WorldWideScience

Sample records for state x-ray image

  1. Soft x-ray imaging by a commercial solid-state television camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, I.; Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Yano, M.

    1987-01-01

    A commerical, solid-state television camera has been used to record images of soft x radiation (0.8--12 keV). The performance of the camera is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated compared with an x-ray photographic film (Kodak direct exposure film). In the application, the camera has been used to provide image patterns of x rays from laser-produced plasmas. It is demonstrated that the camera has several advantages over x-ray photographic film

  2. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  3. The present state and future development of X-ray imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Liang; Wang Xuben; Cao Hui

    2002-01-01

    Medical imaging has long been the hot topic of clinical medical sciences, the X-ray imaging equipment is a popular device of current medical imaging, and the digital imaging technology has become a challenge to the conventional plane imaging. The author first discusses that the key of X-ray-based imaging is the generator and detector of X-ray and the improvement of imaging software, and then points out that the future development of medical imaging will aim at the capability of reducing radiation and handling more efficient and accurate data capacity

  4. Comparison of x-ray computed tomography, through-transmission ultrasound, and low-kV x-ray imaging for characterizing green-state ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.A.; Ellingson, W.A.; Vannier, M.W.

    1985-06-01

    Green-state MgAl 2 O 4 compact disk specimens have been studied by x-ray computed tomography (CT), through-transmission pulsed ultrasound, and low-kV x-ray imaging to compare the abilities of these nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to detect flaws and density variations. X-ray computed tomographic images were obtained from a 125-kV (peak) imaging system with a 512 x 512 matrix and a pixel size of 100 μm. A 3- to 10- MHz focused-beam ultrasonic transducer was used, together with special immersion techniques, to obtain topographical maps of acoustic attenuation and phase velocity; a 30 x 30 matrix was used in the ultrasonic scans. A 35-kV x-ray system with high-resolution type RR film was used to obtain conventional radiographs. Large-scale nonuniform density gradients were detected with CT and ultrasonics in supposedly uniform ceramic disks. In addition, inclusions in the green-state samples were detected by all three methods, with each method providing certain advantages. The influence of grain structure and other ceramic powder characteristics will be examined in the future. 5 refs., 9 figs

  5. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  6. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  7. State of development and development trends of X-ray image intensifier television systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiler, M.; Haendle, J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a survey on the development of X-ray image intensifier television systems up to now, their further development is critically discussed with regard to the better image quality to be expected. The introduction of the high-resolving X-ray image intensifier already meant an improvement in image quality even though the television system remained the same. In the image intensifier television system, the distinguishability of small details suffers from noise effects. Therefore, a better image quality is especially advantageous in those ranges of application which allow a higher picture dose. 'Electronic' radiography, intermittent screening, co-storage of the spotfilm radiographs, videometry, video area kymography, and cardiac stroboscopy are examples some of which have already been tested in clinical practice. (orig./AK) [de

  8. State of the Art of X-ray Speckle-Based Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Zdora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging have evolved to be invaluable tools for non-destructive sample visualisation, delivering information inaccessible by conventional absorption imaging. X-ray phase-sensing techniques are furthermore increasingly used for at-wavelength metrology and optics characterisation. One of the latest additions to the group of differential phase-contrast methods is the X-ray speckle-based technique. It has drawn significant attention due to its simple and flexible experimental arrangement, cost-effectiveness and multimodal character, amongst others. Since its first demonstration at highly brilliant synchrotron sources, the method has seen rapid development, including the translation to polychromatic laboratory sources and extension to higher-energy X-rays. Recently, different advanced acquisition schemes have been proposed to tackle some of the main limitations of previous implementations. Current applications of the speckle-based method range from optics characterisation and wavefront measurement to biomedical imaging and materials science. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the X-ray speckle-based technique. Its basic principles and different experimental implementations as well as the the latest advances and applications are illustrated. In the end, an outlook for anticipated future developments of this promising technique is given.

  9. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Italy): Full field X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F. P.; Masini, N.; Pappalardo, L., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    A full field X-ray camera for the X-Ray Fluorescence imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution was designed and developed. The system was realized by coupling a pinhole collimator with a positionsensitive CCD detector. X-Ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube. The characteristic X-ray spectra of the investigated materials are obtained by using a multi-frames acquisition in single-photon counting. The energy resolution measured at the Fe-Kα line was 157 eV. The spatial resolution of the system was determined by the analysis of a sharp-edge at different magnification values; it was estimated to be 90 μm at a magnification value of 3.2x and 190 μm at 0.8x. The present set-up of the system is suited to analyze samples with dimensions up to 5x4 cm{sup 2}. Typical measurement time is in the range between 1h to 4 h. (author)

  10. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lin X; Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(ii) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were measured...... on the low-energy shoulder of the edge, which is aided by the computation of X-ray transitions for postulated excited electronic states. The observed and computed inner shell to valence orbital transition energies demonstrate and quantify the influence of the electronic configuration on specific metal...

  11. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  12. X-ray detectors in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahn, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare systems are subject to continuous adaptation, following trends such as the change of demographic structures, the rise of life-style related and chronic diseases, and the need for efficient and outcome-oriented procedures. This also influences the design of new imaging systems as well as their components. The applications of X-ray imaging in the medical field are manifold and have led to dedicated modalities supporting specific imaging requirements, for example in computed tomography (CT), radiography, angiography, surgery or mammography, delivering projection or volumetric imaging data. Depending on the clinical needs, some X-ray systems enable diagnostic imaging while others support interventional procedures. X-ray detector design requirements for the different medical applications can vary strongly with respect to size and shape, spatial resolution, frame rates and X-ray flux, among others. Today, integrating X-ray detectors are in common use. They are predominantly based on scintillators (e.g. CsI or Gd 2 O 2 S) and arrays of photodiodes made from crystalline silicon (Si) or amorphous silicon (a-Si) or they employ semiconductors (e.g. Se) with active a-Si readout matrices. Ongoing and future developments of X-ray detectors will include optimization of current state-of-the-art integrating detectors in terms of performance and cost, will enable the usage of large size CMOS-based detectors, and may facilitate photon counting techniques with the potential to further enhance performance characteristics and foster the prospect of new clinical applications

