precipitation extremes and their relation to climatic indices in the Pacific Northwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarekarizi, Mahkameh; Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2017-09-01

    There has been focus on the influence of climate indices on precipitation extremes in the literature. Current study presents the evaluation of the precipitation-based extremes in Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We first analyzed the precipitation-based extremes using statistically (ten GCMs) and dynamically downscaled (three GCMs) past and future climate projections. Seven precipitation-based indices that help inform about the flood duration/intensity are used. These indices help in attaining first-hand information on spatial and temporal scales for different service sectors including energy, agriculture, forestry etc. Evaluation of these indices is first performed in historical period (1971-2000) followed by analysis of their relation to large scale tele-connections. Further we mapped these indices over the area to evaluate the spatial variation of past and future extremes in downscaled and observational data. The analysis shows that high values of extreme indices are clustered in either western or northern parts of the basin for historical period whereas the northern part is experiencing higher degree of change in the indices for future scenario. The focus is also on evaluating the relation of these extreme indices to climate tele-connections in historical period to understand their relationship with extremes over CRB. Various climate indices are evaluated for their relationship using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Results indicated that, out of 13 climate tele-connections used in the study, CRB is being most affected inversely by East Pacific (EP), Western Pacific (WP), East Atlantic (EA) and North Atlaentic Oscillation (NAO).

  10. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, T. S.; Anderson, T. L.; Baynard, T.; Bond, T.; Boucher, O.; Carmichael, G.; Clarke, A.; Erlick, C.; Guo, H.; Horowitz, L.; Howell, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Maring, H.; McComiskey, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Noone, K.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ogren, J.; Penner, J.; Quinn, P. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Savoie, D. L.; Schwartz, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Tang, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Wu, Y.

    2006-05-01

    The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar) radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001). Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO) during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA) during ICARTT), incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART). Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD), and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE - change in radiative flux due to total aerosols) are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity) are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan) to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative transfer

  11. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Bates

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001. Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA during ICARTT, incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART. Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD, and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE – change in radiative flux due to total aerosols are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative

  12. Atmospheric Mercury Deposition to a Remote Islet in the Subtropical Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, G.; Lin, N.

    2013-12-01

    Thirty-four weekly rainwater samples were collected in 2009 at Pengjiayu, a remote islet in the subtropical Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean with an area of 1.14 km^2, to study the distribution of rainwater mercury (Hg) concentrations and associated wet deposition fluxes. This is the first study concerning wet Hg deposition to the subtropical NW Pacific Ocean downwind of the East Asian continent, which is the major source region for Hg emissions worldwide. Sample Hg concentrations ranged from 2.25 to 22.33 ng L^-1, with a volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of 8.85 ng L^-1. The annual wet Hg deposition flux was 10.18 μg m^-2, about 2.5 times the fluxes measured at sites on the Pacific coast of the USA, supporting the hypothesis that deposition is higher in the western than in the eastern Pacific. Seasonal VWM concentrations were 7.23, 11.58, 7.82, and 9.84 ng L^-1, whereas seasonal wet deposition fluxes were 2.14, 3.45, 2.38, and 2.21 μg m^-2, for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Higher summer wet Hg deposition was a function of both higher rainwater Hg concentration and greater rainfall. The seasonal pattern of rainwater Hg concentrations was the opposite of the general seasonal pattern of the East Asian air pollutant export. Since there is no significant anthropogenic Hg emission source on the islet of Pengjiayu, the observed high summertime rainwater Hg concentration hints at the importance of Hg(0) oxidation and/or scavenging of upper-altitude reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) by deep convection. Direct anthropogenic RGM emissions from the East Asian continent may not contribute significantly to the rainwater Hg concentrations, but anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions could be transported to the upper troposphere or marine boundary layer where they can be oxidized to produce RGM, which will then be effectively scavenged by cloud water and rainwater.

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  14. Forecasting Ocean Acidification in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Feely, R. A.; Hermann, A. J.; Bednarsek, N.; Nguyen, T.; Officer, S.; Kaplan, I.; Bond, N.; Newton, J.; Fisher, J. L.; Morgan, C.; Saenger, C.

    2016-12-01

    Acidification of coastal waters is of increasing concern to local fisheries. Many economically or ecologically important species (oysters, crabs, phytoplankton, zooplankton) in the Pacific Northwest are expected to feel direct effects of ocean acidification. Direct effects have been observed on the $100 million shellfish industry, and additional indirect economic impacts are possible on the finfish industry due to a loss of prey species. The ability to predict the degree of acidification as well as relevant indices of impact for species of interest could be of considerable benefit to managers. An experimental seasonal ocean prediction system, JISAO's Seasonal Coastal Ocean Prediction of the Ecosystem (J-SCOPE), has recently been developed and assessed for the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest (Siedlecki et al. 2016; Kaplan et al. 2016). The goal has been to provide seasonal (six month) predictions of ocean conditions that are testable and relevant to management decisions for fisheries, protected species, and ecosystem health components. The output from this model (http://www.nanoos.org/products/j-scope/home.php/) include products relevant to the Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (e.g. forecasts of ecological indicators) for the California Current System. In this work, we have expanded the scope of our seasonal oceanographic forecasts from J-SCOPE to explicitly include acidification, and developed new acidification indices from model output, relevant to biological impacts (e.g. severity index for shellfish and pteropods, and a habitat map for crab megalopae). The model is able to reproduce and forecast the seasonal change in corrosive water observed in the region, over the simulated time periods. The volume of undersaturated water increases over the upwelling season, occupying more of the water column later in the upwelling season. This results in increasingly stressful conditions over most of the water column for biota on the shelf as the upwelling season

  15. Design and methods of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Journey, Celeste A.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Qi, Sharon L.

    2017-08-25

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project conducted the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA) to investigate stream quality across the western part of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the PNSQA was to assess the health of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to in-stream aquatic life and by evaluating the relation between these stressors and the condition of biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowland and Willamette Valley Level III Ecoregions were the focus of this regional study. Findings will help inform the public and policymakers about human and environmental factors that are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights into possible strategies to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.Land-use data were used in the study to identify and select sites within the region that ranged in levels of urban and agricultural development. A total of 88 sites were selected across the region—69 were on streams that explicitly spanned a range of urban land use in their watersheds, 8 were on streams in agricultural watersheds, and 11 were reference sites with little or no development in their watersheds. Depending on the type of land use, sites were sampled for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment for either a 4- or 10-week period during April, May, and June 2015. This water-quality “index period” was immediately followed with an ecological survey of all sites that included stream habitat, benthic algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Additionally, streambed sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing.This report provides a detailed description of the specific study components and methods of the PNSQA, including (1) surveys of stream habitat and aquatic biota, (2) discrete

  16. Primary productivity of snow algae communities on stratovolcanoes of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T L; Havig, J

    2017-03-01

    The majority of geomicrobiological research conducted on glacial systems to date has focused on glaciers that override primarily carbonate or granitic bedrock types, with little known of the processes that support microbial life in glacial systems overriding volcanic terrains (e.g., basalt or andesite). To better constrain the role of the supraglacial ecosystems in the carbon and nitrogen cycles, to gain insight into microbiome composition and function in alpine glacial systems overriding volcanic terrains, and to constrain potential elemental sequestration or release through weathering processes associated with snow algae communities, we examined the microbial community structure and primary productivity of snow algae communities on stratovolcanoes in the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest. Here, we present the first published values for carbon fixation rates of snow algae communities on glaciers in the Pacific Northwest. We observed varying levels of light-dependent carbon fixation on supraglacial and periglacial snowfields at Mt. Hood, Mt. Adams, and North Sister. Recovery of abundant 18S rRNA transcripts affiliated with photoautotrophs and 16S rRNA transcripts affiliated with heterotrophic bacteria is consistent with previous studies indicating the majority of primary productivity on snow and ice can be attributed to photoautotrophs. In contrast to previous observations of glacial ecosystems, our geochemical, isotopic, and microcosm data suggest these assemblages are not limited by phosphorus or fixed nitrogen availability. Furthermore, our data indicate these snow algae communities actively sequester Fe, Mn, and P leached from minerals sourced from the local rocks. Our observations of light-dependent primary productivity on snow are consistent with similar studies in polar ecosystems; however, our data may suggest that DIC may be a limiting nutrient in contrast to phosphorus or fixed nitrogen as has been observed in other glacial ecosystems. Our data

  17. Variation in forest biomass change highlights regional differences in forest succession in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D. M.; Gray, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Forest successional theory describes the changes in forest biomass and community composition from forest establishment to climax communities, but the drivers of succession are still widely debated. For example, successional models have related biomass and community change to stand age, species rarity within the community, small-scale disturbance, or the ability of species to survive under low resource conditions. The degree to which these drivers might vary regionally limits our ability to model and predict ecosystem change. Our objective was to assess whether forest successional theory explains observed changes in species biomass and community composition across forests of the U. S. Pacific Northwest. Using remeasurements of 9,700 Current Vegetation Survey (CVS) National Forest inventory plots primarily in Oregon and Washington, we quantified the effects of forest stand age, community composition, disturbance, and moisture (i.e., topography and climate) on changes in species-specific proportional live biomass (ΔB) and species dominance (ΔD). We focused on differences in forest successional patterns in two vegetation zones: the Tsuga heterophylla (TSHE) zone, found at low elevations on the wet, west side of the Cascade Mountains; and the Abies concolor (ABCO) zone, found at mid-elevations on the dry, east side of the Cascade Mountains. Preliminary results indicate that the regional differences in tree species biomass change and dominance appear to be related to responses to climate and disturbance. Strong positive effects of cover change on ΔB were observed in the drier ABCO zone, but not the wetter TSHE zone. ΔB and ΔD were more often sensitive to precipitation and topographic position in the ABCO zone. In both regions, we found that ΔB was strongly negatively related to species biomass and stand age while ΔD was strongly negatively related to relative density, highlighting the importance of both age and community in shaping succession. Given that the

  18. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Ann Harrington

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was more effective than the sequential model and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, true firs and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many burst bud normally without chilling.Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2 to 5.5 °C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur

  19. Isotope hydrology and baseflow geochemistry in natural and human-altered watersheds in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo Sanchez-Murillo; Erin S. Brooks; William J. Elliot; Jan Boll

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a stable isotope hydrology and geochemical analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA. Isotope ratios were used to estimate mean transit times (MTTs) in natural and human-altered watersheds using the FLOWPC program. Isotope ratios in precipitation resulted in a regional meteoric water line of ä2H = 7.42·ä18O + 0.88 (n = 316; r2 = 0.97...

  20. Evaluation of Legumes Common to the Pacific Northwest as Hosts for the Pea Cyst Nematode, Heterodera goettingiana

    OpenAIRE

    Tedford, E. C.; Inglis, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Seventeen leguminous species common to the Pacific Northwest were evaluated as potential hosts of the pea cyst nematode, Heterodera goettingiana, in both greenhouse and field experiments. In all experiments, juveniles of H. goettingiana penetrated roots of these 17 species with the exception of greenhouse-grown chickpea. Nematodes molted and developed into swollen third-stage or fourth-stage juveniles in many of the plants, but cyst development occurred only in the field on green pea, edible ...

  1. PURPA Resource Development in the Pacific Northwest : Case Studies of Ten Electricity Generating Powerplants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State Energy Office.

    1990-07-01

    The case studies in this document describe the Public Utilities, Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) development process for a variety of generating technologies. Developer interactions with regulatory agencies and power purchasers are described in some detail. Equipment, installation, and maintenance costs are identified; power marketing considerations are taken into account; and potential environmental impacts, with corresponding mitigation approaches and practices are summarized. The project development case studies were prepared by the energy agencies of the four Northwest states, under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration.

  2. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: Phase 1 : Book 1 : Getting Started.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applied Management & Planning Group (firm); United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section.

    1993-08-01

    This Executive Summary outlines the general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992. This study was Bonneville`s third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics; Housing Units; Room Inventory; Appliance Inventory; Air-Conditioning/Heating; Water-Heating; and Opinion. Reports and cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Plus provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  3. Comparison of electrofishing techniques to detect larval lampreys in wadeable streams in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Chelgren, Nathan D.; Heck, Michael P.; Clark, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the probability of detecting larval lampreys using different methods of backpack electrofishing in wadeable streams in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Our primary objective was to compare capture of lampreys using electrofishing with standard settings for salmon and trout to settings specifically adapted for capture of lampreys. Field work consisted of removal sampling by means of backpack electrofishing in 19 sites in streams representing a broad range of conditions in the region. Captures of lampreys at these sites were analyzed with a modified removal-sampling model and Bayesian estimation to measure the relative odds of capture using the lamprey-specific settings compared with the standard salmonid settings. We found that the odds of capture were 2.66 (95% credible interval, 0.87–78.18) times greater for the lamprey-specific settings relative to standard salmonid settings. When estimates of capture probability were applied to estimating the probabilities of detection, we found high (>0.80) detectability when the actual number of lampreys in a site was greater than 10 individuals and effort was at least two passes of electrofishing, regardless of the settings used. Further work is needed to evaluate key assumptions in our approach, including the evaluation of individual-specific capture probabilities and population closure. For now our results suggest comparable results are possible for detection of lampreys by using backpack electrofishing with salmonid- or lamprey-specific settings.

  4. Laboratory Measured Emission Losses of Methyl Isothiocyanate at Pacific Northwest Soil Surface Fumigation Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhou; Hebert, Vincent R; Miller, Glenn C

    2017-02-01

    Temperature is a major environmental factor influencing land surface volatilization at the time of agricultural field fumigation. Cooler fumigation soil temperatures relevant to Pacific Northwest (PNW) application practices with metam sodium/potassium should result in appreciably reduced methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) emission rates, thus minimizing off target movement and bystander inhalation exposure. Herein, a series of laboratory controlled flow-through soil column assessments were performed evaluating MITC emissions over the range of cooler temperatures (2-13°C). Assessments were also conducted at the maximum allowed label application temperature of 32°C. All assessments were conducted at registration label-specified field moisture capacity, and no more than 50% cumulative MITC loss was observed over the 2-day post-fumigation timeframe. Three-fold reductions in MITC peak fluxes at cooler PNW application temperatures were observed compared to the label maximum temperature. This study supports current EPA metam sodium/potassium label language that indicates surface fumigations during warmer soil conditions should be discouraged.

  5. Restoring Resiliency: Case Studies from Pacific Northwest Estuarine Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, Ronald M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Vavrinec, John; Borde, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of many ecological restoration projects is to establish an ecosystem with fully developed structure and function that exhibits resistance to and resilience from disturbances. Coastal restoration projects in the Pacific Northwest provide opportunities to understand what is required to restore the resilience of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations. Factors influencing resilience observed in three case studies of eelgrass restoration include minimum viable population, adaptations of transplant populations, and natural and anthropogenic disturbances at restoration sites. The evaluation of resiliency depends on selecting appropriate monitoring metrics and the frequency and duration of monitoring. Eelgrass area, cover and shoot density provide useful and reliable metrics for quantifying resilience of restored meadows. Further, five years of monitoring of these metrics provides data that can reasonably predict the long-term viability of a planted plot. Eelgrass appears to be a resilient ecosystem in general, though one that data suggest may exhibit tipping points brought about by compounded environmental conditions outside of its tolerance ranges. Explicit inclusion of resilience in the planning and practice of habitat restoration may reduce uncertainties and improve the performance of restored systems by increasing buffering capacity, nurturing sources of renewal (e.g., seeds and rhizomes), and managing for habitat forming and maintaining processes (e.g., sediment dynamics) at multiple scales.

  6. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter–fisher–gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to ‘collective’ cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212

  7. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies. [Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  8. Assessing Douglas-Fir Seedling Establishment Using Two Modified Forestry Reclamation Approaches in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton Miller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Forestry Reclamation Approach uses uncompacted, mounded spoils to reforest mined-land and has been successful in hardwood forests in the Appalachian region. A surface coalmine reclamation site in the Pacific Northwest was used to compare the site’s standard reclamation approach (Reference with a modified version of the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA along with a modified FRA treatment that also incorporated an amendment of bottom ash from the coal burning power plant on-site (FRA + Ash. Survival and growth were followed for three growing seasons in bareroot and container Douglas-fir seedlings. Soil characteristics and understory cover were also assessed. Considerable variation in microsite characteristics was observed in the study area. Container seedlings did not improve survival compared to bareroot seedlings. In the soil reclamation treatments, seedling survival was significantly higher in FRA + Ash treatments compared to FRA and Reference treatments at the end of the second growing season. Survival declined in each year of the study, but the order of treatment effectiveness did not change. Relativized growth increment was significantly higher in the FRA treatment compared to both the Reference and FRA + Ash treatments during the third growing season. Understory cover was established after three years, but varied substantially across the study area.

  9. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 (PNWRES92-I) : Executive Summary, Concordance, Glossary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group (Firm)

    1993-08-01

    The general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992 are outlined. This was Bonneville's third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics, Housing Units, Room Inventory, Appliance Inventory, Air-Conditioning/Heating/Water-Heating, and Opinion. Reports and Cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Pulse provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  10. Meet the best Award-winning technologies from Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle Memorial Institute has managed the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy for 25 years. During this time, numerous new technologies have been discovered and developed at PNL as a result of our research programs. This document will introduce you to some of the more significant discoveries and newly commercialized technologies. Each of the technologies described has received an award from Research Development magazine or the Federal Laboratory Consortium--sometimes both Each technology is available to you through PNL's technology transfer program or one of our licensees. Similarly, our award-winning scientists and engineers are available to assist you as you search for innovative technologies to solve your technical problems. These researchers are familiar with current problems confronting industry, government agencies, and the academic community. They are happy to apply their skills and PNL's resources to your problems. PNL encourages its researchers to work with government agencies, universities, and US industries. PNL technology transfer programs address the nation's drive toward increased competitiveness by being flexible and aggressive, and are designed to tailor results to fit your needs and those of your clients. If you are in search of a new technology or increased competitiveness, consider collaborative efforts with our award-winning staff, whose accomplishments are synopsized in this booklet.

  11. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  13. [Trace elements in the statoliths of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua-Jie; Chen, Xin-Jun; Ma, Jin

    2014-08-01

    Statolith is one of the most important hard tissues of cephalopods which is widely used in the research of fisheries ecology including population structure, life history reconstruction and so on. Trace elements of 18 statoliths of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii collected in the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 2007 by Chinese jigging fishing fleets were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results indicated that the statoliths of O. bartramii mainly contained 55 elements, and calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), iron (Fe), barium (Ba) were the 10 most abundant elements. The analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference in each element distribution between different sexual squid except for P, Si and B. Significant differences existed in the contents of Sr and Na but no significant difference was found in the contents of Ca, P, K, Si, Mg, B, Fe and Ba between different hatching populations. There were significant differences in the contents of Ca, Sr, Na, P, Mg and Ba, but no significant difference was found in the contents of K, Fe, B and Si in the statoliths among different growth zones. This study presented Sr and Na could be the best two trace elements used in the research on the population structure and life history reconstruction for O. bartramii.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.A. (ed.)

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. F.; Kreml, S. A.; Wildung, R. E.; Hefty, M. G.; Perez, D. A.; Chase, K. K.; Elderkin, C. E.; Owczarski, E. L.; Toburen, L. H.; Parnell, K. A.; Faust, L. G.; Moraski, R. V.; Selby, J. M.; Hilliard, D. K.; Tenforde, T. S.

    1991-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in the environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environment Research in FY 1990. Research is directed toward developing the knowledge needed to guide government policy and technology development for two important environmental problems: environmental restoration and global change. The report is organized by major research areas contributing to resolution of these problems. Additional sections summarize exploratory research, educational institutional interactions, technology transfer, and publications. The PNL research program continues make contributions toward defining and quantifying processes that effect the environment at the local, regional, and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. University liaisons continue to be expanded to strengthen the research and to use PNL resources to train the scientists needed to address long-term environmental problems.

  16. Ventilation Measurements in Energy-Efficient Multifamily Dwelling Units in the Pacific Northwest Region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham Bradley

    1990-03-01

    A ventilation field measurement study was conducted during the 1986/1987 and 1987/1988 heating seasons in 39 energy-efficient multifamily dwelling units. Four buildings, two in eastern Washington and two in western Washington, were involved in the study. The purpose of the study was to determine the total and baseline (natural) air exchange rates in units representing energy-efficient construction in the multifamily sector of the Pacific Northwest. This information will be used to aid in the development of future construction codes and standards. The air exchange rate was measured a multiple perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technique. Most measurements were taken over a 2- to 4-week period, with a few measurements taken over a period of one to three consecutive months. The PFT technique allows one to determine the fresh air flow into any unit within a building as well as the air flow between adjacent units. In addition, the volumetric air flow and usage of the mechanical ventilation system installed in the units were measured. Temperature, weather, structure, and occupancy data were also collected. 12 refs., 19 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-12-12

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter-fisher-gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to 'collective' cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour.

  18. Population Growth of Pratylenchus penetrans on Winter Cover Crops Grown in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, T A; Ingham, R E; Kaufman, D; Pinkerton, J N

    2000-03-01

    Population growth of Pratylenchus penetrans on 13 fall and winter cover crops was studied in the greenhouse and field. All crops except oat cv. Saia supported population growth of P. penetrans in greenhouse experiments, although the response of P. penetrans to oat cv. Saia varied considerably between experiments. The mean ratio of the final population density/initial population density (Pf/Pi) after 16 weeks for P. penetrans added to a greenhouse soil mix was 0.09, whereas Pf/Pi values after 10 weeks for two experiments with naturally infested soil were 0.95 and 2.3. Although P. penetrans increased on sudangrass cv. Trudan 8 and sudangrass x sorghum hybrid cv. SS 222, subsequent incorporation of sudangrass vegetation into soil reduced P. penetrans populations to preplant levels. Field experiments were inconclusive but suggested that oat cv. Saia or rye cv. Wheeler may be better choices for winter cover than weed-contaminated fallow or other crops on P. penetrans-infested sites in the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY96 evaluation of Integrated Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Integrated Assessment Program (IAP) is the primary system to assess and monitor overall performance and to drive continuous improvement in the Laboratory. The approach used is a significant departure from the Laboratory`s traditional reliance on auditing methods. It is a move toward the contemporary concepts of measuring organizational performance by encouraging scientific, operational, and business excellence, through self-assessment and strengthening line management accountability for results in product and service quality, safety, and cost. This report describes the approach used (methods and processes), the deployment of that approach in the six Laboratory organizations selected to pilot the approach, and a summary of how the pilot organizations used the results they obtained. Section 3.0 of this report summarizes the top strengths and weaknesses in performance as identified by Division/Directorate self-assessments, Independent Oversight, Internal Audit and peer reviews, and includes the actions that have been, or will be taken, to improve performance in areas that are weak.

