WorldWideScience

Sample records for states agricultural trade

  1. Trade liberalization and state support of agriculture: effects for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Ivolga, A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at the overview of the main approaches of state support implemented by developed and developing countries and the assessment of their distorting influences on the trade with agricultural commodities. The current state of state support is analyzed on the examples of EU-27, the USA and

  2. Agricultural Trade Barriers 10 years later Uruguay Round Trade Agreement Signature

    OpenAIRE

    Mahia, R.; Arce, Rafael de; Escribano, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of current state of agricultural trade barriers is carried out alter ten years of Uruguay Round Agricultural Trade Agreement Signature The descriptive analysis showed that small advances in trade barriers removing have been taken out. About the heterogeneity in tariff applications, tariff progresivity and peak tariffs, the same situation is pointed out.

  3. Trade tensions between EU and Russia: Possible effects on trade in agricultural commodities for Visegrad countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ivolga, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper includes overview of the current state of the EU-CIS and the EU-Russia trade flows with particular attention to trade in agricultural commodities, as well as contemporary tendencies in agricultural production and foreign trade in agricultural commodities and food in Russia. The paper

  4. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  5. 76 FR 33700 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given that the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary), in coordination with the United States Trade Representative (USTR), has renewed the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC).

  6. 75 FR 23223 - Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC) and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade (ATACs) will hold closed meetings on May 6, 2010. The advisory committees are administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). The meetings are closed to the public in accordance with the Trade Act of 1974, 19 U.S.C. 2155(f)(2), and the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4)(6). USTR has determined that public access to the meetings would seriously compromise the development by the U.S. government of trade policy priorities, negotiating objectives, or bargaining positions with respect to the operation of trade agreements and other matters arising in connection with the development, implementation, and administration of the trade policy of the United States. Topics will include Doha Round negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), WTO accession negotiations, and negotiations in bilateral and regional free trade agreements.

  7. Agricultural Trade Restrictiveness in the European Union and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Bureau; Luca Salvatici

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a summary measure of the Uruguay Round tariff reduction commitments in the European Union and the United States, using the Mercantilistic Trade Restrictiveness Index (MTRI) as the tariff aggregator. We compute the index for agricultural commodity aggregates assuming a specific (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) functional form for import demand. The levels of the MTRI under the actual commitments of the Uruguay Round are computed and compared with two hypothetical cases,...

  8. Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. This book presents research findings based on a series of commodity studies of significant economic importance to developing countries. Setting the stage with background chapters and investigations of cross-cutting issues, the authors describe trade and domestic policy regimes affecting agricultural and food markets and analyz...

  9. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States, July/August 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports slipped 14 percent to $25.6 billion during the first 9 months of fiscal year (FY) 1985 (October 1984-June 1985). Rising U.S. consumer demand and a strong dollar spurred U.S. agricultural. imports 8 percent over year-earlier levels to $15.1 billion. The U.S. dollar advanced against all five currencies most important to U.S. agricultural trade in May, immediately followed by declines in June. Agricultural exports under U.s. Government-financed programs totaled $1.5 bil...

  10. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States March/April 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports fell to $16.5 billion (55 million tons) during the ·first 5 months of FY 1991, a decline of $1.4 billion and 14 million tons... Agricultural imports remained at $9.4 ·billion during the first 5 months of FY 1991....USDA allocated $200 million to 47 trade organizations to conduct export market promotions for a variety of agricultural products during FY 1991... Japan was the top market for U.S. agricultural exports during the past 3 fiscal years, followed by the Soviet...

  11. 75 FR 80038 - Notice of Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC) and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade (ATAC) will hold closed meetings on January 13, 2011. The advisory committees are administered by USDA and the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). The meetings are closed to the public in accordance with the Trade Act of 1974, 19 U.S.C. 2155(f)(2), and the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4) and (6). USTR has determined that public access to this meeting would seriously compromise the development by the U.S. Government of trade policy priorities, negotiating objectives, or bargaining positions with respect to the operation of trade agreements and other matters arising in connection with the development, implementation, and administration of the trade policy of the United States. Topics will include Doha Round negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), WTO accession negotiations, and negotiations in bilateral and regional free trade agreements.

  12. 20 CFR 404.1095 - Agricultural trade or business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural trade or business. 404.1095... Income § 404.1095 Agricultural trade or business. (a) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on entirely by employees, the major portion of the services...

  13. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Turkey’s Agricultural Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Karakaş

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, impact of the real effective exchange rate (REER and its volatility (REERV on Turkey's agricultural foreign trade was investigated. 25importantcountries in agricultural trade of Turkey and 1990-2012 periods were examined, and panel data analysis was used in this research. IGARCH model was applied to obtain for the REERV. Influence of the REER and REERV on Turkey's agricultural trade was analyzed whit FMOLS model both individual country and groups panel. According to the results of FMOLS model; It was determined that Turkey agricultural import (7.61% and export (2.24% were increased when the REER was risen about 1%. The agricultural import was decreased 18.83% in case the REERV was increased 1%. On the other hand, when the REERV was increased around 1%, there was no significantly relationship between agricultural export and REERV. As a result, it can be stated that REER and REERV were caused an imbalance on Turkey's agricultural foreign trade. Agricultural producers and industrialists are often adversely affected by the REERV. For these reasons, it is important to take protective measures for them.

  14. Agricultural trade and farm employment in China during 1994-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Wusheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper therefore aims at systematically estimating the agricultural trade induced farm employment effects in China. Design/methodology/approach – Using detailed agricultural trade and production data during 1994-2009, the authors estimate the “labor contents” of agricultural trade f...... employment effects do not lend support to the popular notion that increased agricultural trade would help increase farm employment and have important implications for evaluating current and future trade policy in China and elsewhere.......Purpose – This paper therefore aims at systematically estimating the agricultural trade induced farm employment effects in China. Design/methodology/approach – Using detailed agricultural trade and production data during 1994-2009, the authors estimate the “labor contents” of agricultural trade...... flows and use these estimates to compute the farm employment effects. Findings – The authors find that China's agricultural trade has indeed generally developed along its widely believed comparative advantages and disadvantages; however, the farm employment “creation” effect due to labor...

  15. Current subsidies in the agricultural sector of the global trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Voronina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the provisions of the WTO agreements regulating the use of subsidies in the agricultural sector by the member-states. It analyzes current practices of the WTO member-states’ in subsidizing their agricultural production. It also outlines the main trends in improving the practices of subsidizing agricultural producers in the leading countries of the world. The article also describes the major coalitions within the WTO that actively participate in the development and improvement of international trade rules in agricultural produce. In the current context whereby Ukraine seeks WTO accession, the structure of domestic measures in support of agriculture pursuant to the requirements of this international organization is given special attention. The article also considers the prospects for further liberalization of international trade in agricultural produce.

  16. The Impacts of U.S. Agricultural and Trade Policy on Trade Liberalization and Integation via a U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Dale E. Hathaway

    2003-01-01

    This study looks at several major legislative actions in 2002 that will substantially affect trade negotiations with the United States, and examines the US import protection for agricultural products that will be critical in trade negotiations with Central American countries. The two important legislative actions were the passage of the 2002 Farm Bill and the passage of Trade Promotion Authority, which provides for "fast track" treatment of trade agreements. The 2002 farm bill was widely deno...

  17. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  18. An Analysis of the Impact of Guangxi Agricultural Finance, Loan and Insurance on the Trade between Guangxi and CAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukun Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial support, agriculture loan and insurance are the main funding modes for the development of agriculture. This study firstly uses software eviews6.0 to make an analysis of the current state of the Trade between Guangxi and CAFTA, and then makes a study of the data of the funds and the trading volume of Guangxi-ASEAN, and comes to the conclusion that the funds involved has an effect on the trade volume. Generally, government fiscal support curbs the trade while the agricultural loan and the agricultural insurance promote it; however, the case in Guangxi seems the opposite. The trade volume is promoted by government financial support while curbed by loan and insurance.

  19. China's WTO commitments in agriculture and impacts of potential OECD agricultural trade liberalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Frandsen, Søren E.

    2005-01-01

    general equilibrium simulation results show that China’s WTO commitments will lead to increased agricultural imports and slightly declined outputs in China. The resulting efficiency gains will be negated by terms-of-trade losses, leading to quantitatively small welfare impacts. Furthermore, sectoral...... results depend critically on correctly representing the more complex policy measures, such as the tariff rate quotas. The negative output effects on Chinese agriculture can be alleviated/reversed if the rich OECD countries commit to reform their agriculture policies. The present paper concludes that trade...... liberalization should be carried out in both developing and developed countries. Reforming the latter will be particularly helpful in easing the problems facing those developing countries that are carrying out ambitious trade reforms....

  20. International Trade of Agricultural Products in the Context of "B&R" Initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing WU; Shuhua XIE

    2016-01-01

    At present,China’s agricultural product trade is facing the development dilemma. The trade deficit is expanding,market and product structure is irrational,and the Chinese agriculture products often encounter trade barriers. " B&R" initiative provides a rare opportunity for the development of agricultural products in China. It is necessary to seize this opportunity to change idea and innovate upon mechanism so as to increase the added value of exported agricultural products through various channels. There is also a need to develop electronic commerce,and make full use of interconnectivity and trade facilitation in " B&R" initiative to develop the international trade of agricultural products.

  1. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Projections of Virtual Water Trade Under Agricultural Policy Scenarios in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2014-12-01

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by a sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources and rich foods will deepen the challenge to sustainably feed the population and balance environmental and agricultural policies. In previous work, Inner Mongolia was identified as a target province for trade or agricultural policies aimed at water-use efficiency improvements, due to its large production relying on particularly significant irrigation water use. In addition, water scarcity issues may arises in the greater Beijing area, which represents the largest urban area of arid Northern China. Increasing residential and industrial water demand in this region may lead to fewer available water for irrigation. For these reasons, it is important to estimate the impacts of specific policies aiming at reducing excessive water use for crop production in Inner Mongolia, as well as exploring ways to mitigate pressure on water resources in dry urban areas. In this study, we use socio-economic projections to assess the future state of China's virtual water trade (VWT) network. We then quantify the effects of agricultural policies on the national VWT system and on the efficiency of food trade in terms of water resources. This study addresses the following questions: (1) How future socio-economic changes will affect China's food trade and associated water transfers? (2) To which extent localized reductions of irrigated area can decrease agricultural water use while maintaining national food security? (3) How would these policies affect China's domestic and international VWT network and induced water resources savings (losses)?

  3. AGRI-FOOD TRADE - A PATH TO AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CIMPOIES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we try to assess the progress in the development of the agricultural sector of Moldova. As indicator of the successful/unsuccessful development of the agri-food sector may serve the foreign trade activity. Thus, in the given research is analyzed the changes in the agri-food trade structure during 2007-2011, the competitiveness of the agricultural sector and the pattern trade flows. For this aim was computed Gruber-Lloyd index for evaluating the intra-industrial trade in this period, and RTA index for inter industrial trade. As well, some policy measures necessary for further integration will be discussed.

  4. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  5. Agricultural Trade Liberalization and the Least Developed Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Pinstrup-Andersen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  6. 75 FR 24969 - China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... support and government programs related to agricultural markets, foreign direct investment policies, and... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-518] China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive... investigation No. 332-518, China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports. DATES...

  7. The J-Curve Effect and the U.S. Agricultural Trade Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Colin A. Carter; Daniel H. Pick

    1989-01-01

    According to the J-curve theory, following a currency depreciation, there will be an initial deterioration of the trade balance before an improvement is realized. This paper finds empirical evidence indicating the first segment of the J-curve does exist for the U.S. agricultural trade balance. A 10% depreciation of the U.S. dollar is estimated to lead a deterioration of the agricultural trade balance that will last for about nine months.

  8. Effects Of Trade Liberalisation Policy On Nigerian Agricultural Exports

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization on Agricultural exports in Nigeria. It was observed that the policy had tremendous effects on the level and value of exports in agricultural sub-sector. A regression analysis relating the total value of agricultural produce and the aggregated domestic prices, and other ...

  9. Are Competitors' Free Trade Agreements Putting U.S. Agricultural Exporters at a Disadvantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Wainio, John; Dyck, John H.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Vollrath, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of free trade agreements among U.S. competitors has prompted questions about whether U.S. agricultural exporters may lose a share of the global market. ERS research shows that the recently created ASEAN-China and ASEANAustralia/ New Zealand free trade agreements are likely to have modest adverse impacts on U.S. agricultural exports. The Mercosur-Colombia free trade agreement has reduced U.S. agricultural exports to Colombia; U.S. grain sellers face increasingly stiff compet...

  10. Performance of African Agricultural Exports and External Market Access Conditions under International Trade Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron Omare

    2004-01-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is currently facing challenges in international trade with respect to external market access conditions and competition in world markets as a result of trade liberalization efforts under the world trade organization (WTO) agreements and in particular the agreement on agriculture (AoA). This paper presents the performance of agricultural exports for selected countries and indicates external market barriers faced and the resulting implications of the barriers on ...

  11. Evolving An Effective Trade Policy Against Agricultural Subsidies Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of developing countries to this trend has been a weak and uncoordinated trade policy. They have been unable to effectively curtail the onslaught of dumping. This paper is an analysis of Nigeria's trade policy in tackling the issue of agricultural subsidies. This took the form of an in-depth assessment of the ...

  12. Characteristics of Serbian foreign trade of agricultural and food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower

  13. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...

  14. Visualisation of uncertainty for the trade-off triangle used in sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm

  15. Evaluation of Exchange Rate Policy on Agricultural Trade in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... this study was to evaluate the effect of exchange rate policy on agricultural trade in Nigeria. ... Government support to farmers in the form of credit and input subsidies is a veritable ...

  16. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability.

  17. Intra-EU agricultural trade, virtual water flows and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M; Tamea, S; Yang, H

    2017-06-01

    The development of approaches to tackle the European Union (EU) water-related challenges and shift towards sustainable water management and use is one of the main objectives of Horizon 2020, the EU strategy to lead a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The EU is an increasingly water challenged area and is a major agricultural trader. As agricultural trade entails an exchange of water embodied in goods as a factor of production, this study investigates the region's water-food-trade nexus by analysing intra-regional virtual water trade (VWT) in agricultural products. The analysed period (1993-2011) comprises the enactment of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Aspects of the VWT that are relevant for the WFD are explored. The EU is a net importer of virtual water (VW) from the rest of the world, but intra-regional VWT represents 46% of total imports and 75% of total exports. Five countries account for 60% of total VW imports (Germany, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium) and 65% of total VW exports (The Netherlands, France, Germany, Belgium and Spain). Intra-EU VWT more than doubled over the period considered, while trade with extra-EU countries did not show such a marked trend. In the same period, blue VWT increased significantly within the region and net import from the rest of the world slightly decreased. Water scarce countries, such as Spain and Italy, are major exporters of blue water in the region. The traded volumes of VW have been increasing almost monotonically over the years, and with a substantial increase after 2000. The overall trend in changes in VWT does not seem to be in accordance with the WFD goals. This study demonstrated that VWT analyses can help evaluate intertwining effects of water, agriculture and trade policies which are often made separately in respective sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bilateral export trade and income similarity: Does the Linder hypothesis hold for agricultural and food trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we invesƟgate the Linder hypothesis for bilateral export trade in agricultural and food products by uƟlizing the sectoral gravity equaƟon derived in Hallak (2010). Based on a sample of 152 countries, we study the relaƟonship for 737 agricultural and food products at the 6-digit HS code level, using trade data for 1995-2012. We esƟmate the gravity equaƟon year by and year and sector by sector, analyzing the esƟmates of Linder's term for two specificaƟons of the similarity index. W...

  19. Chapter 4: Agriculture and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the responses of governments to the fallout, particularly with respect to the contamination of food and the effect of governmental decisions on agriculture and trade. To put the subsequent description of events in perspective, it is prefaced with a brief explanation of how permitted levels of radiation in food can be derived from radiation dose recommendations. Although much of this work was done after Chernobyl, it is one of several possible systematic calculation methods, a knowledge of which allows a better understanding of the limits adopted under the pressure of events. (orig.)

  20. Climate protection and emission trading in the agriculture; Klimaschutz und Emissionshandel in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luenenbuerger, Benjamin

    2013-01-15

    The percentage of the agriculture in the greenhouse-gas emissions in Germany amounts 7.1% in the year 2010. Despite its importance, climate protection instruments in the area of the German agriculture are still not developed. There are hardly special regulatory, informational or market-based instruments for the climate protection in the agriculture. The question arises whether the emission trading can be a suitable instrument for climate protection in the agriculture. Thus, the opportunities of the emission trading in the agriculture are investigated. Moreover, alternative and additional instruments of climate protection are considered with respect to the agriculture.

  1. The role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade: Case study of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharia Abdelbagi Elbushra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African countries have created many regional trade agreements with the economic objectives of reducing trade barriers and encouraging economic growth. The COMESA is an example of regional integration singed on 1993 by 19 African countries including Sudan. COMESA represents a chance for member countries to enhance their economic and social relations through increasing intra-trade. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade between Sudan and COMESA countries. A multi-market model with Armington non-linear specification was applied. The paper results showed that there is a great potential for Sudan to increase its agricultural exports to other COMESA countries. The domestic agricultural markets are expected to be hampered by imports surge and increase in competition, while the producers of agricultural export commodities will be better off. In order to compete and benefit from potential in the COMESA markets, the paper recommended improving efficiency in the Sudanese agricultural sector through increasing productivity, lowering cost of production, enhancing marketing services, attaining economies of scale and attracting foreign investment.

  2. A basis for greenhouse gas trading in agriculture : Final report of the emission reduction trading protocol team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A link has been established between increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the rise in global temperatures. The burning of fossil fuels, land use changes, agricultural and industrial activities play a large part in the increase of greenhouse gases and result in in changes to temperature, precipitation and weather patterns. The two methods that can be used to reduce the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are the reduction of the gases and the sequestration of carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide is absorbed) into terrestrial processes. Several policy options are being considered to effect this reduction in buildup, and one of those includes the implementation of a tradable system of emission permits. Such a scenario would involve the agricultural sector removing and reducing on-farm emissions of greenhouse gases, thereby earning it credits that could then be sold to those industries that face tougher greenhouse gases control costs. The study led to several findings: (1) trades in carbon dioxide in the Albertan agricultural sector and changes in agricultural practices could lead to reductions of up to 5 million tonnes per year to 2008, (2) the sector is in a good position to trade carbon removals and credits into a large final emitter cap and trade system, (3) some uncertainties in the policy area remain, (4) the early years of trading are not risk-free, and (5) the risks are being hedged through a number of mechanisms and tools that have already been identified. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  3. 75 FR 67345 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... balance on each committee will also be sought. Nominations: Nominating a person to serve on any of the... ability to serve as an advisor on the U.S. agriculture advisory committee for trade. Dated: October 26...

  4. The Effects of Liberalizing World Agricultural Trade: A Review of Modeling Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    A major issue on the agenda of the ongoing Doha Round of multilateral negotiations by members of the World Trade Organization concerns how and to what extent policies that affect agricultural trade should be liberalized...

  5. Support of the landscape amenity function of agriculture and trade liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kubíčková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent agricultural policy and trade discussions have given increasing attention to “multifunctionality”, the notion, that agriculture provides multiple outputs that include public goods (such as landscape amenities as well as privately traded commodities. A frequent point of contention is also whether payment for the provision of non-commodity outputs distorts trade by giving domestic farmers a competitive advantage over foreign competitors. The paper reviews some requirements for environmental policy design and the role of property rights for the justification of the development of compensation programs targeted to landscape protection. The second part of the paper illustrates the possibilities, how to use results of Contingent Valuation (CV study of landscape amenity benefits of agriculture to prove eligibility for agri-environmental payments in the case of the Protected Landscape Area White Carpathians (Bílé Karpaty. It is documented in the paper, that Contingent Valuation can provide useful information about genuine concern and overall efficiency of compensation programs as well as people’s views about alternative ethical ends, besides human well-being, that policy makers should take in consideration.

  6. The impact of foreign trade in agricultural products of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the framework of CEFTA 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćejvanović Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions, characterized by the growing importance of foreign trade between the countries, relations of a country with international environment play an increasingly impor­tant role in economic development. Over the last decade the process of economic integration through the removal of barriers for the free movement of goods, services, money and people has improved job creation and economic growth. From economic cooperation with foreign countries should expect positive effects on the economy of the state if the external economic factor used in accordance with the plans and programs of economic development of a coun­try. Thereto, there are social forces that can decide relatively independently to all elements of internal development and cooperation with foreign countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the CEFTA 2006 on the foreign trade of agricultural products in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this respect it may be noted that foreign trade of agricultural products has an impact on the agricultural sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  7. Can Integration of Agriculture With International Trade Increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activity is greatly constituted by transactions and exchange that can impoverish primary producers while unfairly making others rich in an inequitable manner. Integration of agriculture into international trade is always thought and assumed to bring greater income benefit to farmers, but is this really the case, ...

  8. Measuring the Effects of Trade Liberalization: Multilevel Analysis Tool for Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard, Francoise; Marty, Isabelle; Lancon, Frederic; Versapuech, Marion

    1998-01-01

    This book is the product of the projects "Farmers' Strategies Regarding Agricultural Diversification" (1993-1995) and "Agricultural Diversification and Food Crop Trade: Their Implications to Agricultural Policies in Southeast Asia" (1994-1996), both supported by CIRAD and the Government of France. It describes the first project attempting to apply the MATA methodology in a country like Indonesia. As constructed, the Multilevel Analysis Tool for Agriculture is able to answer various policy que...

  9. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly A. Clausing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  10. Virtual land use and agricultural trade. Estimating environmental and socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuertenberger, Laura; Koellner, Thomas; Binder, Claudia R.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalization has caused an increase in the global trade of goods and services. In particular, the value and physical volume of agricultural goods traded have largely increased. As the environmental and social consequences of trade are complex, they are rarely included in the national and international agricultural policies. One reason is that there is a lack of concepts and methods for assessing the environmental and social impacts of trade policies. In this paper we develop a method for quantifying and assessing the land use hidden in the export and import of agricultural goods for the case of Switzerland. For our analysis we focus on arable crops. The first methodological step of our research illustrates the spatial relationship of Switzerland with countries all over the world through the import and export of land use for arable crops. The second step links this spatial dimension with a qualitative assessment of the environmental and socio-economic impacts of agricultural land use. We applied the method to the case of wheat cultivation within Switzerland and import to Switzerland. The major problem we were confronted with was the availability of data, which had both to be reliable and available for the countries wheat is imported from. The results show that the calculation of land use is credible. In spite of the problems related with data availability, the assessment results for each indicator are in agreement with the current situation in the respective countries. In addition, the aggregation seems to accurately reflect the countries' agricultural polices. The developed method is used to estimate the overall environmental and socio-economic impacts of an increase in wheat imports to Switzerland. We argue that this method could be applied for anticipating potential impacts of trade agreements. Still, further research is required for fine-tuning of the utility functions, including a weighting procedure in the aggregation procedure. For practical applications

  11. Quantifying Trade-Offs Among Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity, and Agricultural Returns in an Agriculturally Dominated Landscape Under Future Land‑Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Underwood

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss2art4Change in land use in agriculturally dominated areas is often assumed to provide positive benefits for land-owners and financial agricultural returns at the expense of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. For an agriculturally dominated area in the Central Valley of California we quantify the trade-offs among ecosystem services, biodiversity, and the financial returns from agricultural lands. We do this by evaluating three different landscape management scenarios projected to 2050 compared to the current baseline: habitat restoration, urbanization, and enhanced agriculture. The restoration scenario benefited carbon storage services and increased landscape suitability for birds, and also decreased ecosystem disservices (nitrous oxide emissions, nitrogen leaching, although there was a trade-off in slightly lower financial agricultural returns. Under the urbanization scenario, carbon storage, suitability for birds, and agricultural returns were negatively affected. A scenario which enhanced agriculture, tailored to the needs of a key species of conservation concern (Swainson’s Hawk, Buteo swainsoni, presented the most potential for trade-offs. This scenario benefitted carbon storage and increased landscape suitability for the Swainson's Hawk as well as 15 other focal bird species. However, this scenario increased ecosystem disservices. These spatially explicit results, generated at a scale relevant to land management decision-makers in the Central Valley, provide valuable insight into managing for multiple benefits in the landscape and an approach for assessing future land-management decisions.

  12. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE: THE COTTON PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    2000-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations could have important implications for Southern Agriculture. This paper explores some of the issues surrounding the WTO negotiations for cotton. Specifically, this paper examines the impacts of the phase-out of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) on the location of textile production and cotton trade flows. Generally, it is believed that the WTO negotiations will have little direct impact on cotton, but will have indirect impacts through textile po...

  13. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  14. Cointegration and error correction modelling of agricultural commodity trade: The case of ASEAN agricultural exports to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objecti e of this study is to increase our understanding of the specification and estimation of agricultural commodity trade models as well as to provide instruments for trade policy analysis. More specifically,the aim is to build a set of dynamic,theory-based econometric models which are able to capture both short-run and long-run effects of income and price changes,and which can be used for prediction and policy simulation under alternati e assumed conditions.A relati ely unrestricted,data determined,econometric modelling approach based on the error correction mechanism is used,in order to emphasise the importance of dynamics of trade functions.Econometric models are constructed for se en agricultural commodities –cassa a,cocoa,coconut oil,palm oil,pepper, rubber,and tea –exported from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANto the European Union (EU.With the aim of providing broad commodity co erage,the intent is to explore whether the chosen modelling approach is able to catch the essentials of the behavioural relationships underlying the specialised nature of each commodity market. The import demand analysis of the study examines two key features:(1the response of EU ’s agricultural commodity imports to income and price changes,and (2the length of time required for this response to occur.The estimations of the export demand relationships provide tests whether the exporters ’ market shares are influenced by the le el of relati e export price,and whether exports are affected by ariations in the rate of growth of imports.The export supply analysis examines the relati e influence of real price and some non-price factors in stimulating the supply of exports.The lag distribution (the shape and length of the lagis found to be ery critical in export supply relationships,since the effects of price changes usually take a long time to work themselves through and since the transmission of the price effects can be complex.The set of

  15. Linked sustainability challenges and trade-offs among fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Julia L; Watson, Reg A; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Cottrell, Richard S; Nash, Kirsty L; Bryndum-Buchholz, Andrea; Büchner, Matthias; Carozza, David A; Cheung, William W L; Elliott, Joshua; Davidson, Lindsay N K; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Dunne, John P; Eddy, Tyler D; Galbraith, Eric; Lotze, Heike K; Maury, Olivier; Müller, Christoph; Tittensor, Derek P; Jennings, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Fisheries and aquaculture make a crucial contribution to global food security, nutrition and livelihoods. However, the UN Sustainable Development Goals separate marine and terrestrial food production sectors and ecosystems. To sustainably meet increasing global demands for fish, the interlinkages among goals within and across fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture sectors must be recognized and addressed along with their changing nature. Here, we assess and highlight development challenges for fisheries-dependent countries based on analyses of interactions and trade-offs between goals focusing on food, biodiversity and climate change. We demonstrate that some countries are likely to face double jeopardies in both fisheries and agriculture sectors under climate change. The strategies to mitigate these risks will be context-dependent, and will need to directly address the trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals, such as halting biodiversity loss and reducing poverty. Countries with low adaptive capacity but increasing demand for food require greater support and capacity building to transition towards reconciling trade-offs. Necessary actions are context-dependent and include effective governance, improved management and conservation, maximizing societal and environmental benefits from trade, increased equitability of distribution and innovation in food production, including continued development of low input and low impact aquaculture.

  16. Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-He; Tian, Qing; Liu, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Lei

    2018-05-01

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Agriculture, trade and the environment: The impact of liberalization on sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Antle, J. (ed.); Lekakis, J. (ed.); Zanias, G. (ed.)

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record Revised papers selected from the international conference "European agriculture at the crossroads: Competition and sustainability" hosted by the Dept. of Economics of the University of Crete, in Rethimno, 1996. The conference examined the relationship between free trade and agricultural sustainability in the European Union.

  18. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  19. Fashioning a New Regime for Agricultural Trade: New Issues and the Global Food Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Schoenbaum

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of issues such as the global food crisis, export controls on agricultural products, and food security on the agricultural trade negotiations currently underway in connection with the Doha Development Agenda convened by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. These important issues, which were not foreseen when the negotiations began, must now be squarely faced. Many international organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, t...

  20. Transition problems in economic reform: agriculture in the North American free trade agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effecto of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agriculture in Mexico. Implications on policy design for the absence of efficient capital markets, on the welfare costs of reforming gradually, on incentive problems created by trade adjustement policies and on the redistribution

  1. Assessment the Impact of Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA on Exports of Indonesian Agricultural Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Akhmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigation whether Indonesian membership on ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA increased export of agriculture commodity. The panel augmented gravity model data from 33 major partner countries over the period of 2000-2014 has been applied to analyze the factors affected Indonesian agricultural exports. The overall finding showed that Indonesian agricultural exports were positively correlated with the size of economy and partner countries population, while they are negatively correlated with the appreciation of currency exchange rate and the enrollment on free trade agreement. Moreover, the Indonesian membership on AFTA does not gave significant impact and profitable on Indonesian agricultural exports.

  2. Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products Between Poland and EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapinska Justyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the country-specific determinants of intra-industry trade between Poland and its European Union trading partners in agricultural and food products during the time period 2002-2011. An econometric model for panel data is applied for the analysis of the factors determining Polish bilateral intra-industry trade with European Union countries. The research leads to the formulation of a statement that the intensity of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products is positively influenced by the intensity of trade with EU countries and the level of economic development of the member countries (as measured by the size of their GDP per capita. Increase in intra-trade turnover is also facilitated by EU membership and by the fact that Poland’s trade partners use similar Slavic-based languages. Relative differences in the size of the economies and relative differences in Poland’s and its trading partners’ levels of economic development have a negative impact. The degree of the imbalance of trade turnover between trading partners also negatively influences the intensity of intra-trade exchange. The research confirms that the impact of all of the identified factors determining intra-industry trade is consistent with the predictions of the theory.

  3. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  4. Pengaruh Kebijakan Agreement on Agriculture (Aoa) Oleh World Trade Organization (WTO) Terhadap Kenaikan Impor Kopi Indonesia Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Parapat, Johan Kristo

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and proves the influence of policy AgreementOn Agriculture (AoA) by the World Trade Organization (WTO) for theIndonesian coffee. AoA policy is a policy of international trade in agricultureby WTO.This research uses perspective of pluralism. Pluralist assumes that stateis not unitary actor. This study also uses international trade and internationalorganizations theory.Agreement On Agriculture (AoA) is an international treaty on trade inagriculture in the WTO context. Ao...

  5. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  6. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  7. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  8. 40 CFR 60.4140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 60.4140 Section 60.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4140 State trading budgets. The State trading...

  9. Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    Panama, and South Korea Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy February 4, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov...Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues. Author Contact Information Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy rjurenas@crs.loc.gov, 7-7281 .