  13. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  14. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer for biological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi; Koyama, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, Akio [Hitachi Ltd., Advanced Research Laboratory, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The potential of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer is discussed comparing with other phase-contrast X-ray imaging methods, and its principle of contrast generation is presented including the case of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The status of current instrumentation is described and perspectives for practical applications are discussed. (author)

  15. MOS solid-state detector arrays for x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of MOS detector arrays were used to sense directly patterns of soft x-rays, in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory experimental laser-fusion program. A linear self-scanning photodiode array (SSPA) is used in a wave-length-dispersive spectrometer. A frame transfer charge-coupled device (CCD) facilitates the use of an x-ray microscope. Measurements and calculations of the x-ray sensitivity of these devices are presented. Their linearity and dynamic range are discussed, as well as data recovery systems for each detector. Experiences in using these devices to detect pulses of x-rays in laser-fusion experiments are described

  16. The design and imaging characteristics of dynamic, solid-state, flat-panel x-ray image detectors for digital fluoroscopy and fluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.; Davies, A.G.; Sivananthan, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic, flat-panel, solid-state, x-ray image detectors for use in digital fluoroscopy and fluorography emerged at the turn of the millennium. This new generation of dynamic detectors utilize a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material superimposed upon an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Dynamic solid-state detectors come in two basic designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor based). This review explains the underlying principles and enabling technologies associated with these detector designs, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing their performance against the long established x-ray image intensifier television (TV) system. Solid-state detectors afford a number of physical imaging benefits compared with the latter. These include zero geometrical distortion and vignetting, immunity from blooming at exposure highlights and negligible contrast loss (due to internal scatter). They also exhibit a wider dynamic range and maintain higher spatial resolution when imaging over larger fields of view. The detective quantum efficiency of indirect-conversion, dynamic, solid-state detectors is superior to that of both x-ray image intensifier TV systems and direct-conversion detectors. Dynamic solid-state detectors are playing a burgeoning role in fluoroscopy-guided diagnosis and intervention, leading to the displacement of x-ray image intensifier TV-based systems. Future trends in dynamic, solid-state, digital fluoroscopy detectors are also briefly considered. These include the growth in associated three-dimensional (3D) visualization techniques and potential improvements in dynamic detector design

  17. X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An improved real-time x-ray image intensifier tube of the proximity type used for medical x-ray fluoroscopy is described. It is claimed that this intensifier is of sufficient gain and resolution whilst remaining convenient to use and that the design is such that the patient dosage is minimized whilst the x-ray image information content at the scintillator-photocathode screen is maximized. (U.K.)

  18. Image analysis in x-ray cinefluorography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuse, J; Yasuhara, H; Sugimoto, H [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1979-02-01

    For the cinefluorographic image in the cardiovascular diagnostic system, the image quality is evaluated by means of MTF (Modulation Transfer Function), and object contrast by introducing the concept of x-ray spectrum analysis. On the basis of these results, further investigation is made of optimum X-ray exposure factors set for cinefluorography and the cardiovascular diagnostic system.

  19. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  20. X-ray image intensifier photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, K.; Angerstein, W.; Steinhardt, L.

    1980-01-01

    The present treatise on X-ray image intensifier photography starts with introductory remarks on the history of X-ray imaging and image intensifiers. In the physical-technological part especially the quality of image and the methods of its measurement are discussed in detail. The relevant equipment such as image intensifier cameras, X-ray television, video recorder and devices of display and evaluation of images are presented as well as problems of radiation doses and radiation protection. Based on 25,000 examinations of the digestive, the biliary and the urinary tract, resp., as well as of the blood vessels the applicability of the X-ray image intensifier photography and its diagnostic value are demonstrated in the medical part of the book

  1. The X-ray imager on AXO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2001-01-01

    DSRI has initiated a development program of CZT X-ray and gamma-ray detectors employing strip readout techniques. A dramatic improvement of the energy response was found operating the detectors as the so-called drift detectors. For the electronic readout, modern ASIC chips were investigated....... Modular design and the low-power electronics will make large area detectors using the drift strip method feasible. The performance of a prototype CZT system will be presented and discussed. One such detector system has been proposed for future space missions: the X-Ray Imager (XRI) on the Atmospheric X-ray...... Observatory (AXO), which is a mission proposed to the Danish Small Satellite Program and is dedicated to observations of X-ray generating processes in the Earth's atmosphere. Of special interest will be simultaneous optical and X-ray observations of sprites that are flashes appearing directly above an active...

  2. X-ray imaging: Status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, R.W.; Martz, H.E.; Hernandez, J.M.; Haskins, J.J.; Day, R.A.; Brase, J.M.; Cross, B.; Wherry, D.

    1987-08-01

    There is a veritable renaissance occurring in x-ray imaging. X-ray imaging by radiography has been a highly developed technology in medicine and industry for many years. However, high resolution imaging has not generally been practical because sources have been relatively dim and diffuse, optical elements have been nonexistent for most applications, and detectors have been slow and of low resolution. Materials analysis needs have therefore gone unmet. Rapid progress is now taking place because we are able to exploit developments in microelectronics and related material fabrication techniques, and because of the availability of intense x-ray sources. This report describes the methods and uses of x-ray imaging along with a discussion of technology advances in these areas

  3. X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    X-ray imaging is a standard tool for the non-destructive inspection of the internal structure of samples. It finds application in a vast diversity of fields: medicine, biology, many engineering disciplines, palaeontology and earth sciences are just few examples. The fundamental principle underpinning the image formation have remained the same for over a century: the X-rays traversing the sample are subjected to different amount of absorption in different parts of the sample. By means of phase-sensitive techniques it is possible to generate contrast also in relation to the phase shifts imparted by the sample and to extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging to those details that lack enough absorption contrast to be visualised in conventional radiography. A general overview of X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques is presented in this review, along with more recent advances in this fast evolving field and some examples of applications.