  20. Factors influencing consumption of farmed seafood products in the Pacific northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Troy E; Amberg, Shannon M

    2013-07-01

    This study used a mail survey (n=1159 usable surveys) of Pacific northwest (US) residents to understand general seafood preferences (familiarity, price, freshness, health and environmental concerns), beliefs and attitudes specific to aquaculture versus wild products, and how those cognitive factors affect decisions to consume types of farmed seafood products. Respondents strongly agreed that seafood is healthy, and they preferred wild over farmed products. Many respondents were uncertain about human health and environmental benefits and problems associated with aquaculture. While there was agreement that aquaculture reduces pressure on wild fish, there was equally strong agreement that it has the same problems as other agricultural practices. Belief in the superiority of wild seafood was a strong predictor of consumption choices. Belief in the benefits of aquaculture was positively related to higher consumption of farmed products, but--unexpectedly--beliefs related to environmental and health problems associated with aquaculture did not predict specific consumption choices. Nearly half of respondents recalled hearing or reading about aquaculture in the mass media, and recall of negative stories contributed to a general preference for wild products, but not consumption of specific types of farmed products. Consumption of the different classes of products had some different predictors, and communication efforts directed at different beliefs may have different impacts on consumer behavior. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. High winds induce nitrogen loss from US Pacific Northwest agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharratt, B. S.; Graves, L.; Pressley, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    High winds common to the Pacific Northwest region of the USA have resulted in massive loss of topsoil from agricultural fields that are primarily managed in a winter wheat / summer fallow rotation. This topsoil contains nitrogen (N), an essential nutrient required for growth and development of plants. Loss of N from soils can cause degradation of air and water quality and also is an economic concern to farmers because depletion of nutrients from soils results in lower crop yield. Flux of windblown sediment moving across eroding fields was measured during high wind events between 1999 and 2006 in eastern Washington. Samplers were deployed to trap sediment that was creeping along or in saltation/suspension at various heights above fields that were in the summer fallow phase of the rotation. Windblown sediment was weighed and analyzed for N content by combustion and a thermal conductivity analyzer. Enrichment, or the ratio of N in the windblown sediment to soil of greater than one, was observed in about half of the years. For nearly all high wind events, N content of sediment transported by creep was greater than sediment transported by saltation or suspension. This study suggests that wind erosion can result in loss of N from agricultural soils.

  2. Department of Energy – Office of Science Pacific Northwest Site Office Environmental Monitoring Plan for the DOE-SC PNNL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2011-12-21

    The Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) manages the contract for operations at the U.S. Depart¬ment of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site in Richland, Washington. Radiological operations at the DOE-SC PNNL Site expanded in 2010 with the completion of facilities at the Physical Sciences Facility. As a result of the expanded radiological work at the site, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has required that offsite environmental surveillance be conducted as part of the PNNL Site Radioactive Air Emissions License. The environ¬mental monitoring and surveillance requirements of various orders, regulations, and guidance documents consider emission levels and subsequent risk of negative human and environmental impacts. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes air surveillance activities at the DOE-SC PNNL Site. The determination of offsite environmental surveillance needs evolved out of a Data Quality Objectives process (Barnett et al. 2010) and Implementation Plan (Snyder et al. 2010). The entire EMP is a compilation of several documents, which include the Main Document (this text), Attachment 1: Sampling and Analysis Plan, Attachment 2: Data Management Plan, and Attachment 3: Dose Assessment Guidance.

  3. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under

  4. Scaling Forest Management Practices in Earth System Models: Case Study of Southeast and Pacific Northwest Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Becknell, J. M.; Hall, J.; Desai, A. R.; Boring, L. R.; Duffy, P.; Staudhammer, C. L.; Starr, G.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    A wide array of human-induced disturbances can alter the structure and function of forests, including climate change, disturbance and management. While there have been numerous studies on climate change impacts on forests, interactions of management with changing climate and natural disturbance are poorly studied. Forecasts of the range of plausible responses of forests to climate change and management are need for informed decision making on new management approaches under changing climate, as well as adaptation strategies for coming decades. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate and assess simultaneous responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climatic perturbations and management across multiple spatio-temporal scales, but currently do not represent a wide array of management activities known to impact carbon, water, surface energy fluxes, and biodiversity. The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) incorporates non-linear impacts of fine-scale (~10-1 km) heterogeneity in ecosystem structure both horizontally and vertically at a plant level. Therefore it is an ideal candidate to incorporate different forest management practices and test various hypotheses under changing climate and across various spatial scales. The management practices that we implemented were: clear-cut, conversion, planting, partial harvest, low intensity fire, restoration, salvage, and herbicide. The results were validated against observed data across 8 different sites in the U.S. Southeast (Duke Forest, Joseph Jones Ecological Research Center, North Carolina Loblolly Pine, and Ordway-Swisher Biological Station) and Pacific Northwest (Metolius Research Natural Area, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Wind River Field Station, and Mount Rainier National Park). These sites differ in regards to climate, vegetation, soil, and historical land disturbance as well as management approaches. Results showed that different management practices could successfully

  5. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  6. Adaptive Ecosystem Management in the Pacific Northwest: a Case Study from Coastal Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Gray

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive ecosystem management has been adopted as a goal for decision making by several of the land management and regulatory agencies of the U.S. government. One of the first attempts to implement ecosystem management was undertaken on the federally managed forests of the Pacific Northwest in 1994. In addition to a network of reserve areas intended to restore habitat for late-successional terrestrial and aquatic species, "adaptive management areas" (AMAs were established. These AMAs were intended to be focal areas for implementing innovative methods of ecological conservation and restoration and meeting economic and social goals. This paper analyzes the primary ecological, social, and institutional issues of concern to one AMA in the Coast Range in northern Oregon. Based on existing knowledge, several divergent approaches are available that could meet ecological goals, but these approaches differ greatly in their social and economic implications. In particular, approaches that rely on the natural succession of the existing landscape or attempt to recreate historical patterns may not meet ecosystem goals for restoration as readily as an approach based on the active manipulation of existing structure and composition. In addition, institutions are still adjusting to recent changes in management priorities. Although some innovative projects have been developed, adaptive management in its most rigorous sense is still in its infancy. Indeed, functional social networks that support adaptive management may be required before policy and scientific innovations can be realized. The obstacles to adaptive management in this case are similar to those encountered by other efforts of this type, but the solutions will probably have to be local and idiosyncratic to be effective.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. (ed.)

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE's long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE's contribution to the US Global Change Research

  8. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part II: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  10. Household attitudes toward energy conservation in the Pacific Northwest: overview and comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents an overview of a baseline residential energy conservation study for the Pacific Northwest conducted in November 1983 by RMH Research, Inc. It also compares the study results with available data from other surveys. The primary focus of the RMH study is conservation marketing. As such it assesses the attitudes, perceptions, and past conservation actions of the region's residents and provides market segmentation based upon past conservation actions and the propensity to invest in conservation in the future. Excluding renters, who account for about 24% of the region's households, three prospect groups for marketing conservation investments are identified: First Tier Prospects who are very likely to invest in additional conservation measures requiring larger sums of money (estimated at about 547,000 households, or 18 percent of the region's households); Second Tier Prospects who are somewhat likely to invest in full weatherization (estimated at about 22% of the region's households or 695,700); and Non-Prospects who are unlikely to invest in energy conservation in the near future (estimated to be 1,113,400 or 36% of the regional total). A summary comparison of the most important distinguishing attributes of the three prospect groups is presented. Considering the current surplus status of the region's electricity supply situation and the overall strategy in capability building, implications include (1) using public information programs through utilities and the news media to maintain the conservation interests of the first-tier prospects and (2) exploring ways to move the second-tier prospects into the first tier and to reach the so-called non-prospect and rental housing groups.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1983 to the Office of Energy Research, includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research. The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped under the subheadings and each section is introduced by a divider page that indicates the Field Task Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1983. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details.

  12. Rainforest birds: A land manager's guide to breeding bird habitat in young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This document (hereafter Guide) has been prepared to assist land managers interested in conducting conservation and management activities to benefit breeding birds associated with young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Audiences targeted for use of the Guide include land trusts, watershed councils, non-commercial private land owners, forest products companies, land-managing conservation organizations, government agencies, tribes, and First Nations. We hope the Guide will be a useful and valuable tool to support any of the variety of reasons to manage for bird habitat in young conifer forests (for example, regulatory, biodiversity, bird conservation, and forest certification standards).

  13. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Gulfstream I measurements of the Kuwait oil-fire plume, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busness, K.M.; Hales, J.M.; Hannigan, R.V.; Thorp, J.M.; Tomich, S.D.; Warren, M.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Al-Sunaid, A.A. (Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)); Daum, P.H.; Mazurek, M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-11-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of aircraft measurements to determine pollutant and radiative properties of the smoke plume from oil fires in Kuwait. This work was sponsored by the US Department emanating of Energy, in cooperation with several other agencies as part of an extensive effort coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization, to obtain a comprehensive data set to assess the characteristics of the plume and its environmental impact. This report describes field measurement activities and introduces the various data collected, but provides only limited analyses of these data. Results of further data analyses will be presented in subsequent open-literature publications.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1984-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional energy resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy resources. The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of generic studies including Contaminant Characterizations and Transformation; Boundary Layer Meteorology; and Dispersion, Deposition and Resupension of Atmospheric Contaminants.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1986. The program is focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, and this research forms the basis, in conjunction with remote sensing, for definition and quantification of processes leading to impacts at the global level. This report is organized into sections devoted to Detection and Management of Change in Terrestrial Systems, Biogeochemical Phenomena, Subsurface Microbiology and Transport, Marine Sciences, and Theoretical (Quantitative) Ecology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual projects.

  17. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1987-02-01

    This 1986 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1986. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1986-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1988-06-01

    This 1987 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1987. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section.

  2. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  3. Agro-Ecological Class Stability Decreases in Response to Climate Change Projections for the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsimran Kaur

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will impact bioclimatic drivers that regulate the geospatial distribution of dryland agro-ecological classes (AECs. Characterizing the geospatial relationship between present AECs and their bioclimatic controls will provide insights into potential future shifts in AECs as climate changes. The major objectives of this study are to quantify empirical relationships between bioclimatic variables and the current geospatial distribution of six dryland AECs of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW of the United States; and apply bioclimatic projections from downscaled climate models to assess geospatial shifts of AECs under current production practices. Two Random Forest variable selection algorithms, VarSelRF and Boruta, were used to identify relevant bioclimatic variables. Three bioclimatic variables were identified by VarSelRF as useful for predictive Random Forest modeling of six AECs: (1 Holdridge evapotranspiration index; (2 spring precipitation (March, April, and May; and (3 precipitation of the warmest 4-month season (June, July, August, and September. Super-imposing future climate scenarios onto current agricultural production systems resulted in significant geospatial shifts in AECs. The Random Forest model projected a 58 and 63% increase in area under dynamic annual crop-fallow-transition (AC-T and dynamic grain-fallow (GF AECs, respectively. By contrast, a 46% decrease in area was projected for stable AC-T and dynamic annual crop (AC AECs across all future time periods for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5. For the same scenarios, the stable AC and GF AECs showed the least declines in area (8 and 13%, respectively, compared to other AECs. Future spatial shifts from stable to dynamic AECs, particularly to dynamic AC-T and dynamic GF AECs would result in more use of fallow, a greater hazard for soil erosion, greater cropping system uncertainty, and potentially less cropping system flexibility. These projections are

  4. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  5. Projected Dryland Cropping System Shifts in the Pacific Northwest in Response to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio O. Stöckle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in the dryland region of the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW, including northern Idaho, eastern Washington and northern Oregon is typically characterized based on annual rainfall and associated distribution of cropping systems that have evolved in response to biophysical and socio-economic factors. Three agro-ecological classes (AEC have been proposed for the region: (a crop/fallow (CF, (b annual crop/fallow transition (CCF, and (c continuous cropping (CC. AECs attempt to associate land use into relatively homogeneous areas that result in common production systems. Although there is an interest in sustainable intensification of cropping systems (e.g., reduction of fallow, the question remains whether climate change will preclude intensification or shift the borders of existing AECs toward greater fallow utilization. A simulation study was conducted to address this question, with the aim of classifying 4 × 4 km pixels throughout the region into one of the three AECs for baseline (1979–2010 and future periods (2030s, 2015–2045; 2050s, 2035–2065; 2070s, 2055–2085. Baseline data were derived from traditional rotations and historical climate records. Data for future projections were derived from atmospheric CO2 concentration considering daily weather downloaded from 12 global circulation models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5. Due to the direct effect of atmospheric CO2 on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, the transpiration use efficiency of crops (TUE; g above-ground biomass kg water−1 showed an increasing trend, with winter wheat TUE changing from 4.76 in the historical period to 6.17 and 7.08 g kg−1 in 2070s, depending on AEC. Compared to the baseline, total grain yield by the 2070s in the region was projected to increase in the range of 18–48% (RCP 4.5 and 30–65% (RCP 8.5, depending on AEC. As a consequence of these changes, compared to the historical baseline period, the future

  6. Recent stability of resident and migratory landbird populations in National Parks of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Chris; Saracco, James; Holmgren, Mandy; Wilkerson, Robert; Siegel, Rodney; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Ransom, Jason I.; Happe, Patricia J.; Boetsch, John; Huff, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring species in National Parks facilitates inference regarding effects of climate change on population dynamics because parks are relatively unaffected by other forms of anthropogenic disturbance. Even at early points in a monitoring program, identifying climate covariates of population density can suggest vulnerabilities to future change. Monitoring landbird populations in parks during the breeding season brings the added benefit of allowing a comparative approach to inference across a large suite of species with diverse requirements. For example, comparing resident and migratory species that vary in exposure to non-park habitats can reveal the relative importance of park effects, such as those related to local climate. We monitored landbirds using breeding-season point-count data collected during 2005–2014 in three wilderness areas of the Pacific Northwest (Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks). For 39 species, we estimated recent trends in population density while accounting for individual detection probability using Bayesian hierarchical N-mixture models. Our analyses integrated several recent developments in N-mixture modeling, incorporating interval and distance sampling to estimate distinct components of detection probability while also accommodating count intervals of varying duration, annual variation in the length and number of point-count transects, spatial autocorrelation, random effects, and covariates of detection and density. As covariates of density, we considered metrics of precipitation and temperature hypothesized to affect breeding success. We also considered effects of park and elevational stratum on trend. Regardless of model structure, we estimated stable or increasing densities during 2005–2014 for most populations. Mean trends across species were positive for migrants in every park and for residents in one park. A recent snowfall deficit in this region might have contributed to the positive trend, because

  7. Climate Change and Dryland Wheat Systems in the US Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockle, C.; Karimi, T.; Huggins, D. R.; Nelson, R.

    2015-12-01

    A regional assessment of historical and future yields, and components of the water, nitrogen, and carbon soil balance of dryland wheat-based cropping systems in the US Pacific Northwest is being conducted (Regional Approaches to Climate Change project funded by USDA-NIFA). All these elements intertwines and are important to understand the future of these systems in the region. A computer simulation methodology was used based on the CropSyst model and historic and projected daily weather data downscaled to a 4x4 km grid including 14 general circulation models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways of future atmospheric CO2 (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The study region was divided in 3 agro-ecological zones (AEZ) based on precipitation amount: low (460 mm/year), with a change from crop-fallow, to transition fallow (crop-crop-fallow) to annual cropping, respectively. Typical wheat-based rotations included winter wheat (WW)-Summer fallow (SF) for the low AEZ, WW-spring wheat (SW)-SF for the intermediate AEZ, and WW-SW-spring peas for the high AEZ, all under conventional and no tillage management. Alternative systems incorporating canola were also evaluated. Results suggest that, in most cases, these dryland systems may fare well in the future (31-year periods centered around 2030, 2050, and 2070), with potential gains in productivity. Also, a trend towards increased fallow in the intermediate AEZ appears possible for higher productivity, and the inclusion of less water demanding crops may help sustain cropping intensity. Uncertainties in these projections arise from large discrepancies among climate models regarding the warming rate, compounded by different possible future CO2 emission scenarios, the degree of change in frequency and severity of extreme events and associated potential damages to crop canopies due to cold weather and grain set reduction due to extreme heat events. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the impact of climate change on

  8. Climate Effects on Plant Range Distributions and Community Structure of Pacific Northwest Prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgham, Scott D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Johnson, Bart [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) prairies are an imperiled ecosystem that contain a large number of plant species with high fidelity to this habitat. The few remaining high-quality PNW prairies harbor a number of sensitive, rare, and endangered plant species that may be further at-risk with climate change. Thus, PNW prairies are an excellent model system to examine how climate change will affect the distribution of native plant species in grassland sites. Our experimental objectives were to determine: (i) how climate change will affect the range distribution of native plant species; (ii) what life history stages are most sensitive to climate change in a group of key indicator native species; (iii) the robustness of current restoration techniques and suites of species to changing climate, and in particular, the relative competitiveness of native species versus exotic invasive species; and (iv) the effects of climate change on carbon and nutrient cycling and soil-microbial-plant feedbacks. We addressed these objectives by experimentally increasing temperature 2.5 to 3.0 ºC above ambient with overhead infrared lamps and increasing wet-season precipitation by 20% above ambient in three upland prairie sites in central-western Washington, central-western Oregon, and southwestern Oregon from fall 2010 through 2012. Additional precipitation was applied within 2 weeks of when it fell so precipitation intensity was increased, particularly during the winter rainy season but with minimal additions during the summer dry season. These three sites also represent a 520-km natural climate gradient of increasing degree of severity of Mediterranean climate from north to south. After removing the extant vegetation, we planted a diverse suite of 12 native species that have their northern range limit someplace within the PNW in each experimental plot. An additional 20 more wide-spread native species were also planted into each plot. We found that recruitment of plant species within their ranges

  9. Radioactive impacts on nekton species in the Northwest Pacific and humans more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Wu; Deng, Fangfang; He, Jianhua; Yu, Wen; Wang, Fenfen; Li, Yiliang; Lin, Feng; Lin, Jing; Lin, Longshan; Zhang, Yusheng; Yu, Xingguang

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the radioactive impacts on 10 nekton species in the Northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (FNA) from the two perspectives of contamination and harm. Squids were especially used for the spatial and temporal comparisons to demonstrate the impacts from the FNA. The radiation doses to nekton species and humans were assessed to link this radioactivity contamination to possible harm. The total dose rates to nektons were lower than the ERICA ecosystem screening benchmark of 10μGy/h. Further dose-contribution analysis showed that the internal doses from the naturally occurring nuclide 210Po were the main dose contributor. The dose rates from 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr and 110mAg were approximately three or four orders of magnitude lower than those from naturally occurring radionuclides. The 210Po-derived dose was also the main contributor of the total human dose from immersion in the seawater and the ingestion of nekton species. The human doses from anthropogenic radionuclides were ~ 100 to ~ 10,000 times lower than the doses from naturally occurring radionuclides. A morbidity assessment was performed based on the Linear No Threshold assumptions of exposure and showed 7 additional cancer cases per 100,000,000 similarly exposed people. Taken together, there is no need for concern regarding the radioactive harm in the open ocean area of the Northwest Pacific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Western Europe, State Formation, and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  11. Ubiquitous Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Assimilation by Marine Bacteria in the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ocean as Determined by Stable Isotope Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Suzanne; Bräuer, Suzanna L.; Edgmont, Chelsea A.; Herfort, Lydie; Tebo, Bradley M.; Zuber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM 13C-NaHCO3, doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process. PMID:23056406

  12. Ubiquitous dissolved inorganic carbon assimilation by marine bacteria in the Pacific Northwest coastal ocean as determined by stable isotope probing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne DeLorenzo

    Full Text Available In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM (13C-NaHCO(3, doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process.

  13. Photic zone changes in the north-west Pacific Ocean from MIS 4–5e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. A. Swann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to other sectors of the marine system, the palaeoceanography of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is poorly constrained. New diatom isotope records of δ13C, δ18O, δ30Si (δ13Cdiatom, δ18Odiatom, and δ30Sidiatom are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in photic zone conditions, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 4 and MIS 5e. Peaks in opal productivity in MIS 5b/c and MIS 5e are both associated with the breakdown of the regional halocline stratification and increased nutrient supply to the photic zone. Whereas the MIS 5e peak is associated with low rates of nutrient utilisation, the MIS 5b/c peak is associated with significantly higher rates of nutrient utilisation. Both peaks, together with other smaller increases in productivity in MIS 4 and 5a, culminate with a significant increase in freshwater input which strengthens/re-establishes the halocline and limits further upwelling of sub-surface waters to the photic zone. Whilst δ30Sidiatom and previously published records of diatom δ15N (δ15Ndiatom (Brunelle et al., 2007, 2010 show similar trends until the latter half of MIS 5a, the records become anti-correlated after this juncture and into MIS 4, suggesting a possible change in photic zone state such as may occur with a shift to iron or silicon limitation.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents. (TEM)

  15. "The Only Thing that Isn't Sustainable... Is the Farmer": Social Sustainability and the Politics of Class among Pacific Northwest Farmers Engaged in Sustainable Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgeram, Ryanne

    2011-01-01

    Using interviews and participant observation at Pacific Northwest sustainable farming operations, this article analyzes the complex ways that class privileges and labor practices impact the social sustainability of sustainable agriculture. While the farmers in this study were highly aware of and reflexive about the class politics of sustainable…

  16. Effect of planting methods on spring canola (Brassica napus L.) establishment and yield in the low-rainfall region of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growers are becoming interested in producing canola (Brassica napus or rapa) in the dryland, wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Currently, agronomic research for spring canola in this region has not been initiated. This study evaluated the effect of no-till planting methods on stand...

  17. Site index equations and mean annual increment equations for Pacific Northwest Research Station forest inventory and analysis inventories, 1985-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica J. Hanson; David L. Azuma; Bruce A. Hiserote

    2003-01-01

    Site index equations and mean annual increment equations used by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program at the Portland Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The equations are for 24 tree species in California, Oregon, and Washington.

  18. MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) IN THREE COASTAL ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA USING FALSE-COLOUR NEAR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a hybrid technique of digitally classifying aerial photography used for mapping the intertidal habitat of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Pacific Northwest USA estuaries. The large tidal range (2-3 m) in this region exposes most of this seagrass community at ...

  19. Recent switch by the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini) in the Pacific northwest to associative nesting with Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) to gain predator protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, I.M.; Butler, R.W.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini Chapman, 1901) in the Pacific northwest appears to have modified nesting behaviour in response to the strong recent recovery of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) population. Previously undescribed, herons now often nest in close

  20. Effects of silviculture and genetics on branch/knot attributes of coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir and implications for wood quality--a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Douglas A. Maguire; David G. Briggs; Eric C. Turnblom; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; Jed. Bryce

    2014-01-01

    Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few...