  10. Water resources conservation and nitrogen pollution reduction under global food trade and agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Kummu, Matti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Liu, Junguo; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We

  11. INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND UNEXPLAINED GENDER WAGE GAPS: EVIDENCE FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Jorge Molina Tejerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has the objective of showing evidence that there would be a reduction on wage differences between men and women in agriculture if they participate in international trade. The methodology that will be used is based on Molina[Mol10], who used Becker [Bec71] as a knowledge base for his study. This methodology consists on showing that wage difference occurs because of a taste for discrimination. This means that companies are willing to pay a higher salary to men just because they want to. But because international trade brings new competence to the markets, local companies need to be more competitive to survive. Therefore they wouldn’t be able to pay higher wages to men; this would reduce the wage difference by gender. Agriculture shows a different behavior from other sectors due to the strong agricultural subsidies governments give, De la Dehesa[Del03]. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition an estimate wage can be found for both men and women in tradable and non-tradable sectors of agriculture. At the same time two components will be found, one of them shows the difference produced by factors that affect the productivity of an individual. The second component shows the difference that cannot be explained, this is where discrimination is shown. Once these results are found they will be compared to find out if they are different in tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results that have been found show consistency with Molina’s study for the year 2002. Agriculture shows a behavioral difference from other economic sectors and different from Becker’s idea. As there is no unexplained wage difference by gender between tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results show that the difference is that these two sectors are the same. Thus international trade doesn’t result in a reduction of inequality in agriculture.

  12. Impacts of ASEAN Agricultural Trade Liberalization on ASEAN-6 Economies and Income Distribution in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Oktaviani; Eka Puspitawati; Haryadi

    2008-01-01

    This research paper intends to analyse: (a) the impacts of ASEAN trade liberalization on the macroeconomy variables – gross domestic product (GDP), Terms of Trade (ToT), balance of trade, inflation and real wage – and agricultural industries (output, exports and imports) in the ASEAN 6 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, and Viet Nam); and (b) the impact of trade liberalization on income distribution in Indonesia. A multi-country and multi-commodity computabl...

  13. Articles from Volume 2, Issue 1, 2006, Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    Content: Abler, David. "Introduction: Modeling Global Food and Agricultural Markets." (pp. v); (1) Sheldon, Ian. "Monopolistic Competition and Trade: Does the Theory Carry any Empirical Weight?" (pp. 1-32); (2) Abbott, Phillip. "Comment on: Monopolistic Competition and Trade: Does the Theory Carry any Empirical Weight?" (pp. 33-38); (3) Sarker, Rakhal and Yves Surry. "Product Differentiation and Trade in Agri-Food Products: Taking Stock and Looking Forward." (pp. 39-78); (4) Alston, Julian M....

  14. Analysis of the Factor Endowments and Agricultural Trade for Economic Cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong Keun Eor

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production factors, productivity and trade structures of China, Japan and Korea were analyzed. Their agriculture has mutual complementarity arising from differences in factor endowments as well as mutual competitiveness caused by similarities in production structure. Although agriculture of the three countries can be characterized by small-scale farming in common, the capital/labor ratio and the labor/land ratios are much different by country. As a result, Japan and Korea have advantages in producing labor saving and capital intensive products while China has advantages in labor intensive and capital saving products. Since agricultural productivity of factors such as labor, land and capital showed huge differences by country, mutually beneficiary development might be possible through the agricultural cooperation in the Northeast Asian region. Agricultural products of China, Japan and Korea can be classified into two groups of mutually competitive and complementary products. Regional cooperation in agriculture can be vitalized by combining production of mutually competitive products at certain levels in each country with internalizing trade of mutually complementary products. Unfortunately, however, agricultural exports are more and more competitive as the export similarity indices are high and degree of export competition is increasing in the region. For the regional agriculture, sharing markets in the region through establishing complementary systems of utilizing production factors would be better than seeking monopolistic rent or market domination through unlimited competition with each other. Price competition based on the concept of comparative advantage assumes production specialization. However, such kind of competitive advantage is likely to disappear when relative factor prices change as the national economy grows. Consequently, agricultural markets in the region might be dominated by any competitor outside the region. China

  15. Globalization's effects on world agricultural trade, 1960–2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kym

    2010-01-01

    Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and—in the case of farm products—by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted economic growth and reduced poverty globally, especially in Asia. The first but maybe not the second of these drivers will continue in coming decades. World food prices will depend also on whether (and if so by how much) farm productivity growth continues to outpace demand growth and to what extent diets in emerging economies move towards livestock and horticultural products at the expense of staples. Demand in turn will be driven not only by population and income growth, but also by crude oil prices if they remain at current historically high levels, since that will affect biofuel demand. Climate change mitigation policies and adaptation, water market developments and market access standards particularly for transgenic foods will add to future production, price and trade uncertainties. PMID:20713399

  16. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (May/June issue)

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports rose slightly during the first 7 months of FY 1990, increasing 3 percent to $25.2 billion .... Record U.S. agricultural imports of $22 billion are forecast for FY 1990, $500 million above the February forecast of $21.5 billion .... Japan was the top market for U.S. agricultural exports during the past 3 fiscal years, followed by South Korea, Canada, the Soviet Union, the Netherlands, Mexico, Taiwan, and West Germany.

  17. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  18. A Survey on Agricultural Trade Policies in Bangladesh: theoretical Insights and empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh‟s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific.

  19. A Survey on Agricultural Trade Policies in Bangladesh: theoretical Insights and empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Talukder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh’s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific

  20. The Impact of Trade Policies on Spiraling Prices in International Agricultural Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-2000s food prices have been on an upward trend. In the first months of 2011, agricultural commodity prices reached an all-time high, fuelling fears about the imminent outbreak of a new food crisis, similar to the 1973/74 and 2006/08 ones. Behind concerns about increased price levels and volatility in international agricultural commodity markets lie concerns about food security. Hence, the international community is now under pressure to urgently find solutions for tempering strong upward fluctuations in prices for many major food commodities. Trade policy changes are increasingly discussed as a major contributing factor to food price surges. This paper addresses some issues related to the recurrent global food crises from the perspective of trade policy, specifically export restrictions. After a brief review of the fundamental drivers of the upward trend in real food prices (rising global population and income, climate change, high oil prices, increasing cereal use for biofuel production, and financial speculation, it examines the upsurge in agricultural export restrictions over the recent years. Relying on WTO's trade policy monitoring exercise, it highlights typology, motivations and effects of the newly introduced export restrictions, and finds that a major factor behind their recent proliferation is the lack of effective and binding multilateral rules concerning these trade policy instruments. The paper argues that strenghtening and improving WTO's rules and disciplines is essential for mitigating increased price pressure and volatility as well as the associated food security risks. While the issue of export restrictions is currently the topic of discussions under the Doha Round, trade negotiations are in impasse since 2008. Hence, urgent and successful conclusion of the round would be an essential step. In the meanwhile, a closer regular monitoring of all forms of export restrictions would help to provide at least more

  1. Agricultural trade liberalization in the Uruguay Round : one step forward, one step back?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingco, Merlinda D.

    1995-01-01

    After evaluating the Uruguay Round's impact on agriculture and border protection in the next decade, the author concludes that while there was significant reform of the rules - particularly the conversion of nontariff barriers into tariffs and the reduction and binding of all tariffs - in practice, trade will probably be liberalized less than expected. The objective of the Round was to reverse protectionism and remove trade distortions. This may not be achieved in practice, at least not until...

  2. DOHA Negotiations on Agriculture and Future of the WTO Multilateral Trade System

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The WTO Doha Round of trade negotiations was launched in 2001 and after twelve years of negotiations members seem unable to bring it to a successful conclusion. An attempt to deliver an ‘early harvest’ of deliverables at the 9th WTO Ministerial Conference in Bali in December 2013 does not appear likely to be more successful. This paper describes the stage that the negotiations have reached in agriculture and the value of what is currently on the table. It reviews the agricultural agenda for t...

  3. Farmers versus ideas: explaining the continuity in French agricultural trade policy during the GATT Uruguay Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    France's protectionist position regarding agricultural trade is often claimed to result from French farm lobby influence. This article challenges such established claims, based on an analysis of French decision-making on the agricultural chapter of the GATT Uruguay Round. Farm lobby pressure cannot

  4. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Trade Liberalization and Climate Change: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of the Impacts on Global Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Rehdanz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on predicted changes in the magnitude and distribution of global precipitation, temperature and river flow under the A1B and A2 scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES, this study assesses the potential impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on global agriculture, and its interactions with trade liberalization, as proposed for the Doha Development Round. The analysis uses the new version of the GTAP-W model, which distinguishes between rainfed and irrigated agriculture and implements water as an explicit factor of production for irrigated agriculture. Significant reductions in agricultural tariffs lead to modest changes in regional water use. Patterns are non-linear. On the regional level, water use may go up for partial liberalization, and down for more complete liberalization. This is because different crops respond differently to tariff reductions, and because trade and competition matter too. Moreover, trade liberalization tends to reduce water use in water scarce regions, and increase water use in water abundant regions, even though water markets do not exist in most countries. Considering impacts of climate change, the results show that global food production, welfare and GDP fall over time while food prices increase. Larger changes are observed under the SRES A2 scenario for the medium term (2020 and under the SRES A1B scenario for the long term (2050. Combining scenarios of future climate change with trade liberalization, countries are affected differently. However, the overall effect on welfare does not change much.

  6. Are we moving towards functioning agricultural markets and trade relations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brosig, Stephan; Glauben, Thomas; Levkovych, Inna

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a special feature on the functioning of international agricultural markets. This feature is motivated by the increased interest in the functioning of commodity markets raised by unprecedented price turbulences since 2008, major structural changes through changed roles of emerging...... economies and related concerns regarding food security. We argue that the delineation of non-functioning markets from markets that adequately adjusted to adverse framework conditions lacks theoretical foundation. We discuss the relevance of some results on institutions for agricultural markets in emerging...... and transition countries. A synthesis of the articles included in the special feature is provided by highlighting the selection of topics that span a topical range covering price formation on world and domestic markets, market power and trade policy modelling....

  7. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  8. Agricultural Trade and Economic Growth in East African Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Community states, as many other states in the region, depend largely on agricultural activities to boost their economic growth and create employment. Up to 80 per cent of the populace depends on agriculture directly and indirectly for food, employment and income, while about 40 million people in EAC suffer ...

  9. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  10. Implications of Domestic Support Disciplines for Further Agricultural Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Walsh; Martina Brockmeier; Alan Matthews

    2005-01-01

    This paper employs the GTAP computable general equilibrium model and dataset to analyse the implications of domestic support reductions in the context of agricultural trade liberalisation. Three specific issues are addressed: overhang in domestic support, the accurate distinction of the boxes in the GTAP dataset and the treatment of market price support in the amber box. An extensive domestic support database is used to calculate the change in applied domestic support rates from a specified c...

  11. 75 FR 62096 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... many of the issues that the GFO committee addresses, such as genetically modified organisms, new... modifying the existing structure of both the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees (ATAC) for Trade in...

  12. U.S.-State Agricultural Data. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 512.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Letricia M.; Traub, Larry G.

    This report presents agricultural information for each state and the United States as a whole for the years 1981-1985. Included are data on population, land use, agricultural production, farm income, value of assets on farms, and selected characteristics of farms. The primary data sources are the "1982 Census of Agriculture," the…

  13. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties...

  14. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement... other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). Please...

  15. The effects of agricultural trade openness on food price transmission in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Flachsbarth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade of agricultural commodities has grown significantly in most Latin American countries (LAC over the last two decades. However, after the international food price surges in 2006-08 and 2011-12 concerns about food access of the poor arose. Within a panel framework containing six LAC (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, we used a single equation error correction model to identify possible cointegrating relationships between the food consumer price index (CPI and a set of trade related and domestic variables. The main focus of the study was to examine how different levels of trade openness impact international food price transmission to domestic markets. Our results confirm that deeper market integration increases global price transmission elasticities. In other words, more agricultural trade openness proves to elevate food CPIs during global price spikes. Thus, for poor consumers world price shocks can be deteriorating in the short-run and domestic food prices will slowly converge to a higher long-run equilibrium. Especially in increasingly integrated economies, effective policies to buffer food price shocks should be put in place, but must be carefully planned with the required budget readily available. We also found that exchange rate appreciations can buffer price shocks to a certain extent and that monetary policies seem to be an appropriate means for stabilizing food prices to safeguard food access of the poor population.

  16. U.S.-State Agricultural Data. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 501.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Letricia M.; And Others

    This report presents agricultural information for each of the 50 states and the United States. Data are provided on population, land use, agricultural production, farm income, value of assets on farms, and selected characteristics of farms, such as size, tenure, and farm organization. Primary data sources are the 1982 Census of Agriculture and the…

  17. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Panama. DATES: Interim... and the Republic of Panama (the ``Parties'') signed the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement...

  18. Reforming Agricultural Trade for Developing Countries : Volume 1. Key Issues for a Pro-Development Outcome of the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    McCalla, Alex F.; Nash, John

    2007-01-01

    Reforming agricultural trade for developing countries is a two-volume set. The first volume is subtitled Key issues for a pro- development outcome of the Doha Round, and it is focused on specific concerns that are being encountered in the agricultural negotiations, and on strategies for dealing with them to arrive at a final agreement that will significantly spur growth and reduce poverty in developing countries. The companion volume is subtitled Quantifying the impact of multilateral trade r...

  19. 76 FR 10082 - Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... translation fees, The design of international marketing products or campaigns, An export trade show exhibit... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion... Administrator of the Office of International Trade (OIT) that does not duplicate the services of other SBA...

  20. Unveiled Risks in a Telecoupled Arena Dependent on Agricultural Commodity Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistella, M.; Silva, R. F. B. D.; Liu, J.; Moran, E. F.; Torres, S.; Dou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In less than five years, a new field of interdisciplinary research has been widely developed within the coupled human-natural systems (CHANS) community. Based on well-known concepts acting over long distances, such as teleconnections for biophysical sciences and globalization for human sciences, the telecoupling framework states that long distant CHANS may be integrated through flows of capital, information, and matter, shaping environmental and socioeconomic changes within local systems. An international project including researchers from Brazil, China, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (USA) is using such a framework to study the flows of agricultural commodities between sending systems such as Brazil and the USA, and receiving systems such as China with soybean trade as a case in point. Many findings have already shown that these dynamics are intrinsically connected and changes in environmental conditions in one system may affect economic conditions in other systems. In the case of the double-crop practice (i.e., soybean followed by maize, two crops year round) used in some regions of Brazil, maize production is strongly connected with soybean production through the supply chain, logistics, producer regions, and farmers. Consequently, maize has been displaced to second-crop status, making it more vulnerable to rain shortfalls. The use of the telecoupling framework has also unveiled a possible threat for soybean production in the long run if it only relies on international demand and inputs. The telecoupled soybean production system has put some Brazilian farmers at economic risk, and is pushing them towards diversification and alternative production practices (e.g., non-GMO crops, biological control, in-farm seed production) to reduce their risk. This, in turn, may affect the demand-consumption relationship among traditional trading partners. With this paper, we also highlight the role of cascading effects and spillover systems of telecoupling in

  1. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  2. Global economic trade-offs between wild nature and tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis R; Webb, Edward L; Symes, William S; Koh, Lian P; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2017-07-01

    Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012. Even though the value of ecosystem services presents large inherent uncertainties, we find a pattern supporting the argument that the externalities of destroying tropical forests are greater than the current direct economic benefits derived from agriculture in all cases bar one: when yield and rent potentials of high-value crops could be realized in the future. Our analysis identifies the Atlantic Forest, areas around the Gulf of Guinea, and Thailand as areas where agricultural conversion appears economically efficient, indicating a major impediment to the long-term financial sustainability of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes in those countries. By contrast, Latin America, insular Southeast Asia, and Madagascar present areas with low agricultural rents (ARs) and high values in carbon stocks and ES, suggesting that they are economically viable conservation targets. Our study helps identify optimal areas for conservation and agriculture together with their associated uncertainties, which could enhance the efficiency and sustainability of pantropical land-use policies and help direct future research efforts.

  3. Urban and agricultural soils: conflicts and trade-offs in the optimization of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setälä, H.; Bardgett, R.D.; Birkhofer, K.; Brady, M.; Byrne, L.; de Ruiter, P.C.; de Vries, F.T.; Gardi, C.; Hedlund, K.; Hemerik, L.; Hotes, S.; Liiri, M.; Mortimer, S.R.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Pouyat, R.; Tsiafouli, M.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    [KEYWORDS: Agriculture Ecosystem services Land use Management optimization Soil Urban Trade-off] On-going human population growth and changing patterns of resource consumption are increasing global demand for ecosystem services, many of which are provided by soils. Some of these ecosystem services

  4. The Effect of Tariff Reduction in Agricultural Sector on Macroeconomic Variables: Using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Economic effects of membership in the WTO in recent years, has been one of the most important issues for Iranian economy. If Iran joins the WTO, in this process, tariff reduction in agricultural sector will be one of the policies which has to be employed. Therefore, investigating economic effects of tariff reduction or even its elimination in this sector will be necessary in running effective policies to minimize the probabilistic losses of accession. Tariffs on agricultural products in Iran are determined merely on the basis of annual country economy, and have no long term strategy. Government is just obliged to impose effective tariffs on agricultural products imports, in order to protect local productions. On the other hand, according to the census of population and housing, the share of agricultural sector in employment has reduced during the past decade. Moreover, Iran central bank information indicated the reduction in the share of agricultural sector in GDP for the past decade. Declining the share of agriculture in production and employment, considering the high number of university graduates in the field of agriculture along with rising unemployment rate of this group, motivated this study to investigate the effect of tariff reduction in this sector on macroeconomic variables. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed the welfare effects of import tariffs reduction in agricultural sector from Iran most important commercial partners and vice versa, using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP, based on computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Moreover, the effects of tariffs reduction, is investigated on output, price level and transfer of production factors between different economic sectors. In order to simulate the above model, we used GTAP version 8 which covers 57 commodities and 113 regions with economic information of these regions. This model uses Social Accounting Matrix of countries as data information. Our

  5. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand means...

  6. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds...

  7. A hybrid Bayesian network approach for trade-offs between environmental flows and agricultural water using dynamic discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei; Lei, Jiaqiang; Sun, Huaiwei; Zeng, Fanjiang; Feng, Xinlong

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture and the eco-environment are increasingly competing for water. The extension of intensive farmland for ensuring food security has resulted in excessive water exploitation by agriculture. Consequently, this has led to a lack of water supply in natural ecosystems. This paper proposes a trade-off framework to coordinate the water-use conflict between agriculture and the eco-environment, based on economic compensation for irrigation stakeholders. A hybrid Bayesian network (HBN) is developed to implement the framework, including: (a) agricultural water shortage assessments after meeting environmental flows; (b) water-use tradeoff analysis between agricultural irrigation and environmental flows using the HBN; and (c) quantification of the agricultural economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The constructed HBN is computed by dynamic discretization, which is a more robust and accurate propagation algorithm than general static discretization. A case study of the Qira oasis area in Northwest China demonstrates that the water trade-off based on economic compensation depends on the available water supply and environmental flows at different levels. Agricultural irrigation water extracted for grain crops should be preferentially guaranteed to ensure food security, in spite of higher economic compensation in other cash crops' irrigation for water coordination. Updating water-saving engineering and adopting drip irrigation technology in agricultural facilities after satisfying environmental flows would greatly relieve agricultural water shortage and save the economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The approach in this study can be easily applied in water-stressed areas worldwide for dealing with water competition.

  8. Agricultural protectionism of the European union in the conditions of international trade liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of agricultural protectionism is reflected in the protection and developing of agriculture sector. Integrated parts of this policy in the European Union are the initial model of agricultural protectionism and a new strategy of agricultural policy, which emerged as a response to the shortcomings of previously existing model. The paper presents the key reforms of agricultural policy, conditioned to internal problems and pressures in the negotiations of trade liberalization of agricultural and food products. Reform solutions for the period of 2014 to the 2020 will have similar goals. The priority will be to develop sustainable food production and sustainable management of natural resources. There is a widespread awareness of sustainable development that includes not only the economic component (which is reflected in the increase in productivity and production efficiency, but also an environmental component (the need to preserve the environment, as well as the social component of sustainable development (integrated rural development. Conducting negotiations in the framework of liberalization of agricultural and food products, there was a gradual reduction of restrictive measures in the field of domestic agriculture protection. However, the European food market is still highly protected from foreign competition because of the many features of the agricultural production sector and the importance of agriculture for the entire society. It is certain that the CAP will lose its narrow agricultural character.

  9. A trade policy for transition in agriculture Política comercial en la transición de la agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejarano Jesús Antonio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the possibilities and characteristics of an
    agricultural trade policy for transition, that is, of a policy which
    would allow a transition from an agriculture which is protected and isolated from international price signals to an open agriculture capable of competing in the world market. Although trade policy affects all agricultural activity, the emphasis is placed on importable products, which were very protected over several decades and on which the adverse effects of the trade opening have fallen.En este artículo se analizan las probabilidades y características de una política comercial agrícola de transición, es decir, de una política que permita pasar de una agricultura protegida y aislada de las señales de precios internacionales a una agricultura abierta capaz de competir en el mercado mundial. Aunque la política comercial afecta al conjunto de actividad agrícola, el énfasis se centra en los productos importables, que estuvieron protegidos durante varias décadas y sobre los que recayeron los efectos adversos de la apertura comercial.

  10. The former Iron Curtain still drives biodiversity-profit trade-offs in German agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batáry, Péter; Gallé, Róbert; Riesch, Friederike; Fischer, Christina; Dormann, Carsten F; Mußhoff, Oliver; Császár, Péter; Fusaro, Silvia; Gayer, Christoph; Happe, Anne-Kathrin; Kurucz, Kornélia; Molnár, Dorottya; Rösch, Verena; Wietzke, Alexander; Tscharntke, Teja

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural intensification drives biodiversity loss and shapes farmers' profit, but the role of legacy effects and detailed quantification of ecological-economic trade-offs are largely unknown. In Europe during the 1950s, the Eastern communist bloc switched to large-scale farming by forced collectivization of small farms, while the West kept small-scale private farming. Here we show that large-scale agriculture in East Germany reduced biodiversity, which has been maintained in West Germany due to >70% longer field edges than those in the East. In contrast, profit per farmland area in the East was 50% higher than that in the West, despite similar yield levels. In both regions, switching from conventional to organic farming increased biodiversity and halved yield levels, but doubled farmers' profits. In conclusion, European Union policy should acknowledge the surprisingly high biodiversity benefits of small-scale agriculture, which are on a par with conversion to organic agriculture.

  11. National Agricultural Library | United States Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Home National Agricultural Library United States Department of Agriculture Ag Terms of Service Frequently Asked Questions Policies and Documentation Ag Data Commons Monthly Metrics News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home About Policies and Documentation Ag Data Commons

  12. Os subsídios à agricultura no comércio internacional: as políticas da União Europeia e dos Estados Unidos da América The agricultural subsidies in international trade: the policies adopted by the European Union and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Marcelo Rodrigues Bruno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a prática de subsídios à agricultura no comércio internacional, tendo como principal objetivo dimensionar a sua prática enquanto instrumento econômico estratégico para o setor agrícola, especialmente para os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia. Uma completa proibição dos subsídios não é desejável porque sua prática, em essência, constitui uma alternativa à busca do bem-estar social da nação. Contudo, a utilização dos subsídios agrícolas, na forma como vêm sendo praticados, constituem-se em intervenções de cunho protecionista que provocam distorções no comércio internacional. Sendo os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia as nações que mais os utilizam no comércio internacional, tem-se gerado preocupações sobre sua própria eficiência enquanto instrumento de política comercial estratégica para o comércio internacional.This study examines the practice of agricultural subsidies in international trade, aiming at scaling its practice as a strategic economic tool primarily for the agricultural sector, especially to the United States and the European Union. A complete ban on subsidies is not desirable because its practice, in essence, is a path to improve the welfare of the nation. However, the way the agricultural subsidies have been employed, constitute protectionist interventions that distort international trade. The United States and the European Union are the major users of this instrument in international trade, a factor that has raised concerns about their own efficiency as a strategic trade policy for international trade.

  13. The impact of the Mexican crisis on trade, agriculture, and migration:

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Sherman; Burfisher, Mary E.; Thierfelder, Karen

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses a two-country, computable general equilibrium (CGE), trade model to analyze the impact on Mexico and the U.S. of the precipitous peso depreciation in late 1994 and early 1995, and of the policy response to the crisis. The model includes explicit treatment of agricultural policies in the two countries, and of labor-market linkages, including rural-urban migration within Mexico and Mexico-U.S. migration. We explore “hard,” “medium,” and “soft” landing scenarios, which differ in ...

  14. Problems in the WTO Agriculture Agreement and the Current State and Prospects for Agricultural Negotiations: The Perspective of a Participant in the Uruguay Round Negotiations (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMASHITA Kazuhito

    2005-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's dispute settlement panels and the appellate body ruled on two important agricultural cases recently, just as concerns were being raised over the excessive juridification of WTO procedures. The cases in question are the United States' subsidies on upland cotton and the European Union's export subsidies on sugar. The verdicts in the both cases were quite different from the conclusions Uruguay Round negotiators would have reached. When negotiators negotiate an agre...

  15. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Colombia. DATES: Interim...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties signed a...

  16. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the... the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The provisions of the OFTA were...

  17. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ...-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement''). On December 3, 2010, the United...

  18. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  19. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994

  20. Unexpected Interactions between Agricultural and Forest Sectors through International Trade: Wood Pallets and Agricultural Exports in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Jadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

  1. New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region%New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Y. Co

    2011-01-01

    Aggregate trade data with breakdown into related and non-related party components show that US multinational enterprises use different trading strategies in the China region relative to other countries. US trade with the China region in 2002-007 is characterized by arm 's- length transactions. State-level trade data show great variability in state engagement with the region through trade: exports to the region range from 1 to 28 percent of state exports. In addition, compared to exports to other countries, exports to the region are highly concentrated. At the extreme, for some states, 96-98 percent of exports to the region are computer and electronic products. Finally, gravity regressions show that state exports to Hong Kong are posflively associated with the relative size of the ltong Kong-born population in the states. There is no evidence that stricter labor regimes lead to lower state exports.

  2. Technological changes in the transportation sector : effects on U.S. food and agricultural trade : a proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to raise awareness within the Economic Research Service (ERS) about the role and importance of transportation in U.S. food and agricultural trade and to discuss the need of an agency research agenda in this area. Subje...

  3. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 984.22 Section 984.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.22 Trade demand. (a) Inshell. The quantity of merchantable inshell...

  4. CHANGES IN FARMER TERMS OF TRADE AND AGRICULTURE NET-BARTER TERMS OF TRADE: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanto Siregar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In line with the Prebisch-Singerhypothesis, it is found that the Indonesian farmer terms of trade in aggregatefollowed a negative trend. Spatially, this tendency was mainly the case for theWestern Part of Indonesia, whereas in the Eastern Part of the country,especially in some Sulawesi and Kalimantan provinces, the farmer terms of tradeincreased significantly. This shows a potency to properly expand theagricultural sector in these provinces without risking the relative welfare offarmers to decline. Thus more agricultural development efforts should bedevoted to these regions. The net barter terms of trade for agriculture, whichmay be seen as a proxy of relative welfare of farmers with some accesses toexport/import market, on the other hand, generally depict a non-negative trend.This suggest that in average this group of farmers, or perhaps a group ofagricultural exporters, was less severaly affected by the crisis or crisis-likeevents than the peasant farmers. Therefore, systematic development program,which should be more than a rescue-short-term-demand-side program, is neededwith a main aim to stabilize the relative welfare of the peasant. The analysisalso suggests that Indonesiaagricultural exports are supply determined, which means that eliminations ofsupply bottlenecks and technological advancement leading to a lower unit costrelative to price received are necessary to undertake.

  5. Against the grain : French and German preference formation on agricultural trade during the GATT Uruguay Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    In Against the Grain, Gerry Alons presents her research on French and German preference formation on agricultural trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s. In this process, the French and German governments were confronted with contradictory domestic and international pressure. While the farm

  6. Fair trade for coffee producing small-scale farmers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam kwon Mun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture played an important role in the industrialization process of Mexico. However, the agricultural policy of State has isolated small scale farmers, giving priority just to large agricultural exporters. This study analyzes the implications that can have fair trade for the Mexican small scale farmers. The fair trade tries to cover the production cost and basic necessities for the small scale farmers, making direct ties between producers and consumers. This type of linkage guarantees the minimum price and the extra social payment to the small scale farmers, grouped in cooperatives o associations.Coffee is one of the most known fair trade product, and Mexico is one of the most important coffer exporters of the world. The fair trade of coffee production where many small farmers work is carried out by cooperative like UCIRI (Unión de Comunidades Indígenas de la Región Istmo. The case study shows that fair trade cannot provide complete answers to the all problems that have small farmers. But, since fair trade tries to promote small farmers well-being and many small farmers could get rid of extreme poverty thanks to fair trade, it might be possible to say that fair trade can be one valuable option for the sustainable development of small farmers.

  7. Trade Openness and Domestic Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan

    2018-01-01

    We contribute to the debate over globalization and the environment by asking, what is the impact of trade on national water use? To address this question, we employ econometric methods to quantify the causal relationship between trade openness and water use. Specifically, we use the instrumental variables methodology to evaluate the impact of trade openness on domestic water withdrawals in agriculture and industry. We find that trade openness does not have a significant impact on total or industrial water withdrawals. However, we show that one percentage point increase in trade openness leads to a 5.21% decrease in agricultural water withdrawals. We find that trade openness reduces water use in agriculture primarily through the intensive margin effect, by leading farmers to produce more with less water, such as through the adoption of technology. We do not find evidence for extensive margin or crop mix impacts on agricultural water withdrawals. Significantly, these results demonstrate that trade openness leads to less water use in agriculture. This finding has broad scientific and policy relevance as we endeavor to untangle causal relationships in the complex global food system and develop policies to achieve water and food security.

  8. Nutrient flows in international trade: Ecology and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, Ulrike; Craswell, Eric; Vlek, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Impacts of increasing population pressure on food demand and land resources has sparked interest in nutrient balances and flows at a range of scales. West Asia/North Africa, China, and sub-Saharan Africa are net importers of NPK in agricultural commodities. These imported nutrients do not, however, redress the widely recognized declines in fertility in sub-Saharan African soils, because the nutrients imported are commonly concentrated in the cities, creating waste disposal problems rather than alleviating deficiencies in rural soils. Countries with a net loss of NPK in agricultural commodities are the major food exporting countries-the United States, Australia, and some Latin American countries. In the case of the United States, exports of NPK will increase from 3.1 Tg in 1997 to 4.8 Tg in 2020. The results suggest that between 1997 and 2020, total international net flows of NPK in traded agricultural commodities will double to 8.8 million tonnes. Against this background, the paper analyses the impact of different policy measures on nutrient flows and balances. This includes not only the effects of agricultural trade liberalization and the reduction of subsidies, but also the more direct environmental policies like nutrient accounting schemes, eco-labeling, and nutrient trading. It finally stresses the need for environmental costs to be factored into the debate on nutrient management and advocates more inter-disciplinary research on these important problems

  9. Electric trade in the United States 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Electric Trade in the United States 1990 (ELECTRA) is the third in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data. The second report contained data for 1988. This report provides information on the industry during 1990

  10. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a marketing... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell trade acquisitions. 982.16 Section 982.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  11. 7 CFR 993.21b - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 993.21b Section 993.21b Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21b Trade demand. (a) Domestic trade demand. The quantity of... domestic markets for human consumption as prunes and prune products. (b) Foreign trade demand. The quantity...