  4. Multi-phase imaging of intermittency at steady state using differential imaging method by X-ray micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Lin, Q.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    To observe intermittency in consolidated rock, we image a steady state flow of brine and decane in Bentheimer sandstone. We devise an experimental method based on X-ray differential imaging method to examine how changes in flow rate impact the pore-scale distribution of fluids during co-injection flow under dynamic flow conditions at steady state. This helps us elucidate the diverse flow regimes (connected, intermittent break-up, or continual break-up of the non-wetting phase pathways) for two capillary numbers. Also, relative permeability curves under both capillary and viscous limited conditions could be measured. We have performed imbibition sample floods using oil-brine and measured steady state relative permeability on a sandstone rock core in order to fully characterize the flow behaviour at low and high Ca. Two sets of experiments at high and low flow rates are provided to explore the time-evolution of the non-wetting phase clusters distribution under different flow conditions. The high flow rate is 0.5 mL/min, whose corresponding capillary number is 7.7×10-6. The low flow rate is 0.02 mL/min, whose capillary number is 3.1×10-7. A procedure based on using high-salinity brine as the contrast phase and applying differential imaging between the dry scan and that of the sample saturation with a 30 wt% Potassium iodide (KI) doped brine help to make sure there is no non-wetting phase in micro-pores. Then the intermittent phase in multiphase flow image at high Ca can be quantified by obtaining the differential image between the 30 wt% KI brine image and the scans that taken at each fixed fractional flow. By using the grey scale histogram distribution of the raw images at each condition, the oil proportion in the intermittent phase can be calculated. The pressure drops at each fractional flow at low and high Ca can be measured by high-precision pressure differential sensors and utilized to calculate to the relative permeability at pore scale. The relative

  5. Understanding X-ray cargo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongyin

    2005-01-01

    Cargo imaging is the field of imaging large objects, usually cargo containers, trains, trucks or boats. Transmission imaging with photons, especially X-rays of up to 9 MV is the dominant current technique, providing compelling details of the contents of objects this large. This paper discusses the physics aspects of a good X-ray cargo imaging system. The basic performance requirements, such as penetration, contrast and resolution and the components of a cargo imaging system are introduced. The imaging process is divided in this paper into three stages: forming information (probing the object), recording information and presenting information (image display). Their impact on performance is analyzed

  6. Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.; Zhong, Z.; Johnston, R.E.; Sayers, D.

    1997-09-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using synchrotron x-rays which produces images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. They show dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging applied to the same phantoms. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. The diffraction component and the apparent absorption component (absorption plus extinction contrast) can each be determined independently. This imaging method may improve the image quality for medical applications such as mammography

  7. High speed gated x-ray imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.; Bell, P.; Hanks, R.; Power, G.; Turner, R.E.; Wiedwald, J.

    1988-01-01

    Single and multi-frame gated x-ray images with time-resolution as fast as 150 psec are described. These systems are based on the gating of microchannel plates in a stripline configuration. The gating voltage comes from the avalanche breakdown of reverse biased p-n junction producing high power voltage pulses as short as 70 psec. Results from single and four frame x-ray cameras used on Nova are described. 8 refs., 9 figs

  8. Digital X-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying source voltage and filtering (predicting the required dynamic range for the detector); evaluating CsI:Tl, CdWO4 and scintillating glass as image converters; recommending image enhancement algorithms. The LLNL modeling results guided the design and experimental elements of the project. The Laboratory's unique array of sources and detectors was employed to resolve specific technical questions. Our image processing expertise was applied to the selection of enhancement tools for image display

  9. X-ray image subtracting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesbey, W.H.; Keyes, G.S.; Georges, J.-P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An X-ray image subtracting system for making low contrast structures in the images more conspicuous is described. An X-ray source projects successive high and low energy X-ray beam pulses through a body and the resultant X-ray images are converted to optical images. Two image pick-up devices such as TV cameras that have synchronously operated shutters receive the alternate images and convert them to corresponding analog video signals. In some embodiments, the analog signals are converted to a matrix of digital pixel signals that are variously processed and subtracted and converted to signals for driving a TV monitor display and analog storage devices. In other embodiments the signals are processed and subtracted in analog form for display. The high and low energy pulses can follow each other immediately so good registration between subtracted images is obtainable even though the anatomy is in motion. The energy levels of the X-ray pulses are chosen to maximize the difference in attenuation between the anatomical structure which is to be subtracted out and that which remains. (author)

  10. X-ray imaging with toroidal mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Sadao; Sakayanagi, Yoshimi

    1978-01-01

    X-ray imaging is made with a single toroidal mirror or two successive toroidal mirrors. Geometrical images at the Gaussian image plane are described by the ray trace. Application of a single toroidal mirror to small-angle scattering is presented. (author)

  11. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangxing; Martz, Harry; Glenn, Steven; Divin, Charles; Birrer, Nat

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  12. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  13. X-ray imaging with compound refractive lens and microfocus X-ray tube

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Ladislav; Dudchik, Yury; Jelinek, Vaclav; Sveda, Libor; Marsik, Jiri; Horvath, Martin; Petr, Ondrej

    2008-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses (CRL), consisting of a lot number in-line concave microlenses made of low-Z material were studied. Lenses with focal length 109 mm and 41 mm for 8-keV X-rays, microfocus X-ray tube and X-ray CCD camera were used in experiments. Obtained images show intensity distribution of magnified microfocus X-ray source focal spot. Within the experiments, one lens was also used as an objective lens of the X-ray microscope, where the copper anode X-ray microfocus tube served as a...

  14. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Gureyev, T.E.; Cookson, D.J.; Paganin, D.; Barnea, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. X-ray fluorescence imaging with polycapillary X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Tasuku; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Tsuji, Kouichi

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool to provide information about the chemical composition and elemental distribution of a specimen. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry images were conventionally obtained by using a μ-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry spectrometer, which requires scanning a sample. Faster X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging would be achieved by eliminating the process of sample scanning. Thus, we developed an X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging instrument without sample scanning by using polycapillary X-ray optics, which had energy filter characteristics caused by the energy dependence of the total reflection phenomenon. In the present paper, we show that two independent straight polycapillary X-ray optics could be used as an energy filter of X-rays for X-ray fluorescence. Only low energy X-rays were detected when the angle between the two optical axes was increased slightly. Energy-selective X-ray fluorescence spectrometry images with projection mode were taken by using an X-ray CCD camera equipped with two polycapillary optics. It was shown that Fe Kα (6.40 keV) and Cu Kα (8.04 keV) could be discriminated for Fe and Cu foils.