  1. The quality of care delivered to Parkinson's disease patients in the U.S. Pacific Northwest Veterans Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarztrauber, Kari; Graf, Eric; Cheng, Eric

    2006-07-28

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common chronic neurological disorder of the elderly. Despite the fact that a comprehensive review of general health care in the United States showed that the quality of care delivered to patients usually falls below professional standards, there is limited data on the quality of care for patients with PD. Using the administrative database, the Pacific Northwest Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Data Warehouse, a population of PD patients with encounters from 10/1/98-12/31/04 were identified. A random sample of 350 patient charts underwent further review for diagnostic evaluation. All patients whose records revealed a physician diagnosis of definite or possible Idiopathic Parkinson's (IPD) disease (n = 150) were included in a medical chart review to evaluate adherence to five evidence-based quality of care indicators. For those care indicators with good inter-rater reliability, 16.6% of care received by PD patients was adherent for annual depression screening, 23.4% of care was adherent for annual fall screening and, 67.3% of care was adherent for management of urinary incontinence. Patients receiving specialty care were more likely to be adherent with fall screening than those not receiving specialty care OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.2-4.2, but less likely to be adherent with management of urinary incontinence, OR = 0.3, 95%CI = 0.1-0.8. Patients receiving care outside the VA system were more likely to be adherent with depression screening OR = 2.4, 95%CI = >1.0-5.5 and fall screening OR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.1-4.4. We found very low rates of adherence for annual screening for depression and falls for PD patients but reasonable adherence rates for management of urinary incontinence. Interestingly, receiving concurrent specialty care did not necessarily result in higher adherence for all care indicators suggesting some coordination and role responsibility confusion. The increased adherence in PD patients receiving care outside the VA

  2. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Amphipods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    amphipod (from Staude et al. 1977). ~>AMPHIPOD NOMENCLATURE/TAXONOMY/RANGE northeast Pacific Ocean (Figure 3). Gammaridea are the most abundant and...coastal areas of the northeast Pacific Ocean . 3 bathyal zone, and some live in fused with second thoracic segment. coastal waters (Bowman and Gruner...planktonic or associated with jelly- head. A "shrimplike" appearance fish or in tunics of dead salps . results from lateral body compression. .Suborder

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  4. Evaluation of Legumes Common to the Pacific Northwest as Hosts for the Pea Cyst Nematode, Heterodera goettingiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Inglis, D A

    1999-06-01

    Seventeen leguminous species common to the Pacific Northwest were evaluated as potential hosts of the pea cyst nematode, Heterodera goettingiana, in both greenhouse and field experiments. In all experiments, juveniles of H. goettingiana penetrated roots of these 17 species with the exception of greenhouse-grown chickpea. Nematodes molted and developed into swollen third-stage or fourth-stage juveniles in many of the plants, but cyst development occurred only in the field on green pea, edible dry pea, and faba bean. More H. goettingiana cysts developed on fava bean than on green pea or edible dry pea. In H. goettingiana-infested soils, cropping sequences that include fava bean and pea should be avoided. However, certain legumes, such as winter vetch, may have the potential of serving as trap crops for H. goettingiana in this region.

  5. Variability of the 0-3 Ma palaeomagnetic field observed from the Boring Volcanic Field of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuillier, Florian; Shcherbakov, Valeriy P.; Gilder, Stuart A.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.

    2017-10-01

    The Boring Volcanic Field of the Pacific Northwest (USA), composed of more than 80 eruptive units ranging in age from 3200 to 60 ka, offers a unique possibility to investigate the variability of the Quaternary to late Neogene palaeomagnetic field. To complement previous work on palaeodirections, we conducted 240 absolute palaeointensity (API) experiments with the joint use of the continuous (Wilson) and stepwise (Thellier-Coe) double-heating protocol, along with 620 relative palaeointensity (RPI) experiments based on the pseudo-Thellier approach. We successfully determined absolute estimates for 12 independent eruptive units, as well as relative estimates for 47 out of 132 investigated sites. We compare these results with the existing database for the last 3 Myr and obtain an estimate of the relative variability in palaeointensity on the order of 40-45 per cent as a proxy for palaeosecular variation. API and RPI data suggest a possible asymmetry between normal and reverse polarities.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1985, this research has examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain, summarized the field studies and analyses of dry deposition and resuspension conducted in past years, and begun participation in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain; Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants; and Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation (PRECP).

  7. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao H.

    2011-11-11

    There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the research was two fold. One objective was to evaluate the use demand response automation technologies. A second objective was to evaluate control strategies that could change the electric load shape in both winter and summer conditions. Winter conditions focused on cold winter mornings, a time when the electric grid is often stressed. The summer test evaluated DR strategies in the afternoon. We found that we could automate both winter and summer control strategies with the open automated demand response communication standard. The buildings were able to provide significant demand response in both winter and summer events.

  8. Comparison of noble fir progeny from US Pacific Northwest collection regions and Denmark for Christmas tree traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, Chal; Nielsen, Ulrik Braüner; Chastagner, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Noble fir is the leading Christmas tree produced in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW). This study is based on evaluations of 24,721 trees collected from five native collection regions in Oregon and Washington plus imported seed from Denmark. The major collection areas were further subdivided...... into provenances utilizing 16 in the PNW and 6 from Denmark. A total of 22 test sites were evaluated from progeny trials planted between 1996 and 2007. Traits important for commercial Christmas tree production were evaluated and include commercial height, tree grade, value and colour. Tree height and quality were...... positively correlated while colour showed little correlation with either trait. Provenances from the Oregon Coast and Willapa Hills, Washington provided the highest potential gain for Christmas tree market value. Provenances from Denmark exhibited superior colour and slow growth. For breeding purposes...

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1: Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, C.C. [ed.; Park, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    This report summarizes FY 1993 progress in biological and general life sciences research programs conducted for the Department of Energy`s Office of Health and Environmental REsearch (OHER) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This research provides knowledge of fundamental principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of exposure to energy-related radiation and chemicals. The Biological Research section contains reports of studies using laboratory animals, in vitro cell systems, and molecular biological systems. This research includes studies of the impact of radiation, radionuclides, and chemicals on biological responses at all levels of biological organization. The General Life Sciences Research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome program.

  10. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  11. The Role of Variable-Charge Minerals in Deep Soil Carbon Storage in a Pacific Northwest Andisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzen, C.; Root, A.; James, J. N.; Holub, S. M.; Harrison, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Soil is the most important long-term sink for carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems, containing more C than plant biomass and the atmosphere combined. However, soil has historically been under-represented in C cycling literature, especially in regards to information about subsurface (>1.0 m) layers and processes. Previous research has indicated that Andisols with large quantities of noncrystalline, variable-charge minerals, including allophane, imogolite, and ferrihydrite, contain more C both in total and at depth than other soil types in the Pacific Northwest. The electrostatic charge of variable-charge soils depends on pH and is sometimes net positive, particularly in acid conditions, such as those commonly developed under the coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. However, even soils with a net negative charge may contain a mixture of negative and positive exchange sites and can hold some nutrient anions through the anion exchange capacity. The most abundant organic functional groups, including carboxylic and phenolic groups, are anionic in nature, and soil positive charge may play an important role in binding and stabilizing soil organic matter and sequestering C. To increase our understanding of the role of variable-charge minerals in soil organic matter stabilization in deep soils, samples were taken to a depth of 3 m at the Fall River Long-Term Soil Productivity Site in western Washington. This site has a deep, well-drained soil with few rocks, which developed from weathered basalt and is classified as an Andisol of the Boistfort Series. Analysis of soil charge characteristics over a pH range allowed for the determination of anion exchange capacity and point of zero net charge at 8 depth intervals. These results, along with total carbon analysis and C-14 dating at each depth interval, are used to evaluate the importance of the anion exchange capacity as a mechanism for storing carbon at depth in variable-charge soils.

  12. Intercomparisons of Prognostic, Diagnostic, and Inversion Modeling Approaches for Estimation of Net Ecosystem Exchange over the Pacific Northwest Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Jacobson, A. R.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    The recent development of large spatially-explicit datasets for multiple variables relevant to monitoring terrestrial carbon flux offers the opportunity to estimate the terrestrial land flux using several alternative, potentially complimentary, approaches. Here we developed and compared regional estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. using three approaches. In the prognostic modeling approach, the process-based Biome-BGC model was driven by distributed meteorological station data and was informed by Landsat-based coverages of forest stand age and disturbance regime. In the diagnostic modeling approach, the quasi-mechanistic CFLUX model estimated net ecosystem production (NEP) by upscaling eddy covariance flux tower observations. The model was driven by distributed climate data and MODIS FPAR (the fraction of incident PAR that is absorbed by the vegetation canopy). It was informed by coarse resolution (1 km) data about forest stand age. In both the prognostic and diagnostic modeling approaches, emissions estimates for biomass burning, harvested products, and river/stream evasion were added to model-based NEP to get NEE. The inversion model (CarbonTracker) relied on observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration to optimize prior surface carbon flux estimates. The Pacific Northwest is heterogeneous with respect to land cover and forest management, and repeated surveys of forest inventory plots support the presence of a strong regional carbon sink. The diagnostic model suggested a stronger carbon sink than the prognostic model, and a much larger sink that the inversion model. The introduction of Landsat data on disturbance history served to reduce uncertainty with respect to regional NEE in the diagnostic and prognostic modeling approaches. The FPAR data was particularly helpful in capturing the seasonality of the carbon flux using the diagnostic modeling approach. The inversion approach took advantage of a global

  13. Ammocoetes of Pacific lamprey are not susceptible to common fish rhabdoviruses of the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Jolley, C J.; Thompson, Tarin M.; Thompson, D.; Whitesel, A.T.; Gutenberger, S.; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus have experienced severe population declines in recent years and efforts to develop captive rearing programs are under consideration. However, there is limited knowledge of their life history, ecology, and potential to harbor or transmit pathogens that may cause infectious disease. As a measure of the possible risks associated with introducing wild lampreys into existing fish culture facilities, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) were tested for susceptibility to infection and mortality caused by experimental exposures to the fish rhabdovirus pathogens: infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two IHNV isolates, representing the U and M genogroups, and one VHSV isolate from the IVa genotype were each delivered to groups of ammocoetes by immersion at moderate and high viral doses, and by intraperitoneal injection. Ammocoetes were then held in triplicate tanks with no substrate or sediment. During 41 d of observation postchallenge there was low or no mortality in all groups, and no virus was detected in the small number of fish that died. Ammocoetes sampled for incidence of infection at 6 and 12 d after immersion challenges also had no detectable virus, and no virus was detected in surviving fish from any group. A small number of ammocoetes sampled 6 d after the injection challenge had detectable virus, but at levels below the original quantity of virus injected. Overall there was no evidence of infection, replication, or persistence of any of the viruses in any of the treatment groups. Our results suggest that Pacific Lampreys are highly unlikely to serve as hosts that maintain or transmit these viruses.

  14. Ammocoetes of Pacific Lamprey are not susceptible to common fish rhabdoviruses of the U.S. Pacific northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G; Jolley, J C; Thompson, T M; Thompson, D; Whitesel, T A; Gutenberger, S; Winton, J R

    2013-12-01

    Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus have experienced severe population declines in recent years and efforts to develop captive rearing programs are under consideration. However, there is limited knowledge of their life history, ecology, and potential to harbor or transmit pathogens that may cause infectious disease. As a measure of the possible risks associated with introducing wild lampreys into existing fish culture facilities, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) were tested for susceptibility to infection and mortality caused by experimental exposures to the fish rhabdovirus pathogens: infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two IHNV isolates, representing the U and M genogroups, and one VHSV isolate from the IVa genotype were each delivered to groups of ammocoetes by immersion at moderate and high viral doses, and by intraperitoneal injection. Ammocoetes were then held in triplicate tanks with no substrate or sediment. During 41 d of observation postchallenge there was low or no mortality in all groups, and no virus was detected in the small number of fish that died. Ammocoetes sampled for incidence of infection at 6 and 12 d after immersion challenges also had no detectable virus, and no virus was detected in surviving fish from any group. A small number of ammocoetes sampled 6 d after the injection challenge had detectable virus, but at levels below the original quantity of virus injected. Overall there was no evidence of infection, replication, or persistence of any of the viruses in any of the treatment groups. Our results suggest that Pacific Lampreys are highly unlikely to serve as hosts that maintain or transmit these viruses.

  15. Using hierarchical models to estimate effects of ocean anomalies on north-west Pacific Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Liermann, M

    2010-11-01

    The high variability in survival over the past three decades of north-west Pacific Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is summarized for 24 stocks and analysed using hierarchical Bayesian models. Results from a simple model indicate that recruitment anomalies appear to be correlated in time and space. A simple model with a covariate based on basin-scale effects (Pacific Decadal Oscillation and El Niño Southern Oscillation) and local-scale effects (sea surface temperature, SST anomaly) was introduced to explain this variability. The model still exhibited residual patterns that were removed when a random-walk component was added to the model. The analysis indicates that recruitment is negatively related to SST anomaly for all stocks and the effect of basin-scale variables is negligible. The effect of climate over the next century is expected to result in estimated recruitment declining by an average of 13% for O. tshawytscha stocks coastwide. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Inter-specific variation in salinity effects on germination in Pacific Northwest tidal wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stressors such as salinity may affect plant germination and early growth, eventually impacting the distribution and abundance of more mature individuals. In a lab study we evaluated germination sensitivity to salinity in 13 tidal wetland species found in the Pacific...

  17. Soil Chemistry as a measure of the distinctiveness of American Viticultural Areas of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, K. R.; Pitcavage, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Columbia Basin of Washington State is the second largest wine grape growing region in the United States and presently contains 10 American Viticultural Areas (AVAs). Eight of the Columbia Basin's AVAs are smaller subdivisions (sub-AVAs) of the 46,100 km2 Columbia Valley AVA. Although legally distinct, the Columbia Basin AVAs are generally similar with regard to climate, landscape, and soils, the principle components of physical terroir. To test whether the AVAs of the Columbia Basin are distinguishable based on the chemical properties of their soils, 53 samples were collected from vineyards considered to be representative within their respective AVAs. Vineyard soils from the other major viticultural regions of the Pacific Northwest, the Willamette Valley and Snake River Valley, were also sampled for comparison. Soils were sampled from a depth of 50-75 cm and analyzed for bulk chemistry and plant-available nutrients. Based on the analyzed components, only the Columbia Gorge, Walla Walla Valley, and Lake Chelan AVAs were distinctive. The chemical differences that that account for the distinctiveness are attributed to variations in climate and parent material. Columbia Gorge AVA soils are the most distinctive, with significantly higher iron, manganese, and titanium, and significantly lower calcium, soluble salts, and pH. These characteristics can be attributed a greater influence of basaltic bedrock on soil composition, and an average annual precipitation of 76 cm, which is three times that received by most of the Columbia Basin. Another wetter-than-normal part of the Columbia Basin is the Walla Walla Valley where orographic lifting by the Blue Mountains increases the average annual precipitation in the eastern part of the AVA to near 50 cm. Vineyard soils of the Walla Walla Valley, like those of the Columbia Gorge, have higher iron, and lower calcium and soluble salts. The uniqueness of Lake Chelan AVA soils is reflected in decreased concentrations of iron

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1992 to 15 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9400088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from October 1, 1992 to March...

  19. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MERRILL using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 11 August 1992 to 27 August 1992 (NODC Accession 9200253)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MERRILL in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 11...

  20. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS CURTS using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 21 March 1988 to 22 March 1988 (NODC Accession 8800144)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS CURTS in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 21 March...

  1. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS JOUETT using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 14 July 1987 to 16 July 1987 (NODC Accession 8700264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS JOUETT in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 14 July...

  2. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HAMILTON using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from 23 October 1991 to 09 May 1992 (NODC Accession 9200241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC HAMILTON in the Northeast / Northwest Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea....

  3. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-05-01

    Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October-March) flows and decrease warm season (April-September) flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 yr flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems. The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc.) are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are freely available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources infrastructure and institutional arrangements

  4. A socioeconomic assessment of climate change-enhanced coastal storm hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, H. M.; Ruggiero, P.; Harris, E.

    2010-12-01

    Every winter, coastal communities in the U.S. Pacific Northwest are at risk to coastal change hazards caused by extreme storm events. These storms have the potential to erode large portions of the primary foredune that may be a community’s only barrier from the ocean. Furthermore, the frequency and magnitude of significant erosion events appears to be increasing, likely due to climate-related processes such as sea level rise and increases in storm wave heights. To reduce risks posed by winter storms, it is not only important to determine the impending physical impacts but it is also necessary to explore the vulnerability of the social-ecological system in the context of these hazards. Here we assess the exposure to both annually occurring and extreme storm events at various planning timelines using a methodology that incorporates the effect of a variable and changing climate on future total water levels. To do this, we have developed a suite of climate change scenarios involving a range of projections for the wave climate, global sea level rise, and the occurrence of El Niño events through 2100. Simple geometric models are then used to conservatively determine the extent of erosion that may occur for a given combination of these climatic factors. We integrate the physical hazards with socioeconomic data using a geographic information system (GIS) in order to quantify societal vulnerability, characterized by the exposure and sensitivity of a community, which is based on the distribution of people, property, and resources. Here we focus on a 14 km stretch of dune-backed coast in northwest Oregon, from Cascade Head to Cape Kiwanda—the location of two communities that, historically, have experienced problematic storm-induced coastal change, Pacific City and Neskowin. Although both of these communities have similar exposure to coastal change hazards at the present, Neskowin is more than twice as sensitive to erosion because almost all of its residents and community

  5. Monoterpene emissions from a Pacific Northwest Old-Growth Forest and impact on regional biogenic VOC emission estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Shelley; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Jack; Allwine, Eugene

    Measurements of natural hydrocarbon emission rates are reported for an old-growth Pacific Northwest coniferous forest. The emission data were collected for the two dominant species Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) during the growing season in 1997 and 1998 using branch enclosure techniques. Samples were collected at different heights from 13 to 51 m within the canopy using the Wind River Canopy Crane facility. The standard emission factor at a temperature of 30°C and the temperature coefficient for Douglas-fir is Es=0.39±0.14 μg C g -1 h -1 and β=0.14±0.05°C -1 and for western hemlock Es=0.95±0.17 μg C g -1 h -1 and β=0.06±0.02°C -1. There was considerable variability among all the emission factors due to seasonal and branch-to-branch variations. Within season emission factors appear to decline from May to September for the Douglas-fir, although there was no corresponding decrease for the western hemlock. There was no significant difference in standard emission factors ( Es) or temperature coefficients as a function of sunlit versus shady growth environment (different heights) for Douglas-fir, but western hemlock emission samples collected low in the canopy showed no exponential correlation with temperature. Applying the standard emission factors from this study to a Pacific Northwest domain and comparing the modified emission inventory to the current regulatory-based emission inventory yielded a net decrease of 19% in the domain wide monoterpene emissions. The relatively small difference in biogenic emissions is slightly misleading, as the difference in standard emission rates between this study and current regulatory rates is quite significant, and they offset each other when combined in this domain. When this inventory was input into a regional photochemical air quality simulation using the MM5/CMAQ system, the reduction in biogenic emissions resulted in an insignificant decrease of O 3 and a significant

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Overview and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1983. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 5 of the 1983 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety and the Office of Operational Safety. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during FY 1983. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 4: Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains 20 papers. Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report of 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category and each Field Task proposal/agreement is introduced by an abstract that describes the projects reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1989. 74 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part I. Olympic Peninsula Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Ambrosio, Ron; Carlon, Teresa A.; DeSteese, John G.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Kiesling, Laura L.; Michie, Preston; Pratt, Robert G.; Yao, Mark; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Le, N. T.; Oliver, Terry V.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-01-09

    This report describes the implementation and results of a field demonstration wherein residential electric water heaters and thermostats, commercial building space conditioning, municipal water pump loads, and several distributed generators were coordinated to manage constrained feeder electrical distribution through the two-way communication of load status and electric price signals. The field demonstration took place in Washington and Oregon and was paid for by the U.S. Department of Energy and several northwest utilities. Price is found to be an effective control signal for managing transmission or distribution congestion. Real-time signals at 5-minute intervals are shown to shift controlled load in time. The behaviors of customers and their responses under fixed, time-of-use, and real-time price contracts are compared. Peak loads are effectively reduced on the experimental feeder. A novel application of portfolio theory is applied to the selection of an optimal mix of customer contract types.

  9. Northwest Pacific typhoons documented by the Philippine Jesuits, 1566-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    GarcíA-Herrera, Ricardo; Ribera, Pedro; HernáNdez, Emiliano; Gimeno, Luis

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, the population and the value of properties in areas prone to tropical cyclone (TC) have increased dramatically. This has caused more attention to be placed on the characterization of TC climatologies and the identification of the role that factors such as the main teleconnection patterns may play in TC variability. Due to the timescales involved, the instrumental records have proven too short to provide a complete picture. Thus, documentary and other paleoclimatological techniques have been used to reconstruct TC occurrence. This has been done mostly for the Atlantic basin, whereas in the Pacific basin, fewer attempts have been made. The aim of this paper is to provide a high-resolution chronology of typhoons and intense storms occurring in the Philippine Islands and their vicinity for the period 1566-1900. The chronology is based upon the writings of the Spanish Jesuit Miguel Selga, who produced the original work at the beginning of the 20th century. The sources, reliability, and completeness of the chronology are examined critically. A total of 652 events are included, 524 of which are reported as typhoons, the rest being considered as tropical storms. For each of these classes, the landfall location and the track (when sufficient information is available) have been drawn. This chronology is an indispensable step toward a final and complete typhoon record in the western Pacific basin.

  10. Isotope hydrology and baseflow geochemistry in natural and human-altered watersheds in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Brooks, Erin S; Elliot, William J; Boll, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a stable isotope hydrology and geochemical analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA. Isotope ratios were used to estimate mean transit times (MTTs) in natural and human-altered watersheds using the FLOWPC program. Isotope ratios in precipitation resulted in a regional meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 7.42·δ(18)O + 0.88 (n = 316; r(2) = 0.97). Isotope compositions exhibited a strong temperature-dependent seasonality. Despite this seasonal variation, the stream δ(18)O variation was small. A significant regression (τ = 0.11D(-1.09); r(2) = 0.83) between baseflow MTTs and the damping ratio was found. Baseflow MTTs ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 years (human-altered), 0.7 to 1.7 years (mining-altered), and 0.7 to 3.2 years (forested). Greater MTTs were represented by more homogenous aqueous chemistry whereas smaller MTTs resulted in more dynamic compositions. The isotope and geochemical data presented provide a baseline for future hydrological modelling in the inland PNW.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE office of energy research: Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1987. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The research, focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Research is multidisciplinary and multitiered, providing integrated system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Research initiatives in subsurface microbiology and transport, global change, radon, and molecular sciences are building on PNL technical strengths in biogeochemistry, hydrodynamics, molecular biology, and theoretical ecology. Unique PNL facilities are used to probe multiple phenomena complex relationships at increasing levels of complexity. Intermediate-scale experimental systems are used to examine arid land watershed dynamics, aerosol behavior and effects, and multidimensional subsurface transport. In addition, field laboratories (the National Environmental Research Park and Marine Research Laboratory) are used in conjunction with advanced measurement techniques to validate concepts and models, and to extrapolate the results to the system and global levels. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated.