  12. Contextualizing Embodied Resources in Global Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Sun, S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Trade in agricultural commodities has created increasingly complex linkages between resource use and food supplies across national borders. Understanding the degree to which food production and consumption relies on trade is vital to understanding how to sustainably meet growing food demands across scales. We use detailed bilateral trade statistics and data on agricultural management to examine the land use and water consumption embodied in agricultural trade, which we relate to basic nutritional indicators to show how trade contributes to food availability worldwide. Agricultural trade carries enough calories to provide >1.7 billion people a basic diet each year. We identify key commodities and producer-consumer relationships that disproportionately contribute to embodied resource use and flows of food nutrition at the global scale. For example, just 15 disproportionately large soybean trades comprised ~10% the total harvested area embodied in export production. We conclude by framing these results in terms of the fraction of each country's food production and consumption that is linked to international trade. These findings help to characterize how countries allocate resources to domestic versus foreign food demand.

  13. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  14. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. The Administrator, Foreign Agricultural... be obtained at the Web site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http...

  15. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. The Administrator, Foreign Agricultural... Web site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http://www.fas.usda.gov...

  16. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  17. Multilateral agricultural trade liberalization: The contrasting fortunes of developing countries in the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Bureau; Antoine Bouet, Yvan Decreux, Sébastien Jean

    2005-01-01

    An applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the impact of multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture, with particular emphasis on developing countries. We use original data, and the model includes some specific features such as a dual labor market. Applied tariffs, including those under preferential regimes and regional agreements, are taken into account at the detailed product level, together with the corresponding bound tariffs on which countries negotiate. The various type...

  18. The effect of trade liberalisation on Syrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian agricultural policy should be characterized by a high level of government intervention, including fixed prices, government monopoly in strategic crop marketing, government distribution of industrial fertilizers, significant barriers on food and agricultural commodities import and so on. Although there were certain changes and liberalization in this area during several last years, the Syrian agriculture remains as the most regulated sector of national economy in Near east and northern Africa.On the other hand, we may state the fact that Syrian governmental agriculture policy was successful considering so called strategic crops most of all in achieving self-sufficiency in wheat production, also an essential increase of cotton production volume which represents most important export crop of this near east country, took a part. Besides this progress there was restriction of disparity development in countryside and municipal household’s incomes, which is partial reason for slowing down of Syrian countryside poverty. These positive outcomes were reached at the expense of increasing go­vern­men­tal expenses and worsening of resources efficiency usage both in agriculture production and energy sectors. Considering forecasted spend of oil sources, the Syrian government will be ne­ce­s­sa­ri­ly forced to search for alternative resources of economic growth and government budget incomes in near future.The last five year country plan presumes consequental delimitation of grants and implication of value added tax. There is to be a quite large liberalisation in agriculture sector, which should lead to consequential down of wheat production, sugar beet and cotton and increase of barley, lentil and chickpea production.

  19. INSTITUTIONAL RISK IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN THE FACE OF NEGOTIATING THE TRANSATLANTIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP (TTIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Lipińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues connected with the EU entering and conducting negotiations with the US on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. These issues relate to institutional risk due to the necessity to change the agricultural policy statement of the parties and to implement new legal instruments or amend those that already exist. The article aims at analysing the proposed organisational and legal solutions relating to agriculture in the face of negotiations of the contents of the partnership. It also intends to indicate essential diff erences between the parties relating to agriculture and food production, to determine the direction of amendments in the event of joining the partnership, and to assess its potential consequences from the perspective of EU agricultural producers and food consumers.

  20. Trade agreements with side-effects? : European Union and United States to negotiate Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Mildner, Stormy-Annika; Schmucker, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "At the G8 summit in Northern Ireland on June 17, the European Union and the United States kicked off the negotiations for a comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) to reduce tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers. While the expected economic benefits for both sides would be more than welcome in an era of gloomy growth forecasts, a TTIP is not entirely without risks for global trade and the multilateral trading system. The talks could tie up a considerable portion o...

  1. Canada - United States Natural Gas Trade - A Model for Expanding Regional Energy Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D ArcyMcGee, T.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with the expansion of Canadian natural gas exports to the United States. Over the past decade, these exports have more than tripled. The expansion of energy trade requires a growing market, a competitive supply source, deregulation of markets and free trade agreements, capital investment and eventually a transparent market with many buyers and sellers. Even if all these factors coexisted, there have been problems linked to this expansion of exports, such as the construction of transportation capacity. (TEC)

  2. Estimating the impact of transport efficiency on trade costs: Evidence from Chinese agricultural traders

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhigang; Yu, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yinchu

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique survey data on agricultural traders in China in 2004, this study provides direct evidence on significance of interregional transport costs and their key determinants. Our major findings are as follows: (1) the trade barriers within China are dominated by transport-related costs but not artificial barriers, approximated by tolls and fines; (2) Labor and fuels costs are the most significant component of transport costs; (3) road quality is very important for transportation effici...

  3. Cotton Trade Liberalizations and Domestic Agricultural Policy Reforms: A Partial Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effects of trade liberalizing reforms in the world cotton market using a partial equilibrium model. The simulation results indicated that a removal of domestic subsidies and border tariffs for cotton would increase the amount of world cotton trade by an average of 4% in the next five years and world cotton prices by an average of 12% over the same time horizon. The findings indicated that under the liberalization policy, the United States would lose part of its export ...

  4. Status of electricity trading in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of the energy marketplace in the United States is presented in a series of overhead viewgraphs. The influencing factors of energy trading are described as being supply concentration, rate cross subsidization, price volatility, physics, stranded investment, market structure and value drivers. A map depicting trading hubs and market structures is included, along with an outline of the key characteristics of a successful market hub. Gas-electric interface issues are also discussed. It was stated that contrary to conventional wisdom that as gas and electricity markets converge, traders will routinely cross-hedge gas and power, the practical reality is that volatility of the gas to electricity basis spread actually limits hedging opportunities. A winning strategy should include thorough fundamental and technical analysis; every trade or position should have a well thought-out exit strategy; get closer to physical assets; and be careful across regional hubs and commodities. 2 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Trade-offs of European agricultural abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Emma H.; Verburg, Peter H.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is a policy challenge, especially for areas with unfavorable conditions for agriculture and remote and mountainous areas. Agricultural abandonment is an important land use process in many world regions and one of the dominant land use change processes in Europe.

  6. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...

  7. 12 CFR 614.4700 - Financing foreign trade receivables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4700 Financing foreign trade receivables. (a) Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks, under policies adopted by their boards of directors, are authorized to finance foreign trade receivables on...

  8. The economic impact of the Australia-United States free trade agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    The Australia–United States free trade agreement (AUSFTA) came into effect in 2005. It was the second preferential trade agreement that Australia signed, after its agreement with Singapore, and marked a departure from the primacy of Australia’s previous trade policy of unilateral and multilateral trade liberalisation towards preferential liberalisation. This paper assesses the economic effects of AUSFTA by applying the Productivity Commission’s gravity model of trade from its Bilateral ...

  9. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Armeniţa ARGHIROIU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania is situated as agricultural potential among the first countries in Europe. But over the time it has been observed that our agriculture has failed to capitalize this potential and in consequence cannot provide the necessities of food for the population of the country. The trade balance is deeply inclined towards imports and even if the situation has improved in recent years, the trade balance in agricultural products remains negative, falling to about $ 600 million in 2011. This paper analyzes the evolution of trade flows with the grain both in terms of quantity and value.

  10. 75 FR 28780 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Service (FAS) will begin accepting Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for Fiscal Year... TAA for Farmers Program as established by Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107...

  11. Change of trade balance analysis in agricultural and food products with using of index pyramidal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the trade balance in Czech Republic in the field of agricultural and food products. The main goal is to determine the influence of analytical indicators; in this case these are changes of quantity and average unit price of export and import; over the synthetic indicator – change of trade balance. Next step of this analysis is to calculate the portions of change of inputs volume and change of total productivity of inputs over the change of export caused by change of quantity. To fulfill this aim it is suitable to use methods for pyramidal decomposition of indicators – chain substitution, logarithmic and functional methods. These methods are compared and the results are interpreted.

  12. Exporting obesity: US farm and trade policy and the transformation of the Mexican consumer food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah E; Hawkes, Corinna; Murphy, Sophia M E; Hansen-Kuhn, Karen A; Wallinga, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, in the United States as well as among its trade partners such as Mexico. It has been established that an "obesogenic" (obesity-causing) food environment is one influence on obesity prevalence. To isolate the particular role of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement, in changing Mexico's food environment, we plotted the flow of several key products between the United States and Mexico over the 14-year NAFTA period (1994-2008) and situated them in a broader historical context. Key sources of USDA data include the Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System, its official repository for current and historical data on imports, exports and re-exports, and its Production, Supply, and Distribution online database. US export data were queried for agricultural products linked to shifting diet patterns including: corn, soybeans, sugar and sweeteners, consumer-oriented products, and livestock products. The Bureau of Economic Analysis' Balance of Payments and Direct Investment Position Data in their web-based International Economic Accounts system also helped determine changes in US direct investment abroad from 1982 to 2009. Directly and indirectly, the United States has exported increasing amounts of corn, soybeans, sugar, snack foods, and meat products into Mexico over the last two decades. Facilitated by NAFTA, these exports are one important way in which US agriculture and trade policy influences Mexico's food system. Because of significant US agribusiness investment in Mexico across the full spectrum of the latter's food supply chain, from production and processing to distribution and retail, the Mexican food system increasingly looks like the industrialized food system of the United States.

  13. Blue water scarcity and the economic impacts of future agricultural trade and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.

  14. AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS IN POLAND – AN ATTEMPT TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Śpiewak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural organizations play an important role in political decision-making at the local, national, and EU levels. However, it is diffi cult to estimate to what extent the size of public transfers to the Polish countryside is a direct eff ect of these organizations’ activity. The same question applies to farming privileges, which are much more numerous than those for other social groups in rural areas. One of the reasons for this stems from the fact that agricultural organizations in Poland have rarely been examined. The aim of this article is therefore to obtain a structured picture of agricultural organizations in Poland and to search for relations between their legal forms and statutory goals. The main types distinguished here include farmers’ trade unions, employers’ organizations, agribusiness organizations (agribusiness federations and unions, and associations. Taking into consideration the number of members and the thrust of activities, including impact on agricultural policy, the most important agricultural organizations in Poland seem to be the trade unions and agribusiness organizations. The substantive diff erence between them lies in their stated goals. Trade unions primarily indicate goals of a social nature. Federations of agribusiness organizations strive to support their members and promote policy changes, while agribusiness organizations work for the development of specialized farms.

  15. Agreement on Agriculture in the Uruguay Round of GATT, The

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhair A. Hassan

    1994-01-01

    The Uruguay Round is the eighth round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The previous seven rounds produced significant reductions in tariffs on manufactured goods, but little or no progress was made in opening international markets for agricultural trade (see Appendix A0. However, the distortions in international agricultural trade and domestic agricultural production and the increasing budgetary outlays prompted trade ministers ...

  16. Clandestine Bushmeat Trade in Cross River State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper surveyed the herp species traded in secret bush meat markets of Cross River State, with the view of assessing their conservation status and uses they are put to. The study mainly focused on six selected communities in Akamkpa Local Government Area (LGA) of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria – the host LGA of ...

  17. Ukraine's Membership in the World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Marchi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The WTO is a multilateral organization that seeks to ensure that international trade relations are governed by the rule of law and not by the rule of power. It comprises a network of contractual rules and commitments capable of being monitored and enforced multilaterally. Ukraine’s accession to the WTO has been marked by notable achievements in the areas of legislation and bilateral agreements with member-states regarding market access. Outstanding issues in Ukraine’s accession include agriculture, industry policy, trade-related investment measures (TRIMs, technical barriers to trade (TBT, sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS measures, and intellectual property rights. While completion of the process relies on Ukraine’s efforts alone, progress is being made and is expected to reach a successful conclusion.

  18. Natural disasters and agricultural protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Hoogezand, Barry

    2018-01-01

    We explore the impact of natural disasters on the degree of agricultural protection using data from 76 countries thereby covering more than 70 of the most traded agricultural commodities. Theoretically, the direction of this effect is not a priori directly clear as it balances the trade-off

  19. Environmentally sustainable agriculture and future developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO). It is wi......Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO...... in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy...

  20. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...] Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development Facility... The STDF is a unique global partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World... cooperative agreement in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and...

  1. 78 FR 32362 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia; Announcement of... Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade... Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia,'' published on April 11, 2013...

  2. Assessment of Biotechnology Policies and International Trade in Key Markets for U.S. Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Song, Baohui

    2005-01-01

    The United States leads the world in agricultural biotechnology research, adoption, commercialization, and exports. Our biotech commodities are highly dependent on international markets. Thus, any biotech policy changes by key importing countries may affect U.S. agricultural biotech product exports. This article identifies key markets for U.S. agricultural exports including biotech commodities and discusses current and proposed biotech policies in key markets for U.S. agricultural exports foc...

  3. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials ... The agricultural sector in the 1960s provided the main source of employment, .... their fathers and mothers' occupation were majorly trading (43.3%) and trading.

  4. IMPACT OF CFTA/NAFTA ON U.S. AND CANADIAN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tweeten, Luther G.; Sharples, Jerry A.; Evers-Smith, Linda

    1997-01-01

    CFTA/NAFTA is estimated annually to add $1,430 million of U.S. agricultural exports to Canada and $1,884 million of Canadian agricultural exports to the United States. Thus CFTA/NAFTA contributed an estimated 25 percent of the $5.8 billion of U.S. agricultural exports to Canada in 1995. Classical welfare analysis was used to estimate the implications of free trade in the dairy, poultry, sugar, and other industries that continue to be protected. In aggregate, consumers benefit from liberalizat...

  5. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Service and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff...

  6. Design of multi-language trading system of ethnic characteristic agricultural products based on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanqin, Wu; Yasheng, Jin; Yugang, Dai

    2017-06-01

    Under the current situation where Internet technology develops rapidly, mobile E-commerce technology has brought great convenience to our life. Now, the graphical user interface (GUI) of most E-commerce platforms only supports Chinese. Thus, the development of Android client of E-commerce that supports ethnic languages owns a great prospect. The principle that combines front end design and database technology is adopted in this paper to construct the Android client system of E-commerce platforms that supports ethnic languages, which realizes the displaying, browsing, querying, searching, trading and other functions of ethnic characteristic agricultural products on android platforms.

  7. Role of State Agricultural Universities and Directorates of Extension Education in Agricultural Extension in India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Meena, M.S.; Swanson, B.E.

    2013-01-01

    In India, the first SAU was established in 1960 at Pantnagar in Uttar Pradesh. The SAUs were given autonomous status and direct funding from the state governments. They were autonomous organizations with state-wide responsibility for agricultural research, education and training or extension education. The establishment of the SAUs, based on a pattern similar to that of the land-grant universities in the United States, was a landmark in reorganizing and strengthening the agricultural educatio...

  8. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  9. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-state NOx control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, A.

    2001-01-01

    Marketable emission permit mechanisms are increasingly proposed as efficient means of managing environmental pollution problems such as greenhouse gas emissions. Existing examples of emissions trading in the literature have so far been limited to domestic efforts put in place through the action of a national legislature, which has no parallel in international politics. This paper examines two efforts to establish multi-lateral emissions trading for nitrogen oxides among various states with the US. One, the Ozone Transport Commission's NO x Budget program is a success. The other, the Ozone Transport Assessment Group and the federal government's subsequent NO x SIP Call has not resulted in a multi-lateral emissions control program, let alone an efficient, market-based one. Due to the relative similarities of the states (compared to highly heterogeneous nations of the world) these are ''best case'' examples, and explaining the vast differences in outcomes will help explain the potential and the challenges in developing an international emission trading program to control greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  10. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office... for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA; or by phone at (202) 720-0638, or (202...

  11. Trade liberalization, the Mercosur integration process and the agriculture-industry transfers: a general equilibrium analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of trade liberalization and Mercosur integration process upon the Brazilian economy, with emphasis on the agricultural and agroindustrial production sectors, under the hypothesis that those phenomena could be another step in the rural-urban transfer process in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through an applied general equilibrium model. Results suggest that trade liberalization would hardly generate a widespread process of rural-urban transfers, although Brazilian agriculture shows up as a loser in the process. Notwithstanding that fact, there are transfers inside the agricultural sectors, where, besides the losses in the value added of the grain production sectors, there would be gains for the livestock and for the ''other crops" sectors. The agroindustry, in contrast, seems to gain both in Brazil and Argentina. Model results suggest yet that the Brazilian society would be benefitted as a whole by the integration, despite the losses in the agricultural sector.Este artigo analisa os efeitos do processo de liberalização comercial e de constituição do Mercosul sobre a economia brasileira, com ênfase nos setores produtivos da agricultura e da agroindústria, sob a hipótese de que aqueles fenômenos seriam mais uma etapa no processo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil. Para tanto, a análise é conduzida através do uso de um modelo de equilíbrio geral aplicado. Os resultados sugerem que a integração comercial não irá gerar um processo amplo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil, embora a agricultura brasileira apareça, no agregado, como o setor perdedor na integração, em benefício da agricultura argentina. Há, entretanto, transferências dentro dos setores da agropecuária brasileira, onde, ao lado das perdas no valor adicionado do setor produtor de grãos, haveria ganhos para a pecuária e para o setor ''outras culturas". A agroindústria, em contraste, parece ganhar tanto no Brasil

  12. Evaluating the trade-off between food and timber resulting from the conversion of Miombo forests to agricultural land in Angola using multi-temporal Landsat data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneibel, Anne; Stellmes, Marion; Röder, Achim; Finckh, Manfred; Revermann, Rasmus; Frantz, David; Hill, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The repopulation of abandoned areas in Angola after 27years of civil war led to a fast and extensive expansion of agricultural fields to meet the rising food demand. Yet, the increase in crop production at the expense of natural resources carries an inherent potential for conflicts since the demand for timber and wood extraction are also supposed to rise. We use the concept of ecosystem services to evaluate the trade-off between food and woody biomass. Our study area is located in central Angola, in the highlands of the upper Okavango catchment. We used Landsat data (spatial resolution: 30×30m) with a bi-temporal and multi-seasonal change detection approach for five time steps between 1989 and 2013 to estimate the conversion area from woodland to agriculture. Overall accuracy is 95%, user's accuracy varies from 89-95% and producer's accuracy ranges between 92-99%. To quantify the trade-off between woody biomass and the amount of food, this information was combined with indicator values and we furthermore assessed biomass regrowth on fallows. Our results reveal a constant rise in agricultural expansion from 1989-2013 with the mean annual deforestation rate increasing from roughly 5300ha up to about 12,000ha. Overall, 5.6% of the forested areas were converted to agriculture, whereas the FAO states a national deforestation rate for Angola of 5% from 1990-2010 (FAO, 2010). In the last time step 961,000t per year of woodland were cleared to potentially produce 1240t per year of maize. Current global agro-economical projections forecast increasing pressure on tropical dry forests from large-scale agriculture schemes (Gasparri et al., 2015; Searchinger and Heimlich, 2015). Our study underlines the importance of considering subsistence-related change processes, which may contribute significantly to negative effects associated with deforestation and degradation of these forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 48931 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers....usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 30, 2010...

  14. 75 FR 48642 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA... the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 30, 2010. John D. Brewer...

  15. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program....gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: August 3, 2010...

  16. 75 FR 11513 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Service (FAS), will begin accepting Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for fiscal... received by the TAA for Farmers Staff by close of business April 14, 2010. The petition must be sent in...

  17. 75 FR 49886 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638... for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: August 3, 2010. Suzanne Hale, Acting...

  18. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: [email protected] ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site...

  19. WTO negotiations on agriculture and developing countries:

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, Anwarul; Gulati, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization’s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching implications for the trade and economic prospects of developing countries in the twenty-first century, it is critical for these countries to fully understand the issues involved in the negotiations on agriculture. However, there has been no authoritative an...

  20. 75 FR 51978 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633: or by e-mail at: [email protected] ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site...

  1. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  2. Multi-State Initiatives---Agriculture Security Preparedness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    ... to protect the nation's food security. The National Homeland Security Strategy puts states on the front lines in the war against terrorism including the struggle to secure the agriculture industry from potentially devastating attack...

  3. French Trade Policy During the GATT Uruguay Round: Between Domestic and International Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    During the GATT Uruguay Round (1986-1993) France was one of the most conservative European member states and succeeded in influencing European position taking on agricultural trade liberalization. France’s recalcitrant position is often considered an outcome of purely domestic political

  4. Walking a Tightrope: World Trade in Manufacturing and the Benefits of Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Messerlin

    2008-01-01

    Negotiators in Geneva are still struggling to conclude the Doha Round of multilateral trade talks at the World Trade Organization (WTO). However, after seven years of negotiations, many people - and especially many industrialists in Europe and the United States - are not convinced that the negotiations are worth the efforts being put into them. These doubts have been fueled by the modesty of recent estimates of the gains on the table in the negotiations on Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA...

  5. Trade and commerce in improved crops and food: an essay on food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershen, Drew L

    2010-11-30

    Agricultural trade between nations is a significant proportion of total international trade. Agricultural trade in transgenic crops faces extra complications due to the existence of domestic and international regimes that focus specifically on agricultural biotechnology. These specialized regimes create legal and commercial challenges for trade in transgenic crops that have significant implications for the food security of the nations of the world. By food security, one should understand not just the available supply of food, but also the quality of the food and the environmental impact of agricultural production systems. These specialized regimes for transgenic crops can either encourage or hinder the adoption of agricultural biotechnology as a sustainable intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers hope for agronomic improvements for agricultural production, socio-economic betterment for farmers and environmental benefits for societies. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers particular hope for the poorest farmers of the world because agricultural biotechnology is a technology in the seed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 19174 - State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Pilot Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Grant Program is to increase the number of small businesses that are exporting, and increase the value... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Pilot Grant Program AGENCY: Office of International Trade; U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) ACTION: SBA Program Announcement...

  7. Learning processes and productive modernization of learning in agriculture from northwestern Mexico: Cases of commercial agriculture of the coast of Hermosillo, Sonora and organic agriculture of the southern zone of Baja California Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel O. Villa Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of open markets has created import changes in the Mexican agriculture sector, very much noted in the so called crop pattern, the institutional frame that guides the agro–productive commercial relationships and trade organization. The agriculture in the Northwest region, particularly La Costa de Hermosillo in the State of Sonora and southern Baja in Baja Peninsula, shows a big transformation. This corresponds to Global Production Networks (gpn, a vertical integration with intensive extraterritorial interaction resulting in a process of productive escalation that favors; learning and the creation of new competitive capabilities indispensable to comply with high standards in international markets. These capabilities are reflected in improvements in product quality, productive efficiency and the development of new functions for the players involved in the production and trade of produce. It also reflects the transition to more sophisticated productive units where players are located in other territories. This study focuses on analyzing the roll of gpn in the transformation of the agricultural sector in the northwest region of Mexico, particularly the process that took place in modernizing both places.

  8. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Franić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in 1988, due to the trade policy reform within the requirements imposed by the membership in the World Trade Organization. Recent changes from 2003 tend to simplify the system of agricultural support and to equalize the level of incentives. Together with existing production subsidies, new models of income support, capital investments and rural development are introduced. The reform predicts harmonization of domestic agricultural policy measures with those conducted or should be conducted in the EU. It means the shift from the old way of supporting European agricultural markets, toward incentives for European farmer, in the way that in total support prevails income, and not production support.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE TRADE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIETNAM AND CHINA; VIETNAM AND UNITED STATES: A COMPARISON USING GRAVITY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Thi Dinh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the determinants of trade relationship between two largest trading partners of Vietnam, United States and China. Using gravity model for time series data from 1986 to 2015, the study found that economic growth rate plays a crucial role in stimulating the trade flow. Both trade relationships fit with the practical approach of Heckscher-Ohlin theory, stating that trade flow increases between countries with different income levels. The most important finding of this study lines on the results regarding the impact of trade agreements. While United States-Vietnam bilateral agreement creates trade, the trade agreement between ASEAN and China produced trade diversion. As China expands its markets among ASEAN countries, Vietnam should diversify its export markets to improve its export flow.

  10. Heat-related illness in Washington State agriculture and forestry sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Krenz, Jennifer; Rauser, Edmund; Bonauto, David K

    2014-08-01

    We sought to describe heat-related illness (HRI) in agriculture and forestry workers in Washington State. Demographic and clinical Washington State Fund workers' compensation agriculture and forestry HRI claims data (1995-2009) and Washington Agriculture Heat Rule citations (2009-2012) were accessed and described. Maximum daily temperature (Tmax) and Heat Index (HImax) were estimated by claim date and location using AgWeatherNet's weather station network. There were 84 Washington State Fund agriculture and forestry HRI claims and 60 Heat Rule citations during the study period. HRI claims and citations were most common in crop production and support subsectors. The mean Tmax (HImax) was 95°F (99°F) for outdoor HRI claims. Potential HRI risk factors and HRI-related injuries were documented for some claims. Agriculture and forestry HRI cases are characterized by potential work-related, environmental, and personal risk factors. Further work is needed to elucidate the relationship between heat exposure and occupational injuries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Study of atmospheric emission trading programs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A detailed review and evaluation was conducted of federal and state atmospheric emission trading programs in the USA to identify the factors critical to a successful program. A preliminary assessment was also made of the feasibility of such a program for NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the lower Fraser Valley in British Columbia. To date, experience in the USA with atmospheric emissions trading has primarily involved trades of emission reduction credits pursuant to the 1977 Clean Air Act amendments. Most trades occur under netting provisions which allow expansion of an existing plant without triggering the stringent new-source review process. Six case studies of emissions trading are described from jurisdictions in California, New Jersey, and Kentucky and from the national SO 2 allowance trading program. Estimates of cost savings achieved by emissions trading are provided, and factors critical to a successful program are summarized. These factors include clearly defined goals, participation proportional to problem contribution, an emissions inventory of satisfactory quality, a comprehensive permit system, a credible enforcement threat, efficient and predictable administration, location of the program in an economic growth area, and support by those affected by the program. In the Fraser Valley, it is concluded that either an emissions reduction credit or an allowance trading system is feasible for both NOx and VOC, and recommendations are given for implementation of such a program based on the factors determined above. 1 fig., 8 tabs

  12. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M.; Van Velthuizen, H.

    2002-08-01

    After the introduction Chapter 2 presents details of the ecological-economic analysis based on the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zones (AEZ) approach for evaluation of biophysical limitations and agricultural production potentials, and IIASA's Basic Linked System (BLS) for analyzing the world's food economy and trade system. The BLS is a global general equilibrium model system for analyzing agricultural policies and food system prospects in an international setting. BLS views national agricultural systems as embedded in national economies, which interact with each other through trade at the international level. The combination of AEZ and BLS provides an integrated ecological-economic framework for the assessment of the impact of climate change. We consider climate scenarios based on experiments with four General Circulation Models (GCM), and we assess the four basic socioeconomic development pathways and emission scenarios as formulated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Third Assessment Report. Chapter 3 presents the main AEZ results of the impact of climate change on agriculture. Results comprise environmental constraints to crop agriculture; climate variability and the variability of rain-fed cereal production; changes in potential agricultural land; changes in crop-production patterns; and the impact of climate change on cereal-production potential. Chapter 4 discusses the AEZ-BLS integrated ecological-economic analysis of climate change on the world food system. This includes quantification of scale and location of hunger, international agricultural trade, prices, production, land use, etc. It assesses trends in food production, trade, and consumption, and the impact on poverty and hunger of alternative development pathways and varying levels of climate change. Chapter 5 presents the main conclusions and policy implications of this study

  13. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  14. Spirits Trade After Reform in 1863: To the Issue of Efficiency of State Regulation of Spirits Turnover in Terms of Free Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ye. Goryushkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of published and non-published archive materials the article estimates efficiency of state regulation of spirits turnover in terms of excise taxation period. It also states types of spirits trade, types of public houses, groups of people that have obtained the right for wholesale, retail and that of small amount tradeoff spirits. License gaining procedures are widely described as well. The author pays significant attention to the areas in cities and countryside, where the public houses should not have been opened as well as the individuals who were admitted to spirits trade; also he states events which influenced the sale of spirits. The requirements to interior of public houses, working hours, quality and volumes of trade are also specified. It is pointed out that the officials of excise tax board were to control the regulations of spirit trade, their authority extended to public houses control in 1885. The author comes to the conclusion that regulatory means of excise tax was efficient and by increasing and decreasing of license cost, complication and simplification of new public houses opening all together allowed to regulate the turnover of spirits in terms of free trade thus influencing the number, types, density, range and quality of spirits. However, there was distinct ambiguity in Ministry of Finance policy during the stated excise taxation period. On the one hand it limited free sale of spirits, eradicating public houses which were considered detrimental. On the other hand, the Ministry was set not to notice abuse in trade which gave the opportunity to gain greater benefits at public cost from spirits sales.

  15. 44 CFR 351.26 - The United States Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The United States Department of Agriculture. 351.26 Section 351.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.26 The United States Department of Agriculture. (a) Assist FEMA in...

  16. Embodied phosphorus and the global connections of United States agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Graham K.; Bennett, Elena M.; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is intricately linked to food security and water quality. Globalization of agricultural systems and changing diets clearly alter these relationships, yet their specific influence on non-renewable P reserves is less certain. We assessed P fertilizer used for production of food crops, livestock and biofuels in the US agricultural system, explicitly comparing the domestic P use required for US food consumption to the P use embodied in the production of US food imports and exports. By far the largest demand for P fertilizer throughout the US agricultural system was for feed and livestock production (56% of total P fertilizer use, including that for traded commodities). As little as 8% of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P) was consumed in US diets in the same year, while larger fractions may have been retained in agricultural soils (28%), associated with different post-harvest losses (40%) or with biofuel refining (10%). One quarter of all P fertilizer used in the US was linked to export production, primarily crops, driving a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P). However, US meat consumption relied considerably on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports. Changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer required for US food consumption by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). US export-oriented agriculture, domestic post-harvest P losses and global demand for meat may ultimately have an important influence on the lifespan of US phosphate rock reserves.