  16. The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Weisskopf

    Full Text Available The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE expands observation space by simultaneously adding polarization to the array of X-ray source properties currently measured (energy, time, and location. IXPE will thus open new dimensions for understanding how X-ray emission is produced in astrophysical objects, especially in systems under extreme physical conditions. Keywords: X-ray astronomy, X-ray polarimetry, X-ray imaging

  17. Multilayer X-ray imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, D. L.; Hoover, R. B.; Gabardi, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the imaging properties of multilayer X-ray imaging systems with spherical surfaces has been made. A ray trace analysis was performed to investigate the effects of using spherical substrates (rather than the conventional paraboloidal/hyperboloidal contours) for doubly reflecting Cassegrain telescopes. These investigations were carried out for mirrors designed to operate at selected soft X-ray/XUV wavelengths that are of significance for studies of the solar corona/transition region from the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Telescope. The effects of changes in separation of the primary and secondary elements were also investigated. These theoretical results are presented as well as the results of ray trace studies to establish the resolution and vignetting effects as a function of field angle and system parameters.

  18. Spectroscopic imaging, diffraction, and holography with x-ray photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    X-ray probes are capable of determining the spatial structure of an atom in a specific chemical state, over length scales from about a micron all the way down to atomic resolution. Examples of these probes include photoemission microscopy, energy-dependent photoemission diffraction, photoelectron holography, and X-ray absorption microspectroscopy. Although the method of image formation, chemical-state sensitivity, and length scales can be very different, these X-ray techniques share a common goal of combining a capability for structure determination with chemical-state specificity. This workshop will address recent advances in holographic, diffraction, and direct imaging techniques using X-ray photoemission on both theoretical and experimental fronts. A particular emphasis will be on novel structure determinations with atomic resolution using photoelectrons

  19. Spectroscopic imaging, diffraction, and holography with x-ray photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    X-ray probes are capable of determining the spatial structure of an atom in a specific chemical state, over length scales from about a micron all the way down to atomic resolution. Examples of these probes include photoemission microscopy, energy-dependent photoemission diffraction, photoelectron holography, and X-ray absorption microspectroscopy. Although the method of image formation, chemical-state sensitivity, and length scales can be very different, these X-ray techniques share a common goal of combining a capability for structure determination with chemical-state specificity. This workshop will address recent advances in holographic, diffraction, and direct imaging techniques using X-ray photoemission on both theoretical and experimental fronts. A particular emphasis will be on novel structure determinations with atomic resolution using photoelectrons.

  20. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi E-mail: momose@exp.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-21

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mmx20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  1. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-01

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mm×20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  2. Digital X-ray imager

    CERN Document Server

    LLNL &MedOptics Corporation

    1998-01-01

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying so...

  3. Healing X-ray scattering images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available X-ray scattering images contain numerous gaps and defects arising from detector limitations and experimental configuration. We present a method to heal X-ray scattering images, filling gaps in the data and removing defects in a physically meaningful manner. Unlike generic inpainting methods, this method is closely tuned to the expected structure of reciprocal-space data. In particular, we exploit statistical tests and symmetry analysis to identify the structure of an image; we then copy, average and interpolate measured data into gaps in a way that respects the identified structure and symmetry. Importantly, the underlying analysis methods provide useful characterization of structures present in the image, including the identification of diffuse versus sharp features, anisotropy and symmetry. The presented method leverages known characteristics of reciprocal space, enabling physically reasonable reconstruction even with large image gaps. The method will correspondingly fail for images that violate these underlying assumptions. The method assumes point symmetry and is thus applicable to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data, but only to a subset of wide-angle data. Our method succeeds in filling gaps and healing defects in experimental images, including extending data beyond the original detector borders.

  4. Amorphous silicon solid-state detectors and their future application in medical X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahn, M.; Alexander, J.; Gmeinwieser, J.

    1997-01-01

    With the goal of testing the new technology under clinical conditions, in a cooperation between Thomson Tubes Electroniques (Moirans, France) and the Siemens Medical Engineering Group the first a-Si detector prototypes have been developed. On the basis of these activities and together with another European partner the independent company Trixell S.A.S. was established. A technological prototype with a matrix size of 1k x 1k and a pixel size of 200 μm [4] was installed in 1995 in the Cardiology Department of the University Hospital in Freiburg (Germany). The system was designed to operate at 12.5 frames per seconds with full geometrical resolution and 25 frames per second with half the full geometrical resolution. In the clinical environment, both the high contrast and the good image impression, especially at cinematographic doses, was acknowledged. In this early stage of development, however, the signal-to-noise ratio was somewhat inferior to that of I.I.-TV systems at fluoroscopic doses. (orig.)

  5. Hard X-ray imaging with a slat collimated telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhuguo; Kotov, Yu.D.; Suslov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging experiments with a slat collimated hard X-ray telescope are described in this paper demonstrating the feasibility of the direct demodulation imaging method used in hard X-ray scanning modulation experiments. On 25 September 1993 an X-ray raster scan observation of Cyg X-1 was performed in a balloon flight with the hard X-ray telescope HAPI-4. An experiment to image radioactive X-ray sources was performed in the laboratory before. In both experiments the expected X-ray images were obtained, confirming the imaging capability of this method. (orig.)

  6. Dental x-ray image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Eyad; Fahmy, Gamal F.; Nassar, Diaa; Ammar, Hany

    2004-08-01

    Law enforcement agencies have been exploiting biometric identifiers for decades as key tools in forensic identification. With the evolution in information technology and the huge volume of cases that need to be investigated by forensic specialists, it has become important to automate forensic identification systems. While, ante mortem (AM) identification, that is identification prior to death, is usually possible through comparison of many biometric identifiers, postmortem (PM) identification, that is identification after death, is impossible using behavioral biometrics (e.g. speech, gait). Moreover, under severe circumstances, such as those encountered in mass disasters (e.g. airplane crashers) or if identification is being attempted more than a couple of weeks postmortem, under such circumstances, most physiological biometrics may not be employed for identification, because of the decay of soft tissues of the body to unidentifiable states. Therefore, a postmortem biometric identifier has to resist the early decay that affects body tissues. Because of their survivability and diversity, the best candidates for postmortem biometric identification are the dental features. In this paper we present an over view about an automated dental identification system for Missing and Unidentified Persons. This dental identification system can be used by both law enforcement and security agencies in both forensic and biometric identification. We will also present techniques for dental segmentation of X-ray images. These techniques address the problem of identifying each individual tooth and how the contours of each tooth are extracted.