  12. Monitoring of styrene oligomers as indicators of polystyrene plastic pollution in the North-West Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Amamiya, Keiji; Sato, Hideto; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Eung Jae; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Styrene oligomers (SOs) as global contaminants are an environmental concern. However, little is known on the distribution of SOs in the ocean. Here, we show the distribution of anthropogenic SOs generated from discarded polystyrene (PS) plastic monitored from the coastal ocean surface waters (horizontal distribution) and deep seawaters (vertical distribution) in the North-West Pacific Ocean. SOs concentrations in surface seawater and deep seawater ranged from 0.17 to 4.26 μg L -1 (total mean: 1.48 ± 1.23 μg L -1 ) and from 0.31 to 4.31 μg L -1 (total mean: 1.32 ± 0.87 μg L -1 ), respectively. Since there is no significant difference in the mean concentrations, SOs seems to be spread across marine environment selected in this study. Nevertheless, regional SOs appears to persist to varying degrees with their broad horizontal and vertical distribution in the ocean. Each horizontal and vertical distribution of SOs differs by approximately 1.95-2.57 times, probably depending on the events of weather and global ocean circulation. These results provide the distribution pattern of SOs for assessing environmental pollution arising from PS plastic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of blastocystis in shelter-resident and client-owned companion animals in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaux, Craig G; Stang, Bernadette V

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats are commonly infected with a variety of protozoan enteric parasites, including Blastocystis spp. In addition, there is growing interest in Blastocystis as a potential enteric pathogen, and the possible role of domestic and in-contact animals as reservoirs for human infection. Domestic animals in shelter environments are commonly recognized to be at higher risk for carriage of enteropathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of infection of shelter-resident and client-owned domestic dogs and cats with Blastocystis spp in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. Fecal samples were collected from 103 shelter-resident dogs, 105 shelter-resident cats, 51 client-owned dogs and 52 client-owned cats. Blastocystis were detected and subtypes assigned using a nested PCR based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Shelter-resident animals were significantly more likely to test positive for Blastocystis (PBlastocystis subtypes. No relationship was seen between Blastocystis carriage and the presence of gastrointestinal disease signs in either dogs or cats. These data suggest that, as previously reported for other enteric pathogens, shelter-resident companion animals are a higher risk for carriage of Blastocystis spp. The lack of relationship between Blastocystis carriage and intestinal disease in shelter-resident animals suggests that this organism is unlikely to be a major enteric pathogen in these species.

  14. Identifying shared genetic structure patterns among Pacific Northwest forest taxa: insights from use of visualization tools and computer simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data visualizations to identify common spatial patterns within single lineages of four taxa inhabiting Pacific Northwest forests (northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina; red tree vole: Arborimus longicaudus; southern torrent salamander: Rhyacotriton variegatus; and western white pine: Pinus monticola. Visualizations suggested that, despite occupying the same geographical region and habitats, species responded differently to prevailing historical processes. S. o. caurina and P. monticola demonstrated directional patterns of spatial genetic structure where genetic distances and diversity were greater in southern versus northern locales. A. longicaudus and R. variegatus displayed opposite patterns where genetic distances were greater in northern versus southern regions. Statistical analyses of directional patterns subsequently confirmed observations from visualizations. Based upon regional climatological history, we hypothesized that observed latitudinal patterns may have been produced by range expansions. Subsequent computer simulations confirmed that directional patterns can be produced by expansion events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss phylogeographic hypotheses regarding historical processes that may have produced observed patterns. Inferential methods used here may become increasingly powerful as detailed simulations of organisms and historical scenarios become plausible. We further suggest that inter-specific comparisons of historical patterns take place prior to drawing conclusions regarding effects of current anthropogenic change within landscapes.

  15. Forest Canopy Heights in the Pacific Northwest Based on InSAR Phase Discontinuities across Short Spatial Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Prush

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid land use changes are substantially altering the global carbon budget, yet quantifying the impact of these changes, or assessing efforts to mitigate them, remains challenging. Methods for assessing forest carbon range from precise ground surveys to remote-sensing approaches that provide proxies for canopy height and structure. We introduce a method for extracting a proxy for canopy heights from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR data. Our method focuses on short-spatial scale differences between forested and cleared regions, reducing the impact of errors from variations in atmospheric water vapor or satellite orbital positions. We generate time-varying, Landsat-based maps of land use and perform our analysis on the original wrapped (modulo-2π data to avoid errors introduce by phase unwrapping and to allow assessment of the confidence of our results (within 3–4 m in many cases. We apply our approach to the Pacific Northwest, which contains some of the world’s tallest trees and has experienced extensive clearcutting. We use SAR imagery acquired at L-band by the PALSAR instrument on the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS. As SAR data archives expand, our approach can complement other remote-sensing methods and allow time-variable assessment of forest carbon budgets worldwide.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  17. Quantifying the intra-annual uncertainties in climate change assessment over 10 sub-basins across the Pacific Northwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid; Rana, Arun

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainty is an inevitable feature of climate change impact assessments. Understanding and quantifying different sources of uncertainty is of high importance, which can help modeling agencies improve the current models and scenarios. In this study, we have assessed the future changes in three climate variables (i.e. precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature) over 10 sub-basins across the Pacific Northwest US. To conduct the study, 10 statistically downscaled CMIP5 GCMs from two downscaling methods (i.e. BCSD and MACA) were utilized at 1/16 degree spatial resolution for the historical period of 1970-2000 and future period of 2010-2099. For the future projections, two future scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were used. Furthermore, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) was employed to develop a probabilistic future projection for each climate variable. Results indicate superiority of BMA simulations compared to individual models. Increasing temperature and precipitation are projected at annual timescale. However, the changes are not uniform among different seasons. Model uncertainty shows to be the major source of uncertainty, while downscaling uncertainty significantly contributes to the total uncertainty, especially in summer.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.A. [ed.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  19. Spatial Patterns in Water Temperature in Pacific Northwest Rivers: Diversity at Multiple Scales and Potential Influence of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, C. E.; Fullerton, A.; Lawler, J. J.; Ebersole, J. L.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Steel, E. A.; Beechie, T. J.; Faux, R.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding spatial patterns in water temperature will be essential for evaluating vulnerability of aquatic biota to future climate and for identifying and protecting diverse thermal habitats. We used high-resolution remotely sensed water temperature data for over 16,000 km of 2nd to 7th-order rivers throughout the Pacific Northwest and California to evaluate spatial patterns of summertime water temperature at multiple spatial scales. We found a diverse and geographically distributed suite of whole-river patterns. About half of rivers warmed asymptotically in a downstream direction, whereas the rest exhibited complex and unique spatial patterns. Patterns were associated with both broad-scale hydroclimatic variables as well as characteristics unique to each basin. Within-river thermal heterogeneity patterns were highly river-specific; across rivers, median size and spacing of cool patches salmon rearing and for resting during migration, and the distance between patches is well within the movement capabilities of both juvenile and adult salmon. We found considerable thermal heterogeneity at fine spatial scales that may be important to fish that would be missed if data were analyzed at coarser scales. We estimated future thermal heterogeneity and concluded that climate change will cause warmer temperatures overall, but that thermal heterogeneity patterns may remain similar in the future for many rivers. We demonstrated considerable spatial complexity in both current and future water temperature, and resolved spatial patterns that could not have been perceived without spatially continuous data.

  20. Annotated bibliography of radioactive waste management publications at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, January 1978 through July 1982. [831 abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography lists publications (831 abstracts) from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Department of Energy sponsored research and development programs from January 1978 through July of 1982. The abstracts are grouped in subject categories, as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., High-Level Radioactive Wastes. Three indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: personal author, subject, and report number. Cited are research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers. Excluded are technical progress reports. Since 1978 the Nuclear Waste Management Quarterly Progress Report has been published under the series number PNL-3000. Beginning in 1982, this publication has been issued semiannually, under the series number PNL-4250. This bibliography is the successor to two others, BNWL-2201 (covering the years 1965-1976) and PNL-4050 (1975-1978). It is intended to provide a useful reference to literature in waste management written or compiled by PNL staff.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Director`s overview of research performed for DOE Office of Health And Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    A significant portion of the research undertaken at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is focused on the strategic programs of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER). These programs, which include Environmental Processes (Subsurface Science, Ecosystem Function and Response, and Atmospheric Chemistry), Global Change (Climate Change, Environmental Vulnerability, and Integrated Assessments), Biotechnology (Human Genome and Structural Biology), and Health (Health Effects and Medical Applications), have been established by OHER to support DOE business areas in science and technology and environmental quality. PNL uses a set of critical capabilities based on the Laboratory`s research facilities and the scientific and technological expertise of its staff to help OHER achieve its programmatic research goals. Integration of these capabilities across the Laboratory enables PNL to assemble multidisciplinary research teams that are highly effective in addressing the complex scientific and technical issues associated with OHER-sponsored research. PNL research efforts increasingly are focused on complex environmental and health problems that require multidisciplinary teams to address the multitude of time and spatial scales found in health and environmental research. PNL is currently engaged in research in the following areas for these OHER Divisions: Environmental Sciences -- atmospheric radiation monitoring, climate modeling, carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, ecological research, subsurface sciences, bioremediation, and environmental molecular sciences; Health Effects and Life Sciences -- cell/molecular biology, and biotechnology; Medical Applications and Biophysical Research -- analytical technology, and radiological and chemical physics. PNL`s contributions to OHER strategic research programs are described in this report.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1988. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The PNL research program continues to make important contributions to the resolution of important national environmental problems. The research, focused principally on subsurface contaminant transport and detection and management of human-induced changes in biological systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory- intermediated scale field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated. Building on PNL technical strengths in geochemistry, environment microbiology, hydrodynamics, and statistical ecology, research in the environmental sciences is in an exciting phase, and new investments have been made in molecular sciences, chemistry, biotechnology, use of remote imagery, and theoretical ecology. The section on exploratory research provides unique insight into the value of these investments and into the future of PNL environmental sciences programs.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. For several years, studies of transport and diffusion have been extended to mesoscale areas of complex terrain. Atmospheric cleansing research has expanded to a regional scale, multilaboratory investigation of precipitation scavenging processes involving the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, the redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. A few long-range tracer experiments conducted in recent years and the special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity following the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986 offer important initial data bases for studying atmospheric processes at these super-regional scales.

  4. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  5. Estimates of live-tree carbon stores in the Pacific Northwest are sensitive to model selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried Jeremy S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of live-tree carbon stores are influenced by numerous uncertainties. One of them is model-selection uncertainty: one has to choose among multiple empirical equations and conversion factors that can be plausibly justified as locally applicable to calculate the carbon store from inventory measurements such as tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH. Here we quantify the model-selection uncertainty for the five most numerous tree species in six counties of northwest Oregon, USA. Results The results of our study demonstrate that model-selection error may introduce 20 to 40% uncertainty into a live-tree carbon estimate, possibly making this form of error the largest source of uncertainty in estimation of live-tree carbon stores. The effect of model selection could be even greater if models are applied beyond the height and DBH ranges for which they were developed. Conclusions Model-selection uncertainty is potentially large enough that it could limit the ability to track forest carbon with the precision and accuracy required by carbon accounting protocols. Without local validation based on detailed measurements of usually destructively sampled trees, it is very difficult to choose the best model when there are several available. Our analysis suggests that considering tree form in equation selection may better match trees to existing equations and that substantial gaps exist, in terms of both species and diameter ranges, that are ripe for new model-building effort.

  6. The specific features of pollution spread in the northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianskii, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.; Fomin, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    We present two calculations of pollutant dispersal in the Pacific Ocean: (1) during possible ship-wrecks in the process of spent nuclear fuel transportation from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and (2) pollutant spread from the Japanese coast after the Fukushima-1 nuclear disaster on March 11, 2011. The circulation was calculated using a σ model of ocean hydrothermodynamics developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (INM), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS); it is adapted to cover the Pacific Ocean basin from the equator to the Bering Strait with a high (1/8)° spatial resolution and it is capable of reproducing the mesoscale ocean variations. The pollutant dispersal in the case of possible shipwrecks was estimated for currents characteristic for a statistically average year with atmospheric forcing in accordance with the so-called normal CORE year data. The pollution spread from the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) was estimated by calculating the circulation with the real atmospheric forcing in accordance with the NCEP analysis data obtained from the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia. It is noteworthy that a simplified assimilation of the observed sea surface temperature (SST) was performed. In both cases the currents were calculated simultaneously with the transport calculation of the pollutant as a passive admixture, which corresponds to a real-time calculation of pollutant transport. A map analysis of pollution dispersal shows that the horizontal transport is substantially more intense in the upper ocean layers than in deep ones. Therefore, like in the North branch of Kuroshio, pollutants can be delivered to the deep layers not through deep-water horizontal transport, but rather as a result of vertical downwelling from the already contaminated upper layers. However, the complex three-dimensional structure of the horizontal and vertical transport may lead to reverse situations. A calculation of pollution transport from the Fukushima-1 NPP showed that

  7. Occurrence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, C.A.; Bull, E.L.; Green, D.E.; Bowerman, J.; Adams, M.J.; Hyatt, A.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis (infection by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) has been associated with amphibian declines in at least four continents. We report results of disease screens from 210 pond-breeding amphibians from 37 field sites in Oregon and Washington. We detected B. dendrobatidis on 28% of sampled amphibians, and we found ??? 1 detection of B. dendrobatidis from 43% of sites. Four of seven species tested positive for B. dendrobatidis, including the Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora), Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa). We also detected B. dendrobatidis in nonnative American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from six sites in western and central Oregon. Our study and other recently published findings suggest that B. dendrobatidis has few geographic and host taxa limitations among North American anurans. Further research on virulence, transmissibility, persistence, and interactions with other stressors is needed to assess the potential impact of B. dendrobatidis on Pacific Northwestern amphibians. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  8. The Precipitation Response Over the Continental United States to Cold Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailan; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2013-01-01

    The dominant pattern of annual mean SST variability in the Pacific (in its cold phase) produces pronounced precipitation deficits over the continental United States (U.S.) throughout the annual cycle. This study investigates the physical and dynamical processes through which the cold Pacific pattern affects the U.S. precipitation, particularly the causes for the peak dry impacts in fall, as well as the nature of the differences between the summer and fall responses. Results, based on observations and reanalyses, show that the peak precipitation deficit over the U.S. during fall is primarily due to reduced atmospheric moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico into the central and eastern U.S., and secondarily due to a reduction in local evaporation from land-atmosphere feedback. The former is associated with a strong and systematic low-level northeasterly flow anomaly over the southeastern U.S. that counteracts the northwest branch of the climatological flow associated with the north Atlantic subtropical high. The above northeasterly anomaly is maintained by both diabatic heating anomalies in the nearby Intra-American Seas and diabatic cooling anomalies in the tropical Pacific. In contrast, the modest summertime precipitation deficit over the U.S. is mainly the result of local land-atmosphere feedback; the rather weak and disorganized atmospheric circulation anomalies over and to the south of the U.S. make little contribution. An evaluation of NSIPP-1 AGCM simulations shows it to be deficient in simulating the warm season tropical convection responses over the Intra-American Seas to the cold Pacific pattern and thereby the precipitation responses over the U.S., a problem that appears to be common to many AGCMs.

  9. The Roman State and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10,000 years, the human genome has changed at an accelerating rate. The change seems to reflect adaptations to new social environments, including the rise of the State and its monopoly on violence. State societies punish young men who act violently on their own initiative. In contrast, non-State societies usually reward such behavior with success, including reproductive success. Thus, given the moderate to high heritability of male aggressiveness, the State tends to remove violent predispositions from the gene pool while favoring tendencies toward peacefulness and submission. This perspective is applied here to the Roman state, specifically its long-term effort to pacify the general population. By imperial times, this effort had succeeded so well that the Romans saw themselves as being inherently less violent than the “barbarians” beyond their borders. By creating a pacified and submissive population, the empire also became conducive to the spread of Christianity—a religion of peace and submission. In sum, the Roman state imposed a behavioral change that would over time alter the mix of genotypes, thus facilitating a subsequent ideological change.

  10. Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Morgan D; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2002-03-19

    Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of delta15N and delta13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. Invertebrates varied predictably in delta15N with enrichment of 3-8 per thousand below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing delta15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in delta13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. Enrichment of delta15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of delta13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in delta15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines.

  11. Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimchen Thomas E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of δ15N and δ13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. Results Invertebrates varied predictably in δ15N with enrichment of 3–8‰ below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing δ15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in δ13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. Conclusions Enrichment of δ15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of δ13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in δ15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines.

  12. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: northwest Atlantic through eastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B Rusch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The world's oceans contain a complex mixture of micro-organisms that are for the most part, uncharacterized both genetically and biochemically. We report here a metagenomic study of the marine planktonic microbiota in which surface (mostly marine water samples were analyzed as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition. These samples, collected across a several-thousand km transect from the North Atlantic through the Panama Canal and ending in the South Pacific yielded an extensive dataset consisting of 7.7 million sequencing reads (6.3 billion bp. Though a few major microbial clades dominate the planktonic marine niche, the dataset contains great diversity with 85% of the assembled sequence and 57% of the unassembled data being unique at a 98% sequence identity cutoff. Using the metadata associated with each sample and sequencing library, we developed new comparative genomic and assembly methods. One comparative genomic method, termed "fragment recruitment," addressed questions of genome structure, evolution, and taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity, as well as the biochemical diversity of genes and gene families. A second method, termed "extreme assembly," made possible the assembly and reconstruction of large segments of abundant but clearly nonclonal organisms. Within all abundant populations analyzed, we found extensive intra-ribotype diversity in several forms: (1 extensive sequence variation within orthologous regions throughout a given genome; despite coverage of individual ribotypes approaching 500-fold, most individual sequencing reads are unique; (2 numerous changes in gene content some with direct adaptive implications; and (3 hypervariable genomic islands that are too variable to assemble. The intra-ribotype diversity is organized into genetically isolated populations that have overlapping but independent distributions, implying distinct environmental preference. We present novel methods for measuring the genomic

  13. Direct and indirect drivers of instream wood in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA: decoupling climate, vegetation, disturbance, and geomorphic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hough-Snee Nate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instream wood is a driver of geomorphic change in low-order streams, frequently altering morphodynamic processes. Instream wood is a frequently measured component of streams, yet it is a complex metric, responding to ecological and geomorphic forcings at a variety of scales. Here we seek to disentangle the relative importance of physical and biological processes that drive wood growth and delivery to streams across broad spatial extents. In so doing, we ask two primary questions: (1 is riparian vegetation a composite variable that captures the indirect effects of climate and disturbance on instream wood dynamics? (2 What are the direct and indirect relationships between geomorphic setting, vegetation, climate, disturbance, and instream wood dynamics? We measured riparian vegetation composition and wood frequency and volume at 720 headwater reaches within the American interior Pacific Northwest. We used ordination to identify relationships between vegetation and environmental attributes, and subsequently built a structural equation model to identify how climate and disturbance directly affect vegetation composition and how vegetation and geomorphic setting directly affect instream wood volume and frequency. We found that large wood volume and frequency are directly driven by vegetation composition and positively correlated to wildfire, elevation, stream gradient, and channel bankfull width. Indicator species at reaches with high volumes of wood were generally long-lived, conifer trees that persist for extended durations once delivered to stream habitats. Wood dynamics were also indirectly mediated by factors that shape vegetation: wildfire, precipitation, elevation, and temperature. We conclude that wood volume and frequency are driven by multiple interrelated climatic, geomorphic, and ecological variables. Vegetation composition and geomorphic setting directly mediate indirect relationships between landscape environmental processes and instream

  14. Prevalence of blastocystis in shelter-resident and client-owned companion animals in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig G Ruaux

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs and cats are commonly infected with a variety of protozoan enteric parasites, including Blastocystis spp. In addition, there is growing interest in Blastocystis as a potential enteric pathogen, and the possible role of domestic and in-contact animals as reservoirs for human infection. Domestic animals in shelter environments are commonly recognized to be at higher risk for carriage of enteropathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of infection of shelter-resident and client-owned domestic dogs and cats with Blastocystis spp in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. Fecal samples were collected from 103 shelter-resident dogs, 105 shelter-resident cats, 51 client-owned dogs and 52 client-owned cats. Blastocystis were detected and subtypes assigned using a nested PCR based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Shelter-resident animals were significantly more likely to test positive for Blastocystis (P<0.05 for dogs, P = 0.009 for cats. Sequence analysis indicated that shelter-resident animals were carrying a variety of Blastocystis subtypes. No relationship was seen between Blastocystis carriage and the presence of gastrointestinal disease signs in either dogs or cats. These data suggest that, as previously reported for other enteric pathogens, shelter-resident companion animals are a higher risk for carriage of Blastocystis spp. The lack of relationship between Blastocystis carriage and intestinal disease in shelter-resident animals suggests that this organism is unlikely to be a major enteric pathogen in these species.

  15. Evaluating Amphibian Declines with Site Revisits and Occupancy Models: Status of Montane Anurans in the Pacific Northwest USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brome McCreary

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian declines have been reported in mountainous areas around the western USA. Few data quantify the extent of population losses in the Pacific Northwest, a region in which amphibian declines have received much attention. From 2001–2004, we resurveyed historical breeding sites of two species of conservation concern, the Western Toad (Bufo [=Anaxyrus] boreas and Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae. We detected B. boreas breeding at 75.9% and R. cascadae breeding at 66.6% of historical sites. When we analyzed the data using occupancy models that accounted for detection probability, we estimated the current use of historically occupied sites in our study area was 84.9% (SE = 4.9 for B. boreas and 72.4% (SE = 6.6 for R. cascadae. Our ability to detect B. boreas at sites where they were present was lower in the first year of surveys (a low snowpack year and higher at sites with introduced fish. Our ability to detect R. cascadae was lower at sites with fish. The probability that B. boreas still uses a historical site for breeding was related to the easting of the site (+ and the age of record (-. None of the variables we analyzed was strongly related to R. cascadae occupancy. Both species had increased odds of occupancy with higher latitude, but model support for this variable was modest. Our analysis suggests that while local losses are possible, these two amphibians have not experienced recent, broad population losses in the Oregon Cascades. Historical site revisitation studies such as ours cannot distinguish between population losses and site switching, and do not account for colonization of new habitats, so our analysis may overestimate declines in occupancy within our study area.