  17. How conflict affects land use: agricultural activity in areas seized by the Islamic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Lina; Degerald, Michael; Brandt, Martin; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Pilesjö, Petter

    2017-05-01

    Socio-economic shocks, technogenic catastrophes, and armed conflicts often have drastic impacts on local and regional food security through disruption of agricultural production and food trade, reduced investments, and deterioration of land and infrastructure. Recently, more research has focused on the effects of armed conflict on land systems, but still little is known about the processes and outcomes of such events. Here we use the case of Syria and Iraq and the seizure of land by the Islamic State (IS) since 2014 as an example of armed conflict, where we investigate the effects on agricultural land use. We apply a reproducible approach using 250 m satellite-based time-series data to quantify the areas under cultivation from 2000 to 2015. Despite a common belief about widespread land abandonment in areas under conflict, results point to multiple trajectories regarding cropland cultivation in the IS seized area: (1) expansion of cropland to formerly un-cultivated areas, (2) cropland abandonment, and (3) decrease of high-intensity cropland. Our study highlights the need to understand these diverse conflict-related and context-dependent changes to the land system.

  18. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  19. Assessing Agricultural Intensification Strategies with a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Davidson, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the growing global demand for food and bioenergy, agricultural production must nearly double by 2050, placing additional pressures on the environment and the society. Thus, how to efficiently use limited land, water, and nutrient resources to produce more food with low pollution (MoFoLoPo) is clearly one of the major challenges of this century. The increasingly interconnected global market provides a great opportunity for reallocating crop production to the countries and regions that use natural resources more efficiently. For example, it is estimated that optimizing the allocation of crop production around the world can mitigate 41% of nitrogen lost to the environment. However, higher efficiency in nutrients use does not necessarily lead to higher efficiency in land use or water use. In addition, the increasing share of international trade in food supply may introduce additional systemic risk and affect the resilience of global food system. Using the data/indicator from a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix and an international trade matrix, we developed a simple model to assess the trade-offs of international trade considering resource use efficiencies (including water, land, nitrogen, and phosphorus), economic costs and benefits, and the resilience of food system.

  20. An Analysis of the New Trade Regime for State-Owned Enterprises under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyung Yun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the new discipline on state-owned enterprises contained in the recently concluded Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement, and evaluates various factors that influenced the shaping of its specific rules. The new discipline consolidates and strengthens related provisions in current trade regimes, reflects various aspects of trade disputes between China and the US, and adopts, as its general underlying rationale, the principle of competitive neutrality. The new discipline contains elements that may challenge the multilateral trade regime, and may serve as a role model in regulating state-owned enterprises, including subsidies in services trade in other on-going trade negotiations. The new regime makes us think hard about fundamental issues regarding enforcement of competition policy against state-owned enterprises, treatment of non-market economies, and how to deal with effects of subsidies in international trade, bringing competition issues back on the trade agenda.

  1. Markets, trade and the role of institutions in African development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Roe

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the interdependence between international trade and institutional reform and suggests that the trade barriers erected by advanced countries on the agricultural exports of poor countries, in particular sub-Saharan agriculture serve as an impediment to economic growth and development.  Drawing upon recent literature, the suggestion is that trade barriers inhibit institutional reform that is a major factor affecting economic growth. An empirical analysis of trade reform and economic growth shows that sub-Saharan economies can reciprocate potential gains from increased trade, which are larger when an integration with world markets induces institutional reform.

  2. AGRICULTURE IN THE CITY

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The target audience of this book, then, is not only researchers and high-level ...... given the current higher availability of food traded in agricultural markets and in ... recyclable materials as containers for the organic matter and agricultural soil ...

  3. Factors Shaping Agri-food Product Trade in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to recognize the role of internal and external factors in the trade balance. The analysis of the trade balance is useful to help formulate goals and premises of economy policy to properly allocate production means to eliminate the negative effects of trade liberalization. The authors have studied data about trade of agricultural commodities in the years 2000–2010. To measure the impact of macroeconomic variables used a regression model. The macroeconomic factors included: X1 (inflation, X2 (investment in agriculture and hunting, X3 (GDP and X4 (exchange rate and X5 (FAO food price index. We wanted to recognize the impact of macroeconomic factors on: Y1 (total export, Y2 (total import, Y3 (trade balance.

  4. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  5. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  6. Conditions and factors promoting the movement of agricultural producers towards innovation-based development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mikhailovich Sovetov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in 2011 –2013 by the Department of Production Management at the Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy Named after N.V. Vereshchagin. The survey was supported by the Vologda Oblast Department of Agriculture, Food Stocks and Trade in the framework of ongoing research into the issues of transition of agricultural economy to innovation development. The authors present and systematize the opinions of the heads of the region’s agricultural enterprises concerning the challenges and opportunities of innovation-investment activity of agricultural organizations

  7. THE URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE: AN EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Josling, Timothy E.; Honma, Masayoshi; Lee, Jaeok; MacLaren, Donald; Miner, William M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Tangermann, Stefan; Valdes, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Contact for this paper: Laura Bipes/University of Minnesota/Department of Applied Economics/ 1994 Buford Avenue./ St. Paul, MN 55108 USA. From the start, agriculture played a central role in the Uruguay Round of GATT trade negotiations. The Punta del Este Declaration called for a solution to the problems facing agricultural trade through modified trade rules and an agreement to lower protection levels. It was recognized that such an improvement implied negotiations on the national farm polici...

  8. PERFORMANCE OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN APOSTOL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The term ecological agriculture has been attributed by the European Union of Romania to define this system of agriculture and is similar with terms organic agriculture or biological agriculture, which are used in other member states. One of the main goals of ecological agriculture is the production of agricultural and food products fresh and genuine through processes created to respect nature and its systems. Thus, it prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms, fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, stimulators and growth regulators, hormones, antibiotics for livestock and the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, drastic interventions on the soil, the introduction of genetically modified organisms, in the case of the cultivated soil. The study aims to highlight the main features of ecological agriculture and its impact on the national economy. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are surprising the main aspects of ecological agriculture performance in Romania and are identified investment opportunities in this sector of the national economy. Following this study, it was found that ecological agriculture in Romania is quite performant and recorded a continuous development, but mainly in the production, not in the processing and trading of natural products, which is why investment in these areas would be welcome.

  9. Priority Directions of Improving the State Regulation of Agriculture Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Konstantinovna Sanakoeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews primary directions for economical regulation of agriculture, for solving problems of insufficient funds of agricultural enterprises. Goals for development of agricultural economics growth and competitive abilities are determined, economical measures for governmental support are described as functions of system for development of agricultural market. The authors reveal the problems of innovational and optimizational model for development of agriculture, and system of state regulative and supportive measures for implementing the innovational model of development by consolidation of self-development mechanisms within revealing of inner economical reserves and activisation of “growth points” for resource potential. The mutual system dependence for mechanisms of taxes and subsidiaries and their influence on budget and socio-economical externalities are analyzed. It is substantiated that the state regulation of agricultural markets must take into account low incomes of small agricultural business, not allowing to accumulate necessary funds for starting cooperation. Due to that, the article specially reviews issues of loan availableness for small agricultural enterprises, including private farmings, peasant farms and cooperatives created by them, and, for this goal, the issues of marketing effectiveness for production of such small forms of agriculture are further reviewed. As a result of research, the authors discovered the necessity for government support of socially important businesses in agriculture, which are not of high profitability and, due to that, are not attractive for investors, but are necessary for saving the traditional rural lifestyle and maintaining important social functions for sustainable development.

  10. PERSPECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE OF THE RUSSIA IN MODERN TIMES. RESULT OF WORK OF THE COMMITTEE OF THE STATE DUMA ON NATURAL RESOURCES, MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kashin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of the development of agriculture in Russia in modern times and main results of work of the Committee of the State Duma on Natural Resources, Management and Ecology are presented in the article. For the purpose of food sovereignty, the import ration should not be exceeded 25% from overall volume of food production. The Russian Academy of Agricultural Science worked on the potential of agricultural sector, which has to be the duty-bearer of food supply security of Russia and the source of raw materials for the trade. Up to now, the Russian scientists have developed a lot of competitive varieties and hybrids, widespread commercial introduction of which is able to guarantee of high quality products.

  11. MARKET SEGMENTATION: IDENTIFYING THE HIGH-GROWTH EXPORT MARKETS FOR U.S. AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Michael R.; Salvacruz, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    A cluster analysis based on a five-year growth rate of agricultural imports from the United States was conducted on 86 countries and revealed two significant market segments for U.S. agriculture: the high-growth markets and the low-growth markets. Multiple discriminant analysis was then used to test the significance of the countries' trade-related and macroeconomic variables to their market growth classification. The discriminant function was used to predict the high-growth markets for U.S. a...

  12. Examining the Common Core State Standards in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Lambert, Misty D.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent a shift in the American education system. Included in the CCSS are opportunities for agriculture teachers to integrate math and English language arts content into their curriculum. Using the theory of planned behavior, we sought to identify Oregon agriculture teachers' attitudes, familiarity with,…

  13. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  14. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  15. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  16. 3 CFR 8341 - Proclamation 8341 of January 16, 2009. To Implement the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes 8341 Proclamation 8341... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other PurposesBy the President of the United States of... Promotion Agreement (the “Agreement”), and on June 24 and June 25, 2007, the Parties to the Agreement signed...

  17. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPA Simona; CUC Sunhilde; YALDIZ Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was ...

  18. Free Trade Agreements With The United States: 8 Lessons For Prospective Parties From Australia’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tully Stephen R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies 8 key lessons for those States contemplating a free trade agreement with the United States (U.S. arising from Australia’s experience. The standards of intellectual property protection under the Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and their impact on pharmaceutical prices in Australia are a particular focus. Prospective parties must first conduct a national interest self-assessment which reviews the desired strength of intellectual property protection under national law and their preference for using flexibilities available to them under the existing international intellectual property rights framework. The United States negotiates free trade agreements in light of previous ones, negotiating outcomes obtained in other fora and the decisions of international trade tribunals. Negotiations typically occur behind closed doors, which is a process having adverse implications for transparent decision-making, public consultation periods and contributions from interested non-governmental actors. A concluded agreement will build on prior treaties and influence the course of future international arrangements. But the impact of a United States free trade agreement is not always clear, including because of a lack of reliable data, and the extent of national legal change is a contested issue given existing reform agendas and external influences. The United States seek to redesign national health care systems in its own image and had little success in Australia’s case. National legal systems need not be harmonised: although there can be some convergence in intellectual property rights regimes, significant differences may also remain. Negotiators must reconcile competing cultures, philosophies and perspectives between States for a free trade agreement to be worthwhile.

  19. Birds of a feather? Food and agricultural risk governance of avian influenza in different EU Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    From 2005 onwards, highly pathogenic avian influenza (bird flu) spread towards and eventually within Europe via different border-crossing flows, including those of wild birds and agricultural trade. Fear existed that via such movements, the virus would disseminate into and across territorially-based

  20. World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fergusson, Ian F

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Development Round of multilateral trade negotiations resumed in 2007 after being suspended in July 2006 after key negotiating groups failed to break a deadlock on agricultural tariffs and subsidies...

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  2. Agriculture. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The climatic effects of agriculture and nutritional habits of the West German population are investigated. Changes in solar UV-B radiation and methods of measuring them are described. The climatic relevance of ecological and conventional agricultural techniques are compared. The agricultural policy of the European Communities is presented and discussed. The climatic effects of the totality of agricultural production techniques and processing stages of the food industry, as well as of transport and trade, are analyzed. Sociological investigations are made of the nutritional habits of the population, and the consequences for the global climate are compared. (SR) [de

  3. A theoretical model of water and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan; Reimer, Jeffrey J.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Lin, Xiaowen; Zeng, Ruijie

    2016-03-01

    Water is an essential input for agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of agricultural commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model that emphasizes four tradeoffs involving water-use decision-making that are important yet not always considered in a consistent framework. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different economic sectors. A second tradeoff examines the possibility that certain types of agricultural investments can offset water use. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using commodities. The fourth tradeoff concerns how variability in water supplies influences farmer decision-making. We show conditions under which trade liberalization affect water use. Two policy scenarios to reduce water use are evaluated. First, we derive a target tax that reduces water use without offsetting the gains from trade liberalization, although important tradeoffs exist between economic performance and resource use. Second, we show how subsidization of water-saving technologies can allow producers to use less water without reducing agricultural production, making such subsidization an indirect means of influencing water use decision-making. Finally, we outline conditions under which riskiness of water availability affects water use. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.

  4. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the

  5. Agricultural Extension: Farm Extension Services in Australia, Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald B.

    By analyzing the scope and structure of agricultural extension services in Australia, Great Britain, and the United States, this work attempts to set guidelines for measuring progress and guiding extension efforts. Extension training, agricultural policy, and activities of national, international, state, and provincial bodies are examined. The…

  6. Study of atmospheric emission trading programs in the United States. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A detailed review and evaluation was conducted of federal and state atmospheric emission trading programs in the USA to identify the factors critical to a successful program. A preliminary assessment was also made of the feasibility of such a program for NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the lower Fraser Valley in British Columbia. To date, experience in the USA with atmospheric emissions trading has primarily involved trades of emission reduction credits pursuant to the 1977 Clean Air Act amendments. Most trades occur under netting provisions which allow expansion of an existing plant without triggering the stringent new-source review process. Six case studies of emissions trading are described from jurisdictions in California, New Jersey, and Kentucky and from the national SO 2 allowance trading program. Estimates of cost savings achieved by emissions trading are provided, and factors critical to a successful program are summarized. These factors include clearly defined goals, participation proportional to problem contribution, an emissions inventory of satisfactory quality, a comprehensive permit system, a credible enforcement threat, efficient and predictable administration, location of the program in an economic growth area, and support by those affected by the program. In the Fraser Valley, it is concluded that either an emissions reduction credit or an allowance trading system is feasible for both NOx and VOC, and recommendations are given for implementation of such a program based on the factors determined above. 1 fig., 8 tabs

  7. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain...

  8. Role of Mass Media in Agricultural Productivity in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in Adamawa State. Specifically, it focused on the extent to which mass media have been used to communicate agricultural information dissemination, farmers' media preference, challenges experienced in accessing information through the media and the need to ...

  9. Impact of state policy on forming the competitiveness of retail trade in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Rafailevna Salikhova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the efficiency of the state regulation of retail trade and its influence on the formation of competitive advantage in retailing. Method logicalmathematical. Results the article considers the methods of retail trade regulation. The factors constraining the business activity of retail chains are analyzed the factors constraining the business activity of retail networks are revealed. The activities are proposed that would contribute to improving the competitiveness of domestic trade of Russia. Scientific novelty econometric model has been built that includes 8 factors. Within the model the influence of the studied factors on retail chains turnover is defined. Practical value the possibility to apply the obtained results to increase the efficiency of retail trade enterprises and consequently their competitiveness. nbsp

  10. 77 FR 38033 - WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels... and trigger levels for safeguard measures provided for in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement... measures under the safeguard provisions of the WTO [[Page 38034

  11. Evolution of the global virtual water trade network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Konar, Megan; Hanasaki, Naota; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-04-17

    Global freshwater resources are under increasing pressure from economic development, population growth, and climate change. The international trade of water-intensive products (e.g., agricultural commodities) or virtual water trade has been suggested as a way to save water globally. We focus on the virtual water trade network associated with international food trade built with annual trade data and annual modeled virtual water content. The evolution of this network from 1986 to 2007 is analyzed and linked to trade policies, socioeconomic circumstances, and agricultural efficiency. We find that the number of trade connections and the volume of water associated with global food trade more than doubled in 22 years. Despite this growth, constant organizational features were observed in the network. However, both regional and national virtual water trade patterns significantly changed. Indeed, Asia increased its virtual water imports by more than 170%, switching from North America to South America as its main partner, whereas North America oriented to a growing intraregional trade. A dramatic rise in China's virtual water imports is associated with its increased soy imports after a domestic policy shift in 2000. Significantly, this shift has led the global soy market to save water on a global scale, but it also relies on expanding soy production in Brazil, which contributes to deforestation in the Amazon. We find that the international food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over time, indicating its growing efficiency in terms of global water use.

  12. FRESH FISH TRADE NETWORKS IN THE STREET MARKETS OF PALMAS, TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bessa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on fresh fish trade networks found in the street markets of Palmas, capital of Tocantins state, Brazil, so as to identify the economic agents involved and the various geographical spaces which interact as a result of these networks. Fresh fish trade in Palmas takes place in distributor warehouses, grocery stores, supermarkets and hypermarkets, fish shops, and fishing communities, but it is street markets that constitute the most popular sale venues. Market sellers establish upstream supply networks with sectors in the fish food system (suppliers in primary and secondary production, distribution, and retail, whose interactions generate connections in Palmas (fishermen, distributors, retailers on a local scale, as well as connections with locations in Tocantins and Pará states (fishermen, fisheries, cold storage companies on a regional scale. Sellers also establish downstream trade networks with the end consumer at markets and with establishments in the food and small retail sectors, whose interactions produce mostly local connections, in Palmas and in the Luzimangues district (close to Palmas. Such connections are marked by consumption processes in these urban areas. Key-words: network, fresh fish trade, street markets.

  13. Agricultural diversification strategies in small island states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, I.; Gayle, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Across the small island states of the Caribbean, the need for greater agricultural diversification is a constant policy concern, as exemplified by the case of Barbados. Although the cane sugar industry in Barbados remains one of the more cost-efficient in the world, the structures of both the

  14. Strategiesfor AgriculturalAdaptationto Climate Changein Kogi State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 068

    Strategies for Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Kogi State, ... increased food production to manage climate variability and increasing ... sensitivity of a system is subject to both ecological and socio-economic conditions and influences the scale to which a system will be affected adversely or otherwise by climate ...

  15. Energy use for economic growth: A trivariate analysis from Tunisian agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebri, Maamar; Abid, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Following the importance of energy in the agrarian economies, the investigation of the causal relationship between energy consumption in agriculture sector and economic growth has a fundamental role in implementing suitable policies. This paper examines the causal relationship between energy consumption and agricultural value added, controlling for trade openness, in Tunisia from 1980 to 2007. The relationship is investigated at aggregated as well as disaggregated components of energy consumption, including oil and electricity. Using Granger's technique, it is shown that various results are obtained regarding the direction of causality between competing variables. Nevertheless, the most common finding suggest that trade openness and both aggregated and disaggregated energy consumption Granger causes agricultural value added. Therefore, the energy-led growth and trade-led growth hypotheses are supported in the Tunisian agriculture sector. An important policy implication resulting from this study is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to agriculture value added and, therefore, shocks to energy supply would have a negative impact onto agriculture performance. Furthermore, trade liberalization seems to be a stimulus factor to the Tunisian agriculture development. - Highlights: ► We study the energy consumption-economic growth nexus of Tunisian agriculture sector. ► We use Johansen's cointegration approach and Granger causality. ► Energy consumption can be considered as limiting factor to agricultural performance. ► Electrical energy will represent an important input to agricultural production growth.

  16. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of...) of the Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The submission was received on April 21... of Inquiry and the proposal of the Government of Bahrain to the Governing Body of the International...

  17. Trade reforms, market access, and poverty in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2003-01-01

    Much of the literature that studies the relationship between trade and poverty in developing countries focuses on the effects of national trade reforms, such as own tariff reductions. In contrast, the World Trade Organization negotiations at the Doha Round were more concerned with the poverty effects on low-income countries, and of foreign reforms, such as the elimination of agricultural s...

  18. The Integration of International Agricultural Concepts into Agricultural Science Programs in the North Central Region of the United States. Summary of Research 78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibezim, Don O.; McCracken, J. David

    A study examined the extent to which international agricultural dimensions were taught in secondary agricultural programs and factors associated with the extent of integration. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a random sample of 332 of the 2,612 secondary agricultural teachers in 12 states of the North Central United States. Of…

  19. Failure in Success; An Assessment of Agricultural Extension in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert A.

    The United States formalized its cooperative national support program for agricultural extension in 1941. The hope was to increase agricultural production and to help maintain a rural way of life in the United States. The Cooperative Extension Service was unable to strike a balance between these two goals, emphasizing increased production to such…

  20. Trade issues and area-wide pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    agriculture in this international economy is quickly evident, as we see enormous quantities of fresh and processed agricultural commodities racing across borders and seas to markets in the far corners of the globe where the availability of such products had been inconceivable only decades before. For every country in the world, the import and export of agricultural products are essential to the health of the economy as well as the population. Non-industrialised countries, in particular, rely upon agriculture as a cornerstone for commerce. Industrial countries rely upon trade in agricultural products to provide the quantity, quality and variety of goods demanded by modern consumers. However, more trade, faster trade, and the opening of new markets for agricultural products also offer greater opportunities for the movement of pests that can have deleterious consequences. This raises significant concerns in policy formulation, especially as measures for protection can affect the free movement of commodities in trade. On the one hand, countries need to be able to import, to meet their needs and market demands, and they have the reciprocal need to have their exports accepted by others. On the other hand, countries must exercise a certain amount of care to ensure that they do not unduly jeopardise their own resources by introducing harmful new pests. This must be considered against the corresponding need to ensure that they do not ship harmful pests to other countries. As a result, there emerges a strong need for a balanced, dynamic, multi-disciplinary approach to policies concerned with pest management - for both domestic and foreign pest management. These policies are increasingly based on international cooperation, sophisticated technologies, and the marriage of economic and biological analyses. We are currently experiencing this transition in practice based on a more holistic approach, as evidenced in part by the expanding interest in applications for area-wide pest management

  1. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  2. Biophysical impacts of climate-smart agriculture in the Midwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin E; Miller, Jesse; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2015-09-01

    The potential impacts of climate change in the Midwest United States present unprecedented challenges to regional agriculture. In response to these challenges, a variety of climate-smart agricultural methodologies have been proposed to retain or improve crop yields, reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, retain soil quality and increase climate resilience of agricultural systems. One component that is commonly neglected when assessing the environmental impacts of climate-smart agriculture is the biophysical impacts, where changes in ecosystem fluxes and storage of moisture and energy lead to perturbations in local climate and water availability. Using a combination of observational data and an agroecosystem model, a series of climate-smart agricultural scenarios were assessed to determine the biophysical impacts these techniques have in the Midwest United States. The first scenario extended the growing season for existing crops using future temperature and CO2 concentrations. The second scenario examined the biophysical impacts of no-till agriculture and the impacts of annually retaining crop debris. Finally, the third scenario evaluated the potential impacts that the adoption of perennial cultivars had on biophysical quantities. Each of these scenarios was found to have significant biophysical impacts. However, the timing and magnitude of the biophysical impacts differed between scenarios. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA BY MEANS OF EFFICIENCY INDICATORS OF FOREIGN TRADE WITH AGRICULTURAL FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris COREŢCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An old traditional form of foreign economic relations is represented by foreign trade. Republic of Moldova,Featuring a geographical position that represents the area of intersection the numerous trade routes and regionalconnotation communications, should use these advantages in order to extend the export-import relations; there for,Republic of Moldova follows to use the internal potential in intensive and effective way. Competitiveness of externaltrade with agricultural food products has a particularly important role which is steadily increasing, it determine theincreasing or decreasing of the national income produced outside depending upon the ratio between the nationaland international amount of goods. Ensuring the economic efficiency of production requires a certain minimumvolume of its. If the volume exceeds the absorption capacity of the internal market, ensuring efficient productionrequires a call to the external market. On the other hand, certain products can not be obtained either domesticproduction or isn’t justified from the economic point of view can be obtained only from the external market.

  4. State-independent error-disturbance trade-off for measurement operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, S.S.; Wu, Shengjun; Chau, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    In general, classical measurement statistics of a quantum measurement is disturbed by performing an additional incompatible quantum measurement beforehand. Using this observation, we introduce a state-independent definition of disturbance by relating it to the distinguishability problem between two classical statistical distributions – one resulting from a single quantum measurement and the other from a succession of two quantum measurements. Interestingly, we find an error-disturbance trade-off relation for any measurements in two-dimensional Hilbert space and for measurements with mutually unbiased bases in any finite-dimensional Hilbert space. This relation shows that error should be reduced to zero in order to minimize the sum of error and disturbance. We conjecture that a similar trade-off relation with a slightly relaxed definition of error can be generalized to any measurements in an arbitrary finite-dimensional Hilbert space.

  5. Toward a New Generation of Agricultural System Data, Models, and Knowledge Products: State of Agricultural Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W.; Antle, John M.; Basso, Bruno; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conant, Richard T.; Foster, Ian; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E.; Janssen, Sander; hide

    2016-01-01

    We review the current state of agricultural systems science, focusing in particular on the capabilities and limitations of agricultural systems models. We discuss the state of models relative to five different Use Cases spanning field, farm, landscape, regional, and global spatial scales and engaging questions in past, current, and future time periods. Contributions from multiple disciplines have made major advances relevant to a wide range of agricultural system model applications at various spatial and temporal scales. Although current agricultural systems models have features that are needed for the Use Cases, we found that all of them have limitations and need to be improved. We identified common limitations across all Use Cases, namely 1) a scarcity of data for developing, evaluating, and applying agricultural system models and 2) inadequate knowledge systems that effectively communicate model results to society. We argue that these limitations are greater obstacles to progress than gaps in conceptual theory or available methods for using system models. New initiatives on open data show promise for addressing the data problem, but there also needs to be a cultural change among agricultural researchers to ensure that data for addressing the range of Use Cases are available for future model improvements and applications. We conclude that multiple platforms and multiple models are needed for model applications for different purposes. The Use Cases provide a useful framework for considering capabilities and limitations of existing models and data.

  6. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  7. The Impact of Trade Openness on Poverty via Agricultural TFP in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    The importance of trade openness in the reduction of poverty has been debated over the ... by which trade openness influences poverty: Farm household; distribution channel .... But these channels can be classified as static effect and dynamic.

  8. Foreicn Trade of Capital Goods in the United States: A Persistent Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Goicoechea, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Foreign trade of capital goods in the United States from 1994 to 2016 is specifically examined. A lagging performance of exports vis-à-vis imports in terms of magnitude, growth rate as well as price reductions has led to the current deficit. Domestic industrial output is a determining factor in the extent of foreign trade of capital goods. It exposes very large coefficients in the long term for exports (2.89), as well as for imports (4.34). Concerning the effective exchange rate, coefficients...

  9. Agriculture in Ancient and its influence on Development of Agronomics and Welfare of the States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Шелепов

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of literary sources history of origin and development of agriculture is rotined in Ancient. The first Civilizations arose up on fat streamside lands of the large rivers: Nile, Euphrates, tiger, Inda, Ganga and other Earths and plenty of water are fertile during an overflow, a warm climate allowed to Ancient civilizations to grow 2-3 harvests in a year. For the receipt of high harvests, a man had to study the modes of overflow of the rivers, look after heavenly bodies, determine the areas of scopes and terms of leadthrough of the field works. The decision of these questions resulted in the origin of agronomics, astronomy, mathematics. Large harvests were instrumental in the origin of peculiar, enriching of the states, to development of trade and culture on the whole. Riches of country and overpopulation resulted in the origin of wars which one states perished as a result of, second – blossomed. Scientists consider that a high culture, intensive exploitation of soils and aggressiveness of man, brought the most Ancient Civilizations over to the ecological crisis and their elimination.

  10. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VV Kuhnen

    Full Text Available The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008 of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%. In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  11. To trade or not to trade: Link prediction in the virtual water network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-12-01

    In the international trade network, links express the (temporary) presence of a commercial exchange of goods between any two countries. Given the dynamical behaviour of the trade network, where links are created and dismissed every year, predicting the link activation/deactivation is an open research question. Through the international trade network of agricultural goods, water resources are 'virtually' transferred from the country of production to the country of consumption. We propose a novel methodology for link prediction applied to the network of virtual water trade. Starting from the assumption of having links between any two countries, we estimate the associated virtual water flows by means of a gravity-law model using country and link characteristics as drivers. We consider the links with estimated flows higher than 1000 m3/year as active links, while the others as non-active links. Flows traded along estimated active links are then re-estimated using a similar but differently-calibrated gravity-law model. We were able to correctly model 84% of the existing links and 93% of the non-existing links in year 2011. It is worth to note that the predicted active links carry 99% of the global virtual water flow; hence, missed links are mainly those where a minimum volume of virtual water is exchanged. Results indicate that, over the period from 1986 to 2011, population, geographical distances between countries, and agricultural efficiency (through fertilizers use) are the major factors driving the link activation and deactivation. As opposed to other (network-based) models for link prediction, the proposed method is able to reconstruct the network architecture without any prior knowledge of the network topology, using only the nodes and links attributes; it thus represents a general method that can be applied to other networks such as food or value trade networks.

  12. 75 FR 41433 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Economic Research Service and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Review Committee, comprised of... TAA for Farmers' Program Should Contact: USDA, Farm Service Agency (at your local service center). FOR...

  13. The trend toward free trade areas: economic consequences and policy implications for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    All, William H., IV

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Because America's economy relies to a significant degree on export markets and external sources of raw materials, the health of the international trading system is critical to the national security of the United States. This thesis demonstrates that the organization on which America has relied for the management of the international trading system since the 1950s, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), is failing to effect...

  14. Science and Policy Issues: A Report of Citizen Concerns and Recommendations for American Agricultural Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Two areas which will have far reaching consequences for the future of United States agriculture are discussed: (1) biotechnology; and (2) critical economic research in world trade and commodity supply management. Topics in the first area include: controversies related to biotechnology; the relative importance of health, safety, and environmental…

  15. 75 FR 43485 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS... visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 14, 2010. John D...

  16. Environmental challenges threatening the growth of urban agriculture in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Sam E; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. Although urban and agricultural landscapes are often integrated in countries around the world, the establishment of mid- to large-scale food production in the U.S. urban ecosystem is a relatively new development. Many of the urban agricultural projects in the United States have emerged from social movements and nonprofit organizations focused on urban renewal, education, job training, community development, and sustainability initiatives. Although these social initiatives have traction, critical knowledge gaps exist regarding the science of food production in urban ecosystems. Developing a science-based approach to urban agriculture is essential to the economic and environmental sustainability of the movement. This paper reviews abiotic environmental factors influencing urban cropping systems, including soil contamination and remediation; atmospheric pollutants and altered climatic conditions; and water management, sources, and safety. This review paper seeks to characterize the limited state of the science on urban agricultural systems and identify future research questions most relevant to urban farmers, land-use planners, and environmental consultants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Land-Sparing Opportunities for Solar Energy Development in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, Madison K; Allen, Michael F; Hernandez, Rebecca R

    2017-12-19

    Land-cover change from energy development, including solar energy, presents trade-offs for land used for the production of food and the conservation of ecosystems. Solar energy plays a critical role in contributing to the alternative energy mix to mitigate climate change and meet policy milestones; however, the extent that solar energy development on nonconventional surfaces can mitigate land scarcity is understudied. Here, we evaluate the land sparing potential of solar energy development across four nonconventional land-cover types: the built environment, salt-affected land, contaminated land, and water reservoirs (as floatovoltaics), within the Great Central Valley (CV, CA), a globally significant agricultural region where land for food production, urban development, and conservation collide. Furthermore, we calculate the technical potential (TWh year -1 ) of these land sparing sites and test the degree to which projected electricity needs for the state of California can be met therein. In total, the CV encompasses 15% of CA, 8415 km 2 of which was identified as potentially land-sparing for solar energy development. These areas comprise a capacity-based energy potential of at least 17 348 TWh year -1 for photovoltaic (PV) and 2213 TWh year -1 for concentrating solar power (CSP). Accounting for technology efficiencies, this exceeds California's 2025 projected electricity demands up to 13 and 2 times for PV and CSP, respectively. Our study underscores the potential of strategic renewable energy siting to mitigate environmental trade-offs typically coupled with energy sprawl in agricultural landscapes.