  7. X-ray image signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.L.; Lill, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim on behalf on EMI Ltd. relates to a flat plate X-ray detector which uses a plate detector exhibiting so-called permanent induced electric polarization in response to a pattern of radiation emergent from a patient to generate a polarization pattern which is scanned by means of a laser to cause discharge of the polarization through the plate and so generate electric signals representative of the X-ray image of the patient. In addition a second laser operating at a different wavelength e.g. infra-red, also scans or floods the plate detector to move 'dark polarisation'. The plate detector may be a phosphor screen or a phosphor screen in combination with a scintillator. (author)

  8. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  9. X-ray scatter signatures for enhanced breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Ghirmay; Speller, Robert; Royle, Gary [Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, University College Landon, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    Conventional mammographic imaging suffers from a low specificity. The main cause is the small difference in the x-ray attenuation properties of healthy and diseased tissue leading to poor contrast in the image. It has been observed that additional information on breast tissue type can be obtained from x-ray diffraction effects. A study of excised normal and neoplastic breast tissue samples using x-ray diffraction apparatus has been observed that significant differences exist in the measured spectra between carcinoma and healthy tissue adjacent to the carcinoma. Such a difference allows tissue type to be characterised according to is diseased state. Furthermore the information can be applied to improve diagnosis. It is proposed that collection and analysis of the scattered x-rays present during a mammographic procedure can supply the additional information and be used to improve the image contrast. The ultimate aim of the project is to improve the specificity of x-ray mammography. (authors) 10 refs., 3 figs.

  10. X-ray spectral decomposition imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-27

    Projection measurements are made of the transmitted X-ray beam in low and high energy regions. These are combined in a non-linear processor to produce atomic-number-dependent and density-dependent projection information. This information is used to provide cross-sectional images which are free of spectral-shift artifacts and completely define the specific material properties. The invention described herein was made in the course of work under a grant from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

  11. Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

  12. X-ray imaging for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray screening of luggage by aviation security personnel may be badly hindered by the lack of visual cues to depth in an image that has been produced by transmitted radiation. Two-dimensional "shadowgraphs" with "organic" and "metallic" objects encoded using two different colors (usually orange and blue) are still in common use. In the context of luggage screening there are no reliable cues to depth present in individual shadowgraph X-ray images. Therefore, the screener is required to convert the 'zero depth resolution' shadowgraph into a three-dimensional mental picture to be able to interpret the relative spatial relationship of the objects under inspection. Consequently, additional cognitive processing is required e.g. integration, inference and memory. However, these processes can lead to serious misinterpretations of the actual physical structure being examined. This paper describes the development of a stereoscopic imaging technique enabling the screener to utilise binocular stereopsis and kinetic depth to enhance their interpretation of the actual nature of the objects under examination. Further work has led to the development of a technique to combine parallax data (to calculate the thickness of a target material) with the results of a basis material subtraction technique to approximate the target's effective atomic number and density. This has been achieved in preliminary experiments with a novel spatially interleaved dual-energy sensor which reduces the number of scintillation elements required by 50% in comparison to conventional sensor configurations.

  13. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  14. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    1999-01-01

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  15. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  16. A soft X-ray image of the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.H.M.M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Predehl, P.; Truemper, J.; Snowden, S.L.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the Moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the Moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The Moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one per cent that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the Moon's surface. (author)

  17. Submicron, soft x-ray fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Fontaine, B.; MacDowell, A.A.; Tan, Z.; White, D.L.; Taylor, G.N.; Wood, O.R. II; Bjorkholm, J.E.; Tennant, D.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Submicron fluorescence imaging of soft x-ray aerial images, using a high resolution fluorescent crystal is reported. Features as small as 0.1 μm were observed using a commercially available single-crystal phosphor, STI-F10G (Star Tech Instruments Inc. P. O. Box 2536, Danbury, CT 06813-2536), excited with 139 A light. Its quantum efficiency was estimated to be 5--10 times that of sodium salicylate and to be constant over a broad spectral range from 30 to 400 A. A comparison with a terbium-activated yttrium orthosilicate fluorescent crystal is also presented. Several applications, such as the characterization of the aerial images produced by deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithographic exposure tools, are envisaged

  18. X-ray diagnostic installation for X-ray tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Sklebitz, H.

    1984-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment includes at least one x-ray tube for the generation of an x-ray beam, a patient support, an image detector, and a control generator-connected with the x-ray tube and the image detector-for the purpose of moving the x-ray beam, and in opposition thereto, the image field of the image detector. There is connected to the control generator a layer height computer which calculates the enlargement from the geometric data for the tomogram. The image detector has a circuit-connected with the layer height computer-for the purpose of fading-in a marking for the dimensions in the layer plane

  19. Wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure imaging by parametric X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Manabu; Sakai, Takeshi; Sato, Isamu; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nogami, Kyoko; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Nakao, Keisuke

    2008-01-01

    The parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system at Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) in Nihon University is a monochromatic and coherent X-ray source with horizontal wavelength dispersion. The energy definition of the X-rays, which depends on the horizontal size of the incident electron beam on the generator target crystal, has been investigated experimentally by measuring the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra on Cu and CuO associated with conventional X-ray absorption imaging technique. The result demonstrated the controllability of the spectrum resolution of XANES by adjusting of the horizontal electron beam size on the target crystal. The XANES spectra were obtained with energy resolution of several eV at the narrowest case, which is in qualitative agreement with the energy definition of the PXR X-rays evaluated from geometrical consideration. The result also suggested that the wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure measurement associated with imaging technique is one of the promising applications of PXR. (author)

  20. Software for X-Ray Images Calculation of Hydrogen Compression Device in Megabar Pressure Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Nikolay; Bykov, Alexander; Pavlov, Valery

    2007-06-01

    Software for x-ray images simulation is described. The software is a part of x-ray method used for investigation of an equation of state of hydrogen in a megabar pressure range. A graphical interface that clearly and simply allows users to input data for x-ray image calculation: properties of the studied device, parameters of the x-ray radiation source, parameters of the x-ray radiation recorder, the experiment geometry; to represent the calculation results and efficiently transmit them to other software for processing. The calculation time is minimized. This makes it possible to perform calculations in a dialogue regime. The software is written in ``MATLAB'' system.