  16. Soil respiration response to climate change in Pacific Northwest prairies is mediated by a regional Mediterranean climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lorien L; Johnson, Bart R; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration is expected to increase with rising global temperatures but the degree of response may depend on soil moisture and other local factors. Experimental climate change studies from single sites cannot discern whether an observed response is site-dependent or generalizable. To deconvolve site-specific vs. regional climatic controls, we examined soil respiration for 18 months along a 520 km climate gradient in three Pacific Northwest, USA prairies that represents increasingly severe Mediterranean conditions from north to south. At each site we implemented a fully factorial combination of 2.5-3 °C warming and 20% added precipitation intensity. The response of soil respiration to warming was driven primarily by the latitudinal climate gradient and not site-specific factors. Warming increased respiration at all sites during months when soil moisture was not limiting. However, these gains were offset by reductions in respiration during seasonal transitions and summer drought due to lengthened periods of soil moisture limitation. The degree of this offset varied along the north-south climate gradient such that in 2011 warming increased cumulative annual soil respiration 28.6% in the northern site, 13.5% in the central site, and not at all in the southern site. Precipitation also stimulated soil respiration more frequently in the south, consistent with an increased duration of moisture limitation. The best predictors of soil respiration in nonlinear models were the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), antecedent soil moisture, and temperature but these models provided biased results at high and low soil respiration. NDVI was an effective integrator of climate and site differences in plant productivity in terms of their combined effects on soil respiration. Our results suggest that soil moisture limitation can offset the effect of warming on soil respiration, and that greater growing-season moisture limitation would constrain cumulative annual

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE`s long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program.

  18. Primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raworth, D A; Pike, K S; Tanigoshi, L K; Mathur, S; Graf, G

    2008-04-01

    Blueberry scorch virus, a commercially important Carlavirus in highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., is vectored by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). We surveyed the aphids, primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Braconidae), and associated secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Charipidae, Megaspilidae, Pteromalidae) on highbush blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest from 1995 to 2006, with samples concentrated in 2005 and 2006, to lay the groundwork for augmentative biological control. Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) was the principal aphid. The dominant parasitoid species were Praon unicum Smith, Aphidius n. sp., A. sp., and Aphidius ervi Haliday. Their frequency in relation to the other primary parasitoids varied significantly with geographical area; P. unicum dominated the frequency distribution in southwestern British Columbia, A. n. sp., west of the Cascades, and A. sp. and A. ervi east of the Cascades. Among the secondary parasitoids, pteromalids dominated, and their frequency in relation to the other secondary parasitoids was lowest in southwestern British Columbia. The parasitization rate for P. unicum and A. n. sp. in southwestern British Columbia increased from May or June to a maximum of 0.080 +/- 0.024 and 0.090 +/- 0.084 (SD), respectively, in late July or early August. P. unicum emerged in the spring 4 wk before A. n. sp. The parasitization rate for P. unicum was lower in conventional than organic fields. Whereas aphid density increased monotonically, P. unicum had two spring peaks. A simulation model showed that these peaks could reflect discrete generations. Releases of insectary-reared P. unicum at 150 or 450 DD above 5.6 degrees C, summing from 1 January, may effectively augment the natural spring populations by creating overlapping generations.

  19. Elevated streamflows increase dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter: Implications of climate change in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike; Bumbaco, Karin A.

    2012-01-01

    A 4-year evaluation was conducted to determine the proportion of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch passing Cowlitz Falls Dam, on the Cowlitz River, Washington, during winter. River and reservoir populations of coho salmon parr were monitored using radiotelemetry to determine if streamflow increases resulted in increased downstream movement and dam passage. This was of interest because fish that pass downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam become landlocked in Riffe Lake and are lost to the anadromous population. Higher proportions of reservoir-released fish (0.391-0.480) passed Cowlitz Falls Dam than did river-released fish (0.037-0.119). Event-time analyses demonstrated that streamflow increases were important predictors of dam passage rates during the study. The estimated effect of increasing streamflows on the risk of dam passage varied annually and ranged from 9% to 75% for every 28.3 m3/s increase in streamflow. These results have current management implications because they demonstrate the significance of dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter months when juvenile fish collection facilities are typically not operating. The results also have future management implications because climate change predictions suggest that peak streamflow timing for many watersheds in the Pacific Northwest will shift from late spring and early summer to winter. Increased occurrence of intense winter flood events is also expected. Our results demonstrate that juvenile coho salmon respond readily to streamflow increases and initiate downstream movements during winter months, which could result in increased passage at dams during these periods if climate change predictions are realized in the coming decades.

  20. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  1. Archaeological Evidence for Resilience of Pacific Northwest Salmon Populations and the Socioecological System over the last ~7,500 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Campbell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological data on the long history of interaction between indigenous people and salmon have rarely been applied to conservation management. When joined with ethnohistoric records, archaeology provides an alternative conceptual view of the potential for sustainable harvests and can suggest possible social mechanisms for managing human behavior. Review of the ~7,500-year-long fish bone record from two subregions of the Pacific Northwest shows remarkable stability in salmon use. As major changes in the ecological and social system occurred over this lengthy period, persistence in the fishery is not due simply to a lack of perturbation, but rather indicates resilience in the ecological-human system. Of several factors possibly contributing to resilience, low human population size and harvesting pressure, habitat enhancement, and suppression of competing predators do not appear to be of major importance. Flexible resource use, including human use of a range of local resources, many of which are linked in a food web with salmon, likely contributed to resilience. Most important were the beliefs and social institutions (including ownership, regulation, rituals, and monitoring that placed restraints on salmon use as a common pool resource. In contrast, only a small fraction of our modern society relies economically on or has direct interaction with the fish, which limits our concern and willingness to fundamentally change behaviors that contribute to habitat degradation and loss, the main challenges facing salmon populations today. Salmon recovery efforts may benefit substantially from investing more resources into establishing links between community groups and actual fish populations, which would create a sense of proprietorship, one of the keys to resilience in the indigenous salmon fishery.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. [ed.; Wildung, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) occurs in conjunction with the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) and with the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program. Solicitations for proposals and peer review were used to select research projects for funding in FY 1995. Nearly all ongoing projects were brought to a close in FY 1994. Therefore, the articles in this volume include a summary of the long-term accomplishments as well as the FY 1994 progress made on these projects. The following articles present summaries of the progress in FY 1994 under these research tasks: continental and oceanic fate of pollutants; research aircraft operations; ASCOT program management; coupling/decoupling of synoptic and valley circulations; interactions between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations; and direct simulations of atmospheric turbulence. Climate change research at PNL is aimed at reducing uncertainties in the fundamental processes that control climate systems that currently prevent accurate predictions of climate change and its effects. PNL is responsible for coordinating and integrating the field and laboratory measurement programs, modeling studies, and data analysis activities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. In FY 1994, PNL scientists conducted 3 research projects under the ARM program. In the first project, the sensitivity of GCM grid-ad meteorological properties to subgrid-scale variations in surface fluxes and subgrid-scale circulation patterns is being tested in a single column model. In the second project, a new and computationally efficient scheme has been developed for parameterizing stratus cloud microphysics in general circulation models. In the last project, a balloon-borne instrument package is being developed for making research-quality measurements of radiative flux divergence profiles in the lowest 1,500 meters of the Earth`s atmosphere.

  4. 75 FR 23823 - Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council (Northwest Power and Conservation Council; the Council). ACTION: Notice of adoption of the Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation...

  5. A guide to LIDAR data acquisition and processing for the forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Hans-Erik. Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is an emerging remote-sensing technology with promising potential to assist in mapping, monitoring, and assessment of forest resources. Continuous technological advancement and substantial reductions in data acquisition cost have enabled acquisition of laser data over entire states and regions. These developments have triggered an...

  6. Emissions from prescribed burning of agricultural fields in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. L. Holder; B. K. Gullett; S. P. Urbanski; R. Elleman; S. O' Neill; D. Tabor; W. Mitchell; K. R. Baker

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide a current and comprehensive set of emissions data for air quality models, climate models,...

  7. Mexicans in the Pacific Northwest: Lesson from Progressive School Leaders for Progressive Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Sheila M.

    2008-01-01

    Latinos now live and work in areas of the United States where they have not been before. These changes impact schools in a variety ways. This article reviews recent research on how communities have responded in the South, New England and the West with a primarily assimilationist approach including English-only policies. The article then provides a…

  8. What the soil reveals: potential total ecosystem C stores of the Pacific Northwest region, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Homann; Mark Harmon; Suzanne Remillard; Erica A.H. Smithwick

    2005-01-01

    How much organic C can a region naturally store in its ecosystems? How can this be determined, when land management has altered the vegetation of the landscape substantially? The answers may lie in the soil: this study synthesized the spatial distribution of soil properties derived from the state soils geographic database with empirical measurements of old-growth...

  9. 239+240Pu and 137Cs concentrations for zooplankton and nekton in the Northwest Pacific and Antarctic Oceans (1993-1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, G H; Kim, Y I; Lee, S H; Cooper, L W; Choe, S M; Tkalin, A V; Lee, A; Kim, S H; Chung, C S; Hirose, K

    2002-07-01

    The concentrations of 239+240Pu and 137Cs in zooplankton and nekton in the Northwest Pacific and Southern Oceans were measured during the period 1993-1996. The object of the sampling was to assess the potential impacts of existing submerged anthropogenic-radioactive materials in the western North Pacific as well as the East China Sea. Samples from the Bransfield Strait of the Antarctic Ocean provided a control source impacted by only atmospheric bomb fallout. No particularly elevated levels of 239+240Pu were found in zooplankton samples from the Northwest Pacific, although significantly lower levels of 239+240Pu were found in three mixed zooplankton samples from the Bransfield Strait. The body burden of 239+240Pu in zooplankton appears to reflect concentrations in ambient seawater with some variation. Some additional measurements of 137Cs in fish are also reported here to complement existing databases and for future reference in the regional marine environmental radioactivity monitoring effort.

  10. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 6. Oregon cross-tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Responses for the state of Oregon to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine quesions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above, fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning system; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households samples; 1165 households were sampled in Oregon. (MCW)

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Stegen, Amanda; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Raney, Elizabeth A.; Chamness, Michele A.; Mendez, Keith M.

    2013-09-01

    The PNNL Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2012 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.

  12. CO2 vs. Salmon: Complementary Policies In Wheat Transportation In The Pacific Northwest?

    OpenAIRE

    Gossard, Marcia; Jessup, Eric; Cassavant, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most debated environmental issues of the 21st century. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the principal contributor to climate change. Higher levels of CO2 concentrations are primarily the result of burning of fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Simultaneously, salmon populations are now being threatened and endangered. One technique to restore the salmon is the potential drawdown of the Snake River in Washington State. But, a paradox arises because ...

  13. Environmental Report on the Northwest Pacific for the Marine Seismic System (MSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Ieogeografiya; Neogenovaya Sistema , p. 408-413. Dz i ewonski , A. and M. Landi sman (1979 ). Great Circle Rayleigh and Love Wave Dispersion from 100 to 900...Vostochnoy Azi i , tom 2, Stratigrafiya i Pa Ieogeografiya; Melovaya Sistema V. N. Vereshchagin et a I., eds-, p. 343-347. Veltsman, P. S. (1966). On the...Rockville, AAD National Geophysical and Solar Terrestrial Data Center, Boulder, CO Oregon State University, School of Oceano- graphy, Corvallis, OR

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Stegen, Amanda; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Opitz, Brian E.

    2012-09-01

    The PNNL Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2011 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.

  15. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7.

  16. Technology assessment of solar energy systems: residential use of fuelwood in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, P.N.; Hopp, W.J.

    1981-08-01

    The evidence of impacts associated with the use of fuelwood for residential space heating in the region including the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is identified and evaluated. The use of fuelwood for space heating was projected into the future, and then the potential size of the impacts that had been identified and estimated was evaluated. These projections are provided in five year increments beginning in 1980 and proceeding to the year 2000. Policy options are suggested which may mitigate the adverse impacts identified, while preserving the positive effect of reducing residential demand for energy derived from nonrenewable sources.

  17. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilationstrategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings betweenSalishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  18. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings between Salishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1993-04-01

    This report is divided into the following sections, with technical sections in parentheses: dosimetry research (Chernobyl database, radon alpha irradiation of mammalian cells, cell growth rates in individual colonies), measurement science (ultrahigh resolution studies of molecular structure and dynamics, circular dichroism in hyperfine state resolved photoelectron angular distributions, Sr isotope shifts, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for DNA adduct research, rapid DNA sequencing techniques), and radiological and chemical physics (hit size effectiveness in radiation protection, track ends, cross sections for partially stripped ion impact, scaling of differential ionization cross sections, ionization by neutral projectiles, secondary electron emission from thin foils, stochastic model of ion track structure, stochastics of positive ion penumbra, plasmid structure and spontaneous strand separation, isolation and radiation sensitivity of DNA-synthesis-deficient CHO double mutants, semiempirical model of differential ionization cross sections for multishell atoms and molecules, ionization of DNA in solution, perturbations of DNA conformation by thymine glycol and dihydrothymine). 32 figs, 3 tabs.

  20. Regional Field Verification -- Case Study of Small Wind Turbines in the Pacific Northwest: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, K.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (DOE/NREL) Regional Field Verification (RFV) project supports industry needs for gaining initial field operation experience with small wind turbines and verify the performance, reliability, maintainability, and cost of small wind turbines in diverse applications. In addition, RFV aims to help expand opportunities for wind energy in new regions of the United States by tailoring projects to meet unique regional requirements and document and communicate the experience from these projects for the benefit of others in the wind power development community and rural utilities. Between August 2003 and August 2004, six turbines were installed at different host sites. At least one year of data has been collected from five of these sites. This paper describes DOE/NREL's RFV project, reviews some of the lessons learned with regards to small wind turbine installations, summarizes operations data from these sites, and provides preliminary BOS costs.

  1. Northwest Forest Plan: outcomes and lessons learned from the Northwest economic adjustment initiative: Proceedings of a forum; 1997 July 29-30; Portland, OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet H. Christensen; Terry L. Raettig; Paul. Sommers; [tech. eds.].

    1999-01-01

    This monograph is an examination of the experience in the Pacific Northwest implementing the Northwest Forest Plan, Economic Adjustment Initiative (NWEAI). First, a brief description of the NWEAI background and framework, and a socioeconomic overview of the region prior to the NWEAI provide the setting. Next, accounts of the NWEAI experience in each of the three states...

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W. (eds.)

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects.

  3. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  4. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  6. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.

    1999-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects.

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2008-09-29

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2009-06-11

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  9. Projecting community changes in hazard exposure to support long-term risk reduction: A case study of tsunami hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Wilson, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable damage to communities along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coastline. As coastal communities expand over time, the potential societal impact of tsunami inundation changes. To understand how community exposure to tsunami hazards may change in coming decades, we projected future development (i.e. urban, residential, and rural), households, and residents over a 50-year period (2011–2061) along the Washington, Oregon, and northern California coasts. We created a spatially explicit, land use/land cover, state-and-transition simulation model to project future developed land use based on historical development trends. We then compared our development projection results to tsunami-hazard zones associated with a Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. Changes in tsunami-hazard exposure by 2061 were estimated for 50 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties relative to current (2011) estimates. Across the region, 2061 population exposure in tsunami-hazard zones was projected to increase by 3880 households and 6940 residents. The top ten communities with highest population exposure to CSZ-related tsunamis in 2011 are projected to remain the areas with the highest population exposure by 2061. The largest net population increases in tsunami-hazard zones were projected in the unincorporated portions of several counties, including Skagit, Coos, and Humboldt. Land-change simulation modeling of projected future development serves as an exploratory tool aimed at helping local governments understand the hazard-exposure implications of community growth and to include this knowledge in risk-reduction planning.

  10. Resident perceptions of natural resources between cities and across scales in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita T. Morzillo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the global population becomes increasingly urban, research is needed to explore how local culture, land use, and policy will influence urban natural resource management. We used a broad-scale comparative approach and survey of residents within the Portland (Oregon-Vancouver (Washington metropolitan areas, USA, two states with similar geographical and ecological characteristics, but different approaches to land-use planning, to explore resident perceptions about natural resources at three scales of analysis: property level ("at or near my house", neighborhood ("within a 20-minute walk from my house", and metro level ("across the metro area". At the metro-level scale, nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed that the two cities were quite similar. However, affinity for particular landscape characteristics existed within each city with the greatest difference generally at the property-level scale. Portland respondents expressed affinity for large mature trees, tree-lined streets, public transportation, and proximity to stores and services. Vancouver respondents expressed affinity for plentiful accessible parking. We suggest three explanations that likely are not mutually exclusive. First, respondents are segmented based on preferences for particular amenities, such as convenience versus commuter needs. Second, historical land-use and tax policy legacies may influence individual decisions. Third, more environmentally attuned worldviews may influence an individual's desire to produce environmentally friendly outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of acknowledging variations in residents' affinities for landscape characteristics across different scales and locations because these differences may influence future land-use policies about urban natural resources.

  11. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 12. Climate Zone 4 cross-tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Responses for Climate Zone 4 to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) are presented. Climate Zone 4 is defined according to the sum of heating and cooling degree days, and amounts to over 8000. A map outlines the four zones. The fifty questions were cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana, with a total of 4030 households sampled; 992 househould were sampled in Climate Zone 4. Information on 54 tables is explained. (MCW)

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  14. A Large-Scale, Multiagency Approach to Defining a Reference Network for Pacific Northwest Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephanie; Eldred, Peter; Muldoon, Ariel; Anlauf-Dunn, Kara; Stein, Charlie; Hubler, Shannon; Merrick, Lesley; Haxton, Nick; Larson, Chad; Rehn, Andrew; Ode, Peter; Vander Laan, Jake

    2016-12-01

    Aquatic monitoring programs vary widely in objectives and design. However, each program faces the unifying challenge of assessing conditions and quantifying reasonable expectations for measured indicators. A common approach for setting resource expectations is to define reference conditions that represent areas of least human disturbance or most natural state of a resource characterized by the range of natural variability across a region of interest. Identification of reference sites often relies heavily on professional judgment, resulting in varying and unrepeatable methods. Standardized methods for data collection, site characterization, and reference site selection facilitate greater cooperation among assessment programs and development of assessment tools that are readily shareable and comparable. We illustrate an example that can serve the broader global monitoring community on how to create a consistent and transparent reference network for multiple stream resource agencies. We provide a case study that offers a simple example of how reference sites can be used, at the landscape level, to link upslope management practices to a specific in-channel response. We found management practices, particularly areas with high road densities, have more fine sediments than areas with fewer roads. While this example uses data from only one of the partner agencies, if data were collected in a similar manner they can be combined and create a larger, more robust dataset. We hope that this starts a dialog regarding more standardized ways through inter-agency collaborations to evaluate data. Creating more consistency in physical and biological field protocols will increase the ability to share data.

  15. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 9. Climate Zone 1 cross-tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Responses for Climate Zone 1 to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) are presented. Climate Zone 1, defined according to the sum of heating and cooling degree days, amounts to less than 6000. The fifty questions were cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories; dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana, with a total of 4030 households sampled; 1873 households were sampled in Climate Zone 1. Information in 54 tables is explained. (MCW)

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  17. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2015 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI from routine major and minor point source emissions in 2015 from PNNL Campus sources is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 1.8E-6 mrem (1.8E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 4.4E-8 mrem (4.4E-10 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2015. The total radiological dose to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE, or more than 10,000 times less than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, with which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2014 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2014 from PNNL Campus sources is 2E 05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 3E-6 mrem (3E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-6 mrem (1E-8 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2014. The total radiological dose for 2014 to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 3E-5 mrem (3E-7 mSv) EDE, or more than 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  20. Emissions from prescribed burning of agricultural fields in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, A. L.; Gullett, B. K.; Urbanski, S. P.; Elleman, R.; O'Neill, S.; Tabor, D.; Mitchell, W.; Baker, K. R.

    2017-10-01

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide a current and comprehensive set of emissions data for air quality models, climate models, and emission inventories. Batch measurements of PM2.5, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and continuous measurements of black carbon (BC), particle mass by size, CO, CO2, CH4, and aerosol characteristics were taken at ground level, on an aerostat-lofted instrument package, and from an airplane. Biomass samples gathered from the field were burned in a laboratory combustion facility for comparison with these ground and aerial field measurements. Emission factors for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), CH4, and CO measured in the field study platforms were typically higher than those measured in the laboratory combustion facility. Field data for Kentucky bluegrass suggest that biomass residue loading is directly proportional to the PM2.5 emission factor; no such relationship was found with the limited wheat data. CO2 and BC emissions were higher in laboratory burn tests than in the field, reflecting greater carbon oxidation and flaming combustion conditions. These distinctions between field and laboratory results can be explained by measurements of the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Higher MCEs were recorded in the laboratory burns than from the airplane platform. These MCE/emission factor trends are supported by 1-2 min grab samples from the ground and aerostat platforms. Emission factors measured here are similar to other studies measuring comparable fuels, pollutants, and combustion conditions. The size distribution of refractory BC (rBC) was single modal with a log-normal shape, which was

  1. Agroecological and environmental factors influence Barley yellow dwarf viruses in grasslands in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwell, Laura L; Lacroix, Christelle; Rhoades, Paul R; Karasev, Alexander V; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2017-09-15

    Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010 to 2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors. Viral species were identified via cloning and sequencing. Landscape, soil and climate data were retrieved from USDA-NASS and USDA-NRCS databases. Analyses were conducted to examine effects of diverse agroecological and environmental factors on virus prevalence. A total of 2271 grass samples representing 30 species were collected; 28 of these were infected with BYDV in at least one location. BYDV infection was detected at every CRP and prairie remnant sampled, with an overall infection of 46%. BYDV-SGV and BYDV-PAV were the only two B/CYDV species encountered, with BYDV-SGV being more prevalent. Sampling time (season) and host plant identity were the main variables explaining variation in virus prevalence among sites. BYDV was more prevalent in perennial compared to annual grass species. Aphids were encountered only once suggesting non-colonizing aphids, potentially from neighboring cereal fields, are responsible for disease spread in these habitats. BYDV prevalence increased in sampled habitats as cereal crop cover increased within a 1-km radius of a habitat patch. Results demonstrate moderate to high and persistent prevalence of BYDV in an endangered grassland habitat. Species composition and susceptibility to pathogens

  2. Biotic constraints on the establishment and performance of native, naturalized, and invasive plants in Pacific Northwest (USA steppe and forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Connolly

    2017-02-01

    . Considered collectively, our results demonstrate how seed limitation and intact plant ground cover can limit the abundance and performance of naturalized species in Pacific Northwest steppe and low elevation forest, suggesting that local disturbance in both habitats creates microsites for these species to establish and survive. Future studies evaluating interactions between multiple barriers to establishment using more representatives from each immigration class will further reveal how biotic interactions ultimately influence the demography and distribution of non-native plants within these communities.