  18. Acceptance, control of and trade in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Proceedings of an International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Trade Centre-UNCTAD/GATT and held in Geneva, 12-16 December 1988. The Conference was prompted by the lack of acceptance by some governments, which do not see a need for the application of food irradiation technology in their own countries, and as a consequence may hamper its use in other countries where its application could significantly improve consumer health and nutrition, as well as national economic and trading potential. This publication contains discussions on the key issues of the wholesomeness of irradiated food, the contribution of this technology to public health, food security and international trade, the control of the process to ensure its correct application for consumer protection, and the acceptance of irradiated food by industry and consumers. The proceedings include the International Document on Food Irradiation, highlighting the major issues related to the acceptance of irradiated food by consumers, governmental and intergovernmental activities, the control of the process, and trade. A number of Member States formally expressed their views on this International Document, expressing either endorsement or reservation, and their statements are included in these proceedings. Refs, fig and tabs

  19. 75 FR 61121 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... Certified As Eligible For TAA For Farmers Contact: Your local USDA Farm Service Agency county office. FOR...

  20. 75 FR 62760 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... program in order to be eligible for cash benefits. PRODUCERS CERTIFIED AS ELIGIBLE FOR TAA FOR FARMERS...

  1. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Service and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's.... Producers Certified as Eligible for TAA for Farmers' Program Should Contact: USDA, Farm Service Agency (at...

  2. 7. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livernash, R.

    1992-01-01

    Global food production has increased substantially over the past two decades, but factors such as population pressures and environmental degradation are undermining agriculture's current condition and future prospects. This chapter discusses the following: global trends; production trends (livestock and fisheries); per capita production trends (population density and agriculture); environmental trends (soil degradation, inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and freshwater); economic trends (agricultural commodity prices, declining investment in irrigation, World Bank lending); trade liberalization and the Gatt negotiations; conventional agriculture and alternative agriculture; problems with the conventional model (on-farm impacts, off-farm impacts); agricultural policies - creating a new environment; policy impacts - distorted price structures; new policy options (reducing input subsidies, land conservation programs, management agreements, taxes, fees, and tax incentives, strengthening regulations, subsidizing conversion); the economics of alternative agriculture

  3. role of mass media in agricultural productivity in adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... LTD PRINTED IN NIGERIA ISSN 1596-2903 ... The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in ..... television are cost of the hardware, cost of maintenance ... Government Area of Kebbi State: A case study of state ...

  4. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe.

  5. The welfare impact of a free trade agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron; Vink, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The African market has become increasingly important to South Africa’s agricultural trade. Exports have been increasing rapidly, although imports have not kept pace. This pattern is also evident in the general trade in manufactured goods. The purpose of this article is to look at the best estimate...... conditiuons that will prevail with respect to trade in agricultural and manufactured goods between South Africa (SACU) and the member countries of SADC, the East African Comminuity and COMESA. The analysis is conducted using the GTAP database and its associated general equilibrium model. The results show...... that South Africa benefits from integration in SADC and from the integration of the entire region, but not from integration with the EAC and COMESA. However, the latter steps are necessary to reap the benefits of integration in the entire region....

  6. Free Trade Agreements With The United States: 8 Lessons For Prospective Parties From Australia’s Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Tully Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies 8 key lessons for those States contemplating a free trade agreement with the United States (U.S.) arising from Australia’s experience. The standards of intellectual property protection under the Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and their impact on pharmaceutical prices in Australia are a particular focus. Prospective parties must first conduct a national interest self-assessment which reviews the desired strength of intellectual property protection under national la...

  7. FDI and Intra-industry Trade in the Automotive Industry in the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambroziak Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which foreign direct investment (FDI influenced intra-industry trade (IIT in automotive products in six New EU Member States (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia in the 1995–2014 period. Changes in IIT intensity are analysed using the Grubel-Lloyd indices. To examine the IIT pattern, IIT indices are divided into two types of trade: IIT in vertically differentiated products (low and high quality VIIT and IIT in horizontally differentiated products (HIIT. The research indicates that IIT in automotive products allowed manufacturers and consumers from the new EU Member States to benefit more from international trade. FDI inflow to the automotive sector of the NMS has been a key factor shaping IIT in automotive products.

  8. The Arms Trade and States' Duty to Ensure Respect for Humanitarian and Human Rights Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Maya

    2007-01-01

    transfers has traditionally been treated as a question of arms control law, but in the recent debate about legal restrictions on states' liberty to transfer arms, norms of international humanitarian and human rights law have frequently been invoked. This article surveys the existing international legal......The unregulated international trade in conventional arms, especially in small arms and light weapons, has come to be viewed as an exacerbating factor in armed conflict, violent crime and internal repression. Concern about the negative humanitarian, development and security impact of this trade has...... been growing over the last decade. Against this backdrop, the UN General Assembly invited states in December 2006 to consider the feasibility of an instrument establishing common international standards for conventional arms transfers-also known as the ‘Arms Trade Treaty' (ATT). The legality of arms...

  9. Quantifiable impact on poverty in Trinidad And Tobago of the Uruguay Round Agreement On Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Carlisle; Ramnarine, Deokie

    2006-09-01

    The agreement on agriculture and the World Trade Organization were major outcomes of the 1986-1994 Uruguay Round (UR) negotiations within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The measures under the UR were predicted to increase poverty in developing countries, a serious cause for concern since poverty alleviation is a major goal of developing countries. Thus this paper simulated the impact on poverty of the UR for a net food importing country, Trinidad and Tobago. The objectives of the study were to determine the changes in poverty levels in Trinidad and Tobago that we expected would result from changes in the price levels of food commodities after the removal of trade protection following the UR, and to examine recent trends in poverty in Trinidad and Tobago and the prices of major agricultural exports from the United States, its principal trading partner. A regression model (poverty model) was used to determine the relationship between poverty levels and the prices of sensitive imported food commodities (SIFCs) and other key economic variables. Impact models were used to project changes in world market prices of the SIFCs due to the UR, and these price changes were used to predict changes in poverty in Trinidad and Tobago. The results showed a positive elasticity between poverty and the prices of SIFCs. The study also predicted that the average projected increase in price levels of the SIFCs of less than 9% by the year 2000 would cause an increase in poverty in Trinidad and Tobago of less than 4%. There has been, in fact, a small decline in poverty in Trinidad and Tobago since 1996. The prices of major agricultural exports from the United States have also been falling since 1995. Thus, so far the UR has had no perceptible effects in increasing the prices of food exports from the United States. Also, so far the UR has had no perceptible effect on the poverty level in Trinidad and Tobago.

  10. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  11. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief...

  12. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Schot, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  13. Trade liberalization and the diet transition: a public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Geof; Hawkes, Corinna; Lang, Tim; Bello, Walden

    2006-12-01

    Trade liberalization remains at the forefront of debates around globalization, particularly around the impact on agriculture and food. These debates, which often focus on how poorer countries can 'trade their way' out of poverty, pay limited attention to dietary health, especially in the light of the WHO's Global Strategy for Diet, Physical Activity and Health (2004), which warned that future health burdens will be increasingly determined by diet-related chronic diseases. This article examines the diet transition as the absent factor within debates on liberalizing trade and commerce. We describe the evolution of trade agreements, noting those relevant to food. We review the association between trade liberalization and changes in the global dietary and disease profile. We illustrate some of the complex linkages between trade liberalization and the 'diet transition', illustrated by factors such as foreign direct investment, supermarketization and cultural change. Finally, we offer three scenarios for change, suggesting the need for more effective 'food governance' and engagement by public health advocates in policy making in the food and agriculture arena.

  14. Transgressing boundaries of tourism, agriculture and trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoye, Monica

    Introduction: Danish small-scale food producers working with origin labelled products (OLP) experience themselves as situated somewhere in between tourism, agriculture and business. The existence of OLP in Denmark is something completely new for both the tourism and agricultural sectors. Therefore......', the national steering committee for the project ‘Gourmet Denmark' and the national organisation ‘The Taste of Denmark'. Findings are structured through grounded theory. The smallest entity of observation is the local network. No individual interviews are planned. Findings: Previous work has shown that the vast...... majority of Danish small-scale food producers wish to participate in co-operative networks, which can strengthen the development of their own company. The group of companies is heterogeneous as regards the interest in growth. However, the majority of the growth-oriented companies share difficulties...

  15. Trade Integration Effects in ASEAN Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines evolution of trade integration process in ASEAN. The author employs three methods in order to evaluate the degree of ASEAN‘s trade integration that has been achieved over two decades since the signing of the Association of South-East Asian Nations Free Trade Area Agreement (AFTA in 1992. The high degree of trade integration among member states allows moving to the next stage of international economic integration (ASEAN countries are going to form ASEAN Community (the Common Market by the 1st of January 2016. So the study assesses the ASEAN’s preparedness to the Common Market by determining the share of mutual (intraregional trade, regional trade intensity index (RTII and trade integration effects (trade creation and trade diversion effects for each member state, 2 groups of ASEAN countries (ASEAN-6 and ASEAN-4 and the Association as a whole. The paper shows that despite the increase in the share of intraregional trade during the years of the AFTA functioning, the member states of ASEAN still demonstrate low levels of trade integration: a 75% of the Association’s external trade focuses on extra regional partners; b ASEAN as a whole has the low volume of RTII and among its member states only Singapore has the high one; c trade diversion effect prevails over trade creation one

  16. Agricultural innovations strategies for sustainable food security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, recent trends of slowing agricultural productivity ... land and water constraints, under-developed agricultural sector and climate change. ... is needed to (i) improve small holder productivity and market access (ii) keep trade open (iii) ...

  17. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  18. Agricultural Liberalization in the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Messerlin , Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of agricultural liberalization reveals very large potential gains for both developed and developing countries that will come especially from own-country liberalization as well as from inter-country trade, significant benefits that may be realized by the poorest developing countries, and limited benefits from existing preferential agricultural arrangements. An ideal program for agricultural liberalization in the Doha Round would involve substantial reductions in the high tariffs t...

  19. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... hemisphere, and to a high degree in Europe, while processing and production of fur garments now more and more takes place in Asia. The objective of this paper is to analyze, quantify and explain trade patterns and international specialization within fur skin and fur garments focusing on Europa and Asia...... trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export...

  20. Temporal dynamics of blue and green virtual water trade networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2012-12-01

    Global food security increasingly relies on the trade of food commodities. Freshwater resources are essential to agricultural production and are thus embodied in the trade of food commodities, referred to as "virtual water trade." Agricultural production predominantly relies on rainwater (i.e., "green water"), though irrigation (i.e., "blue water") does play an important role. These different sources of water have distinctly different opportunity costs, which may be reflected in the way these resources are traded. Thus, the temporal dynamics of the virtual water trade networks from these distinct water sources require characterization. We find that 42 × 109 m3 blue and 310 × 109 m3 green water was traded in 1986, growing to 78 × 109 m3 blue and 594 × 109 m3 green water traded in 2008. Three nations dominate the export of green water resources: the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. As a country increases its export trade partners it tends to export relatively more blue water. However, as a country increases its import trade partners it does not preferentially import water from a specific source. The amount of virtual water that a country imports by increasing its import trade partners has been decreasing over time, with the exception of the soy trade. Both blue and green virtual water networks are efficient: 119 × 109 m3 blue and 105 × 109 m3 green water were saved in 2008. Importantly, trade has been increasingly saving water over time, due to the intensification of crop trade on more water-efficient links.

  1. EXPORT AND IMPORT PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIA’S AGRICULTURE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ervani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the export and import performance in comparative advantage of Indonesia’s agriculture sector. It focuses on measuring the comparative advantage using the Trade Balance Index (TBI by Lafay method.The data is based on exports and imports of Indonesian agriculture sector. By applying Lafay Trade Balance Index (TBI methods, it can be concluded that Indonesian agriculture commodity shows the positive value of TBI for export-import volume and export-import value. It means that Indonesia becomes net-exporter and has specialization in exporting agriculture commodity.Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja ekspor dan impor dalam keunggulan komparatif sektor pertanian di Indonesia. Fokus penelitian ini adalah pengukuran keunggulan komparatif menggunakan Trade Balance Index (TBI dengan metode Lafay. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berdasarkan pada ekspor dan impor sektor pertanian Indonesia. Dengan menerapkan metode Lafay Perdagangan Indeks Balance (TBI, bisa disimpulkan bahwa komoditas pertanian Indonesia menunjukkan nilai positif untuk TBI volume ekspor-impor dan nilai ekspor-impor. Ini berarti bahwa Indonesia disebut sebagai net-eksportir dan memiliki spesialisasi dalam ekspor komoditas pertanian.

  2. Stimulating climate smart agriculture within the boundaries of international trade law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    The Paris Agreement implies that comprehensive policies aimed at climate smart agriculture, i.e., reducing emissions from agriculture, increasing sequestration through agriculture and land use, and increasing resilience of the agricultural sector need to be developed and implemented soon. This

  3. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    for irrigation can already be documented. Due to drier summers induced by climate change, this phenomenon is expected to gain more importance in the future. Related to water quantity and quality it is crucial to think about the diverging interests between the supply of the population with national agricultural products and the preservation of the water bodies, their ecological value and their other ecosystem services (e.g. drinking water supply). The project AProWa attempts to elucidate trade-offs of national goals for water protection and agricultural production in Switzerland by involving stakeholders from agricultural administration (Federal Office for Agriculture, FOAG), agricultural research (Agroscope), water research (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Eawag) and environmental protection (Federal Office for the Environment, FOEN). This is done by applying multi-criteria decision analysis facilitating consensus regarding goals and possible activities and alternatives to reach these goals. This is followed by an evaluation of main conflicts and prioritized research gaps. We present preliminary results from workshops and interdisciplinary discussion groups that encompass an objectives hierarchy reflecting agricultural production and water conservation goals. Furthermore, an inventory of agricultural practices and water protection measures is presented, enabling their evaluation for the provision of agricultural production while sustaining aquatic ecosystems.

  4. 12 CFR 617.7430 - Are institutions required to participate in state agricultural loan mediation programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... state agricultural loan mediation programs? 617.7430 Section 617.7430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... Mediation Programs § 617.7430 Are institutions required to participate in state agricultural loan mediation programs? (a) If initiated by a borrower, System institutions must participate in state mediation programs...

  5. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633; or by e-mail at: [email protected] ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated...

  6. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: [email protected] ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated...

  7. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2018-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  8. Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade liberalisation and ... of United States-measures affecting the production and sale of clove cigarettes. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad.

  9. Effects of Land Degradation on Agriculture in Anambra State: Issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of land degradation on agriculture in Anambra state. Two Local Government Areas were purposively selected from the state while a town community was purposively selected from each of the Local Government Areas. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select 50% of the villages ...

  10. Impacts of a United States' biofuel policy on New Zealand's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Caroline; Kaye-Blake, William; Marshall, Liz; Greenhalgh, Suzie; De Aragao Pereira, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    The rise in oil prices has spurred interest in biofuels. Policies in the United States like the renewable fuel standard (RFS) have led to an expansion of ethanol production, while the New Zealand government has mandated a minimum level of biofuel sales. The research used a partial equilibrium model of international trade to quantify the price and farmgate income effects of the US RFS policy. The goal was to examine the competition between food and biofuel production and to quantify the impact of the policy on the agricultural sector in New Zealand. The RFS policy has a significant impact on corn prices, but a small effect on livestock prices and production. There thus appears to be little conflict between food and fuel uses for corn at the level of the RFS mandate. New Zealand's pasture-based livestock sector benefits from the use of corn for ethanol production: it receives better prices for its products, but does not face the same input cost increases as competitors. The results suggest that New Zealand faces an interesting decision: it could support investment in biofuels research, or benefit from the biofuels boom through the indirect impacts on demand and prices for meat and milk. (author)

  11. Globalisation, structural adjustment and african agriculture: analysis and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bryceson, Deborah; Sarkar, Prabirjit; Fennel, Shailaja; Singh, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    A major purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of poor governance or ‘state fragility’ in African countries on their overall economic and agrarian performance. The results of our econometric analysis show that a higher level of public security is conducive to lower levels of conflict, whether of an ethnic, religious and regional nature. It also corresponds with greater agricultural value-added per capita. The analysis further indicates that trade openness and aid do not have a substa...

  12. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  13. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  14. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  15. Study of Agricultural Product Options Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONG, Qiu

    2017-09-01

    China is a large agricultural country, and the healthy development of agriculture is related to the stability of the whole society. The agricultural production and management of agricultural products are confronted with many risks, especially the market risks. Option contract is the object of option market transaction, so it is very important to study the option contract of agricultural products. Option trading separates the risk and profit, so that the trader can avoid the risk while retaining the opportunity to obtain income. The option has the characteristics of low transaction cost, simple and efficient, so it is suitable for small and medium investors.

  16. 14 CFR 375.41 - Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and industrial operations... Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States. Foreign civil aircraft shall not be used for such commercial air operations as crop dusting, pest control, pipeline patrol, mapping, surveying...

  17. 7 CFR 1150.153 - Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk... individually or through cooperative associations; (4) Not use a private brand or trade name in its advertising... influencing governmental policy or action. (c) An application for certification of qualifications of any State...

  18. Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils: a potential carbon trading opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, Annette L.; Murphy, Brian; Rawson, Andrew; Wilson, Brian; Singh, Bhupinderpal; Young, Rick; Grange, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Emissions trading schemes emerging in Australia and internationally create a market mechanism by which release of greenhouse gases incurs a cost, and implementation of abatement measures generates a financial return. There is growing interest amongst Australian landholders in emissions trading based on sequestration of carbon in soil through modified land management practices. Intensively cropped soils have low carbon content, due to disturbance, erosion and regular periods of minimal organic matter input. Because cropping soils in Australia have lost a substantial amount of carbon there is significant potential to increase carbon stocks through improved land management practices. Evidence from long term trials and modelling indicates that modified cropping practices (direct drilling, stubble retention, controlled traffic) have limited impact on soil carbon (0 to +2 tC02e ha-' year1) whereas conversion from cropping to pasture gives greater increases. Small-increases in soil carbon over large areas can contribute significantly to mitigation of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, increase in soil organic matter will improve soil health, fertility and resilience. However, the inclusion of soil carbon offsets in an emissions trading scheme cannot occur until several barriers are overcome. The first relates to credibility. Quantification of the extent to which specific land management practices can sequester carbon in different environments will provide the basis for promotion of the concept. Current research across Australia is addressing this need. Secondly, cost-effective and accepted methods of estimating soil carbon change must be available. Monitoring soil carbon to document change on a project scale is not viable due to the enormous variability in carbon stocks on micro and macro scales. Instead estimation of soil carbon change could be undertaken through a combination of baseline measurement to assess the vulnerability of soil carbon

  19. WTO disciplines on agricultural support: Experience to date and assessment of Doha proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Orden, David; Blandford, David; Josling, Timothy Edward; Brink, Lars

    2011-01-01

    When the World Trade Organization (WTO) was created in 1995, its members committed themselves to a set of disciplines for domestic support, market access, and export competition for agriculture. The Agreement on Agriculture laid the way for the pursuit of progressive reductions in world agricultural market distortions. Its supporters hoped the new rules and commitments would encourage countries to move domestic farm policies in a less trade-distorting direction. This research brief examines t...

  20. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  1. Toward Improved Market Access for ASEAN Agricultural Commodities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is highly dependent on the agricultural sector, and on exports to overseas markets. This trade in turn depends on compliance with strict plant health and safety standards established by the World Trade Organization (WTO). ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  2. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  3. The Effects of Agricultural Raw Product Exports on Environment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship between openness, trade and environmental damaging are the most important problems in the early 1990s. Some scientists assume the environmental quality is a normal good and increasing income increases demand for environmentally safe products. Therefore, Firms will be encouraging the using of safer and less polluting procedure. On the other hand other scientists assume international trade grows the environmental degradation through environmentally polluting industries and expand economics scales in developing countries. While environmental standards are low in these countries, the expansion of trade will lead to more pollution. Some experimental studies have confirmed a negative relationship between trade and environment. The effect of import and export of trade is not considered as important components of trade, despite very consideration of the relationship between openness, trade and environmental by researchers while in general part trade may have different effect on environmental. Materials and Methods: The base model is used to study the relationship between economic growth and environmental indexes and trade. Grossman and Krueger (1991 and Shafik and Bandvpady (1992 used the trade intensity variable, obtained from the ratio of exports plus imports divided by GDP as the World Trade openness of an economy measure. Grossman and Krueger (1991, the first person who developed environmental Kuznets curve (EKC used multiple versions of the model. Instrumental variable regression model has been estimated using panel data of period 1998 and 2009 for 73 countries, including 27 development countries and 46 developing countries. Countries with more than 0.9 Human Development Index eligible as developed countries and countries by Human Development Index between 0.7 to 0.9 considered as developing countries., based on the standard international trade classification. For exports of agricultural raw materials, 5

  4. Economic input-output life-cycle assessment of trade between Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jonathan; Charpentier, Alex D; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-03-01

    With increasing trade liberalization, attempts at accounting for environmental impacts and energy use across the manufacturing supply chain are complicated by the predominance of internationally supplied resources and products. This is particularly true for Canada and the United States, the world's largest trading partners. We use an economic input-output life-cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) technique to estimate the economy-wide energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity for 45 manufacturing and resource sectors in Canada and the United States. Overall, we find that U.S. manufacturing and resource industries are about 1.15 times as energy-intensive and 1.3 times as GHG-intensive as Canadian industries, with significant sector-specific discrepancies in energy and GHG intensity. This trend is mainly due to a greater direct reliance on fossil fuels for many U.S. industries, in addition to a highly fossil-fuel based electricity mix in the U.S. To account for these differences, we develop a 76 sector binational EIO-LCA model that implicitly considers trade in goods between Canada and the U.S. Our findings show that accounting for trade can significantly alter the results of life-cycle assessment studies, particularly for many Canadian manufacturing sectors, and the production/consumption of goods in one country often exerts significant energy- and GHG-influences on the other.

  5. Liberalizing Trade, and Its Impact on Poverty and Inequality in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Marco V.; Vos, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations stalled in 2008 owing in no small degree to a lack of agreement on the terms of substantially reducing trade-distorting support for agricultural products and to what extent this would be beneficial to developing countries. Nicaragua presents an interesting case in point, being one of the poorest economies in Latin America with still a relatively large agricultural sector and high degrees of rural poverty. In 2005, the country signed a free tra...

  6. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  7. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  8. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  9. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo R. da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual water trade focused on virtual water importers or water-scarce countries, this is the first study to concentrate on a water-abundant virtual water-exporting country. Besides, it is the first study establishing international virtual water trade balances per state, which is relevant given the fact that water scarcity varies across states within the country, so the origin of virtual water exports matters. The results show that the average water footprint of Brazilian food consumption is 1619 m3/person/year. Beef contributes most (21% to this total. We find a net virtual water export of 54.8 billion m3/year, mainly to Europe, which imports 41% of the gross amount of the virtual water exported from Brazil. The northeast, the region with the highest water scarcity, has a net import of virtual water. The southeast, next in terms of water scarcity, shows large virtual water exports, mainly related to the export of sugar. The north, which has the most water, does not show a high virtual water export rate.

  10. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  11. Competition as a factor in improving the quality of services in the food trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Il’ich Zlotkovskij

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The population relation to activity of different types of the trading enterprises in the city of Krasnoyarsk is studied by means of city questionnaire and poll of buyers of shop of a large distribution network. Novelty of work is that the received results of polls are analyzed by means of indexes (a value index, an index of quality, an index of the validity of food, an index of culture of service and an index of a ratio the price and qualities of food. The following conclusions are drawn. First, in the conditions of the real competition the sphere of trade in food win against the large distribution networks representing better services in comparison with other types of the trading enterprises. Secondly, the liberal economic model at the head of which representation that everything will adjust the free market without intervention of the state is necessary is called into question. This approach is negatively reflected in food security of the city and edge and conceals in itself social and economic risks for the region in the future. Thirdly, introduction in the middle of 2014 by our country of restriction on import of agricultural products from a number of foreign countries provides unique chance for high-quality breakthrough in development of agriculture of edge.

  12. 77 FR 31393 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Notice of renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), as amended (5 U.S.C. App. 2), the Secretary of Labor and the United States Trade Representative have...

  13. An inexact fuzzy two-stage stochastic model for quantifying the efficiency of nonpoint source effluent trading under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Maqsood, I.; Huang, G.H.; Yin, Y.Y.; Han, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution from agricultural lands is a major concern in most countries. One method to reduce NPS pollution is through land retirement programs. This method, however, may result in enormous economic costs especially when large sums of croplands need to be retired. To reduce the cost, effluent trading can be employed to couple with land retirement programs. However, the trading efforts can also become inefficient due to various uncertainties existing in stochastic, interval, and fuzzy formats in agricultural systems. Thus, it is desired to develop improved methods to effectively quantify the efficiency of potential trading efforts by considering those uncertainties. In this respect, this paper presents an inexact fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming model to tackle such problems. The proposed model can facilitate decision-making to implement trading efforts for agricultural NPS pollution reduction through land retirement programs. The applicability of the model is demonstrated through a hypothetical effluent trading program within a subcatchment of the Lake Tai Basin in China. The study results indicate that the efficiency of the trading program is significantly influenced by precipitation amount, agricultural activities, and level of discharge limits of pollutants. The results also show that the trading program will be more effective for low precipitation years and with stricter discharge limits

  14. IS THE J-CURVE EFFECT OBSERVABLE IN TURKISH AGRICULTURAL SECTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YAZICI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether or not the J-curve hypothesis holds in Turkish agricultural sector. The analysis is conducted using the model the most commonly employed in j-curve literature. Based on the data covering the period from 1986: I to 1998: III, our results indicate that, following devaluation, agricultural trade balance initially improves, then worsens, and then improves again. This pattern shows that J-curve effect does not exist in Turkish agricultural sector. Another important fi nding is that devaluation worsens the trade balance of the sector in the long run, a result contradicting with the earlier fi ndings for the Turkish economy as a whole.

  15. DETERMINANTS OF INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE OF THE NEW MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sledziewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the determinants of intra-industry trade (IIT = simultaneous export and import of similar goods produced in one industry of the New Member States (NMS defined as 14 countries accessing the EU in the years 2004 and 2007. In our empirical analysis we use panel data with variables controlling for membership of these countries in the EU. Though the time series contain the years before the EU enlargement, we mainly focus on the period since the EU-Eastern enlargement (2004-2013. We estimate the determinants for EU members and NMS what permits us to find out, whether the changes in trade specialization differ between the old and the new EU members. We expect more intensive IIT as a proof of progress of economic integration of the NMS in the framework of the EU membership. Moreover, we examine additional impact of regionalism on IIT that represents the EU Common Commercial Policy (CCP impact.

  16. Some impacts of the EU accession on the new member states’ agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit KISS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of the EU accession on the New Member States’ agriculture with special regard to production, employment, farmers’ income and intra-EU trade in agricultural goods on the basis of the latest statistical data of Eurostat. According to our findings, accession has provided incentives to agricultural production and to utilize natural endowments (mainly agricultural land; however, agricultural employment decrease could not be halted. Nevertheless, the economic situation of the farmers improved due to increasing incomes. Though the enlarged EU provided markets for the NMS agricultural products, the competition on their domestic markets increased significantly, resulting in massive import penetration. Consequently, most of the NMS agricultural trade balance deteriorated considerably. Concerning future prospects, it highly depends on the reformulation of the Common Agricultural Policy, the new budget of the EU and the domestic economic and agricultural situation of the NMS.

  17. Propagation of crises in the virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The international trade of agricultural goods is associated to the displacement of the water used to produce such goods and embedded in trade as a factor of production. Water virtually exchanged from producing to consuming countries, named virtual water, defines flows across an international network of 'virtual water trade' which enable the assessment of environmental forcings and implications of trade, such as global water savings or country dependencies on foreign water resources. Given the recent expansion of commodity (and virtual water) trade, in both displaced volumes and network structure, concerns have been raised about the exposure to crises of individuals and societies. In fact, if one country had to markedly decrease its export following a socio-economical or environmental crisis, such as a war or a drought, many -if not all- countries would be affected due to a cascade effect within the trade network. The present contribution proposes a mechanistic model describing the propagation of a local crisis into the virtual water trade network, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries. The model, built on data-based assumptions, is tested on the real case study of the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09, when the internal agricultural production (measured as virtual water volume) decreased by 26% and the virtual water export of Argentina dropped accordingly. Crisis propagation and effects on the virtual water trade are correctly captured, showing the way forward to investigations of crises impact and country vulnerability based on the results of the model proposed.

  18. Evaluating agricultural trade-offs in the age of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanter, David R.; Musumba, Mark; Wood, Sylvia L.R.; Palm, Cheryl; Antle, John; Balvanera, Patricia; Dale, Virginia H.; Havlik, Petr; Kline, Keith L.; Scholes, R.J.; Thornton, Philip; Tittonell, Pablo; Andelman, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    A vibrant, resilient and productive agricultural sector is fundamental to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Bringing about such a transformation requires optimizing a range of agronomic, environmental and socioeconomic outcomes from agricultural systems – from crop yields, to

  19. EnviroAtlas - Agricultural Water Demand by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national agricultural water demand metric provides insight into the amount of water currently used for agricultural irrigation in the contiguous United States....