  1. Apparatus and method X-ray image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for X-ray image processing. The radiation passed through the object is transformed into an electric image signal from which the logarithmic value is determined and displayed by a display device. Its main objective is to provide a method and apparatus that renders X-ray images or X-ray subtraction images with strong reduction of stray radiation. (Auth.)

  2. X-ray diffraction imaging of material microstructures

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Laszlo

    2016-10-20

    Various examples are provided for x-ray imaging of the microstructure of materials. In one example, a system for non-destructive material testing includes an x-ray source configured to generate a beam spot on a test item; a grid detector configured to receive x- rays diffracted from the test object; and a computing device configured to determine a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the test object. In another example, a method for determining a microstructure of a material includes illuminating a beam spot on the material with a beam of incident x-rays; detecting, with a grid detector, x-rays diffracted from the material; and determining, by a computing device, a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the material.

  3. Multiflash X ray with Image Detanglement for Single Image Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    known and separated into individual images. A proof-of- principle study was performed using 4 X-ray flashes and copper masks with sub-millimeter holes...Popular Science article.2 For decades, that basic concept dominated the color television market . Those were the days when a large color television...proof-of- principle study was performed using 4 X-ray flashes and copper masks with sub-millimeter holes that allowed development of the required image

  4. Study of x-ray CCD image sensor and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyun; Li, Tianze

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we expounded the composing, specialty, parameter, its working process, key techniques and methods for charge coupled devices (CCD) twice value treatment. Disposal process for CCD video signal quantification was expatiated; X-ray image intensifier's constitutes, function of constitutes, coupling technique of X-ray image intensifier and CCD were analyzed. We analyzed two effective methods to reduce the harm to human beings when X-ray was used in the medical image. One was to reduce X-ray's radiation and adopt to intensify the image penetrated by X-ray to gain the same effect. The other was to use the image sensor to transfer the images to the safe area for observation. On this base, a new method was presented that CCD image sensor and X-ray image intensifier were combined organically. A practical medical X-ray photo electricity system was designed which can be used in the records and time of the human's penetrating images. The system was mainly made up with the medical X-ray, X-ray image intensifier, CCD vidicon with high resolution, image processor, display and so on. Its characteristics are: change the invisible X-ray into the visible light image; output the vivid images; short image recording time etc. At the same time we analyzed the main aspects which affect the system's resolution. Medical photo electricity system using X-ray image sensor can reduce the X-ray harm to human sharply when it is used in the medical diagnoses. At last we analyzed and looked forward the system's application in medical engineering and the related fields.

  5. Reconstruction of Intima and Adventitia Models into a State Undeformed by a Catheter by Using CT, IVUS, and Biplane X-Ray Angiogram Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwon Son

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies on blood flow analysis using fluid-structure interaction (FSI analysis is increasing. Though a 3D blood vessel model that includes intima and adventitia is required for FSI analysis, there are difficulties in generating it using only one type of medical imaging. In this paper, we propose a 3D modeling method for accurate FSI analysis. An intravascular ultrasound (IVUS image is used with biplane X-ray angiogram images to calculate the position and orientation of the blood vessel. However, these images show that the blood vessel is deformed by the catheter inserted into the blood vessel for IVUS imaging. To eliminate such deformation, a CT image was added and the two models were registered. First, a 3D model of the undeformed intima was generated using a CT image. In the second stage, a model of intima and adventitia deformed by the catheter was generated by combining the IVUS image and the X-ray angiogram images. A 3D model of intima and adventitia with the deformation caused by insertion of the catheter eliminated was generated by matching these 3D blood vessel models in different states. In addition, a 3D blood vessel model including bifurcation was generated using the proposed method.

  6. X-ray elastography: Modification of x-ray phase contrast images using ultrasonic radiation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Theron J.; Bailat, Claude; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Diebold, Gerald J.; Gehring, Stephan; Laperle, Christopher M.; Wands, Jack

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution characteristic of in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging can be used in conjunction with directed ultrasound to detect small displacements in soft tissue generated by differential acoustic radiation pressure. The imaging method is based on subtraction of two x-ray images, the first image taken with, and the second taken without the presence of ultrasound. The subtraction enhances phase contrast features and, to a large extent, removes absorption contrast so that differential movement of tissues with different acoustic impedances or relative ultrasonic absorption is highlighted in the image. Interfacial features of objects with differing densities are delineated in the image as a result of both the displacement introduced by the ultrasound and the inherent sensitivity of x-ray phase contrast imaging to density variations. Experiments with ex vivo murine tumors and human tumor phantoms point out a diagnostic capability of the method for identifying tumors.

  7. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  8. Automated processing of X-ray images in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babij, Ya.S.; B'yalyuk, Ya.O.; Yanovich, I.A.; Lysenko, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical and practical achievements in application of computing technology means for processing of X-ray images in medicine were generalized. The scheme of the main directions and tasks of processing of X-ray images was given and analyzed. The principal problems appeared in automated processing of X-ray images were distinguished. It is shown that for interpretation of X-ray images it is expedient to introduce a notion of relative operating characteristic (ROC) of a roentgenologist. Every point on ROC curve determines the individual criteria of roentgenologist to put a positive diagnosis for definite situation

  9. X-ray imaging with the PILATUS 100k detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Martin; Bunk, O.; David, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the application of the PILATUS 100K pixel detector for medical imaging. Experimental results are presented in the form of X-ray radiographs using standard X-ray absorption contrast and a recently developed phase contrast imaging method. The results obtained with the PILATUS detector...... are compared to results obtained with a conventional X-ray imaging system consisting of an X-ray scintillation screen, lens optics, and a charge coupled device. Finally, the results for both systems are discussed more quantitatively based on an image power spectrum analysis. Udgivelsesdato: April...

  10. Image Analysis for X-ray Imaging of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur

    for quality and safety evaluation of food products. In this effort the fields of statistics, image analysis and statistical learning are combined, to provide analytical tools for determining the aforementioned food traits. The work demonstrated includes a quantitative analysis of heat induced changes......X-ray imaging systems are increasingly used for quality and safety evaluation both within food science and production. They offer non-invasive and nondestructive penetration capabilities to image the inside of food. This thesis presents applications of a novel grating-based X-ray imaging technique...... and defect detection in food. Compared to the complex three dimensional analysis of microstructure, here two dimensional images are considered, making the method applicable for an industrial setting. The advantages obtained by grating-based imaging are compared to conventional X-ray imaging, for both foreign...