  3. Strawberry Rhyolites, Oregon: Northwestern extent of mid-Miocene flood basalt related rhyolites of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Columbia River-Steens flood basalts of the Pacific Northwest has traditionally been viewed to be centered at McDermitt caldera near the Oregon-Nevada border starting at ~16.5 Ma. In recent years, more rhyolitic centers along this latitude with ages between 16.5-15.5 Ma have been identified and associated with the inception of the Yellowstone hotspot. However the footprint of plume-head related rhyolites becomes much larger when silicic centers of mid-Miocene age in eastern Oregon are included extending the distribution of such rhyolites to areas near the towns of Baker City and John Day ~250 km north of McDermitt. This study addresses one of these rhyolitic centers that was virtually unknown and that constitutes the northwestern extent of mid-Miocene rhyolites. Rhyolites are centered ~40 km SSW of John Day and are considered part of the Strawberry Volcanic Field (SVF), which consists of a diverse group of volcanic rocks ranging from basalt to rhyolite with abundant intermediate compositions. One existing age date of 17.3 Ma ± 0.36 (Robyn, 1977) - if confirmed by our ongoing study - places these rhyolites at the very onset of plume-head related rhyolites. Strawberry rhyolitic lavas are most voluminous in the southwestern portion of the SVF covering approximately 500 km2 between Bear and Logan Valley. The rhyolitic lavas tend to be phenocryst-poor (Strawberry Rhyolites show minor variability except in, Sr (10 - 200 ppm), Zr (65 - 450 ppm), Ti (300 - 3500 ppm), and Ba (350 - 1600 ppm). When normalized to upper crustal values, Strawberry Rhyolites plot around 1 with significant troughs at Sr, P, Ti, and minor troughs in Ba, Nb, and Zr. REE patterns indicate slight LREE enrichment with LaN/YbN values ranging from 2.5 to 8.3 and higher values correlate positively with other differentiation indices (e.g. Ba, Sr, Eu/Eu*). Furthermore, major elements (e.g. SiO2 and FeO*) and trace elements (e.g. Ba, Sr, La, Zr/Hf) display common

  4. Detection of spatial hot spots and variation for the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii resources in the northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Chen, Xinjun; Liu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing effects of global climate change and fishing activities, the spatial distribution of the neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) is changing in the traditional fishing ground of 150°-160°E and 38°-45°N in the northwest Pacific Ocean. This research aims to identify the spatial hot and cold spots (i.e. spatial clusters) of O. bartramii to reveal its spatial structure using commercial fishery data from 2007 to 2010 collected by Chinese mainland squid-jigging fleets. A relatively strongly-clustered distribution for O. bartramii was observed using an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) method. The results show two hot spots and one cold spot in 2007 while only one hot and one cold spots were identified each year from 2008 to 2010. The hot and cold spots in 2007 occupied 8.2% and 5.6% of the study area, respectively; these percentages for hot and cold spot areas were 5.8% and 3.1% in 2008, 10.2% and 2.9% in 2009, and 16.4% and 11.9% in 2010, respectively. Nearly half (>45%) of the squid from 2007 to 2009 reported by Chinese fleets were caught in hot spot areas while this percentage reached its peak at 68.8% in 2010, indicating that the hot spot areas are central fishing grounds. A further change analysis shows the area centered at 156°E/43.5°N was persistent as a hot spot over the whole period from 2007 to 2010. Furthermore, the hot spots were mainly identified in areas with sea surface temperature (SST) in the range of 15-20°C around warm Kuroshio Currents as well as with the chlorophyll- a (chl- a) concentration above 0.3 mg/m3. The outcome of this research improves our understanding of spatiotemporal hotspots and its variation for O. bartramii and is useful for sustainable exploitation, assessment, and management of this squid.

  5. Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Offset Quantification Protocols for Nitrogen Management in Dryland Wheat Cropping Systems of the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha T. Brown

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the carbon market, greenhouse gas (GHG offset protocols need to ensure that emission reductions are of high quality, quantifiable, and real. Lack of consistency across protocols for quantifying emission reductions compromise the credibility of offsets generated. Thus, protocol quantification methodologies need to be periodically reviewed to ensure emission offsets are credited accurately and updated to support practical climate policy solutions. Current GHG emission offset credits generated by agricultural nitrogen (N management activities are based on reducing the annual N fertilizer application rate for a given crop without reducing yield. We performed a “road test” of agricultural N management protocols to evaluate differences among protocol components and quantify nitrous oxide (N2O emission reductions under sample projects relevant to N management in dryland, wheat-based cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW. We evaluated five agricultural N management offset protocols applicable to North America: two methodologies of American Carbon Registry (ACR1 and ACR2, Verified Carbon Standard (VCS, Climate Action Reserve (CAR, and Alberta Offset Credit System (Alberta. We found that only two protocols, ACR2 and VCS, were suitable for this study, in which four sample projects were developed representing feasible N fertilizer rate reduction activities. The ACR2 and VCS protocols had identical baseline and project emission quantification methodologies resulting in identical emission reduction values. Reducing N fertilizer application rate by switching to variable rate N (sample projects 1–3 or split N application (sample project 4 management resulted in a N2O emission reduction ranging from 0.07 to 0.16, and 0.26 Mg CO2e ha−1, respectively. Across the range of C prices considered ($5, $10, and $50 per metric ton of CO2 equivalent, we concluded that the N2O emission offset payment alone ($0.35–$13.0 ha−1 was unlikely to

  6. The Role of Eolian Dust Fertilization in Biogeochemical Cycles in The sub-Arctic Northwest Pacific During the Late Pliocene Intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, I.; Liu, Q.; Swann, G.; Jiang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Zhao, X.; Roberts, A.

    2010-12-01

    Marine sediments recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 145 have improved our knowledge of climatic and oceanographic change in the North Pacific Ocean and surrounding landmasses during the last several million years. Of particular importance has been the analysis of high-latitude terrigenous sedimentary components sourced from the Asian continental interior via eolian deposition and from the circum-North Pacific landmasses via ice rafting. Teasing apart the relative contribution of eolian dust and ice-rafted debris (IRD) to deep sea sediments in the sub-Arctic Pacific is important for developing our understanding of late Pliocene ice-sheet evolution and the potential role of iron fertilization in biogeochemical cycles in the North Pacific Ocean. The magnetic properties of both eolian dust and IRD often have distinctive magnetic signatures, making environmental magnetism useful for investigating the relative importance of these sediment sources to bulk terrigenous inputs. Enhancements of the low-field volume magnetic susceptibility and the terrigenous sediment component from ODP Site 882 (~45°N) are classically interpreted to indicate a major onset of ice rafting to the sub-Arctic northwest Pacific Ocean during the late Pliocene (from ca MIS G6). On the other hand, studies of the eolian dust content of sediments from ODP Site 885, cored downwind of Site 882, indicate that dust deposition in the sub-Arctic Pacific increased markedly during MIS G6. This suggests that the classic interpretation of the magnetic susceptibility record at Site 882 requires reappraisal. To investigate the relative contribution of dust versus ice rafting to the Pliocene North Pacific, we present new high-resolution environmental magnetic and IRD records from ODP sites 882 and 885. We find that terrigenous inputs to both sites across MIS G6 were dominated by eolian dust (not IRD). Our findings call into question the reliability of magnetic susceptibility as a simple proxy for IRD

  7. Effects of Silviculture and Genetics on Branch/Knot Attributes of Coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir and Implications for Wood Quality—A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eini C. Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few decades. Cultural treatments and genetic improvement designed to increase production of utilizable wood volume also impact tree morphology and wood properties. Many of these impacts are mediated by crown development, particularly the amount and distribution of foliage and size and geometry of branches. Natural selection for branch architecture that optimizes reproductive fitness may not necessarily be optimal for stem volume growth rate or for wood properties controlling the quality of manufactured solid wood products. Furthermore, Douglas-fir does not self-prune within the rotation lengths currently practiced. This paper synthesizes extensive Douglas-fir research in the Pacific Northwest addressing: (1 the effects of silviculture and genetics on branch structure and associated consequences for wood quality and the product value chain; and (2 methods to measure, monitor, modify, and model branch attributes to assist managers in selecting appropriate silvicultural techniques to achieve wood quality objectives and improve the value of their Douglas-fir resource.

  8. An effectiveness monitoring program for the northwest forest plan: new approaches to common monitoring problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Palmer; Barry Mulder; Barry Noon

    2000-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan is a large-scale ecosystem management plan for federal lands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. An effectiveness monitoring program has been developed to determine the extent to which the goals and objectives of this Plan are being achieved. Priority resources identified for ecological monitoring include late-successional and old-...

  9. Adapting ElarmS Earthquake Early Warnings for Cascadia: Development and Testing of ShakeAlerts in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, J. R.; Kress, V. C.; Thomas, T.; Malone, S. D.; Henson, I. H.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    As a first step in establishing an earthquake early warning system in Cascadia, we have installed the ElarmS component of the ShakeAlert system at the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. In Cascadia our initial focus is primarily on the development of a seismo-geodetic-based real-time finite fault rupture algorithm to detect and characterize a large plate-boundary rupture in progress (see Crowell et. al., this session). In this regard the goal of the purely seismic-data-based ElarmS implementation is to 'trigger' the finite fault rupture algorithm. At the same time, however, the Cascadian ElarmS will also produce warnings for smaller onshore crustal earthquakes. While warnings from these smaller and closer earthquakes will provide shorter warning times for communities, and for less dramatic earthquakes, we intend to use them for educational purposes, and to coordinate with our regional and collaborating partners. They will also help to guide us to shorten data latencies and learn where additional instrumentation is most needed to increase performance. The accuracy of ElarmS in Cascadia is another major concern, because the current ElarmS model presumes an initial focal depth for earthquakes of 8 km based on California experience, while in Cascadia earthquakes of major concern may be as deep as 50 km, and/or occur beyond the western fringe of the seismic network. To this purpose our testing protocol is aimed at determining what changes are required to ensure top performance of an ElarmS-based warning system in Cascadia. Because of Cascadia's relatively low seismicity rate, and the paucity of data from plate boundary earthquakes there of any size, we have prioritized the development of a test system. The test system permits us to: 1) replay segments of actual seismic waveform data recorded from the PNSN and contributing seismic network stations to represent both earthquakes and noise conditions, and 2) broadcast synthetic data into the system to simulate signals we

  10. In-stand scenic beauty of variable retention harvests and mature forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: the effects of basal area, density, retention pattern and down wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Ribe

    2009-01-01

    Tensions between amenity- and timber-based economies in the U.S. and Canadian Pacific Northwest motivated a study of scenic beauty inside mature forests and timber harvests. A diverse sample of regional forests, measures of forest structure, and large, representative samples of photographs and public judges were employed to measure scenic beauty inside unharvested...

  11. The Uranium from Seawater Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Overview of Marine Testing, Adsorbent Characterization, Adsorbent Durability, Adsorbent Toxicity, and Deployment Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Janke, Chris J.; Park, Jiyeon; Jeters, Robert T.; Bonheyo, George T.; Pan, Horng-Bin; Wai, Chien; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Bianucci, Laura; Wood, Jordana R.; Warner, Marvin G.; Peterson, Sonja; Abrecht, David G.; Mayes, Richard T.; Tsouris, Costas; Oyola, Yatsandra; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; Addleman, R. Shane; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Das, Sadananda; Kim, Jungseung; Buesseler, Ken; Breier, Crystal; D’Alessandro, Evan

    2016-02-07

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) located along the coast of Washington State is evaluating the performance of uranium adsorption materials being developed for seawater extraction under realistic marine conditions with natural seawater. Two types of exposure systems were employed in this program: flow-through columns for testing of fixed beds of individual fibers and pellets and a recirculating water flume for testing of braided adsorbent material. Testing consists of measurements of the adsorption of uranium and other elements from seawater as a function of time, typically 42 to 56 day exposures, to determine the adsorbent capacity and adsorption rate (kinetics). Analysis of uranium and other trace elements collected by the adsorbents was conducted following strong acid digestion of the adsorbent with 50% aqua regia using either Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The ORNL 38H adsorbent had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.30 ± 0.68 g U/ kg adsorbent (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation adsorption capacity of 4.89 ± 0.83 g U/kg of adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half-saturation time of 28 ± 10 days. The AF1 adsorbent material had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.9 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation capacity of 5.4 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half saturation time of 23 ± 2 days. The ORNL amidoxime-based adsorbent materials are not specific for uranium, but also adsorb other elements from seawater. The major doubly charged cations in seawater (Ca and Mg) account for a majority of the cations adsorbed (61% by mass and 74% by molar percent). For the ORNL AF1 adsorbent material, U is the 4th most abundant element adsorbed by mass and 7th most abundant by molar percentage

  12. Modeling Forest Aboveground Biomass and Volume Using Airborne LiDAR Metrics and Forest Inventory and Analysis Data in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Sheridan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA Program provides a diverse selection of data used to assess the status of the nation’s forests using sample locations dispersed throughout the country. Airborne laser scanning (ALS systems are capable of producing accurate measurements of individual tree dimensions and also possess the ability to characterize forest structure in three dimensions. This study investigates the potential of discrete return ALS data for modeling forest aboveground biomass (AGBM and gross volume (gV at FIA plot locations in the Malheur National Forest, eastern Oregon utilizing three analysis levels: (1 individual subplot (r = 7.32 m; (2 plot, comprising four clustered subplots; and (3 hectare plot (r = 56.42 m. A methodology for the creation of three point cloud-based airborne LiDAR metric sets is presented. Models for estimating AGBM and gV based on LiDAR-derived height metrics were built and validated utilizing FIA estimates of AGBM and gV derived using regional allometric equations. Simple linear regression models based on the plot-level analysis out performed subplot-level and hectare-level models, producing R2 values of 0.83 and 0.81 for AGBM and gV, utilizing mean height and the 90th height percentile as predictors, respectively. Similar results were found for multiple regression models, where plot-level analysis produced models with R2 values of 0.87 and 0.88 for AGBM and gV, utilizing multiple height percentile metrics as predictor variables. Results suggest that the current FIA plot design can be used with dense airborne LiDAR data to produce area-based estimates of AGBM and gV, and that the increased spatial scale of hectare plots may be inappropriate for modeling AGBM of gV unless exhaustive tree tallies are available. Overall, this study demonstrates that ALS data can be used to create models that describe the AGBM and gV of Pacific Northwest FIA plots and highlights the potential of

  13. Impacts of SST anomalies in the Indian-Pacific basin on Northwest Pacific tropical cyclone activities during three super El Niño years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ruifen; Chen, Baode; Ding, Yihui

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) in several important areas of the Indian-Pacific basin on tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) during the developing years of three super El Niño events (1982, 1997, and 2015) based on observations and numerical simulations. During the super El Niño years, TC intensity was enhanced considerably, TC days increased, TC tracks mostly recurved along the coasts, and fewer TCs made landfall in China. These characteristics are similar to the strong ENSO-TC relationship but further above the climatological means than in strong El Niño years. It indicates that super El Niño events play a dominant role in the intensities and tracks of WNP TCs. However, there were clear differences in both numbers and positions of TC genesis among the different super El Niño years. These features could be attributed to the collective impact of SST anomalies (SSTAs) in the tropical central-eastern Pacific and East Indian Ocean (EIO) and the SST gradient (SSTG) between the southwestern Pacific and the western Pacific warm pool. During 2015, the EIO SSTA was extremely warm and the anomalous anticyclone in the western WNP was enhanced, resulting in fewer TCs than normal. In 1982, the EIO SSTA and spring SSTG showed negative anomalies, followed by an increased anomalous cyclone in the western WNP and equatorial vertical wind shear. This intensified the conversion of eddy kinetic energy from large-scale flows, favorable for the westward shift of TC genesis. Consequently, anomalous TC activities during the super El Niño years resulted mainly from combined SSTA impacts of different key areas over the Indian-Pacific basin.

  14. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CD Carlson; SQ Bennett

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998, and seven in fiscal year 1999. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have been completed and will publish final reports, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation; Decontamination and Decommissioning; Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials; and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  15. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Clark D.; Bennett, Sheila Q.

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998 and seven in fiscal year 1999.(a) All of the fiscal year 1996 awards have been completed and the Principal Investigators are writing final reports, so their summaries will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  16. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards -- Fiscal Year 2002 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Brockman, Fred J.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Egorov, Oleg B.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Grate, Jay W.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Mattigod, Shas V.; McGrail, B. Peter; Meyer, Philip D.; Murray, Christopher J.; Panetta, Paul D.; Pfund, David M.; Rai, Dhanpat; Su, Yali; Sundaram, S. K.; Weber, William J.; Zachara, John M.

    2002-06-11

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been awarded a total of 80 Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants since the inception of the program in 1996. The Laboratory has collaborated on an additional 14 EMSP awards with funding received through other institution. This report describes how each of the projects awarded in 1999, 2000, and 2001 addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in the individual project reports included in this document. Projects are under way in three main areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  17. Regional air-quality forecasting for the Pacific Northwest using MOPITT/TERRA assimilated carbon monoxide MOZART-4 forecasts as a near real-time boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Herron-Thorpe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional air quality forecast model, AIRPACT-3, were compared to AIRS carbon monoxide column densities for the spring of 2010 over the Pacific Northwest. AIRPACT-3 column densities showed high correlation (R > 0.9 but were significantly biased (~25% with consistent under-predictions for spring months when there is significant transport from Asia. The AIRPACT-3 CO bias relative to AIRS was eliminated by incorporating dynamic boundary conditions derived from NCAR's MOZART forecasts with assimilated MOPITT carbon monoxide. Changes in ozone-related boundary conditions derived from MOZART forecasts are also discussed and found to affect background levels by ± 10 ppb but not found to significantly affect peak ozone surface concentrations.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health - Part 5: Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 2: Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PBL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1989. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The report is organized by major research areas. Within this division, individual reports summarize the progress of projects in these areas. Additional sections summarize exploratory research, educational institutional interactions, technology transfer, and publications. The research, focused principally on subsurface contaminant transport and detection and management of human-induced changes in biological systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the local, regional, and global levels.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  1. A new species of eagle ray Aetobatus narutobiei from the Northwest Pacific: an example of the critical role taxonomy plays in fisheries and ecological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William T; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Recent taxonomic and molecular work on the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae) revealed a cryptic species in the northwest Pacific. This species is formally described as Aetobatus narutobiei sp. nov. and compared to its congeners. Aetobatus narutobiei is found in eastern Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Korea and southern Japan. It was previously considered to be conspecific with Aetobatus flagellum, but these species differ in size, structure of the NADH2 and CO1 genes, some morphological and meristic characters and colouration. Aetobatus narutobiei is particularly abundant in Ariake Bay in southern Japan where it is considered a pest species that predates heavily on farmed bivalve stocks and is culled annually as part of a 'predator control' program. The discovery of A. narutobiei highlights the paucity of detailed taxonomic research on this group of rays. This discovery impacts on current conservation assessments of A. flagellum and these need to be revised based on the findings of this study.

  2. A new species of eagle ray Aetobatus narutobiei from the Northwest Pacific: an example of the critical role taxonomy plays in fisheries and ecological sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T White

    Full Text Available Recent taxonomic and molecular work on the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae revealed a cryptic species in the northwest Pacific. This species is formally described as Aetobatus narutobiei sp. nov. and compared to its congeners. Aetobatus narutobiei is found in eastern Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Korea and southern Japan. It was previously considered to be conspecific with Aetobatus flagellum, but these species differ in size, structure of the NADH2 and CO1 genes, some morphological and meristic characters and colouration. Aetobatus narutobiei is particularly abundant in Ariake Bay in southern Japan where it is considered a pest species that predates heavily on farmed bivalve stocks and is culled annually as part of a 'predator control' program. The discovery of A. narutobiei highlights the paucity of detailed taxonomic research on this group of rays. This discovery impacts on current conservation assessments of A. flagellum and these need to be revised based on the findings of this study.

  3. Strong Links Between Teleconnections and Ecosystem Exchange Found at a Pacific Northwest Old-Growth Forest from Flux Tower and MODIS EVI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Chasmer, L; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-03-12

    CO{sub 2} uptake variability in Pacific Northwest conifer forests.

  4. Climatic response variability and machine learning: development of a modular technology framework for predicting bio-climatic change in pacific northwest ecosystems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.

    2015-12-01

    The creation and use of large amounts of data in scientific investigations has become common practice. Data collection and analysis for large scientific computing efforts are not only increasing in volume as well as number, the methods and analysis procedures are evolving toward greater complexity (Bell, 2009, Clarke, 2009, Maimon, 2010). In addition, the growth of diverse data-intensive scientific computing efforts (Soni, 2011, Turner, 2014, Wu, 2008) has demonstrated the value of supporting scientific data integration. Efforts to bridge this gap between the above perspectives have been attempted, in varying degrees, with modular scientific computing analysis regimes implemented with a modest amount of success (Perez, 2009). This constellation of effects - 1) an increasing growth in the volume and amount of data, 2) a growing data-intensive science base that has challenging needs, and 3) disparate data organization and integration efforts - has created a critical gap. Namely, systems of scientific data organization and management typically do not effectively enable integrated data collaboration or data-intensive science-based communications. Our research efforts attempt to address this gap by developing a modular technology framework for data science integration efforts - with climate variation as the focus. The intention is that this model, if successful, could be generalized to other application areas. Our research aim focused on the design and implementation of a modular, deployable technology architecture for data integration. Developed using aspects of R, interactive python, SciDB, THREDDS, Javascript, and varied data mining and machine learning techniques, the Modular Data Response Framework (MDRF) was implemented to explore case scenarios for bio-climatic variation as they relate to pacific northwest ecosystem regions. Our preliminary results, using historical NETCDF climate data for calibration purposes across the inland pacific northwest region

  5. Effect of spatial and temporal scales on habitat suitability modeling: A case study of Ommastrephes bartramii in the northwest pacific ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Caixia; Chen, Xinjun; Gao, Feng; Tian, Siquan

    2014-12-01

    Temporal and spatial scales play important roles in fishery ecology, and an inappropriate spatio-temporal scale may result in large errors in modeling fish distribution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the roles of spatio-temporal scales in habitat suitability modeling, with the western stock of winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) in the northwest Pacific Ocean as an example. In this study, the fishery-dependent data from the Chinese Mainland Squid Jigging Technical Group and sea surface temperature (SST) from remote sensing during August to October of 2003-2008 were used. We evaluated the differences in a habitat suitability index model resulting from aggregating data with 36 different spatial scales with a combination of three latitude scales (0.5°, 1° and 2°), four longitude scales (0.5°, 1°, 2° and 4°), and three temporal scales (week, fortnight, and month). The coefficients of variation (CV) of the weekly, biweekly and monthly suitability index (SI) were compared to determine which temporal and spatial scales of SI model are more precise. This study shows that the optimal temporal and spatial scales with the lowest CV are month, and 0.5° latitude and 0.5° longitude for O. bartramii in the northwest Pacific Ocean. This suitability index model developed with an optimal scale can be cost-effective in improving forecasting fishing ground and requires no excessive sampling efforts. We suggest that the uncertainty associated with spatial and temporal scales used in data aggregations needs to be considered in habitat suitability modeling.