  20. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  1. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  2. Dynamic Decision Making in Agricultural Futures and Options Markets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of sequential decision-making in agricultural futures and options markets. Analysis of trading records of 12 traders identified considerable heterogeneity in individual dynamic trading behavior. Using risk measures derived from the deltas and vegas of traderâ¿¿s

  3. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazono, Yosuke

    2007-12-01

    Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

  4. State-private partnership: aspects of application in the agricultural sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Zakirova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is determined by the importance of using the mechanism of public-private partnership in the agro-industrial complex, which allows, under conditions of mutual benefit for the state and business, to expand the resource base and channel untapped resources to sustainable agricultural development. The aim of the article is to study theoretical approaches and substantiate practical recommendations aimed at improving the mechanism of public-private partnership in the Russian agro-industrial complex. In preparing the article, general scientific methods of research were used: analysis and synthesis, generalization, comparison, classification. Results. The mechanism of public-private partnership in modern conditions is investigated, its definitions and essence are analyzed, its importance as an effective form of realization of investment activity is defined. The benefits of implementing public-private partnership projects for the state, business and the whole economy are systematized. Key risks for participants of public-private partnership are highlighted. The foreign experience of realization of joint projects of the state and business is analyzed. Features of public-private partnership in Russia are considered, tendencies of its development are determined. It is established that the agro-industrial complex as a sphere of application of public-private partnership needs special attention, since it is responsible for life support and ensures food security of the country. The program-targeted approach is analyzed, which is implemented in the form of the State Program for the Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Products, Raw Materials and Foodstuffs of the Russian Federation. The government benefits from investing in the development of the agro-industrial complex are determined. The directions of methodical work in the sphere of the implementation of public-private projects are singled out. It is concluded

  5. The World Trade Organization and organic food trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    disagreement on whether the WTO's Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (addresses food labelling) covers production standards based on ethical values such as those defining organic food standards. Another problem is that two sets of international standards for organic food exist—the Codex Alimentarius...... guidelines and the standards of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. Finally, many certification bodies are private organisations certifying on the basis of government standards. This blurs the distinction between private and public and questions whether WTO rules apply...

  6. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL LABOUR PARTICIPATION AMONG YOUTHS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnanna Mba Agwu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study was to determine the factors that influenced youth participation in agricultural labour in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to; identify the types and composition of farm labour engaged by the respondents in the study area, determine the factors that influence participation of the youths in agricultural labour; and make recommendations based on the findings. This study employed a multi-stage sampling technique in the selection of the respondents; where 4 local government areas (LGAs were selected from each of the agricultural zone, 10 communities randomly selected from each of these local government areas and finally, 10 youth farmers were chosen from the 10 communities. In all, a total number of 100 farmers were used for the study. The source of data was primary and so used questionnaire to solicit information from the respondents. Descriptive statistics and probit model were employed in the analysis of the data. Apart from bush clearing and mound making where males participated majorly, female’s percentage in the participation of all other farm operations outnumbered those of men. Estimates of the determinants of agricultural labour participation among youths in the study area showed that the coefficients of education of the respondents, income from nonagricultural sources, occupation of the parents, education of the father, farm size and the rate of mechanization influenced agricultural labour participation among the youths in Abia State, Nigeria. Apart from the coefficient of farm size that had a positive sign, the other variables had negative relationship. The study recommended that the cost of mechanization should be made affordable amongst other things to attract youths in agricultural participation.

  7. Challenges to the multilateral trading system and possible responses

    OpenAIRE

    Panagariya, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops three major themes. First, the atmosphere of gloom around the multilateral trading system due to dim prospects of a successful conclusion of the Doha Round notwithstanding, global trade regime remains open and the institution in charge of it, the World Trade Organization, is in sound health. If anything, the Doha Round has been a victim of its own success: considerable de facto liberalization in agriculture has been achieved since the launch of the round. Second, to secure...

  8. What is the appropriate counterfactual when estimating effects of multilateral trade policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kym; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Nelgen, Signe

    2016-01-01

    the counterfactual price distortions in 2030 are shown to be much larger in the case where agricultural protection grows endogenously than in the case assuming no policy changes over the projection period. This suggests the traditional way of estimating effects of a multilateral agricultural trade agreement may...... of the DDA’s possible effects thus requires first modelling the world economy to 2030 and, in that process, projecting what trade-related policies might be by then without a DDA. Typically, modelers assume the counterfactual policy regime to be a ‘business-as-usual’ projection assuming the status quo. Yet we...... by projecting the world economy to 2030 using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model with those two alternative policy regimes and then simulating a move to global free trade (the maximum benefit from a multilateral trade reform) in each of those two cases. The welfare effects of removing...

  9. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right.

  10. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  11. Mitochondrial DNA and trade data support multiple origins of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wee Tek; Walsh, Thomas K.; Downes, Sharon; Anderson, Craig; Jermiin, Lars S.; Wong, Thomas K. F.; Piper, Melissa C.; Chang, Ester Silva; Macedo, Isabella Barony; Czepak, Cecilia; Behere, Gajanan T.; Silvie, Pierre; Soria, Miguel F.; Frayssinet, Marie; Gordon, Karl H. J.

    2017-03-01

    The Old World bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is now established in Brazil but efforts to identify incursion origin(s) and pathway(s) have met with limited success due to the patchiness of available data. Using international agricultural/horticultural commodity trade data and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene markers, we inferred the origins and incursion pathways into Brazil. We detected 20 mtDNA haplotypes from six Brazilian states, eight of which were new to our 97 global COI-Cyt b haplotype database. Direct sequence matches indicated five Brazilian haplotypes had Asian, African, and European origins. We identified 45 parsimoniously informative sites and multiple substitutions per site within the concatenated (945 bp) nucleotide dataset, implying that probabilistic phylogenetic analysis methods are needed. High diversity and signatures of uniquely shared haplotypes with diverse localities combined with the trade data suggested multiple incursions and introduction origins in Brazil. Increasing agricultural/horticultural trade activities between the Old and New Worlds represents a significant biosecurity risk factor. Identifying pest origins will enable resistance profiling that reflects countries of origin to be included when developing a resistance management strategy, while identifying incursion pathways will improve biosecurity protocols and risk analysis at biosecurity hotspots including national ports.

  12. Agriculture et politiques agricoles aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devienne Sophie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Farm Bill has just been voted, after difficult negotiations between the White House and Congress. Since the beginning of the commodity-based programs in the 1930s, the agricultural policies in United States were aimed at supporting farm commodity markets and stabilizing farmers incomes. These commodity support policies have been an important contributor to the growth of agricultural productivity and commodity surplus. In the 1950s it became apparent that export demand was capable of creating farm prosperity and became important for the surplus disposal. The US agricultural policies aimed at expanding agricultural exports, and became more offensive as the export competition grew keener. For the first time in 1996, as the market estimates were optimistic, the Fair Act raised the possibility of an end to price support activities as a mean of farm income support. But in 1998 and 1999 weakened export demand led to marked reductions in the prices of the main crops. The 2002 Farm Bill restored the safety net for the farm income. Despite high prices and expansion of demand, and in contradiction with US commitments at the WTO, the new Farm Bill keep on aiming at providing a strong safety net for farm income, which allows the growth of agricultural productivity and the increase in US agriculture competitiveness, and at expanding trade.

  13. Arthropod genomics research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: Applications of RNA interference and CRISPR gene editing technologies in pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the intramural research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which addresses basic scientific questions and develops applied solutions to a range of agricultural problems, and in doing so protects national food security and supports ...

  14. State of science of phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  15. Universal Trade-Off between Power, Efficiency, and Constancy in Steady-State Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Seifert, Udo

    2018-05-01

    Heat engines should ideally have large power output, operate close to Carnot efficiency and show constancy, i.e., exhibit only small fluctuations in this output. For steady-state heat engines, driven by a constant temperature difference between the two heat baths, we prove that out of these three requirements only two are compatible. Constancy enters quantitatively the conventional trade-off between power and efficiency. Thus, we rationalize and unify recent suggestions for overcoming this simple trade-off. Our universal bound is illustrated for a paradigmatic model of a quantum dot solar cell and for a Brownian gyrator delivering mechanical work against an external force.

  16. Exploring the Linkages: Trade Policies, Third World Development, and U.S. Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trade and Development Program, Washington, DC.

    This resource, a publication of the Trade and Development Program, was designed by a coalition of 10 farm and church groups to help U.S. citizens discover the connections between their lives, world food trade, and the needs of developing nations; it can be used for a single program, a multi-session workshop, or a study series. Targeted for high…

  17. 75 FR 68153 - To Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and... Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and for Other Purposes By the President of the United...

  18. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN THE STATE OF PARANA – BRAZIL (1970, 1996 AND 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucir Reinaldo Alves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper analyzes the spatial displacement of the productivity of Gross Value of Agricultural Production of the main activities and cultures of Parana’s State in 1970, 1996 and 2007. To this, we used a database of pre-existing on the Gross Value of Agricultural Production - the VBPA contained in the Agricultural Censuses (IBGE, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the SEAB (Secretary of Agriculture and Supply of Paraná. The results showed that the VBPA of Paraná State has a spatial displacement during the period, where it was concentrated in 1970 in the northern portion of the state, influenced mainly by coffee plantations. In 2007, the most visible concentration hovered over the West and Southwest regions, and motion to expand the activities poultry and swine in those regions as well as crop production technicality as soybeans and corn. The findings of this study confirm the dynamism of the regions, as well as the impact of modernization on the field, and also highlights the role that agricultural activities have on the economy of the state of Parana.

  19. 75 FR 59666 - Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ..., sugar, cocoa, and other agricultural products that do not appear in the enumerated commodity list) would...) imposing clearing and trade execution requirements on standardized derivative products; (3) creating robust...), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen...

  20. [Research on the virtual water composition and virtual water trade for agriculture in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jun-hong; Dong, Yan-yan; Han, Zhao-xing

    2007-12-01

    Based on the irrigation norm of typical district and county, and revised by the isoline map of Chinese crops water demand, the change of crops program was analyzed as well as the agricultural water use and its GDP benefits. Then the virtual water was calculated for years. At last, the input-output method was used to calculate the trade of virtual water in Beijing. As the results, the virtual water for cereal crops has been decreasing in Beijing, from 1.832 x 10(9) m3 in 1990 to 4.283 x 10(8) m3 in 2004. Otherwise the virtual water for technical crops has been increasing, which is from 9.06 x 10(8) m3 in 1990 to 1.492 x 10(9) m3 in 2004. On the whole, the virtual water for crops has been decreasing in Beijing. From the angle of primary products Beijing is a virtual water importing area. Virtual water importing of annual average is 2.37 x 10(8) m3, which is about 5.93% of the total water of Beijing. Virtual water has been an important supplement of local real water of Beijing.

  1. Trade in Value Added (TiVA in EU New Member States (EU NMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kersan-Škabić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary trade analysis indicates the necessity of calculating trade in value added (TiVA which is created through global value chains (GVCs. This paper aims to determine the characteristics and importance of GVC trade in the EU new member states (EU NMS with special emphasis placed on the industry level. The results demonstrate different levels of GVC participation of the EU NMS, where Hungary is the most integrated country and Croatia the least integrated. Regional GVCs exist because a huge part of value added (VA comes from EU member states, as in gross export as well as in final demand (Europe as a hub. The most important source countries are Germany and Italy and there is also evidence of geographical and historical relations between the countries. The domination of backward participation has been found in the analysis made on the industrial level, i.e. the EU NMS are highly dependent on the import of intermediates for the production and export of final products. Strong interconnections between imports of intermediate products and exports of final products have been found in the manufacture of computers, electronics and optical products; manufacture of wood, paper, printing and reproduction. This research has contributed to the scarce literature concerning GVC (TiVA in EU NMS and has opened up new possibilities for further research and analysis.

  2. Trade and Development: Proceedings of the Winter 1986 Meeting of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (Texcoco, Mexico, December 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Mathew D., Ed.

    Three levels of papers are contained in this proceedings. The first set contains full research papers presented during the theme day of the meeting. The following papers were given: "International Trade and Factor Movements in Development Theory, Policy, and Experience" (T. N. Srinivasan); "Government in the Process of Trade and…

  3. The trade of virtual water: do property rights matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ankai

    2016-04-01

    My paper examines the determinants of the virtual water trade - embodied in the trade of agriculture products - by estimating a structural gravity model. In particular, it tests the relationship between property rights and the export of water-intensive agricultural products based on water footprint data in Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2011, 2012). Using two different measures of property rights protection, I show that countries with weaker property rights have an apparent comparative advantage in the trade of water-intensive products. After controlling for the economic size, natural resource endowments, and possible effects of reverse causality, the trade flow of virtual water is negatively and significantly correlated with the property rights index of the exporting country. Holding other factors constant, one point increase in the property rights index of a country is associated with a 24% - 36% decrease in its virtual water export, whereas a 1% increase in the natural resource protection index of a country is associated with a 16% decrease in its virtual water export. This paper is the first empirical work that tests the relationship between property rights and trade of water-intensive products, offering a new perceptive in the debate of virtual water trade. The findings provide a possible explanation on the paradoxical evidence that some countries with scarce water resources export water-intensive products. The result is important not only in terms of its theoretical relevance, but also its policy implications. As prescribed by the model of trade and property rights, when countries with weaker property rights open to international trade, they are more likely to over-exploit and thus expedite the depletion of natural resources.

  4. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Megan; Caylor, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit `infrastructure sharing' across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tends to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  5. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  6. Modeling the impacts of environmental policies on agricultural imports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, B.A.; Scatasta, S.

    2005-01-01

    For current policy debates in agricultural and food industries, policy analysts need to evaluate the impacts of how proposed changes in domestic environmental regulations may alter agricultural trade in the future. Given the industry-specific nature of many policies issues, analysts need sector and

  7. Evapotranspiration measurements in rainfed and irrigated cropland illustrate trade-offs in land and water management in Southern Amazonia's agricultural frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Black, T. A.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Hawthorne, I.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Amazonia, Brazil, is home to a rapidly expanding agricultural frontier in which tropical forest and savanna landscapes have been increasingly replaced by agricultural land since the 1990s. One important impact of deforestation is the reduction in water vapour transferred to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) from rainfed agriculture landscapes compared to natural vegetation, leading to a reduction in regional precipitation recycling. Here, we discuss land and water management choices for future agricultural production in Southern Amazonia and their potential effects on the atmospheric water cycle. We illustrate these choices by presenting ET measurements on an agricultural landscape by eddy covariance (EC) between September 2015 and February 2017. Measurements were made for two fields adjacent to one micrometeorological EC tower: (1) one rainfed field containing a succession of soybean, maize, brachiara and soybean, and (2) one irrigated field with a succession of soybean, rice, beans, and soybean. Over the time period, total ET in the rainfed and irrigated fields was 1266 ± 294 mm and 1415 ± 180 mm, respectively for a total precipitation of 3099 mm. The main difference in ET between the fields was attributed to the application of 118 mm of surface water irrigated for bean production in the irrigated field between June and September 2016. In the rainfed field, soybean ET was 332 ± 82 mm (2015-2016) and 423 ± 99 mm (2016-2017) for 824 mm and 1124 mm of precipitation, respectively. In the irrigated field, soybean ET was 271 ± 38 mm (2015) and 404 ± 60 mm (2016-2017) with supplemental irrigation added in 2015. Our results illustrate how supplemental irrigation can favour early soybean planting while transferring additional water vapour to the atmosphere at levels similar to natural vegetation. We conclude by discussing our results in the context of future land and water trade-offs for agricultural intensification in Brazil's "arc-of-deforestation".

  8. MOLDOVAN AGRI-FOOD TRADE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF INTEGRATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STRATAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at the assessment of the main effects of signing the Association Agreement on the Moldovan agricultural sector, while examining its reaction, if the Republic of Moldova would have opted for its integration in the Customs Union - Russian Federation, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. During the period 2010-2013, Republic of Moldova launched a number of trade policy development initiatives in order to ensure a more facilitating legal framework for the economic and trade relations with the key external partners. An agreement on the establishment of a free trade area in the CIS was signed in this period. Similarly, Republic of Moldova started negotiating the Association Agreement with the European Union, which was signed in June this year and has as component part the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA. The paper reveals that the signing of the Association Agreement with the EU could serve as instrument to stimulate the agricultural sector, but the DCFTA establishment will present some challenges, which are to be properly addressed, in order to exclude their turning into risks.

  9. 77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice...- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26- 30, 2012, to revise the dates... and scheduling constraints permit), interested U.S. agriculture, mining, transportation, water, energy...

  10. Quantifying women's stated benefit-risk trade-off preferences for IBS treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F Reed; Hauber, A Brett; Ozdemir, Semra; Lynd, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration, currently, is exploring quantitative benefit-risk methods to support regulatory decision-making. A scientifically valid method for assessing patients' benefit-risk trade-off preferences is needed to compare risks and benefits in a common metric. The study aims to quantify the maximum acceptable risk (MAR) of treatment-related adverse events (AEs) that women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are willing to accept in exchange for symptom relief. A stated-choice survey was used to elicit trade-off preferences among constructed treatment profiles, each defined by symptom severity and treatment-related AEs. Symptom attributes included frequency of abdominal pain and discomfort, frequency of diarrhea, and frequency of urgency. AE attributes included frequency of mild-to-moderate constipation and the risk of four possible serious AEs. A Web-enabled survey was administered to 589 female US residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported diagnosis of diarrhea-predominant IBS. Preference weights and MAR were estimated using mixed-logit methods. SUBJECTS were willing to accept higher risks of serious AEs in return for treatments offering better symptom control. For an improvement from the lowest to the highest of four benefit levels, subjects were willing to tolerate a 2.65% increase in impacted-bowel risk, but only a 1.34% increase in perforated-bowel risk. Variation in MARs across AE types is consistent with the relative seriousness of the AEs. Stated-preference methods offer a scientifically valid approach to quantifying benefit-risk trade-off preferences that can be used to inform regulatory decision-making.

  11. Pairs Trading to the Commodities Futures Market Using Cointegration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Ungever

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates pairs trading strategy by using the cointegration method among the 10 most popular agricultural future markets. It is found that only in 2 pairs shows trading signal. The pairs trading strategy is performed in two stages that are the formation period and the trading period with daily futures data from 2004 to 2015. After the formation period was constructed, it is assumed that the cointegration error continues to hold the trading period same as it does for the formation period. The pairs trading strategy is created by the long position cotton and the short position coffee and also long position cotton and short position the livecattle. It is found that the profitability of this strategy worked well in both formation period and trading period.

  12. European biorefineries: Implications for land, trade and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Chong, Katie; Bridgwater, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five diverse European member states could support around 30 biorefineries. • The facilities would create around 2 million man-years of employment. • Biorefineries create more jobs per unit of feedstock than bioelectricity plants. • Contribution to national GDP is very small; but agriculturally significant. • Increased straw demand could indirectly increase greenhouse gas emissions. - Abstract: Biorefineries are expected to play a major role in a future low carbon economy and substantial investments are being made to support this vision. However, it is important to consider the wider socio-economic impacts of such a transition. This paper quantifies the potential trade, employment and land impacts of economically viable European biorefinery options based on indigenous straw and wood feedstocks. It illustrates how there could be potential for 70–80 European biorefineries, but not hundreds. A single facility could generate tens of thousands of man-years of employment and employment creation per unit of feedstock is higher than for biomass power plants. However, contribution to national GDP is unlikely to exceed 1% in European member states, although contributions to national agricultural productivity may be more significant, particularly with straw feedstocks. There is also a risk that biorefinery development could result in reduced rates of straw incorporation into soil, raising concerns that economically rational decisions to sell rather than reincorporate straw could result in increased agricultural land-use or greenhouse gas emissions

  13. Electric trade in the United States 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This publication, Electric Trade in the US 1992 (ELECTRA), is the fourth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1992. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. Information on the physical transmission system are being included for the first time in this publication. Transmission data covering investor-owned electric utilities were shifted from the Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities to the ELECTRA publication. Some of the prominent features of this year`s report include information and data not published before on transmission lines for publicly owned utilities and transmission lines added during 1992 by investor-owned electric utilities.

  14. Electric trade in the United States 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This publication, Electric Trade in the US 1992 (ELECTRA), is the fourth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1992. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. Information on the physical transmission system are being included for the first time in this publication. Transmission data covering investor-owned electric utilities were shifted from the Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities to the ELECTRA publication. Some of the prominent features of this year's report include information and data not published before on transmission lines for publicly owned utilities and transmission lines added during 1992 by investor-owned electric utilities

  15. Impacts of reducing red meat consumption on agricultural production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Sakari Lehtonen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the simulated effects on Finnish agricultural production and trade of a 20% decrease in Finnish demand for red meat (beef, pork, lamb. According to our results, reduced red meat consumption would be offset by increased consumption of poultry meat, eggs, dairy products and fish, as well as small increases in consumption of fruits and vegetables, peas, nuts, cereal products and sweets. By including the derived demand changes in an agricultural sector model, we show that livestock production in Finland, incentivised by national production-linked payments for milk and bovine animals, would decrease by much less than 20% due to the complex nature of agricultural production and trade. Overall, assuming unchanged consumer preferences and agricultural policy, a 20% reduction in red meat consumption is not likely to lead to a substantial decrease in livestock production or changed land use, or greenhouse gas emissions, from Finnish agriculture.

  16. WTO Agricultural Tariffication with Lessons for Tariff Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong¡-Bin Im

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA, all agricultural non-tariff trade barriers should be converted into equivalent tariffs and further, reduced over time. However each member country has the authority to choose the tariff types when it converts NTBs to tariffs such as ad valorem tariff and specific tariff. The paper tries to find the reason for the choice of a certain type of tariff in the process of tariffication after the UR negotiation on agriculture. To achieve this goal, the paper analyses the effects of tariffication of a fixed quota into tariffs on price, trade and welfare in a number of scenarios related to the sources of uncertainty. In this paper, we examine the nonequivalence of specific tariff and ad valorem tariff, which are general type of tariffs used in the most of countries. The paper has shown that the two types of tariffs selected by tariffication of import quota are not generally equivalent in both their effects on price and trade stability and welfare with the trade model under uncertainty. The main conclusion of this study is that there is no general presumption that one tariff regime is superior to the other tariff regime under conditions of uncertainty. The precise source of uncertainty and the properties of the relevant demand and supply functions might affect the determination of tariff type selected after tariffication of non-tariff barriers.

  17. Health, agricultural, and economic effects of adoption of healthy diet recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Karen; Smith, Richard D; Dangour, Alan D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus; Pigatto, Gessuir; Hawkes, Corinna; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Chalabi, Zaid

    2010-11-13

    Transition to diets that are high in saturated fat and sugar has caused a global public health concern, as the pattern of food consumption is a major modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. Although agri-food systems are intimately associated with this transition, agriculture and health sectors are largely disconnected in their priorities, policy, and analysis, with neither side considering the complex inter-relation between agri-trade, patterns of food consumption, health, and development. We show the importance of connection of these perspectives through estimation of the eff ect of adopting a healthy diet on population health, agricultural production, trade, the economy, and livelihoods,with a computable general equilibrium approach. On the basis of case-studies from the UK and Brazil, we suggest that benefits of a healthy diet policy will vary substantially between different populations, not only because of population dietary intake but also because of agricultural production, trade, and other economic factors.

  18. EVOLUTION AND TRENDS IN TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Moldova's foreign trade value will exceed 10 billion U.S. dollars, exports increased by 12 percent annually andimports by about 9, 4 percent in the years 2014 to 2016, according to preliminary forecasts prepared by theMinistry of Economy. For 2013, an increase of 7,5 percent and 6 percent of exports imports. The foreign tradetrends may come back in 2011, when supplies of Moldovan goods to foreign markets grew faster than imports. In2012 exports fell by 2,5%, while imports rose 0,4%.

  19. Ms Dilek Ayhan State Secretary Norwegian Ministry of Trade Industry and Fisheries Kingdom of Norway visiting CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2016-01-01

    Ms Dilek Ayhan, State Secretary of the Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries, signing the guest book with Head of Member State Relations Pippa Wells, Director for Research and Computing Eckhard Elsen and Head Librarian Jens Vigen.

  20. Trade-offs, co-benefits and safeguards: Current debates on the breadth of REDD+.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; McDermott, C.; Vijge, M.J.; Cashore, B.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental trade-offs exist between different land uses for carbon, livelihoods, economic development, biodiversity, agriculture and energy (especially biofuels). This article analyses the scientific debates on REDD+ trade-offs, co-benefits and safeguards, and shows how the development and expanded

  1. Climate, energy and emissions trading in the EU and DK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck-Madsen, S.

    2004-04-01

    European Union member states are facing two serious challenges: human-induced climatic changes and oil shortage. Evidence that human-induced global heating is threatening the climatic balance is piling up and the conflicts over the last oil resources are becoming critical. The European Union has neither large oil resources nor foreign-political or military power to conquer additional oil resources. The EU Commission's awareness of these facts is influencing the EU energy and climate policy. Recently EU launched the directive on carbon dioxide emissions trading within certain energy-heavy sectors. The greenhouse gas emission allowance trading directive requires a national ceiling on the allocation of CO 2 quotas for the heavy industry and energy sectors, thus adapting the quantity of quotas to the Kyoto requirements. This requirement can be quite extensive for the sectors affected by the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading directive, if national governments choose to abstain from political intervention in order to reduce release of greenhouse gases in sectors outside the emissions trading, e.g. agriculture, transportation, households, and smaller industry and service. Lack of action in these sectors will require the governments to impose either large burdens or use of national Joint Implementation and Clean Development agreements on the heavy industry and energy sectors outside national borders, thus conflicting with the Kyoto Protocol. (BA)

  2. International Trade Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article captures a brief history of the negotiations of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), analyzes its deadlock and offers some suggestions for a successful Doha deal. First, this study shows that the nearly decade-long negotiation stalemate is caused by the opposite perceptions between industrialized countries and developing ones on agriculture, as well as by the influences of economic crisis on the world trade. Subsequently, some proposals are presented to solve the current crisis fro...

  3. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  4. 77 FR 28764 - Temporary Non-agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB58 Temporary Non-agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States AGENCY: Employment and Training... Temporary Non-agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States, published February 21, 2012 (the...

  5. 76 FR 12887 - Foreign-Trade Zones in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ..., International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Extension of public comment period. SUMMARY: On December..., Foreign-Trade Zones Board, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1401... will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe portable document file (pdf) formats...

  6. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 78 FR 56859 - Foreign-Trade Zone 267-Fargo, North Dakota; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-51-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 267--Fargo, North Dakota; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America, LLC, (Construction and Agricultural Equipment..., submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of...

  8. EU trade in the time of financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtíková, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the European Union (EU trade and trade policy in the time of global financial and economic crisis. The analysis of the EU exports and imports points out that the financial crisis has had a negative impact on the intra as well as on the extra-EU trade in the period 2007-2009, but differences among the EU member states have existed. Although the EU tries to support trade development in the world and remove barriers to trade, some protectionist tendencies were recorded in the time of the economic crisis. The last part of the paper gives emphasis to the EU trade policy and some trade measures which have been taken in the EU and its member states to support trade development or vice versa, to protect domestic industries. The results of the analysis show that, although some protectionist tendencies have been recorded both in extra and intra-EU trade, trade relations which are provided among member states are of significant importance all the time.

  9. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  10. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  11. Trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and harvests in a steady state - A multi-criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingoud, Kim; Ekholm, Tommi; Sievänen, Risto; Huuskonen, Saija; Hynynen, Jari

    2018-03-15

    This paper provides a perspective for comparing trade-offs between harvested wood flows and forest carbon stocks with different forest management regimes. A constant management regime applied to a forest area with an even age-class distribution leads to a steady state, in which the annual harvest and carbon stocks remain constant over time. As both are desirable - carbon stocks for mitigating climate change and harvests for the economic use of wood and displacing fossil fuels - an ideal strategy should be chosen from a set of management regimes that are Pareto-optimal in the sense of multi-criteria decision-making. When choosing between Pareto-optimal alternatives, the trade-off between carbon stock and harvests is unavoidable. This trade-off can be described e.g. in terms of carbon payback times or carbon returns. As numerical examples, we present steady-state harvest levels and carbon stocks in a Finnish boreal forest region for different rotation periods, thinning intensities and collection patterns for harvest residues. In the set of simulated management practices, harvest residue collection presents the most favorable trade-off with payback times around 30-40 years; while Pareto-optimal changes in rotation or thinnings exhibited payback times over 100 years, or alternatively carbon returns below 1%. By extending the rotation period and using less-intensive thinnings compared to current practices, the steady-state carbon stocks could be increased by half while maintaining current harvest levels. Additional cases with longer rotation periods should be also considered, but were here excluded due to the lack of reliable data on older forest stands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adoption of precision agriculture technology in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Southeast is diverse and differs from other regions of the United States (U.S.). Crops grown in the Southeast are specific to the region, such as cotton and peanuts. Corn farmers supply most of the grain produced to the poultry industry to support over 15 billion dolla...

  13. 7 CFR 989.62 - Authorization for prohibition of trade practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... committee or other information, that continuance of certain practices in trade channels would tend to...

  14. Contesting the Neoliberal Project for Agriculture: Productivist and Multifunctional Trajectories in the European Union and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibden, Jacqui; Potter, Clive; Cocklin, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The liberalisation of agricultural trade is strongly contested as an international policy project. In the context of the current World Trade Organisation (WTO) Doha trade round, concerns revolve around the implications of freer trade for rural livelihoods and environments. Analysis of this complex and morally charged issue offers important…

  15. Current State of Production and Finance Development of Scientific and Technological Progress in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danil M. Matveev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor efficiency in the use of land, labor, finance and other resources available is characteristic of Russia’s agriculture at the present stage. In most subindustries, the country has not yet achieved the production volume of the early 90s. In the last decade there was a positive trend marked to update logistics and intensify innovative advance in the agriculture, the processes being actively supported by the state, but this did not result in appreciable improvements of the agriculture competitiveness in the global food market. During the study it is revealed that the industry credit debt has gone up three-fold over the past 7 years that made up 1.43trillion rubles versus 112 billion rubles of revenue in 2012. The authors propose a technique to attract private investments in the agriculture of Russia and economic-organizing mechanism to realize it. Hereto, a considerable part is played by state regulation, particularly to provide investment-back guarantees in the event that a project-implementing agricultural organization goes bankrupt. To hold up, the authors consider a number of investment projects implemented by one of the Russian Federation entities which demonstrate their effectiveness both for the investors and the state. Employing the data obtained from the study will allow to largely increase the rates of technical and technological re-equipment of the industry, improve its investment attractiveness and competitiveness based on innovations and this will provide the country's food safety and gross domestic product growth.

  16. GROWTH IN INSTITUTIONAL AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN THE PUNJAB STATE OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanish Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study revealed that the scheduled commercial banks were actively participating to uplift the socio-economic development in the state. A significant increase was also observed in the number of branches for the commercial banks, cooperative banks, Primary Agricultural Development Banks (PADB, Regional Rural Banks (RRBs during the last few years. Also increasing trend in flow of total deposits and advances in the Punjab state for the last twenty two years was found at significant compound growth rate of 14.1 percent and 17.4 per cent per annum, respectively. The growth was also significant in the total agricultural credit advances at compound growth rate of 20.03 per cent per annum. Similar increase was found in the total micro credit advances at compound growth rate of 29.95 per cent per annum, in the total advances to weaker sections at compound growth rate of 29.70 per cent per annum and in the debt waiver scheme in the state. The KCC advances increased at compound growth rate of 22.40 per cent per annum.