  11. Computer assisted analysis of medical x-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ewert

    1996-01-01

    X-rays were originally used to expose film. The early computers did not have enough capacity to handle images with useful resolution. The rapid development of computer technology over the last few decades has, however, led to the introduction of computers into radiology. In this overview paper, the various possible roles of computers in radiology are examined. The state of the art is briefly presented, and some predictions about the future are made.

  12. Two digital X-ray imaging systems for applications in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Flesher, A.C.; Bryant, C.J.; Lincoln, A.D.; Tucker, P.A.; Swanton, S.W.

    1986-08-01

    Two digital X-ray imaging systems developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are described:- the Mark I and the Mark II. Both use a bidimensionally sensitive Multiwire proportional counter as the basic X-ray image transducer coupled to a digital microcomputer system. The Mark I system provides the advantages of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging directly into the computer with the potential for software control of the sample orientation and environment. The Mark II system adds the novel features of signal averaging and multi-frame exposures. (author)

  13. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  14. New intraoral x-ray fluorographic imaging for dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, T.; Osada, T.; Aoyama, W.; Iguchi, M.; Suzuki, S.; Kanno, M.; Moriya, K.; Yoshimura, M.; Tusuda, M.

    1983-01-01

    A new dental x-ray fluorographic unit has been developed. This unit is composed of small intraoral x-ray tube, a compact x-ray image intensifier, and a high-resolution TV system. The purposes for developing this equipment were to (1) directly observe the tooth during endodontic procedures and (2) reduce x-ray exposure to the patient and the dentist. The radiation exposure can be reduced to about 1/600 the exposure used with conventional dental film. In clinical trials, a satisfactory fluorographic dental image for endodontic treatment was obtained with this new device

  15. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, M; Zhao, W; Tanioka, K; Decrescenzo, G; Rowlands, J A

    2012-11-01

    The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography∕fluoroscopy (R∕F) applications. The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all clinically relevant

  16. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  17. Quantitative cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dongmei; Zhu, Shouping; Chen, Xueli; Chao, Tiantian; Cao, Xu; Zhao, Fengjun; Huang, Liyu; Liang, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    X-ray luminescence tomography (XLT) is an imaging technology based on X-ray-excitable materials. The main purpose of this paper is to obtain quantitative luminescence concentration using the structural information of the X-ray computed tomography (XCT) in the hybrid cone beam XLT/XCT system. A multi-wavelength luminescence cone beam XLT method with the structural a priori information is presented to relieve the severe ill-posedness problem in the cone beam XLT. The nanophosphors and phantom experiments were undertaken to access the linear relationship of the system response. Then, an in vivo mouse experiment was conducted. The in vivo experimental results show that the recovered concentration error as low as 6.67% with the location error of 0.85 mm can be achieved. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately recover the nanophosphor inclusion and realize the quantitative imaging

  18. Differences of X-ray exposure between X-ray diagnostics with a conventional X-ray screen-system and with an image-intensifier-television-unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, H.; Vogel, H.; Reinhart, J.; Jantzen, R.

    1977-01-01

    During X-ray diagnostics of patients in the II. Medizinische Poliklinik the X-ray exposure was determined. It corresponded to the data described in literature. Two groups were compared: 518 patients examined with a conventional X-ray screen-system and 642 patients examined with an image-intensifier-television-system. The results demonstrated that with exception of thoracical X-ray examination the replacing of the old system by the television system brought a remarkable increase of the X-ray exposure. The doses depended of the patients constitution to a high degree. (orig.) [de

  19. Material Discriminated X-Ray CT System by Using New X-Ray Imager with Energy Discriminate Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Material discriminated X-ray CT system has been constructed by using conventional X-ray tube (white X-ray source and photon-counting X-ray imager as an application with energy band detection. We have already reported material identify X-ray CT using K-shell edge method elsewhere. In this report the principle of material discrimination was adapted the separation of electron-density and atomic number from attenuation coefficient mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image in two wavelength X-ray CT method using white X-ray source and energy discriminated X-ray imager by using two monochrome X-ray source method. The measurement phantom was prepared as four kinds material rods (Carbon(C, Iron(Fe, Copper(Cu, Titanium(Ti rods of 3mm-diameter inside an aluminum(Al rod of 20mm-diameter. We could observed material discriminated X-ray CT reconstructed image, however, the discrimination properties were not good than two monochrome X-ray CT method. This results was could be explained because X-ray scattering, beam-hardening and so on based on white X-ray source, which could not observe in two monochrome X-ray CT method. However, since our developed CdTe imager can be detect five energy-bands at the same time, we can use multi-band analysis to decrease the least square error margin. We will be able to obtain more high separation in atomic number mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image by using this system.

  20. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, C.A.; Kruger, R.A.; Houk, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method of producing visible difference images derived from an x-ray image of an anatomical subject is described. X-rays are directed through the subject, and the image is converted into television fields comprising trains of analog video signals. The analog signals are converted into digital signals, which are then integrated over a predetermined time corresponding to several television fields. Difference video signals are produced by performing a subtraction between the ongoing video signals and the corresponding integrated signals, and are converted into visible television difference images representing changes in the x-ray image

  1. Image formation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.A. den.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis deals with a physical description of the image formation in static radiographic shadow image X-ray equipment and an analysis of the optimization of such systems. For the latter criteria have been developed that take into account all relevant physical phenomena that relate to properties of the image and the radiation exposure of the patient. The discussion of image formation results in a number of relations between the X-ray system parameters on the one hand and properties of the X-ray image on the other. The three principal aspects considered are energy transfer, modulation transfer and noise. (Auth./C.F.)

  2. Elemental Composition of Mars Return Samples Using X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Fogelqvist, E.; Gregerson, J.; Farley, K. A.; Sherman, S.; Hill, J.

    2018-04-01

    NSLS-II at BNL provides a unique and critical capability to perform assessments of the elemental composition and the chemical state of Mars returned samples using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  3. Medical imaging: Material change for X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, John A.