  6. Interannual and seasonal variability of winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid abundance in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during 1995-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2016-06-01

    The neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is a species of economically important cephalopod in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Its short lifespan increases the susceptibility of the distribution and abundance to the direct impact of the environmental conditions. Based on the generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM), the commercial fishery data from the Chinese squid-jigging fleets during 1995 to 2011 were used to examine the interannual and seasonal variability in the abundance of O. bartramii, and to evaluate the influences of variables on the abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE). The results from GLM suggested that year, month, latitude, sea surface temperature (SST), mixed layer depth (MLD), and the interaction term ( SST×MLD) were significant factors. The optimal model based on GAM included all the six significant variables and could explain 42.43% of the variance in nominal CPUE. The importance of the six variables was ranked by decreasing magnitude: year, month, latitude, SST, MLD and SST×MLD. The squid was mainly distributed in the waters between 40°N and 44°N in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The optimal ranges of SST and MLD were from 14 to 20°C and from 10 to 30 m, respectively. The squid abundance greatly fluctuated from 1995 to 2011. The CPUE was low during 1995-2002 and high during 2003-2008. Furthermore, the squid abundance was typically high in August. The interannual and seasonal variabilities in the squid abundance were associated with the variations of marine environmental conditions and the life history characteristics of squid.

  7. Use of media technologies by Native American teens and young adults in the Pacific Northwest: exploring their utility for designing culturally appropriate technology-based health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David

    2011-08-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by many common adolescent health issues, including drug and alcohol use, injury and violence, sexually transmitted infections, and teen pregnancy. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues for reaching adolescents on a wide range of sensitive health topics. While several studies have informed the development of technology-based interventions targeting mainstream youth, no such data have been reported for AI/AN youth. To fill this gap, this study quantified media technology use among 405 AI/AN youth (13-21 years old) living in tribes and urban communities in the Pacific Northwest, and identified patterns in their health information-seeking practices and preferences. Overall, technology use was exceptionally common among survey respondents, mirroring or exceeding national rates. High rates of online health information seeking were also reported: Over 75% of AI/AN youth reported searching online for health information. These data are now being used by the Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board and NW tribes to design culturally-appropriate, technology-based health interventions targeting AI/AN youth.

  8. Development of a Technology Transfer Score for Evaluating Research Proposals: Case Study of Demand Response Technologies in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Judith

    researcher and recipient relationship, specific to technology transfer. In this research, the evaluation criteria of several research organizations were assessed to understand the extent to which the success attributes that were identified in literature were considered when reviewing research proposals. While some of the organizations included a few of the success attributes, none of the organizations considered all of the attributes. In addition, none of the organizations quantified the value of the success attributes. The effectiveness of the model relies extensively on expert judgments to complete the model validation and quantification. Subject matter experts ranging from senior executives with extensive experience in technology transfer to principal research investigators from national labs, universities, utilities, and non-profit research organizations were used to ensure a comprehensive and cross-functional validation and quantification of the decision model. The quantified model was validated using a case study involving demand response (DR) technology proposals in the Pacific Northwest. The DR technologies were selected based on their potential to solve some of the region's most prevalent issues. In addition, several sensitivity scenarios were developed to test the model's response to extreme case scenarios, impact of perturbations in expert responses, and if it can be applied to other than demand response technologies. In other words, is the model technology agnostic? In addition, the flexibility of the model to be used as a tool for communicating which success attributes in a research proposal are deficient and need strengthening and how improvements would increase the overall technology transfer score were assessed. The low scoring success attributes in the case study proposals (e.g. project meetings, etc.) were clearly identified as the areas to be improved for increasing the technology transfer score. As a communication tool, the model could help a research

  9. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  10. Climate-driven Shifting in Distribution Patterns of Calanus sinicus Brodsky in the Continental Shelf Waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Liu, H.; Yan, Q. L.; Fan, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale variations in zooplankton dynamics, including the poleward movements and earlier timing of life cycle events, have been widely observed over recent decades. The biogeographical shifts are often related to the increasing sea surface temperature or the long-term climatological change, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (NESO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The Copepod Calanus sinicus Brodsky plays an important trophic role in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean as a grazer of phytoplankton and main food source for many ecologically and commercially important fish, such as sardine and anchovy. Because of its importance in marine ecosystem dynamics, C. sinicus was selected as one of the "keystone species" in the China-GLOBEC program. In this study, we examined the shifts in spatial patterns of the species within its distribution domain - the Yellow Sea and the northern East China Sea in the 1950s, 1980s and 2010s. We used contour mapping and a mathematical model to locate the geographical distribution center of the species. We found a significant relationship (r=0.594, P<0.05) between the monthly PDO index and the latitudes of the distribution center of C. sinicus, and a lag of two months for copepods to respond the PDO index. Our findings imply a northward shifting in the distribution center, and the northern Yellow Sea is becoming a new distribution center as another possible over-summering site of C. sinicus.

  11. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  12. Supplemental Educational Services and Implementation Challenges in the Northwest Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifer, Steffen; Speth, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the initial efforts and current status of implementing supplemental educational services (SES) in the Northwest Region states, identifies information gaps and areas of further inquiry, and delineates concerns and challenges for the state education agencies. It is an exploratory effort to identify issues for deeper examination…

  13. 77 FR 57188 - Rusk, Palestine & Pacific Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Texas State Railroad Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Rusk, Palestine & Pacific Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption-- Texas State Railroad Authority Rusk, Palestine & Pacific Railroad, LLC (RP&P), formerly American Heritage Railways of...) between Rusk and Palestine, Tex., currently owned by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Authority. The Line is...

  14. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... pound (QP) deficits, 4. Eliminate double filing of co-op reports (November and March), 5. Revise first...), (F), and (H). 3. Change the Opt-Out Requirement for QP Deficits This proposed action would only...

  15. 78 FR 68764 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast.... Change the opt-out requirement for quota pound (QP) deficits, 4. Eliminate double filing of co-op reports... operations worldwide. Prior to SBA's recent changes to the size standards for commercial harvesters, a...

  16. Acute medicine units: the current state of affairs in the North-West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawarna, C; Atkinson, D; Ahmed, S V; Leong, K

    2010-09-01

    Studies suggest that acute medicine units (AMU) reduce inpatient mortality, length of stay and re-admissions and improve four-hour performance targets. Over the past decade or so, after evaluating the system in place, the Royal College of Physicians of London (RCPL) has made key recommendations for an efficient and effective AMU. This audit reviews the current infrastructure of regional AMUs against those RCPL recommendations in respect of facilities, service provision and staffing. A total of 22 regional hospitals in the North-West of England were invited to participate in this audit; 19 responded. Two units did not have designated AMU facilities. Not a single hospital met all basic infrastructure recommendations. Only four had the recommended bed capacity, nine had recommended cardiac-monitoring facilities and incorporated 'short-stay units', 13 used early warning systems for patient triage and six had the recommended number of consultants assigned to AMUs with a designated medical team. Notably, there were suboptimal numbers of allied healthcare professionals in most units. In summary, the majority of the AMUs in the North-West of England lack sufficient resources to meet even the most basic RCPL recommendations. A national in-depth audit is needed to determine fully the current state and thus guide future health planning.

  17. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts in Coos Bay, Oregon and Grays Harbor, Washington, taken from charter/fishing boats as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS) from 1998-03-24 to 1998-12-06 (NODC Accession 0117837)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was designed to address the physical variability in Pacific Northwest estuaries, the relationship between estuarine processes and the variability in...

  18. Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil Fertilization and Biochar Addition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, I.; Johnson, M. S.; Jassal, R. S.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), linked to current climate change has stimulated a scientific response to provide robust accounting of sources and sinks of these gases. There is an urgent need to increase awareness of land management impacts on GHG flux dynamics to facilitate the development of management strategies that minimize GHG emissions. Biochar (pyrolyzed organic matter) has been identified as a strategy to reduce net GHG fluxes from soils. This is due to its potential to sequester large amounts of carbon for significant time periods, as well as its modification of biotic and abiotic soil conditions, which in turn can alter the GHG balance. This study describes the effect of biochar and urea-N application on soil surface CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forest on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada (49o 52' N, 125o 20' W). We used a randomized complete-block design with four replicates of the following treatments: i) control, ii) 5 Mg ha-1 biochar surface application, iii) 200 kg N ha-1 urea pellets surface application, and iv) 5 Mg ha-1 biochar plus 200 kg N ha-1 urea. Soil GHG flux measurements were made biweekly for two years beginning in September 2011 using a non-steady-state non-flow through chamber technique. Biochar was added in February 2012, with urea applied in March 2013. A collar made from 21-cm diameter x 11-cm long PVC piping was installed in each of the 16 plots between two large trees on the forest floor, penetrating the organic layer to the mineral soil at the 5-8 cm depth. A clear Plexiglas lid, equipped with a 10-cm long vent tube and 9-V fan, was placed on each collar when making measurements, with 20-mL samples of chamber headspace air collected at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 min using a medical syringe with 21-gauge needle inserted through a rubber septum in the chamber lid. Samples were injected into and transported in previously

  19. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    Full Text Available We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA and sea surface salinity (SSS. Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch, 2008 (average catch and 2009 (low catch indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially

  20. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  1. Evaluating an Automated Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbances in the Pacific Northwest from Logging, Fire and Insect Outbreaks with Landsat Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.Neigh, Christopher S.; Bolton, Douglas K.; Williams, Jennifer J.; Diabate, Mouhamad

    2014-01-01

    Forests are the largest aboveground sink for atmospheric carbon (C), and understanding how they change through time is critical to reduce our C-cycle uncertainties. We investigated a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1982 to 1991 in Pacific Northwest forests, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs). To understand the causal factors of this decline, we evaluated an automated classification method developed for Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) to map forest change. This method included: (1) multiple disturbance index thresholds; and (2) a spectral trajectory-based image analysis with multiple confidence thresholds. We produced 48 maps and verified their accuracy with air photos, monitoring trends in burn severity data and insect aerial detection survey data. Area-based accuracy estimates for change in forest cover resulted in producer's and user's accuracies of 0.21 +/- 0.06 to 0.38 +/- 0.05 for insect disturbance, 0.23 +/- 0.07 to 1 +/- 0 for burned area and 0.74 +/- 0.03 to 0.76 +/- 0.03 for logging. We believe that accuracy was low for insect disturbance because air photo reference data were temporally sparse, hence missing some outbreaks, and the annual anniversary time step is not dense enough to track defoliation and progressive stand mortality. Producer's and user's accuracy for burned area was low due to the temporally abrupt nature of fire and harvest with a similar response of spectral indices between the disturbance index and normalized burn ratio. We conclude that the spectral trajectory approach also captures multi-year stress that could be caused by climate, acid deposition, pathogens, partial harvest, thinning, etc. Our study focused on understanding the transferability of previously successful methods to new ecosystems and found that this automated method does not perform with the same accuracy in Pacific Northwest forests

  2. Evaluating an Automated Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbances in the Pacific Northwest from Logging, Fire and Insect Outbreaks with Landsat Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. R. Neigh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the largest aboveground sink for atmospheric carbon (C, and understanding how they change through time is critical to reduce our C-cycle uncertainties. We investigated a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from 1982 to 1991 in Pacific Northwest forests, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs. To understand the causal factors of this decline, we evaluated an automated classification method developed for Landsat time series stacks (LTSS to map forest change. This method included: (1 multiple disturbance index thresholds; and (2 a spectral trajectory-based image analysis with multiple confidence thresholds. We produced 48 maps and verified their accuracy with air photos, monitoring trends in burn severity data and insect aerial detection survey data. Area-based accuracy estimates for change in forest cover resulted in producer’s and user’s accuracies of 0.21 ± 0.06 to 0.38 ± 0.05 for insect disturbance, 0.23 ± 0.07 to 1 ± 0 for burned area and 0.74 ± 0.03 to 0.76 ± 0.03 for logging. We believe that accuracy was low for insect disturbance because air photo reference data were temporally sparse, hence missing some outbreaks, and the annual anniversary time step is not dense enough to track defoliation and progressive stand mortality. Producer’s and user’s accuracy for burned area was low due to the temporally abrupt nature of fire and harvest with a similar response of spectral indices between the disturbance index and normalized burn ratio. We conclude that the spectral trajectory approach also captures multi-year stress that could be caused by climate, acid deposition, pathogens, partial harvest, thinning, etc. Our study focused on understanding the transferability of previously successful methods to new ecosystems and found that this automated method does not perform with the same accuracy in Pacific

  3. Late Quaternary water temperature variations of the Northwest Pacific based on the lipid paleothermometers TEXH86, UK´37 and LDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, A.-S.; Schwark, L.; Bauersachs, T.

    2017-07-01

    The Kuroshio Current (KC) and Oyashio Current (OC) are the two major western boundary currents of the Pacific Ocean and their interplay exerts a major control on the climate evolution of the northwestern Pacific region as well as East Asia. Although millennial scale variations in the strength and flow pattern of the KC are well documented, only little is known on the long-term evolution of this ocean current and its role in affecting regional and global climate over geological time scales. Here, we present surface and thermocline temperature records covering the last two glacial-interglacial cycles of IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Site C0011, SE of Japan, using the lipid paleothermometers TEXH86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbon atoms), UK´37 (unsaturated ketone index) and LDI (long-chain diol index). Lower average water temperatures (20.1-20.7 °C in TEXH86, 21.6-22.0 °C in UK´37, and 20.7-21.9 °C in LDI) during marine isotope stages (MIS) 2 and 6 are considered to indicate a reduction in warm water mass export from the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) to northern mid-latitudes via the KC due to decreased subtropical gyre circulation in the North Pacific. A synchronous southward displacement of the KC/OC interfrontal zone resulted in an overall stronger influence of colder and more polar waters at Site C0011. MIS 1, 3 and 5 are characterized by generally higher water temperatures (21.7-22.1 °C in TEXH86, 23.2-24.3 °C in UK´37, and 23.1-24.3 °C in LDI), likely reflecting an increased northward transport of subtropical waters to the study site. Higher Holocene than Eemian water temperatures are attributed to a stronger KC and the formation of its short meander south of Japan, whereas a less strong KC during the Eemian likely favored the formation of the large meander path. Better correlations between the different lipid paleothermometers during cold MIS are considered to indicate more similar production seasons and habitat

  4. Long distance movements and disjunct spatial use of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in the inland waters of the Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina typically limit their movements and activity to 100 km from their capture site at least once, two of which traveled round trip to and from the Pacific coast, a total distance >400 km. Disjunct spatial use patterns observed provide new insight into general harbor seal behavior. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-distance movements and disjunct spatial use of adult harbor seals have not been reported for the study region and are rare worldwide in such a large proportion of tagged individuals. Thus, the ecological influence of individual seals may reach farther than previously assumed.

  5. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Cross

    Full Text Available In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC and the Pacific Northwest (PNW as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI for BC (collected from BC Hydro for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55, whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25 along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.

  6. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benjamin D; Kohfeld, Karen E; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.

  7. Large wood and in-stream habitat for juvenile coho salmon and larval lampreys in a Pacific Northwest stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Dunham, Jason; Lightcap, Scott W.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.

    2017-01-01

    The influences of large wood on Pacific salmon are well-studied, but studies of nonsalmonid species such as lampreys are uncommon. To address this need, we evaluated the potential effects of large wood on larval lampreys (Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus; and potentially Western Brook Lamprey Lampetra richardsoni), as well as juvenile Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, in a small coastal Oregon stream. Our objectives were to 1) identify in-stream habitat characteristics associated with the presence of larval lampreys and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon; and 2) evaluate how these characteristics were associated with in-stream wood. To address habitat use, we quantified presence of larval lampreys in 92 pools and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon in 44 pools during summer low flows. We focused on a study reach where large wood was introduced into the stream between 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that presence of larval lampreys was significantly associated with availability of fine sediment and deeper substrate. The abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon (fish/pool) was strongly associated with pool surface area and to a weaker extent with the proportion of cobble and boulder substrates in pools. Pools with wood, regardless of whether they were formed by wood, had significantly greater coverage of fine sediment, deeper substrate, and greater pool surface area. Taken together, these results suggest that in-stream wood can provide habitat associated with presence of larval lampreys and greater abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon.

  8. New insights into the abyssal sponge fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka plain and Trench region (Northwest Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Janussen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    The under-explored abyssal depths of the Kurile-Kamchatka region have been re-examined during the KuramBio (Kurile-Kamchatka Biodiversity Study) expedition. Combining new KuramBio data with previous expedition data in this region has enhanced our understanding abyssal sponge fauna, in particular, the patchiness, rarity, and exceptional richness of the Cladorhizidae family. In total, 14 sponge species, from 7 genera, in 5 families, within two classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) were collected. Of the 14 species, 29% (4 spp.) have been found previously in this region, 36% (5 spp.) were new to the regional abyssal fauna, and 21% (3 spp.) were new to science. The number of abyssal species in this region has now been increased by 26% (8 spp.) and genera by nearly 15% (2 genera). Rarity is a prominent feature of this abyssal fauna, with more than half of species only found at one station, and 83% (19 spp.) of species found previously in this region were not re-found during KuramBio. Cladorhizid sponges dominate demosponge species and genera richness in the abyssal Kurile-Kamchatka region; accounting for 87% (20 spp.) of all demosponge species, and accounting for over 60% (5 genera) of all demosponge genera. Sponge richness in this region is potentially aided by the productivity of the ocean waters, the geological age of the Pacific Ocean, low population densities, and the varied topographic features (ridges, trenches, and seamounts) found in this region. Unusually, the dominance of demosponges in the Kurile-Kamchatka sponge faunal composition is not replicated in other well-sampled abyssal regions, which tend to be richer in deep-sea hexactinellid fauna. Broad depth, latitudinal and longitudinal ranges in Kurile-Kamchatka abyssal fauna are a key characteristic of this faunal assemblage. Strong abyssal faunal connectivity is found between the Kurile-Kamchatka region and North Pacific abyssal fauna, with weaker faunal connections found with the adjacent semi

  9. A guide to soil samplng and analysis on the National Forests of the Inland Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb Page-Dumroese; Al Harvey; Marty Jurgensen

    1995-01-01

    This guide details soil collection methods, sample analysis, and data translation. It outlines what field soil scientists need to make accurate interpretations of site information. Included are instructions for sampling typical Andisols found on National Forests of the Inland Northwest United States.

  10. The TERRA-PNW Dataset: A New Source for Standardized Plant Trait, Forest Carbon Cycling, and Soil Properties Measurements from the Pacific Northwest US, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, L. T.; Law, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Plant traits include physiological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that in combination determine a species sensitivity to environmental conditions. Standardized, co-located, and geo-referenced species- and plot-level measurements are needed to address variation in species sensitivity to climate change impacts and for ecosystem process model development, parameterization and testing. We present a new database of plant trait, forest carbon cycling, and soil property measurements derived from multiple TERRA-PNW projects in the Pacific Northwest US, spanning 2000-2014. The database includes measurements from over 200 forest plots across Oregon and northern California, where the data were explicitly collected for scaling and modeling regional terrestrial carbon processes with models such as Biome-BGC and the Community Land Model. Some of the data are co-located at AmeriFlux sites in the region. The database currently contains leaf trait measurements (specific leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf carbon and nitrogen) from over 1,200 branch samples and 30 species, as well as plot-level biomass and productivity components, and soil carbon and nitrogen. Standardized protocols were used across projects, as summarized in an FAO protocols document. The database continues to expand and will include agricultural crops. The database will be hosted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORLN) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). We hope that other regional databases will become publicly available to help enable Earth System Modeling to simulate species-level sensitivity to climate at regional to global scales.

  11. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalya G. Amarasekare

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth and “natural enemy non-disrupt” four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci, syrphid flies, earwigs revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption.

  12. An account of the Ischnomesidae (Peracarida, Isopoda) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and abyssal plain (Northwest Pacific) with the description of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Angelika; Kristin Stüven, Jana; Caurant, Cyril; Oskar Elsner, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian expedition KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) from board of the RV Sonne to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and adjacent abyssal plain, benthic samples were taken by means of a camera-epibenthic sledge. Amongst one of the most diverse macrobenthic taxa, the Isopoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca), Ischnomesidae were the fifth most abundant isopod family in the Kuril-Kamchatka area and were sampled with 24 species from 5 genera in 21 hauls at 12 stations. Fortimesus occurs most frequently in the samples (36% of all Ischnomesidae sampled), followed by Stylomesus (26%), Heteromesus (23%), Ischnomesus (10%) and Gracilimesus (4%). Number of ischnomesid individuals is highest at station 10-12 with 35 specimens, followed by station 12-4 (30 ind.), station 6-12 (29 ind.), station 9-9 (28), and station 1-11 (24). At station 4-3 only 1 specimen was found. A key to all genera of Ischnomesidae is provided. Two new species from two genera: StylomesusWolff, 1956 and FortimesusKavanagh and Wilson, 2007 are described from the KuramBio material. Stylomesus malyutinae sp. nov. is distinguished by the smooth body surface, the shape of pleotelson and the length of uropods from other species of the genus from the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Fortimesus trispiculum sp. nov. is characterised by anterolateral projections of pereonites 1-3 which are forming an angle of about 45° with the longitudinal body axis decreasing in length from anterior to posterior.

  13. Design and Use of Representative Agricultural Pathways for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change in U.S. Pacific Northwest Cereal-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Antle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and use of Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs in regional integrated assessment of climate impacts. In the first part of the paper, we describe the role of pathways and scenarios in regional integrated assessment as well as the three RAPs developed for a study of dryland wheat-based systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We use this example to illustrate the challenges associated with the development and implementation of RAPs, including the engagement of research team and stakeholders, the dimensionality problem in integrated assessment, incorporation of economic data, and quantification of uncertainties. In the second part, we illustrate the use of RAPs in the study of climate impacts on dryland wheat-based systems. Results show that the direct impacts of future climate projections through crop yields provide the largest source of uncertainty in the climate impact and vulnerability analysis, but the indirect impacts of climate change through price projections embedded in RAPs also play an important role in the analysis. We conclude that in addition to being an essential element in designing an integrated assessment at the regional level, the RAPs development process can facilitate stakeholder engagement and improve communication of climate impact assessments.