  17. Managing the Trade-Public Health Linkage in Defence of Trade Liberalisation and National Sovereignty: An Appraisal of United States-Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO, countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absence of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

  18. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  19. Analysis of international negotiations and trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Górriz Gonzalo, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze international trade agreements and negotiations. For that purpose, two agreements made by the United States are chosen to be analyzed. In the first place, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) agreement, that was signed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1994 in order to create a free trade area. In addition, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will be analyze, an agreement that is still being negotiated between the United Stat...

  20. United States versus Mexican Perceptions of the Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joel D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveys U.S. and Mexican managerial attitudes concerning the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) process on the United States. Discusses differences in Mexican and U.S. attitudes concerning NAFTA and a number of socioeconomic concerns. (SR)

  1. Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnology on China's Economy and World Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jikun; Ruifa, Hu; Meijl, van H.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of adopting non-food genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in China on production, trade and welfare. On the one hand the paper focuses on the productivity enhancing impact of GMOs and on the other hand it treats the consequences of some form of restrictions on Chinese

  2. International Agricultural Trade and Policy: Issues and Implications for U.S. Agriculture. Texas Agricultural Market Research Center Special Series Report No. SS-2-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary W.

    Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…

  3. Policy Directions for U. S. Agriculture; Long-Range Choices in Farming and Rural Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Marion

    A comprehensive view of agriculture is presented in this volume written to aid critical re-examination of long-range agricultural policy. Farm people, rural institutions and services, rural towns, the spatial organization of agriculture, and its capital structure, in addition to the usual subjects of agricultural output, demand, trade, price, and…

  4. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  5. The cross-border opportunity on how to enhance Canada-US energy trade : Panel 3 : toward seamless trade in power and emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCroy, J.; Rudgers, N.; McCuaig, P.

    2006-01-01

    This third panel discussion on seamless trade in power and emissions reductions addressed the impact of energy issues on agriculture. In particular, it focused on biomass as an energy source to address the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Although ethanol, biodiesel and other biomass are not going to completely replace petroleum in the near future, renewables such as biomass, wind, solar and geothermal energy sources will be part of the energy mix. It was noted that biomass can be produced in abundance in North America. In addition to being renewable and carbon neutral, biomass can be used in existing transportation/stationary fuels infrastructure. It was suggested that growing energy crops such as corn, soybeans, switchgrass and short-rotation woody crops represent the best potential to bring under-utilized agricultural lands back into productive use. The power industry's interest in biomass was also discussed. The Department of Energy has estimated that using syngas from biomass for fuel cells can be cost competitive with natural gas at current prices. The discussion also addressed the role of biomass in the 13-state Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) which was launched to limit and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the Mid-Atlantic and New England states. 7 figs

  6. Ecological network analysis on global virtual water trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifeng; Mao, Xufeng; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Bin

    2012-02-07

    Global water interdependencies are likely to increase with growing virtual water trade. To address the issues of the indirect effects of water trade through the global economic circulation, we use ecological network analysis (ENA) to shed insight into the complicated system interactions. A global model of virtual water flow among agriculture and livestock production trade in 1995-1999 is also built as the basis for network analysis. Control analysis is used to identify the quantitative control or dependency relations. The utility analysis provides more indicators for describing the mutual relationship between two regions/countries by imitating the interactions in the ecosystem and distinguishes the beneficiary and the contributor of virtual water trade system. Results show control and utility relations can well depict the mutual relation in trade system, and direct observable relations differ from integral ones with indirect interactions considered. This paper offers a new way to depict the interrelations between trade components and can serve as a meaningful start as we continue to use ENA in providing more valuable implications for freshwater study on a global scale.

  7. Soil management shapes ecosystem service provision and trade-offs in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; De Simone, Serena; Sigura, Maurizia; Boscutti, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-08-31

    Agroecosystems are principally managed to maximize food provisioning even if they receive a large array of supporting and regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Hence, comprehensive studies investigating the effects of local management and landscape composition on the provision of and trade-offs between multiple ESs are urgently needed. We explored the effects of conservation tillage, nitrogen fertilization and landscape composition on six ESs (crop production, disease control, soil fertility, water quality regulation, weed and pest control) in winter cereals. Conservation tillage enhanced soil fertility and pest control, decreased water quality regulation and weed control, without affecting crop production and disease control. Fertilization only influenced crop production by increasing grain yield. Landscape intensification reduced the provision of disease and pest control. We also found tillage and landscape composition to interactively affect water quality regulation and weed control. Under N fertilization, conventional tillage resulted in more trade-offs between ESs than conservation tillage. Our results demonstrate that soil management and landscape composition affect the provision of several ESs and that soil management potentially shapes the trade-offs between them. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Linking agriculture and environment: theoretical framework and experiences from developed and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwar, C.; Hossain, E.

    2005-01-01

    Despite significantly contributing to country's overall economic development through providing employment for the people and supplying raw materials for agro- and resource based industrial development, agriculture is putting serious burden on the environment in the process of production and consumption of agricultural produce. It is the largest consumer and polluter of water resources and contributor of atmospheric pollution, land degradation and forest reduction. Agriculture-environmental relationship is complex and the relationship depends on the spatial and biophysical factors and country's level of economic development. This paper tried to document the linkages between agricultural practices and policies with environment. The channels, through which agriculture impacts the environment, is discussed. It is seen that multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture interacts with the domestic agricultural policy reforms to determine the environmental impacts of agriculture. It is seen that agricultural policy reforms and agricultural trade liberalization can have separate environmental effects in the developed and developing countries. A wide range of theoretical and empirical literatures are reviewed, in this paper, to understand the concepts, linkages and environmental problems. Finally, this paper ends up with the conclusion that integrating environmental considerations into domestic agricultural policies and implementing agro-environmental programmes may ensure the decline of environmental problems of agriculture in both the developed and developing countries. (author)

  9. Agricultural practice and social change in Berastagi area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Sri Alem Br

    2018-03-01

    This paper discusses how agricultural practices build social change in the Berastagi highlands. Agricultural products from this area are the vegetable supplier base for Medan City and other surrounding cities. The supply involves a network of trades involving many actors with many interests, as well as generating migration from other areas around and coming from different ethnicities. The migrants’ settlements are concentrated in certain areas of the region around Berastgai. This paper will illustrate the interaction between these aspects to bring about social change in Berastagi. This research uses qualitative method. Primary data were obtained through in-depth interview techniques and participant observation. Secondary data accessed from relevant agencies. This discussion shows how the pattern of social relationships changed due to changes in the goals of agricultural practices that not only oriented local markets but also exports. Competition, secrecy, and money orientation have become part of their planting activities. On the other hand, trade networks also construct them to work together in a particular context. This paper shows that agricultural activities and all things related to it reflect a broader context to see the development of small towns that also affect the development of the surrounding villages.

  10. Nutrient Reduction in Agricultural Green Infrastructure: An Analysis of the Raccoon River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Canning

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification has had the undesirable effect of degrading water quality throughout the United States. Nitrate pollution presents a difficult problem for rural and urban communities, and it contributes to the immense Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone. Current U.S. policy prohibits regulation of agricultural runoff because it is a nonpoint source. The Raccoon River Watershed upstream of Des Moines, Iowa, USA has some of the highest nitrate levels in the nation, and the drinking water utility in Des Moines unsuccessfully pursued litigation against drainage districts in the watershed. We propose a cooperative solution between urban residents and upstream rural residents—namely, the installation of agricultural green infrastructure in the form of riparian buffers throughout the watershed enabled by the principles of water quality trading. We compare this distributed, green approach with a centralized, gray approach (i.e., building a new nitrate removal facility at the drinking water utility. Using terrain analysis, we determined that first-order streams are the most fitting location for riparian buffers. We estimate the buffer installation to cost between $155–$185 million; maintenance of the current nitrate removal facility will cost $72 million, while a new facility could cost up to $184 million. Riparian buffer installation offers more indirect, non-quantified benefits than maintaining or building new centralized, gray treatment (e.g., living-wage jobs and in-stream water quality improvement. Our analysis could act as a model for water quality trading and distributed agricultural green infrastructure in other communities facing similar water quality challenges.

  11. The role of ionizing radiation in facilitating trade between the countries of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2011-01-01

    The fast growth of the international trade with agricultural products, particularly during the last century, however few problems are encountered , among other things, transmitting agricultural pests into new areas which caused human, agricultural and even environmental hazards. Consequently, new regulations were imposed (quarantine laws) and trade barriers were created. To overcome these difficulties, agricultural shipments with possible quarantine pests are subjected to certain treatments (quarantine treatments). Methyl bromide, a chemical fumigant highly effective against quarantine pests and widely used in quarantine treatments, is phased out globally due to environmental concerns with no other chemical alternative in hand. Treatment with ionizing radiation is a new, promising and constitutes a possible solution. This article deals with the history, importance, basic knowledge, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of this method. In addition, it discusses its current use, possible applications, future opportunities and challenges facing this technology. (author)

  12. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  13. ECONOMIC UNITY OF PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF SLAUGHTER ANIMALS AND MEAT (PATHS OF INITIATION OF LONG TERM SOLUTIONS IN CROATIAN ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsto Benčević

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available For starting a long term programmes in Croatian animal production, formation of "economic unities" is necessary. Presentation and explanation of production and trade unity for animal production and marketing with subjects and phases is given here. It is pointed out that production of slaughter animals and meat is key interest of market and economic policy as well as of development of agricultural country. It seems that production and trade of meat in Croatia is not organized enough in overall market competition and in meat processing. Creating the economic unity of production and trade of slaughter animals can help in relative fast and efficient solving of problems accumulated in agriculture, especialy in meat production (PIK Vrbovec, Danica, Bejle etc. For initiating and getting in function the phases of production and trade of slaughter animals and meat, proper legislation should be introduced. This legislation should comprehencively define the idea of agricultural economy as a subject of legislative and normisation acts for overall, process and market oriented functioning of multidisciplinary agricultural systems. Additionaly, law on trade of slaughter animals, meat and agricultural products should be introduced in order to form a market and determine the share and obligations of certain participants in structure of such market.

  14. GLOBAL TRADE. THE KEY TO TRANSATLANTIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global trade has an important characteristic in terms of open global markets by means of eliminating barriers to trade and investment. The United States and the European Union, two major international actors and competitors in the economic field, have both the opportunity to change the global trade by concluding the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. For this reason, this paper tries to find the connections between global trade and transatlantic competitiveness in the way that the global trade can be considered a key to transatlantic competitiveness. The United States and the European Union are global actors and competitors in the global economy and the play field is the global trade. In order to be aware of the importance ofglobal trade in the transatlantic competitiveness, this paper includes also an analysis of the concrete actions that both economic powers are taking in key-sectors of the transatlantic economy.

  15. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  16. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  17. The structural effects of cap and trade climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettle, Richard J.; Fawcett, Allen A.

    2009-01-01

    The Inter-temporal General Equilibrium Model (IGEM) explores the cost to the U.S. economy of increasingly more stringent cap and trade regimes. The economy-wide losses are small with energy, agriculture, chemicals, high tech manufacturing and trade being most affected. The availability of lower cost offsets substantially reduces these economic losses. The economy becomes less capital but more labor intensive. Household welfare losses are smaller for full consumption (goods, services and leisure). A more inelastic trade-off between consumption and leisure dramatically reduces policy costs as do more favorable revenue recycling options. Induced technical change yields a small, measurable reduction in policy costs. (author)

  18. Trading Fees and Slow-Moving Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Adrian; Dumas, Bernard J

    2015-01-01

    In some situations, investment capital seems to move slowly towards profitable trades. We develop a model of a financial market in which capital moves slowly simply because there is a proportional cost to moving capital. We incorporate trading fees in an infinite-horizon dynamic general-equilibrium model in which investors optimally and endogenously decide when and how much to trade. We determine the steady-state equilibrium no-trade zone, study the dynamics of equilibrium trades and prices a...

  19. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an adverse...

  20. Methodology of Segment Management Reporting on the Profitability of Agricultural Holding Interaction with Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vasilyevna Glushchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The state program of agricultural development and regulation of agricultural products, raw materials and food in a food embargo on the West European suppliers is aimed at the revitalization of the holding structures. The main purpose of agricultural holdings is to ensure food safety and to maximize the consolidated profit in resource-limited settings. The heterogeneous nature of the needs of customers, leading to different performance of agricultural holding interaction with them has an impact on the formulation and conduct of accounting and requires the formation of an aggregated and relevant information about the profitability of relationships with groups of customers and the long-term development strategy of agroformation interaction with them, so there is a need for research and development methodical bases of formation of the administrative reporting segment that meets the needs of modern practice. The purpose of this study is to develop a method of forming the segment management reporting on the profitability of agricultural holding interaction with customers. As part of the problem research, the authors used different scientific methods, such as analysis, synthesis, observation, group data and logic synthesis. The article discusses the necessity of segmentation agricultural holding customers by the criterion of “cooperation profitability”. The basic problem of generating information about the cost of trading in the accounting information system of agricultural holdings is dealt with; a method of forming the segment management reporting based on the results of the ABC analysis including calculation algorithm functional trade costs (Activity-Based Costing, is developed; rank order of agroholding customers is suggested in accordance with the calculated interval limits for them: Segment A - “highly profitable customers,” B - “problem customers” and C - “low-profit customers”; a set of registers and management accounting

  1. Non-agricultural Market Access: A South Asian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Kemal; Musleh-ud Din; Ejaz Ghani

    2005-01-01

    A key element of the Doha Round of trade negotiations is liberalisation of trade in industrial products, commonly known as non-agricultural market access (NAMA). These negotiations are important for developing countries as these will determine the market access opportunities through which they can improve their growth prospects. This paper examines the key issues of NAMA from the South Asian perspective, outlines a negotiating strategy for increased market access, and spells out some policy i...

  2. Pretreatment of agricultural biomass for anaerobic digestion: Current state and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shukra Raj; Banjara, Sushant Prasad; Choi, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Young; Kim, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural biomass is an attractive second generation biofuel with potential environmental and economic benefits. Most agricultural biomass contains lignocellulose which requires pretreatment prior to AD. For optimization, the pretreatment methods need to be specific to the characteristics of the biomass feedstock. In this review, cereal residue, fruit and vegetable wastes, grasses and animal manure were selected as the agricultural biomass candidates, and the fundamentals and current state of various pretreatment methods used for AD of these feedstocks were investigated. Several nonconventional methods (electrical, ionic liquid-based chemicals, ruminant biological pretreatment) offer potential as targeted pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass, but each comes with its own challenges. Pursuing an energy-intensive route, a combined bioethanol-biogas production could be a promising a second biofuel refinery option, further emphasizing the importance of pretreatment when lignocellulosic feedstock is used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Income of Rural Household in Bangladesh: A Quintile-Growth Approach to the Analysis of Distributional Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.

  4. An integrated model for simulating nitrogen trading in an agricultural catchment with complex hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, T J; Rutherford, J C; Kerr, S C; Smeaton, D C; Palliser, C C

    2013-09-30

    Nitrogen loads to several New Zealand lakes are dominated by nonpoint runoff from pastoral farmland which adversely affects lake water quality. A 'cap and trade' scheme is being considered to help meet targets set for nitrogen loads to Lake Rotorua, and a numerical model, NTRADER, has been developed to simulate and compare alternative schemes. NTRADER models both the geophysics of nitrogen generation and transport, including groundwater lag times, and the economics of 'cap and trade' schemes. It integrates the output from several existing models, including a farm-scale nitrogen leaching and abatement model, a farm-scale management economic model, and a catchment-scale nitrogen transport model. This paper details modeling methods and compares possible trading program design features for the Lake Rotorua catchment. Model simulations demonstrate how a cap and trade program could be used to effectively achieve challenging environmental goals in the targeted catchment. However, results also show that, due to complex hydrogeology, satisfactory environmental outcomes may be not achieved unless groundwater lag times are incorporated into the regulatory scheme. One way to do this, as demonstrated here, would be to explicitly include lag times in the cap and trade program. The utility of the model is further demonstrated by quantifying relative differences in abatement costs across potential regulatory schemes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. China’s Trade Relations with the United States in Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s trade relations with the United States over the past four decades is a topic that has not been fully dealt with in scholarly works. This paper charts the course of US-China economic relations since 1971, explains the principal forces stimulating growth and encouraging change and, finally, discusses how these two economic giants fit into an interlocking Asian and world economy. In reaction to the post-2008 financial downturn, advocates for a new world economic order have suggested a rebalancing of global demand, which will arguably become a major, politically charged issue in the US and in China in the years to come. Growing economic interdependence has quickly presented new challenges and opportunities, with issues such as human rights, Most-Favoured-Nation status, the Taiwan and Tibet question, and the huge American trade deficit threatening to cloud the relationship at times. With China’s emergence as a major power and America’s hegemonic ambitions tested in successive wars, the contradiction between a booming commercial relationship and conflict associated with geopolitical and ideological differences will continue to constitute a serious challenge. The long-term goal for each side will be to forge economic ties strong enough to create a stable political relationship, rather than to be held hostage by geopolitical constraints.

  6. From grassroots movement to state-coordinated market strategy: the transformation of organic agriculture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Thiers

    2002-01-01

    The production, certification, and marketing of organic agriculture developed slowly in the West as a nongovernmental, community-based response to concerns over food safety and the environmental impacts of chemical agriculture. The current emergence of organic agriculture in less-developed nations is following a very different trajectory owing to the presence of an established global market for organic products and the developmental goals of interventionist states. In this paper I examine the...

  7. A Qualitative Study of Prospective Elementary Teachers' Grasp of Agricultural and Science Educational Benchmarks for Agricultural Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.; Meischen, Deanna

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with eight preservice elementary teachers regarding benchmarks related to agricultural technology for food and fiber showed that those from rural areas had more complex understanding of the trade-offs in technology use; urban residents were more concerned with ethical dilemmas. Pesticide pollution was most understood, genetic…

  8. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on

  9. AGRICULTURAL CHOICES IN THE WAR ON DRUGS: Pay or Play?

    OpenAIRE

    Fairchild, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Illegal drugs have enormous significance for world trade, consumer safety, and the social and natural environment. Thus, drug policy is one of the principal policy choices society faces as the new century approaches. Numerous skirmishes in the War on Drugs are being fought on an agricultural battlefield. But the combat strategies for these skirmishes lack tactical support from the scientific agricultural establishment even though agriculture's unique perspective could contribute new weapons a...

  10. Is Free Trade Out of Date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dwight R.

    2009-01-01

    During the recent presidential campaign, some prominent politicians called for a "time out" in negotiating new agreements to expand international trade, and others wanted to reduce it by canceling existing trade agreements. The stated concern is that trade with countries with low labor costs forces American workers to either accept lower…

  11. STATE SUPPORT AND ADAPTATION MEASURES OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES TO THE WTO CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Laptev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism of financial support of agriculturalenterprises has various content and structure indifferent countries require different levels of cost andhas significantly different effects application. One of the practical problems of economic science is thestudy of the mechanism of such a structure to support agricultural enterprises in Russia, where whenavailable resource constraints support orientationmanufacturers will increase profits, increase their competitiveness, improve skills in the organizationof the reproductive process. The article defi nes the principles of an effective mechanism of state supportof agricultural enterprises, the ways of solving thepractical mechanical problem.

  12. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Initiative. 25.405 Section 25.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that, for...

  13. Chile-EU Trade Agreement: What Can We Learn from Trade Statistics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An Association Agreement concluded between the European Union and Chile in 2002 included a comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA that entered into force in February 2003. Our purpose is to analyse some of the economic consequences of the agricultural part of this agreement focusing in the fruit and vegetable market. Our finding is that market concentration has significantly decreased since the beginning of previous decade and has been reinforced in both markets. This has been an advantage for both Chilean producers and European consumers of fruits and vegetables.

  14. Virtual water trade: an assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid an increasing water scarcity in many parts of the world, virtual water trade as both a policy instrument and practical means to balance the local, national and global water budget has received much attention in recent years. Building upon the knowledge of virtual water accounting in the literature, this study assesses the efficiency of water use embodied in the international food trade from the perspectives of exporting and importing countries and at the global and country levels. The investigation reveals that the virtual water flows primarily from countries of high crop water productivity to countries of low crop water productivity, generating a global saving in water use. Meanwhile, the total virtual water trade is dominated by green virtual water, which constitutes a low opportunity cost of water use as opposed to blue virtual water. A sensitivity analysis, however, suggests high uncertainties in the virtual water accounting and the estimation of the scale of water saving. The study also raises awareness of the limited effect of water scarcity on the global virtual water trade and the negative implications of the global water saving for the water use efficiency and food security in importing countries and the environment in exporting countries. The analysis shows the complexity in evaluating the efficiency gains in the international virtual water trade. The findings of the study, nevertheless, call for a greater emphasis on rainfed agriculture to improve the global food security and environmental sustainability.

  15. Hindu-Muslim Violence in India: A National and State-Level Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    clubs, sports clubs, festival organizations, trade unions, and cadre-based political parties.”25 Varshney argues that it is these groups that... tourism sectors by offering subsidies as well as fiscal and policy incentives to attract businesses to the state.37 Likewise, in 2007, Kerala also...Kerala’s tourism sector and agricultural sectors have become near equal contributors of 9% to the state’s GDP. India Brand Equity Foundation, Kerala State

  16. Trade-Offs in Multi-Purpose Land Use under Land Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. G. Vlek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Land provides a host of ecosystem services, of which the provisioning services are often considered paramount. As the demand for agricultural products multiplies, other ecosystem services are being degraded or lost entirely. Finding a sustainable trade-off between food production and one or more of other ecosystem services, given the variety of stakeholders, is a matter of optimizing land use in a dynamic and complex socio-ecological system. Land degradation reduces our options to meet both food demands and environmental needs. In order to illustrate this trade-off dilemma, four representative services, carbon sinks, water storage, biodiversity, and space for urbanization, are discussed here based on a review of contemporary literature that cuts across the domain of ecosystem services that are provided by land. Agricultural research will have to expand its focus from the field to the landscape level and in the process examine the cost of production that internalizes environmental costs. In some situations, the public cost of agriculture in marginal environments outweighs the private gains, even with the best technologies in place. Land use and city planners will increasingly have to address the cost of occupying productive agricultural land or the conversion of natural habitats. Landscape designs and urban planning should aim for the preservation of agricultural land and the integrated management of land resources by closing water and nutrient cycles, and by restoring biodiversity.

  17. 78 FR 50481 - Request for Public Comments Regarding the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... barriers to U.S. exports of goods, services, and U.S. foreign direct investment for inclusion in the NTE... affecting U.S. exports of goods and services, U.S. foreign direct investment, and protection of intellectual... National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  18. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Service (FAS) has denied a petition (No. 2010009) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for apples that was filed by the Michigan Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Association and accepted for review by... most recent, full marketing year or full official marketing season, a greater than 15- percent decline...

  19. Evaluation of the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential in the context of the negotiated TTIP agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential. The planned trade structure and balance according to IEA (International Energy Agency and IHS (IHS CERA www.ihs.com scenarios, the projected volume of imports and exports, and differences in price levels and costs are presented. The projected potential of the trade volume, taking into account the possible impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, is also presented. The analysis has shown that the elimination of trade barriers between the European Union and the United States would be more beneficial to US refineries. Due to the higher import tariffs to the EU, the potential benefits of US exporters are higher than those of the EU exporters to the US. This confirms the fears of European negotiators that some aspects of the agreement will have a negative impact on European businesses. However, in the case of petroleum products the TTIP agreement will have a negligible impact on increasing the export volume.

  20. Influence of High School Vocational Agriculture on the Matriculation, Graduation, and Employment of Agricultural Engineering Graduates from the Iowa State University of Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Donald Louis

    To determine the influence of high school vocational agriculture on college achievement and subsequent employment of agricultural engineering majors, data were collected from 419 graduates of Iowa State University representing the period from 1942 to 1964. The 112 graduates who had taken at least 3 or more semesters of high school vocational…

  1. Trade Secrets in Life Science and Pharmaceutical Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M.; Cai, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through “improper means” is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today’s interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees’ careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. PMID:25414378

  2. Trade secrets in life science and pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M; Cai, Yu

    2014-11-20

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through "improper means" is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today's interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees' careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while eliminating post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy can play a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  4. What if the Doha Round Fails? Implications for Canadian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gifford, Michael N.; McCalla, Alex F.; Meilke, Karl D.

    2008-01-01

    Many commentators assume that the WTO Doha Round negotiations have already failed and that this failure will not matter for Canadian agriculture. Neither view is correct. Most countries appear willing to make the effort needed to bring the negotiations to a make or break point in early 2008. If the Doha Round does eventually fail, an important opportunity to make the agricultural trading system significantly less distorted, more open and fair will have been lost. For Canadian agriculture, the...

  5. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searles Andrew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora, it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'. It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA' will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC'-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent animportant precedent in a global strategy by industry oncost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also beof great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  6. Developing a methodology for real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Maryam; Kerachian, Reza

    2018-04-15

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for the real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in agricultural areas along the rivers. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is chosen as an indicator of river water quality and the TDS load that agricultural water users discharge to the river are controlled by storing a part of return flows in some evaporation ponds. Available surface water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits are determined using a non-linear multi-objective optimization model. Total available permits are then fairly reallocated among agricultural water users, proportional to their arable lands. Water users can trade their water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits simultaneously, in a bilateral, step by step framework, which takes advantage of differences in their water use efficiencies and agricultural return flow rates. A trade that would take place at each time step results in either more benefit or less diverted return flow. The Nucleolus cooperative game is used to redistribute the benefits generated through trades in different time steps. The proposed methodology is applied to PayePol region in the Karkheh River catchment, southwest Iran. Predicting that 1922.7 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) of annual flow is available to agricultural lands at the beginning of the cultivation year, the real-time optimization model estimates the total annual benefit to reach 46.07 million US Dollars (USD), which requires 6.31 MCM of return flow to be diverted to the evaporation ponds. Fair reallocation of the permits, changes these values to 35.38 million USD and 13.69 MCM, respectively. Results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the real-time water and waste load allocation and simultaneous trading of permits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  8. Why does Colombia lack agricultural commodity futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Moreno-Alemay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons why futures contracts are not traded as an alternative to price hedging for agricultural goods in Colombia. Based on surveys, interviews and statistical analysis, this study identified that conceptual gaps in contract negotiation, lack of consensus in the agricultural sector regarding the use of financial mechanisms and the sector’s infrequent contact with Colombia’s financial institutions, are the main reasons why a futures contracts market has not emerged.

  9. Policy and Ethics In Agricultural and Ecological Water Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, Bo

    natural resource scarcity. International food trade could provide a powerful means to enhance food security and address water scarcity. However agricultural trade rounds and agreements continues to be dominated by discerning policies that have in general failed do reflect the need for global solidarity and give necessary attention to social and environmental non -trade issues in poor countries. In conclusion the broader dialogue on water and agriculture based on enhanced solidarity will depend on how the society can successfully address, clarify and agree on a number of critical ethical issues. These are related not only to the debate on population, but to approaches to scarcity diagnosis, perceived conflicting objectives of development and biodiversity, reconciliation and implementation of global and domestic water policy and finally an internationally broad-minded and responsible approach to int ernational agricultural trade.

  10. North American trade growth continued in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Trade between the United States and its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partnersCanada and Mexicohas more than doubled in dollar value since the inception of NAFTA in 1994. In 2007, U.S. trade with Canada and Mexico reached $909 bil...

  11. Importance of intrastat in EU intra-Community trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of Intrastat and Eurostat for mutual trade with goods between EU countries and third countries. It informs about the importance of statistical data for all legal forms of trade companies, multinational companies, public administration institutions and service businesses. It points out that accepting the Czech Republic as a member of EU changed the use of terminology in foreign trade. For goods transactions between EU member states the terms sending and receiving are used, whereas the traditional terminology export – import is used for foreign trade with the third countries.Paper describes legal regulations including the instructions for statistical data records, specifically the Directive of the European parliament and Council No. 638/2004, appended by the Commission directive No. 1980/2004 and Public notice of the Czech statistical office from 18th May, 2005. Based on the retrospective view it shows the development of legal regulation and the importance of quo­ted directive for determining and recording statistical data. It notifies that statistical data are necessary for recognition of the course of integration of the internal market, formation of agricultural policy and adopting anti-dumping measures. Paper acquaints with organisation of statistics within the Euro­pean Union. It also notifies that statistical system includes also the countries of Iceland, Norway, and Liechtenstein.Results of foreign trade in 2007 show the involvement of the Czech Republic in mutual trade with the EU countries, to which 85.22 % of the total value of exported goods was sent, which represents the amount of CZK 194 056 per inhabitant of the Czech Republic. In the same year, goods of the total share of 69.90 % was received from the EU countries, which represents the amount of CZK 162 021 per inhabitant. Our most important trade partner is Germany, with which we have reached the turnover of CZK 1 429 986. According to

  12. Agriculture 2008. The critical agrarian report. Main topic 2008: Agriculture as an energy producer; Landwirtschaft 2008. Der kritische Agrarbericht. Schwerpunkt 2008: Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Fink-Kessler, A.; Stodieck, F. (comps.)

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the critical agrarian report in this year is the topic 'agriculture as an energy producer'. In 44 contributions, the agrarian events of the year 2007 are analyzed and the setting the points for the future are discussed. The topics of this report are: Agricultural policy and social situation, world trade and nutrition, ecological agriculture, production and market, regional market, regional development, nature and environment, forest, animal protection and animal husbandry, genetic engineering, agrarian culture, consumer and nourishing culture.

  13. Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Huanguang; Huang, Jikun; Yang, Jun [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 11, Datun Road, Anwai, Beijing 100101 (China); Rozelle, Scott [Shorenstein Asia Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 95305 (United States); Zhang, Yuhua; Zhang, Yanli [Institute of Rural Energy and Environmental Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, No. 41, Maizidian Street, Chaoyang, Beijing 100026 (China); Zhang, Yahui [Center of International Cooperative, Ministry of Agriculture of China, No. 55, Nongzhan Beilu, Chaoyang, Beijing 100026 (China)

    2010-01-15

    China is now the third largest bioethanol producer in the world after the United State and Brazil. The overall goals of this paper are to provide an overview of China's current bioethanol program, its future trend, and the likely impacts on its agricultural economy in the future. The analysis shows that China has developed an ambitious long-run biofuel program with a series of financial and institutional supports. While there are several potential feedstock crops available for bioethanol production, lack of land for feedstock production is one of major constraints in China's bioethanol expansion. The results show that although China's bioethanol expansion will have little impacts on overall agricultural prices in international markets, it will have significant impacts on the prices, productions, and trade of those energy crops being used for bioethanol production in China. (author)

  14. NOx emission trade. What is the state-of-the-art?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkamp, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Leiden, Netherlands, 28 November 2002, a symposium was organized on the subject of NOx emission trade in preparation of a NOx emission trade system. In this article an overview is given of the developments so far [nl

  15. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts.

  16. Democratic discussion in newspaper reporting of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Robbie

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a Habermasian analysis of newspaper reporting of the debate surrounding the effect of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (the FTA) on access to medicines through Australian patent law. Habermas's concept of the public sphere is utilised in determining whether discussion within the print media adequately conveyed complex legal issues to the public and facilitated democratic discussion. It was found that newspaper reporting generally failed to meet this standard.