  14. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 (PNWRES92-I) : Book 6 : Selected Crosstabulations for Publicly-Owned Generating Utilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group (Firm)

    1993-06-01

    This book constitutes a portion of the primary documentation for the 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey, Phase I. The complete 33-volume set of primary documentation provides information needed by energy analysts and interpreters with respect to planning, execution, data collection, and data management of the PNWRES92-I process. Thirty of these volumes are devoted to different ``views`` of the data themselves, with each view having a special purpose or interest as its focus. Analyses and interpretations of these data will be the subjects of forthcoming publications. Conducted during the late summer and fall months of 1992, PNWRES92-I had the over-arching goal of satisfying basic requirements for a variety of information about the stock of residential units in Bonneville`s service region. Surveys with a similar goal were conducted in 1979 and 1983. This volume is comprised of selected crosstabulations for publicly-owned generating utilities in Eastern Washington, Western Washington, and Western Oregon. ``Selected crosstabulations`` refers to a set of nine survey items of wide interest (Dwelling Type, Ownership Type, Year-of-Construction, Dwelling Size, Primary Space-Heating Fuel, Primary Water-Heating Fuel, Household Income for 1991, Utility Type, and Space-Heating Fuels: Systems and Equipment) that were crosstabulated among themselves.

  15. Using Remotely-Sensed Land Cover and Distribution Modeling to Estimate Tree Species Migration in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Coops

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding future tree species migration is challenging due to the unprecedented rate of climate change combined with the presence of human barriers that may limit or impede species movement. Projected changes in climatic conditions outpace migration rates, and more realistic rates of range expansion are needed to make sound environmental policies. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach that takes into account both the geographic changes in the area suitable for the growth and reproduction of tree species, as well as limits imposed geographically on their potential migration using remotely-sensed land cover information. To do so, we combined a physiologically-based decision tree model with a remotely-sensed-derived diffusion-dispersal model to identify the most likely direction of future migration for 15 native tree species in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America, as well as the degree that landscape fragmentation might limit movement. Although projected changes in climate through to 2080 are likely to create favorable environments for range expansion of the 15 tree species by 65% on average, by limiting the potential movement by previously published migration rates and landscape fragmentation, range expansion will likely be 50%–90% of the potential. The hybrid modeling approach using distribution modeling and remotely-sensed data fills a gap between naïve and more complex approaches to take into account major impediments on the potential migration of native tree species.

  16. CRADA with Beckman Instruments and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-013): Development and commercialization of the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA) using characterization of aridisols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J.; Conca, J.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop and commercialize a technology conceived by scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and manufactured by Beckman Instruments, Inc. (Beckman), and to apply this technology to the characterization of and soils. The technology is the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The UFA provides a highly efficient method of direct, rapid measurement of hydraulic conductivity and other flow properties according to Darcy-Buckingham principles because the operator controls both the fluid driving force, using an ultracentrifuge, and the flow into the sample while it is spinning, with a rotating seal assembly. The concept of using centrifugation to significantly decrease the time needed, from years or months to days, for study of subsurface transport, particularly under unsaturated conditions, was conceived by James Conca, Ph.D., and Judith Wright, Ph.D., in 1986. The prototype UFA was developed in 1988 because there was a need to rapidly and accurately determine transport parameters in soils, sediments, and rocks for the Grout Waste Disposal Program. Transport parameters are critical to modeling outcomes for site-specific solutions to environmental remediation and waste disposal problems.

  17. An exploratory investigation of the translation of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s print manuals system to an on-line manuals system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Hunt, S.T.; Pond, L.R.

    1992-06-01

    Information management technology has proliferated in the past decade in response to the information explosion. As documentation accumulates, the need to access information residing in manuals, handbooks and regulations conveniently, accurately, and quickly has increased. However, studies show that only fractions of the available information is read (Martin, 1978). Consequently, one of the biggest challenges in linking information and electronic management of information is to use the power of communication technology to meet the information needs of the audience. Pacific Northwest Laboratories` (PNL) investigation of translating its print manual system to an on-line system fits this challenge precisely. PNL`s manuals contain a tremendous amount of information for which manual holders are responsible. To perform their tasks in compliance with policy and procedure guidelines, users need to access information accurately, conveniently, and quickly. In order to select and use information management tools wisely, answers must be sought to a few basic questions. Communication experts cite four key questions: What do users want? What do users need? What characteristics of an on-line information system affect its usefulness? Who are the users whose wants and needs are to be met? Once these questions are answered, attention can be focused on finding the best match between user requirements and technology characteristics and weighing the costs and benefits of proposed options.

  18. An exploratory investigation of the translation of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's print manuals system to an on-line manuals system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Hunt, S.T.; Pond, L.R.

    1992-06-01

    Information management technology has proliferated in the past decade in response to the information explosion. As documentation accumulates, the need to access information residing in manuals, handbooks and regulations conveniently, accurately, and quickly has increased. However, studies show that only fractions of the available information is read (Martin, 1978). Consequently, one of the biggest challenges in linking information and electronic management of information is to use the power of communication technology to meet the information needs of the audience. Pacific Northwest Laboratories' (PNL) investigation of translating its print manual system to an on-line system fits this challenge precisely. PNL's manuals contain a tremendous amount of information for which manual holders are responsible. To perform their tasks in compliance with policy and procedure guidelines, users need to access information accurately, conveniently, and quickly. In order to select and use information management tools wisely, answers must be sought to a few basic questions. Communication experts cite four key questions: What do users want What do users need What characteristics of an on-line information system affect its usefulness Who are the users whose wants and needs are to be met Once these questions are answered, attention can be focused on finding the best match between user requirements and technology characteristics and weighing the costs and benefits of proposed options.

  19. Impact of Climate Change on Yields and Components of the Water and Nitrogen Budgets of Dryland Wheat Systems in the US Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, T.; Stockle, C.; Nelson, R.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) project (funded by USDA-NIFA), a regional assessment of historical and future yields and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dryland wheat-based cropping systems in the US Pacific Northwest is being conducted. Two issues of interest in the region are changes in the water footprint and nitrogen use of wheat-based systems as a result of climate change. These two are related to the interaction between crop performance and the partitioning of water and nitrogen budget components. They also inform the tradeoff between crop production and environmental services and the sustainability of wheat systems in the future. Computer simulation-based assessment is being done using the CropSyst cropping systems simulation model and daily weather data downscaled to a 4x4 km grid. Future weather is projected using 12 general circulation models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways of future atmospheric CO2 (rcp 4.5 and rcp 8.5). The study region is divided in 3 agro-ecological classes (AECs): grain fallow, grain fallow transition and continuous cropping classes. The following rotations were included by AEC: WW - SF, WW - SW - SF and WW - SW - SP, where WW is winter wheat, SW is spring wheat, SP is spring peas, and SF is summer fallow. A typical conventional tillage (CT) cropping system in each AEC is evaluated as a baseline.

  20. Impact of Nitrogen Fertilization on Forest Carbon Sequestration and Water Loss in a Chronosequence of Three Douglas-Fir Stands in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Dou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of nitrogen (N fertilization on forest carbon (C sequestration and water loss, we used an artificial neural network model to estimate C fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET in response to N fertilization during four post-fertilization years in a Pacific Northwest chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands aged 61, 22 and 10 years old in 2010 (DF49, HDF88 and HDF00, respectively. Results showed that N fertilization increased gross primary productivity (GPP for all three sites in all four years with the largest absolute increase at HDF00 followed by HDF88. Ecosystem respiration increased in all four years at HDF00, but decreased over the last three years at HDF88 and over all four years at DF49. As a result, fertilization increased the net ecosystem productivity of all three stands with the largest increase at HDF88, followed by DF49. Fertilization had no discernible effect on ET in any of the stands. Consequently, fertilization increased water use efficiency (WUE in all four post-fertilization years at all three sites and also increased light use efficiency (LUE of all the stands, especially HDF00. Our results suggest that the effects of fertilization on forest C sequestration and water loss may be associated with stand age and fertilization; the two younger stands appeared to be more efficient than the older stand with respect to GPP, WUE and LUE.

  1. Integrating Limiting-Factors Analysis with Process-Based Restoration to Improve Recovery of Endangered Salmonids in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B. Booth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches to ecological restoration planning, limiting-factors analysis and process-based restoration, are employed in efforts to recover endangered salmonid species throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. Limiting-factors analysis seeks to identify physical limitations to fish production that may be addressed by habitat restoration; it is known as the “Field of Dreams” hypothesis (i.e., if you build it, they will come. Process-based restoration, in contrast, assumes that protection and/or restoration of watershed-scale processes will best achieve self-sustaining habitat features that support salmon populations. Two case studies from the Columbia River basin (northwestern USA display current efforts to integrate these two restoration approaches to improve salmonid populations. Although these examples both identify site-specific habitat features to construct, they also recognize the importance of supporting key watershed processes to achieve restoration goals. The challenge in advancing the practice of restoration planning is not in simply acknowledging the conceptual benefits of process-based restoration while maintaining a traditional focus on enumerating site-specific conditions and identifying habitat-construction projects, but rather in following process-based guidance during recovery planning and, ultimately, through implementation of on-the-ground actions. We encourage a realignment of the restoration community to truly embrace a process-based, multi-scalar view of the riverine landscape.

  2. Description of Electric Energy Use in Commercial Buildings in the Pacific Northwest: 1992 Supplement. End-use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Z. Todd

    1992-07-01

    In December, 1989 Bonneville published Description of Electric Energy Use in Commercial Buildings in the Pacific Northwest, a summary report on the data collected from commercial buildings metered under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), for the period 1986 through 1988. Average monthly and annual electric end-use intensities (EUIs, kWh/ft{sup 2}) and average load shapes were presented for nine building types and seven or eight end uses, as well as building totals. This document is a supplement to that report. An additional two and one-half years` data (October 1988 through June 1991) have been collected since the original report, resulting in increased numbers of buildings available for analysis. Additionally, some analytical techniques used in the previous report have been improved and some minor bugs corrected. This supplement differs from the original in the following ways: increased sample sizes; improved analytical techniques; corrected aggregation techniques; eliminated building types; eliminated split plots; included Btu/square foot.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Characterizing Forest Areas with High Societal Values: Experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A.; Deal, Robert L.; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions—Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  5. Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) in the Inland Pacific Northwest: Micrometeorological Measurements of Nitrous Oxide Fluxes over a Wheat Cropping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B. K.; Waldo, S.; Chi, J.; Pressley, S. N.; Allwine, G.; O'Keeffe, P.; Huggins, D. R.; Pan, W.; Stockle, C.; Uberuaga, D.

    2012-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to investigate the relationship between global climate and agriculture in the face of ongoing climate change and the need to feed a growing global population. The REgional Approaches to Climate CHange (REACCH) USDA project is focused on Inland Pacific Northwest cereal cropping systems with an overarching goal to develop strategies for regional agriculture to mitigate and adapt to climate change. An important component of REACCH is to establish a baseline of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes for current and alternate management practices. While cropping systems have the potential to sequester carbon in the soils, they are a net source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas with three hundred times the warming potential of CO2. We report here initial micrometeorological flux measurements of N2O over a high rainfall, annual cropping system under no-tillage management. The measurements were collected from three-meter eddy covariance towers. Each tower is equipped with a sonic anemometer and peripheral meteorological instruments. Closed-path cavity ring down spectroscopy instruments were used to measure N2O fluxes via two techniques: eddy covariance and the modified Bowen ratio gradient method. The flux data from the two techniques are compared to each other and also to enclosure chamber measurements to determine viability and the range of uncertainty in the measurements. They are also analyzed for patterns associated with management events and meteorological conditions.

  6. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act : Legislative History of the Act to Assist the Electrical Consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal Columbia River Power System to Achieve Cost-Effective Energy Conservation : P.L. 96-501, 94 Stat. 2697.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act became effective when it was signed into law by President Carter on December 5, 1980. This ended a four-year debate over legislation designed to plan and coordinate the region's energy future. This legislative history is an abbreviated version taken from the larger historical file maintained by the BPA Law Library. It is intended to assist BPA personnel and others who are studying the Northwest Power Act and working on its implementation. The documents included were selected for their value in determining what Congress meant in enacting the statute and to provide the researcher with a starting point for further investigation. These documents include: a history of the Act, a chronology of the legislative action leading to passage of the law; a section-by-section analysis of the Act; the Congressional Records of Senate and House debates on the bill and its amendments, and a list of Congressional committee hearings.

  7. Nonsewered population in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002 summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the population within each incremental watershed delineated in the NHDPlus v2...

  8. Nutrient generation at dairies and feedlots in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus generated by cattle at dairies and feedlots...

  9. Environmental effects of forest residues management in the Pacific Northwest: a state-of-knowledge compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1974-01-01

    Forest land generally produces considerable woody material other than that which is harvested as timber, needed for recycling of nutrients to the soil, or for sheltering wildlife and young forest seedlings. Excess forest residues, both living and dead, are often subject to treatment to reduce fire hazard, to eliminate obstruction to use and protection of the forest,...

  10. Total atmospheric deposition of oxidized and reduced nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of wet and dry deposition of oxidized and reduced nitrogen in the...

  11. Trends in key economic and social indicators for Pacific Northwest states and counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Raettig

    1999-01-01

    Local (county) variations in key social and economic indicators are important in Oregon and Washington. Covered employment, wage and salary, unemployment, and population data for 1987 through 1997 showed regional trends in these indicators, which are compared with national trends. Future updates will be published in the “Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in...

  12. State Development and the Rescaling of Agricultural Hydrosocial Governance in Semi-Arid Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afton Clarke-Sather

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, agriculture in the semi-arid Zuli river valley in Northwest China has been transformed from subsistence to commercial production. Instead of spring wheat and millet, peasants now grow maize, potatoes, and cabbage for national markets. This transformation has been facilitated by a series of interventions that have rescaled agricultural hydrosocial relations in the valley. Many of these interventions, such as alternative cash crops, do not fall under what is traditionally considered water governance, but have altered peasants’ relationship with agricultural water nonetheless. This article (1 calls for a broadening of our understanding of scale in hydrosocial relations that gives more attention to the socioeconomic interactions that facilitate human relationships with water in the absence of the biophysical resource of water; (2 illustrates that state-backed rescaling of hydrosocial relations comprises contingent processes, which may or may not be planned; and (3 examines how water governance can mean examining what people do without water, as well as what they do with water. This article illustrates that a diverse set of state actors govern farmers’ relationships with agricultural water in often conflicting ways by rescaling both the biophysical resource of water, and socioeconomic institutions that affect agricultural water use.

  13. New northwest Pacific radiolarian data as a tool to estimate past sea surface and intermediate water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Kenji M.; Itaki, Takuya

    2017-03-01

    A new radiolarian data set for transfer function estimates of past sea surface temperature (SST) and intermediate water temperature was developed in this study for the northwestern Pacific Ocean covering a region from 1° to 50°N and 120° to 167°E. We analyzed 87 sediments surface samples, selected 30 species and/or species group found in shallow water for estimating past summer SST and 17 species and/or species group found in the intermediate water for estimating past intermediate water temperature. Since the intermediate water temperature changes greatly between 200 and 500 m, our estimates provide values at 500 m because temperatures are relatively stable between 500 and 1000 m. In this context, we estimated past summer SST and intermediate water (at 500 m) temperature within an error margin of 0.9 and 1.2°C, respectively. A test of the accuracy of our transfer functions, conducted on core samples provided by IODP Expedition 346 Site U1429 in the northern East China Sea, showed that the reconstructed summer SSTs fluctuated between 17.2 and 26.5°C in selected late Pleistocene sequences. These temperatures corresponded to modern winter and summer SST, respectively, which highlights the ability of our new database to accurately reconstruct summer SST. The reconstructed intermediate water temperature fluctuates between 3 and 8°C, which corresponds to the observed temperature range at depths of 500 m at high and midlatitudes, respectively.

  14. Renewable Energy Development in Small Island Developing States of the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific over the last decade have established some of the most ambitious renewable energy targets in the world. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, given the adverse economic impacts of high oil prices on these countries. Efforts to attract development assistance and to strengthen the position of Pacific SIDS in climate change negotiations have likely also played a role. This paper ...

  15. Fishing ground distribution of neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) in relation to oceanographic conditions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is a squid species of the North Pacific Ocean, which plays an important economical role in the international fishery. Logbook data for Chinese squid-jigging fishery over 2004-2011 were used to evaluate the relationship between the fishing grounds of the squid and the convergent frontal areas, which were defined by the contour lines of specific sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration. Our results indicate that the SST in the range of 15 to 19°C and the Chl- a concentration in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 mg m-3 are the favorable conditions for the aggregation of the squid. Additionally, we deduced that the SST at 17.5°C and the Chl- a concentration at 0.25 mg m-3 are the optimal environmental conditions for the aggregation of O. bartramii. In August, the annual CPUE is positively correlated with the proportion of the fishing grounds with favorable SST and Chl- a concentration, as well as the combination of the two variables, implying that the abundance of the squid annually is largely depending on the presence of the favorable environmental conditions for fishery in August. Minor spatial difference between mean latitudinal location of the 17.5°C SST and 0.25 mg m-3 Chl- a fronts can increase the CPUEs of O. bartramii. Furthermore, the monthly latitudinal gravity centers of the CPUE closely followed the mean latitudinal position of the contour lines of the 17.5°C SST and the 0.25 mg m-3 Chl- a concentration. Our findings suggest the convergent oceanographic features (fronts) play significant roles in regulating the distribution and abundance of the western stock of the winter-spring cohort of O. bartramii, which can help people to improve their ability to discover the O. bartramii fishing grounds with higher productivity.

  16. Extreme Drought, Fire and Harvest Impacts on Pacific Northwest Forests, and the Effects of Future Climate and Mitigation Measures on the Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B. E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Luyssaert, S.; Coops, N.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is affecting the odds of extreme weather events, including increased frequency of drought events. Under past and current climate and land management conditions in the Pacific Northwest, natural (drought, fire) and anthropogenic (harvest) disturbances interact across landscapes to affect the carbon balance of forests. Biomass and productivity are high (Hudiburg et al. 2009, 2011), harvest and wildfire are the major disturbances, and harvest removals dominate the net ecosystem carbon balance. We used AmeriFlux observations, inventories, remote sensing data, and models to understand current and future effects on forest distributions and the carbon balance, and the effects of mitigation measures. The region is divided into the mild coastal climate and inland continental conditions with colder winters and drier forests in the rain shadow of the Cascade Mountains. In semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of the East Cascades ecoregion, NEP was reduced by ~44% during a series of extreme drought years compared with a seven year average, consistent with western region average impacts, and there were carry-over effects the following year. Reduction in GPP was proportionately larger than reduction in ecosystem respiration during drought. In the mild climate of the Coast Range, Douglas-fir NEP was reduced ~40% in a single drought year, but recovered quickly in subsequent 'normal' years. Douglas-fir tends to be very plastic and can take up carbon during the winter months when temperature is above freezing, but this isn't seen in ponderosa pine due to colder winter temperatures. Model projections of impacts of future climate on PNW forests suggest larger changes in the eastern dry part of the region, while predicted impacts on Coast Range forests are more variable. Modeling and observations suggest the Pacific Ocean may moderate climate and buffer the coastal forests. With projected increases in extreme drought events, particularly where dry systems are expected to

  17. Golfingicola abyssalis gen. et sp. nov., a new endoparasitic copepod (Crustacea) in a sipunculan from abyssal depths of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Maiorova, Anastassya

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods, which inhabit the entire water column down to the seafloor, are key contributors to the food web, mainly providing a food source for many organisms in the form of zooplankton. Furthermore, they also play an important ecological role as associates or even parasites with various degrees of harm to their hosts. Copepods are found in almost all habitats and can be associated with virtually every metazoan group. A female and four males of a new endoparasitic copepod genus and species (Golfingicola abyssalis) are described from the trunk celom of the sipunculan Golfingia muricaudata (Southern, 1913), collected from the abyssal depths of the Northwest Pacific Ocean near the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. This sipunculan species is a typical deep sea representative of the northwestern Pacific region, occurring in the Bering Sea and the abyssal regions east of the Kuril Island chain. Despite numerous records of this species, a copepod association has not been reported prior to this paper. The new parasitic copepod species is tentatively placed in the Akessonia group given its endoparasitic behavior in Sipuncula, the elongated shape, the enlarged egg strings, and the presence of subchelate antenna, as well as lateral processes in males. Golfingicola abyssalis, however, shows some peculiarities that clearly differentiate it from the remaining endoparasites in Sipuncula. As the first abyssal endoparasite in Sipuncula, the species is characterized by the complete lack of any processes in females, the presence of a mandible in females, a weakly defined prosome-urosome boundary in females, the presence of a mouth in males, the free living behavior of males, a distinctly reduced number of trunk processes in males, as well as a more modified male antenna, displaying an endopodite and a highly modified setal element. A detailed review on the morphological characters of the four species currently grouped in the Akessonia group, and systematic and biogeographic information

  18. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Objective Tracking of Tropical Cyclones in the North-West Pacific Basin Based on Wind Field Information only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G. C.; Befort, D. J.; Kruschke, T.

    2016-12-01

    Although only ca. 12% of the global insured losses of natural disasters occurred in Asia, there are two major reasons to be concerned about risks in Asia: a) The fraction of loss events was substantial higher with 39% of which 94% were due to atmospheric processes; b) Asia and especially China, is undergoing quick transitions and especially the insurance market is rapidly growing. In order to allow for the estimation of potential future (loss) impacts in East-Asia, in this study we further developed and applied a feature tracking system based on extreme wind speed occurrences to tropical cyclones, which was originally developed for extra-tropical cyclones (Leckebusch et al., 2008). In principle, wind fields will be identified and tracked once a coherent exceedance of local percentile thresholds is identified. The focus on severe wind impact will allow an objective link between the strength of a cyclone and its potential damages over land. The wind tracking is developed in such a way to be applicable also to course-gridded AOGCM simulation. In the presented configuration the wind tracking algorithm is applied to the Japanese reanalysis (JRA55) and TC Identification is based on 850hPa wind speeds (6h resolution) from 1979 to 2014 over the Western North Pacific region. For validation the IBTrACS Best Track archive version v03r8 is used. Out of all 904 observed tracks, about 62% can be matched to at least one windstorm event identified in JRA55. It is found that the relative amount of matched best tracks increases with the maximum intensity. Thus, a positive matching (hit rate) of above 98% for Violent Typhoons (VTY), above 90% for Very Strong Typhoons (VSTY), about 75% for Typhoons (TY), and still some 50% for less intense TCs (TD, TS, STS) is found. This result is extremely encouraging to apply this technique to AOGCM outputs and to derive information about affected regions and intensity-frequency distributions potentially changed under future climate conditions.

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.