  17. WTO’s Implications on Agriculture Sector in Pakistan: Threats, Opportunities and Possible Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ullah Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The WTO trading system is a fact of life. This is only organization which can manage the challenges of globalization. There are both opportunities and threats for the member states in relation to different sectors of economy like agriculture. This paper examines that Pakistan has a great potential to produce and export agricultural commodities in the international markets. In order to achieve maximum benefits from the WTO, Pakistan has to take strong and immediate steps in the light of SPS and TBT Agreement that are germane with agriculture sector. In this connection Pakistan has achieved GSP+ status by European Union which gives a great opportunity to Pakistan to improve its agricultural standards and enhance its export in European agricultural markets. The paper also recommends some possible solutions to improve the agriculture standards in Pakistan. In all countries farming system play a very important role for increasing crop production and strengthen the economy of the country. Government sector should also play a vital role to educate the farmers with new planting techniques and strategic plans for the production of good quality disease free crops. Based on results and conclusion development of extension program, utilization of proper management techniques, utilization of high quality seed, government support, infrastructure and market opportunities are the dire need for farmers and agriculture of Pakistan.

  18. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  19. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington; Arik Levinson; Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements.' The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a ...

  20. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington, Arik Levinson, and Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a "careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements." The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a...

  1. Mapping environmental land use conflict potentials and ecosystem services in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilkwon; Arnhold, Sebastian

    2018-07-15

    In mountainous watersheds, agricultural land use cause changes in ecosystem services, with trade-offs between crop production and erosion regulation. Management of these watersheds can generate environmental land use conflicts among regional stakeholders with different interests. Although several researches have made a start in mapping land use conflicts between human activities and conservation, spatial assessment of land use conflicts on environmental issues and ecosystem service trade-offs within agricultural areas has not been fully considered. In this study, we went further to map land use conflicts between agricultural preferences for crop production and environmental emphasis on erosion regulation. We applied an agricultural land suitability index, based on multi-criteria analysis, to estimate the spatial preference of agricultural activities, while applying the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to reflect the environmental importance of soil erosion. Then, we classified the agricultural catchment into four levels of land use conflicts (lowest, low, high and highest) according to preference and importance of farmland areas, and we compared the classes by crop type. Soil loss in agricultural areas was estimated as 45.1thayr, and agricultural suitability as 0.873; this indicated that land use conflicts in the catchment could arise between severe soil erosion (environmental importance) and agricultural suitability (land preferences). Dry-field farms are mainly located in areas of low land use conflict level, where land preference outweighs environmental importance. When we applied farmland management scenarios with consideration of services, conversion to highest-conflict areas (Scenario 1) as 7.5% of the total area could reduce soil loss by 24.6%, while fallow land management (Scenario 2) could decrease soil loss 19.4% more than the current scenario (Business as usual). The result could maximize land management plans by extracting issues of spatial

  2. Agricultural subsidies in the United States and their effect on two annual Chilean crops: corn and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Osorio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The development strategies for Chile have been oriented toward a greater commercial openness. Chile and the United States signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA that has triggered controversies between producers directed to the internal market due to the production and export subsidies that this country carries out. This study analyzed the effect of subsidies granted by the United States to wheat (Tritricum aestivum and corn (Zea mays growers (Farm Bill 2002. For the study, Technical Standard sheet were drawn up, from which were determined the direct production costs and the gross margins. The variables used (market prices, subsidies, freight costs and tariffs and determining the average variable costs allowed us to do a sensitivity analysis, thus establishing the minimum level of production that national farmers must achieve in order to maintain competitiveness while a free trade is in force. The signing of a trade agreement could provoke the eventual withdrawal of many Chilean producers from the business arena while at the same time, favoring consumers with lower prices for the goods derived from these grains.

  3. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    that even though liberalising trade in products supplied by such a fishery might cause steady-state welfare reductions in the supplier countries, these welfare reductions are small compared to the welfare gains from a hypothetical change to optimal management. Hence, the introduction of better fisheries......Recent research has warned that liberalising trade in capture fish products originating from inefficiently managed fisheries might cause over-exploitation, reduced fish stocks and thereby a reduced steady-state of welfare. This paper qualifies the warning in a case study of the East Baltic cod...... market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown...

  4. 75 FR 6883 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... Division 29 CFR Part 501 Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States; Final Rule... Division 29 CFR Part 501 RIN 1205-AB55 Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United... of the alien in such labor or services will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of...

  5. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  6. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Service (FAS) has denied a petition (No. 2011017) for trade adjustment assistance for apples filed under..., using data for the most recent, full marketing year or full official marketing season, a greater than 15... marketing period, contributed importantly to the decrease in one of the above factors for the agricultural...

  7. Agriculture and natural resources in a changing world - the role of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, T.; Havlík, P.; Schneider, U. A.; Kindermann, G.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. Against the background of resource sustainability and food security topics, this study integrates the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management into a global land use model. It represents a first large scale assessment of agricultural water use under explicit consideration of alternative irrigation options in their particular biophysical, economic, and technical context, accounting for international trade, motivation-based farming, and quantified aggregated impacts on land scarcity, water scarcity, and food supply. The inclusion of technical and economic aspects of irrigation choice into an integrated land use modeling framework provides new insights into the interdisciplinary trade-offs between determinants of global land use change. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and agricultural water use, but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress in agriculture, predicted population and income levels for 2030 would require substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food to equilibrate supply and demand.

  8. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  9. The impact of crude oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using cointegration tests. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined. (author)

  10. The positive influence of state agricultural marketing programs on adults' fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Elizabeth A; Burton, Scot; Newman, Christopher L; Faupel, Michel A

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether state-sponsored agricultural marketing programs had a positive influence on adult consumers' fruit and vegetable consumption. Differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between 2000 and 2005 in states that initiated marketing campaigns during this period and those that did not were examined. A representative sample (n  =  237,320) of adults aged 18 and older from states with and without marketing programs was used. The study used data from the 2000 and 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The number of fruit and vegetable servings per week and the percentage of respondents consuming five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day were examined. Between-subjects analysis of variance and logistic regression. In the absence of a marketing campaign, there was a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption between 2000 and 2005. In states with campaigns, consumption remained stable or increased. Marketing effects were stronger for women than for men. Conclusions . State-sponsored agricultural marketing programs had favorable effects on consumers' consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  11. Industrial use of agricultural products: European prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchini, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first discusses how the GATT internal trade agreement has affected Italian and European agricultural practices, especially in that which regards the production of soybean and other vegetable oils. It then assesses how current Italian agricultural policies impact on proposals now being designed to encourage the production of vegetable oils for use as ecological automotive fuel alternatives. The paper cites the need for a greater say by farming associations, and cooperation among fuel oil producers and government bodies in the drafting up of future policies

  12. Marketing of plantain in Owerri agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the marketing of plantain in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to determine the rural- urban price ratio (farmers share) of plantain marketing in the study area. Data were collected from 60 traders from four markets in Owerri area namely: Eke Ukwu Owerri, ...

  13. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  14. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  15. Evaluating of foreign trade security

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyliev Andriy

    2015-01-01

    A method of evaluating foreign trade security is considered based on horizontally integrated approach to research security issues, taking into account the conditions of management, factors, components and levels of external security. The work was based theories of security, economics, management theory, practice of state regulation of foreign trade.

  16. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  17. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 The Management of Knowledge in Trade Policy: The Case of Uruguay ...... or from a prime trading partner (as with the United States in Ecuador's case) so that they could ...... Foreign Ministry, Economy, Industry, Livestock, Tourism Ministries.

  18. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  19. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  20. Something Rational in the State of Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Markus; Sharp, Paul Richard

    considered Danish trade policy somewhat irrational, that Denmark was right to remain outside. She had little to gain from concluding treaties, since her main trading partners offered free trade for her exports, agricultural goods, and she needed her own tariffs for revenue purposes....

  1. Going against the flow: a critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India's national river linking programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Shilp; Kampman, Doeke A.; van der Zaag, Pieter; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water rich

  2. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... security of goods in the care and custody of the licensee. The personnel conducting the examinations will..., Warehouse Operations Program Manager, FSA, United States Department of Agriculture, Mail Stop 0553, 1400... continuing compliance with the standards of approval and operation. FSA will conduct examinations of licensed...

  3. Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jane M.-F.; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Weyers, Sharon Lachnicht; Reicosky, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O. It can also be a sink for CO 2 through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH 4 consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N 2 O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH 4 and N 2 O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint. - Management options can be used to reduce agriculture's environmental impacts

  4. IMPACTO DEL TLCAN EN EL COMERCIO AGRÃ COLA

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a comprehensive trade liberalizing agreement among Canada, Mexico, and the United States. This is especially true for Agricultural trade between Mexico, and the United States. Agricultural trade barriers between Mexico and the United States were completely eliminated on January 1, 2008. The agreement facilitates cross-border investment, phytosanitary standards, cooperation regarding the environment and labor, and set up a dispute resolution p...

  5. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  6. U.S. international trade in transportation-related goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Trade in motor vehicles and parts makes up three : of every four dollars that the U.S. trades in : transportation-related goods. : Canada is the United States' leading trade partner : in transportation-related goods, followed by : Japan and Mexic...

  7. Optimal allocation of physical water resources integrated with virtual water trade in water scarce regions: A case study for Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quanliang; Li, Yi; Zhuo, La; Zhang, Wenlong; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2018-02-01

    This study provides an innovative application of virtual water trade in the traditional allocation of physical water resources in water scarce regions. A multi-objective optimization model was developed to optimize the allocation of physical water and virtual water resources to different water users in Beijing, China, considering the trade-offs between economic benefit and environmental impacts of water consumption. Surface water, groundwater, transferred water and reclaimed water constituted the physical resource of water supply side, while virtual water flow associated with the trade of five major crops (barley, corn, rice, soy and wheat) and three livestock products (beef, pork and poultry) in agricultural sector (calculated by the trade quantities of products and their virtual water contents). Urban (daily activities and public facilities), industry, environment and agriculture (products growing) were considered in water demand side. As for the traditional allocation of physical water resources, the results showed that agriculture and urban were the two predominant water users (accounting 54% and 28%, respectively), while groundwater and surface water satisfied around 70% water demands of different users (accounting 36% and 34%, respectively). When considered the virtual water trade of eight agricultural products in water allocation procedure, the proportion of agricultural consumption decreased to 45% in total water demand, while the groundwater consumption decreased to 24% in total water supply. Virtual water trade overturned the traditional components of water supplied from different sources for agricultural consumption, and became the largest water source in Beijing. Additionally, it was also found that environmental demand took a similar percentage of water consumption in each water source. Reclaimed water was the main water source for industrial and environmental users. The results suggest that physical water resources would mainly satisfy the consumption

  8. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land: a case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217; Tabeau, A.; Hilbert, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  9. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land—A case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, E.; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hilbert, Jorge; Faaij, André

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  10. The Evolution of the Romanian Trade Balance in the Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzea Elena Ramona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyse the evolution of the trade balance of Romania with the European Union Member States during the 22 years of transition from a centralised system to a democratic economic and social system and an efficient market economy. Nearly 25 years after the events of 1989, Romania has made great steps in order to resettle the entire economic system and to transform it into a functional one. However, the path was filled with inconsistent decisions and with a repositioning of the trajectory dictated by internal or external pressures. The research focuses on a brief analysis of the evolution of the trade between Romania and the EU Member States to determine the effect the integration had on the structural discrepancies between exports and imports.

  11. The Agriculture Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is a distributed climate-scenario simulation exercise for historical model intercomparison and future climate change conditions with participation of multiple crop and world agricultural trade modeling groups around the world. The goals of AgMIP are to improve substantially the characterization of risk of hunger and world food security due to climate change and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. Historical period results will spur model improvement and interaction among major modeling groups, while future period results will lead directly to tests of adaptation and mitigation strategies across a range of scales. AgMIP will consist of a multi-scale impact assessment utilizing the latest methods for climate and agricultural scenario generation. Scenarios and modeling protocols will be distributed on the web, and multi-model results will be collated and analyzed to ensure the widest possible coverage of agricultural crops and regions. AgMIP will place regional changes in agricultural production in a global context that reflects new trading opportunities, imbalances, and shortages in world markets resulting from climate change and other driving forces for food supply. Such projections are essential inputs from the Vulnerability, Impacts, and Adaptation (VIA) research community to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment (AR5), now underway, and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. They will set the context for local-scale vulnerability and adaptation studies, supply test scenarios for national-scale development of trade policy instruments, provide critical information on changing supply and demand for water resources, and elucidate interactive effects of climate change and land use change. AgMIP will not only provide crucially-needed new global estimates of how climate change will affect food supply and hunger in the

  12. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  13. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  14. Agricultural policy and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1999-01-01

    Future agricultural and rural development is, to a large extent, influenced by the projected food needs of 2.5 billion people expected to swell the world population by 2020. This increase will require more food in general and, in view of recent experience in East Asia, more animal products. To achieve this increase will require judicious use of resources, and trade, especially in those countries where natural resources are insufficient to support food production. Achieving food sufficiency in a sustainable manner is a major challenge for farmers, agro-industries, researchers and governments. The latter play an important role as many of the farmers' choices are, to a large extent, directed by government or supra-government, often through macro- and micro-economic policy. In many countries the economic, environmental, trade and agricultural policies have not been conducive to an agricultural development that is risk-free with respect to the environment, animal welfare or public health. The recent decline of government support in agriculture forced farmers in Western countries to think about more risk adverse agricultural practices and more efficient production systems. On the other hand, many countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as other developing countries, are still going through a painful process of adjustment to new market conditions. International banks and development agencies have a mandate to help developing countries, but are somewhat restricted both by needing to work directly with governments and by their perceived dogmatic approach to development. Changing policies do, now and in the future, also affect the development of animal disease control programmes, including the control of parasitic diseases. On the one hand there is an increasing interest in risk-free control practices, and on the other hand a demand for greater regulatory control over the production process. As parasitic diseases of animals are closely linked to the

  15. The Doha Talks and the Bargaining Surplus in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Furtan, William Hartley; Guzel, A.; Karantininis, Kostas

    2007-01-01

    The Doha Round has been slow to achieve a reduction in the level of agricultural protection. This remains the case notwithstanding the substantial economic benefits that would arise from a more liberal agricultural trading regime. We provide one explanation for this slowness using a simple bargaining model. We demonstrate that the bargaining countries received a substantial fiscal gain from reducing government expenditures in the run-up to the Uruguay Round. This fiscal pressure was sufficien...

  16. OPENING GLOBAL MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURE: THE NEXT WTO ROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Sumner, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    More open international markets benefit the economy as a whole, as well as most U.S. agricultural producers. The Uruguay Round Agreement laid out a useful framework. Specifically addressed here is why the key to further liberalizing agricultural trade is reduction of tariffs as comprehensively and rapidly as politics will allow. Other issues such as export subsidies, tariff-rate quota quantities, and developing-country relationships are also important, especially while tariffs are coming down...

  17. Water conservation through trade: the case of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprint of Kenya from both production and consumption perspectives and estimates the country’s virtual water export and import. Kenya’s virtual water export related to trade in agricultural products was 4.1 km3/y; its virtual water import was 4.0 km3/y. The

  18. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  19. Carbon savings with transatlantic trade in pellets: accounting for market-driven effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Dwivedi, Puneet; Abt, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Exports of pellets from the United States (US) are growing significantly to meet the demand for renewable energy in the European Union. This transatlantic trade in pellets has raised questions about the greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of these pellets and their effects on conventional forest product markets in the US. This paper examines the GHG intensity of pellets exported from the US using either forest biomass only or forest and agricultural biomass combined. We develop an integrated dynamic, price-endogenous, partial equilibrium model of the forestry, agricultural, and transportation sectors in the US to investigate not only the direct life-cycle GHG intensity of pellets but also the accompanying indirect market and land use effects induced by changes in prices of forest and agricultural products over the 2007–2032 period. Across different scenarios of high and low pellet demand that can be met with either forest biomass only or with forest and agricultural biomass, we find that the GHG intensity of pellet based electricity is 74% to 85% lower than that of coal-based electricity. We also find that the GHG intensity of pellets produced using agricultural and forest biomass is 28% to 34% lower than that of pellets produced using forest biomass only. GHG effects due to induced direct and indirect changes in forest carbon stock caused by changes in harvest rotations, changes in land use and in conventional wood production account for 11% to 26% of the overall GHG intensity of pellets produced from forest biomass only; these effects are negative with the use of forest and agricultural biomass. (letter)

  20. 76 FR 6095 - Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... options authorized under Sec. 32.4 (e.g. options on coffee, sugar, cocoa, and other agricultural products...) imposing clearing and trade execution requirements on standardized derivative products; (3) creating robust..., soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice (but not onions). \\22...

  1. Research on Agricultural Product Options Pricing Based on Lévy Copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    China is a large agricultural country, and the healthy development of agriculture is related to the stability of the whole society. With the advancement of modern agriculture and the expansion of agricultural scale, the demand for farmers to avoid market risks is increasingly urgent. Option trading has the effect of attracting farmers’ intervention, promoting order agriculture development, perfecting agricultural support policy and promoting the development of agricultural futures market. Relative to the futures, the option transaction because the margin is low, reducing the trader’s entry threshold, you can make more small and medium investors to participate. This is not only active in the futures market, but also for many small and medium investors to provide effective financial management tools.

  2. Agricultural Land Use Change after NAFTA in Central West Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalcóatl Orozco-Ramírez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that agricultural land use change and modernization in agricultural production techniques are related to the loss of crop diversity. Two processes contribute to this loss; first is the replacement of landraces by modern varieties, and second is the abandonment of traditional crops in favor of cash crops. We studied the expression of these processes in a region that is both an agro-biodiversity and cultural center and one of the most significant fruit exporters of Mexico. We analyzed agricultural change based on the transformation of cropping areas and the primary crops’ locations in Michoacán state. We examined the crop-harvested area statistics from 1950 to 2015, and identified 23 crops as the most important in terms of harvested area and monetary value. After NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement, harvested area for nine crops changed significantly: seven crops increased, and two decreased. Positive trends were observed for commercial fruits oriented to export markets, and negative trends were observed for traditional crops. These crops, such as beans and maize, are important for food security. Additionally, we analyzed how these land-use and agricultural changes overlap in zones of maize planted-area change. Using a maize-race collection database, we identified three native maize races that could be at risk due to the abandonment of maize in favor of commercial crops.

  3. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzadilla, A.; Rehdanz, K.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international

  4. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  5. A study on agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level in a highly irrigated and intensely cropped state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C S; Yadav, Manoj; Mohammed Ahamed, J; Laxman, B; Prawasi, R; Sesha Sai, M V R; Hooda, R S

    2015-03-01

    Drought is an important global hazard, challenging the sustainable agriculture and food security of nations. Measuring agricultural drought vulnerability is a prerequisite for targeting interventions to improve and sustain the agricultural performance of both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this study, crop-generic agricultural drought vulnerability status is empirically measured through a composite index approach. The study area is Haryana state, India, a prime agriculture state of the country, characterised with low rainfall, high irrigation support and stable cropping pattern. By analysing the multiyear rainfall and crop condition data of kharif crop season (June-October) derived from satellite data and soil water holding capacity and groundwater quality, nine contributing indicators were generated for 120 blocks (sub-district administrative units). Composite indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components were generated after assigning variance-based weightages to the respective input indicators. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was developed through a linear combination of the three component indices. ADVI-based vulnerability categorisation revealed that 51 blocks are with vulnerable to very highly vulnerable status. These blocks are located in the southern and western parts of the state, where groundwater quality is saline and water holding capacity of soils is less. The ADVI map has effectively captured the spatial pattern of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state. Districts with large number of vulnerable blocks showed considerably larger variability of de-trended crop yields. Correlation analysis reveals that crop condition variability, groundwater quality and soil factors are closely associated with ADVI. The vulnerability index is useful to prioritise the blocks for implementation of long-term drought management plans. There is scope for improving the methodology by adding/fine-tuning the indicators and

  6. ASEAN’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Leu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a diversification explanation in order understand the development of PTAs in Southeast Asia. I argue that an important reason why ASEAN states participate in PTAs has been to diversify existing trade ties and to reduce overdependence on a narrow range of export markets. Southeast Asian countries have formed PTAs with markets with which they had weak or unexplored economic relations, as demonstrated by three case analyses: the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA, the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA and the ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (AJCEP. To maximise the economic gains and the diversification effects of PTA participation, ASEAN countries have pursued a strategy of strengthening economic unity while keeping external economic linkages as diversified as possible. Although East Asia, and especially China, was an important alternative market to reduce ASEAN’s dependence on trade with America, ASEAN countries have also pursued PTAs with a number of other trading partners. This paper explains how PTAs have helped ASEAN states to develop more policy autonomy in their trading environment.

  7. Among other strategies of control and domination: state, agriculture and settlement in the nineteenth century Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francivaldo Alves Nunes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the relationship between the discourse built around agriculture and colonization, characterized by the moralization of society under the rule of the imperial state. Based on government reports and expeditions, we try to show how these values, associated with agricultural activity, required the State a performance not only to maintain order, but as institution promoting social politics that would elevate the habits of people in the Amazon. The understanding is that it was not a State which claimed only by using military forces, but took its authority to the interior of the provinces of Para and Amazonas by using a discourse of order promotion, modernity and civilization.

  8. Self-Sufficiency versus Security: How Trade Protectionism Challenges the Sustainability of the Food Supply in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii Erokhin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security is increasingly influenced by multilateral trade systems and foreign trade policies implemented by national governments. Many of them are now concerned about the sustainability of food supply and the vulnerability of domestic food markets to price volatility, and seek to support domestic producers and protect themselves from increasing food imports. Such restrictions improve food self-sufficiency, but decrease food security. It is important to understand any changes that may have occurred in the food consumption pattern due to trade protectionism and to observe any nutritional implications of these changes. This paper employs the rational food security (RFS assessment approach, which differentiates sources of food supply on the domestic market, assesses the influence of agricultural and trade frameworks on food consumption patterns, and complies consumption with the appropriate food intake threshold. In the case of Russia, the study demonstrates that the conventional consumption approach to self-sufficiency (FSCA underestimates the food insecurity level by not accounting for nutrition factors. In addition, the gap between the FSCA and the RFS increases in times of protectionist trade policy and decreases when the agricultural and trade policy framework turns to liberalization. The paper concludes that trade protectionism challenges the sustainability of food supply by decreasing food availability and quality of food products, causes dietary changes, and threatens the food security of the country.

  9. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    One of the lessons of Chernobyl is that farming is vulnerable to the effects of a nuclear accident hundreds, even thousands, of miles away from the site. Therefore plans are needed for countermeasures that can reduce contamination of agricultural produce, regardless of whether or not a country has its own nuclear programme. The plans need to specify radiation levels for foods and feedstuffs at which intervention is necessary and to include a range of countermeasures to be taken to protect agriculture under a range of possible post-accident situations. The FAO/WHO Codes Alimentarius Commission has developed international standards for radionuclides contamination to be applied to food moving in international trade. The intervention levels are based on a number of conservative assumptions to be confident that there will be essentially no effect over a lifetime of exposure. An important purpose of agricultural countermeasures is to maximize the quantity of food produced which passes intervention criteria. The present report discusses how the Joint FAO/IAEA programme on nuclear techniques in food and agriculture has approached agricultural countermeasures

  10. A National Scale Sustainable Agriculture Matrix of Indicators to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The ratification of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by all member countries of the United Nations demonstrates the determination of the international community in moving towards a sustainable future. To enable and encourage accountability, independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability efforts are essential. Among all sectors, agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, namely environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of a sustainable agriculture and the feasibility of measuring it remain elusive, in part because it encompasses both biophysical and socio-economic components that are still poorly integrated. Therefore, we have been developing a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) on a national scale in order to measure country-level performance in agriculture. First proposed by Swaminathan for agricultural research and policy in 1990s, SAM is a collection of indicators measuring sustainable agriculture from environmental, social, and economic dimensions. The environmental dimension evaluates various impacts of agricultural production on the environment, such as water consumption and nutrient pollution. The economic dimension quantifies the costs and benefits for major stakeholders involved in agricultural production, including government, industry, farmers, and consumers. The social dimension considers three major aspects: 1) social welfare (e.g., hunger and poverty rate, nutritional quality, demography of rural community); 2) equity over sectors, space, and gender (e.g., access to resources/services and opportunities, distribution of income, land ownership and tenure rights); 3) systemic risk (e.g., fragility of the global agricultural production and trade system, resilience of a farm or a country to market and natural shocks). Translating the illustrative concepts into measureable indicators will not only provide an independent and transparent measurement of national performance in the

  11. Division of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Natural Resources logo, color scheme Department of Natural Resources Division of Agriculture Search Search DNR's site DNR State of Alaska Toggle main menu visibility Agriculture Home Programs Asset Disposals Alaska Caps Progam Board of Agriculture & Conservation Farm To School Program Grants

  12. Trade Policies, Exchange Rate and Developing Country’s Real Sector Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Edeme, Richardson Kojo; Nkalu, Nelson C.; Emecheta, Chisom; Ugwu, Sam

    2017-01-01

    For developing countries like Nigeria, empirical evidence have shown they are faced with policy management challenge because they are mostly involved in the production and export of primary products which is often characterized by unfavourable terms of trade. The essence of this study therefore is to ascertain if trade and exchange rate policies complement each other in stimulating non-oil exports, especially the agricultural and manufacturing sectors, using both aggregated and disaggregated ...

  13. Biofuels and the Greater Mekong Subregion: Assessing the impact on prices, production and trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Jikun; Qiu, Huanguang [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Jia 11, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Rozelle, Scott [Freeman Spogli Institute of International Studies, Stanford University, East Encina Hall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sombilla, Mercy A. [Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, College, Laguna 4031 (Philippines)

    2009-11-15

    Similar to many other countries, all nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have planned or are planning to develop strong national biofuel programs. The overall goal of this paper is to better understand the impacts of global and regional biofuels on agriculture and the rest of the economy, with a specific focus on the GMS. Based on a modified multi-country, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, this study reveals that global biofuel development will significantly increase agricultural prices and production and change trade in agricultural commodities in the GMS and the rest of world. While biofuel in the GMS will have little impacts on global prices, it will have significant effects on domestic agricultural production, land use, trade, and food security. The results also show that the extent of impacts from biofuel is highly dependent on international oil prices and the degree of substitution between biofuel and gasoline. The findings of this study have important policy implications for the GMS countries and the rest of world. (author)

  14. Biofuels and the Greater Mekong Subregion: Assessing the impact on prices, production and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Jikun; Qiu, Huanguang; Rozelle, Scott; Sombilla, Mercy A.

    2009-01-01

    Similar to many other countries, all nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have planned or are planning to develop strong national biofuel programs. The overall goal of this paper is to better understand the impacts of global and regional biofuels on agriculture and the rest of the economy, with a specific focus on the GMS. Based on a modified multi-country, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, this study reveals that global biofuel development will significantly increase agricultural prices and production and change trade in agricultural commodities in the GMS and the rest of world. While biofuel in the GMS will have little impacts on global prices, it will have significant effects on domestic agricultural production, land use, trade, and food security. The results also show that the extent of impacts from biofuel is highly dependent on international oil prices and the degree of substitution between biofuel and gasoline. The findings of this study have important policy implications for the GMS countries and the rest of world. (author)

  15. Introduction To U.S. Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gantz David A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This introduction explores the historical changes in the trade policies of the United States (U.S., namely, the shift from the support of multilateral rules to the embracement of regional trade agreements and provides an overview of the political and economic considerations behind the conclusion of the major U.S. free trade agreements.

  16. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCT RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF SLOVENE ORIGIN FOUND IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2008, 166 apple, bean, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, pear, potato and spinach samples from Slovene producers were analysed for plant protection product residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 158 different active compounds using three analytical methods. In two samples (1.2% exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs were determined which is better than the results of the monitoring of pesticide residues in the products of plant origin in the 27 European Union, Member States (EU MS and 2 European Free Trade Association (EFTA States: Norway and Iceland in 2008 (2.2%. The most frequently found active substance in agricultural products was dithiocarbamates. Products which contained 4 or more active substances per sample were apples and pears.

  18. Trade-Off and Synergy among Ecosystem Services in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Keyu; Li, Jing; Yang, Xiaonan

    2015-11-03

    Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With rapidly increasing populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans have been enhancing the production of some services at the expense of others. Although the need for certain trade-offs between conservation and development is urgent, having only a small number of efficient methods to assess such trade-offs has impeded progress. This study focuses on the evaluation of ecosystem services under different land use schemes. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of and changes in ecosystem services. Based on a correlation rate model and distribution mapping, the trade-offs and synergies of these ecosystem services can be found. Here, we also describe a new simple approach to quantify the relationships of every trade-off and synergy. The results show that all ecosystem services possess trade-offs and synergies in the study area. The trend of improving carbon sequestration and water interception indicate that these key ecosystem services have the strongest synergy. And the decrease in regional agricultural production and other services, except water yield, may be considered as trade-offs. The synergy between water yield and agricultural production was the most significant, while the trade-off between water interception and carbon sequestration was the most apparent, according to our interaction quantification model. The results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring the future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, and can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  19. Trade-Off and Synergy among Ecosystem Services in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyu Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With rapidly increasing populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans have been enhancing the production of some services at the expense of others. Although the need for certain trade-offs between conservation and development is urgent, having only a small number of efficient methods to assess such trade-offs has impeded progress. This study focuses on the evaluation of ecosystem services under different land use schemes. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of and changes in ecosystem services. Based on a correlation rate model and distribution mapping, the trade-offs and synergies of these ecosystem services can be found. Here, we also describe a new simple approach to quantify the relationships of every trade-off and synergy. The results show that all ecosystem services possess trade-offs and synergies in the study area. The trend of improving carbon sequestration and water interception indicate that these key ecosystem services have the strongest synergy. And the decrease in regional agricultural production and other services, except water yield, may be considered as trade-offs. The synergy between water yield and agricultural production was the most significant, while the trade-off between water interception and carbon sequestration was the most apparent, according to our interaction quantification model. The results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring the future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, and can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  20. Evaluating the effect of domestic support on international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Kirsten; Brockmeier, Martina; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    We use the Mercantilist Trade Restrictiveness Index (MTRI) to develop an extended index that measures the overall trade effects of domestic support payments in a general equilibrium framework environment. Our index is capable of analyzing the development of the trade restrictiveness of domestic...... support payments over time and across countries and of comparing these payments with other protection instruments. Furthermore, our index helps evaluate agricultural policy reforms that introduce changes into the composition of domestic support payments. We conduct this analysis with an extended version...... of the GTAP model and database using the EU as an example. Thus, we incorporate detailed EU domestic support payments taken from the OECD Producer Support Estimate (PSE) tables in the GTAP framework and reconcile PSE data with the WTO classification scheme. Although our index slightly increases from 2004...