    2017-10-01

    The X-ray sensitivity of radiology instruments is limited by the materials used in their detectors. A material from the perovskite family of semiconductors could allow lower doses of X-rays to be used for medical imaging. See Letter p.87

  4. Evaluating fracture healing using digital x-ray image analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-02

    Mar 2, 2011 ... with intensive imaging and modelling.6 dual energy X-ray ... techniques due to their high-quality digital output in ... the bone in the loaded X-ray is at an angular offset due to .... The research described in this article was carried ...

  5. X-ray diffraction imaging of material microstructures

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Laszlo; Varga, Bonbien; Calo, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Various examples are provided for x-ray imaging of the microstructure of materials. In one example, a system for non-destructive material testing includes an x-ray source configured to generate a beam spot on a test item; a grid detector configured

  6. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  7. Trends and Technological Developments in Medical X-ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacobovici, E.; Ben-Shlomo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the very beginning of X-rays discovery, about one hundred years ago, there has been an ongoing development of technological means, focusing on image quality and imaging capabilities improvement, as well as on awareness and radiation dosage reduction

  8. Comparing neutron and X-ray images from NIF implosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson D.C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Directly laser driven and X-radiation driven DT filled capsules differ in the relationship between neutron and X-ray images. Shot N110217, a directly driven DT-filled glass micro-balloon provided the first neutron images at the National Ignition Facility. As seen in implosions on the Omega laser, the neutron image can be enclosed inside time integrated X-ray images. HYDRA simulations show the X-ray image is dominated by emission from the hot glass shell while the neutron image arises from the DT fuel it encloses. In the absence of mix or jetting, X-ray images of a cryogenically layered THD fuel capsule should be dominated by emission from the hydrogen rather than the cooler plastic shell that is separated from the hot core by cold DT fuel. This cool, dense DT, invisible in X-ray emission, shows itself by scattering hot core neutrons. Germanium X-ray emission spectra and Ross pair filtered X-ray energy resolved images suggest that germanium doped plastic emits in the torus shaped hot spot, probably reducing the neutron yield.

  9. From Relativistic Electrons to X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Garson, A. B. [Washington U., St. Louis; Anastasio, M. A. [Washington U., St. Louis

    2017-10-09

    We report the initial demonstrations of the use of single crystals in indirect x-ray imaging for x-ray phase contrast imaging at the Washington University in St. Louis Computational Bioimaging Laboratory (CBL). Based on single Gaussian peak fits to the x-ray images, we observed a four times smaller system point spread function (21 μm (FWHM)) with the 25-mm diameter single crystals than the reference polycrystalline phosphor’s 80-μm value. Potential fiber-optic plate depth-of-focus aspects and 33-μm diameter carbon fiber imaging are also addressed.

  10. Human genome sequencing with direct x-ray holographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    Direct holographic imaging of biological materials is widely applicable to the study of the structure, properties and action of genetic material. This particular application involves the sequencing of the human genome where prospective genomic imaging technology is composed of three subtechnologies, name an x-ray holographic camera, suitable chemistry and enzymology for the preparation of tagged DNA samples, and the illuminator in the form of an x-ray laser. We report appropriate x-ray camera, embodied by the instrument developed by MCR, is available and that suitable chemical and enzymatic procedures exist for the preparation of the necessary tagged DNA strands. Concerning the future development of the x-ray illuminator. We find that a practical small scale x-ray light source is indeed feasible. This outcome requires the use of unconventional physical processes in order to achieve the necessary power-compression in the amplifying medium. The understanding of these new physical mechanisms is developing rapidly. Importantly, although the x-ray source does not currently exist, the understanding of these new physical mechanisms is developing rapidly and the research has established the basic scaling laws that will determine the properties of the x-ray illuminator. When this x-ray source becomes available, an extremely rapid and cost effective instrument for 3-D imaging of biological materials can be applied to a wide range of biological structural assays, including the base-pair sequencing of the human genome and many questions regarding its higher levels of organization

  11. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

  12. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation

  13. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation: lecture 4. Soft x-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The history and present techniques of soft x-ray imaging are reviewed briefly. The physics of x-ray imaging is described, including the temporal and spatial coherence of x-ray sources. Particular technologies described are: contact x-ray microscopy, zone plate imaging, scanned image zone plate microscopy, scanned image reflection microscopy, and soft x-ray holography and diffraction

  14. Benchtop phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk; Nirgianaki, E.; Che Ismail, E.; Jenneson, P.M.; Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Clinical radiography has traditionally been based on contrast obtained from absorption when X-rays pass through the body. The contrast obtained from traditional radiography can be rather poor, particularly when it comes to soft tissue. A wide range of media of interest in materials science, biology and medicine exhibit very weak absorption contrast, but they nevertheless produce significant phase shifts with X-rays. The use of phase information for imaging purposes is therefore an attractive prospect. Some of the X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods require highly monochromatic plane wave radiation and sophisticated X-ray optics. However, the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging method adapted in this paper is a relatively simple method to implement, essentially requiring only a microfocal X-ray tube and electronic detection. In this paper, we present imaging results obtained from two different benchtop X-ray sources employing the free space propagation method. X-ray phase-contrast imaging provides higher contrast in many samples, including biological tissues that have negligible absorption contrast.

  15. GOES-12 Solar X-ray Imager Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOES Solar X-ray Imager is integrated into the GOES-12 satellite, whose primary mission is to provide Earth-weather monitoring. The SXI is operated by NOAA's...

  16. Correction of ring artifacts in X-ray tomographic images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Johnson, G.; Tafforeau, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ring artifacts are systematic intensity distortions located on concentric circles in reconstructed tomographic X-ray images. When using X-ray tomography to study for instance low-contrast grain boundaries in metals it is crucial to correct for the ring artifacts in the images as they may have...... the same intensity level as the grain boundaries and thus make it impossible to perform grain segmentation. This paper describes an implementation of a method for correcting the ring artifacts in tomographic X-ray images of simple objects such as metal samples where the object and the background...... are separable. The method is implemented in Matlab, it works with very little user interaction and may run in parallel on a cluster if applied to a whole stack of images. The strength and robustness of the method implemented will be demonstrated on three tomographic X-ray data sets: a mono-phase β...

  17. X-ray detectors based on image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.P.R.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray detectors based on image sensors are described and a comparison is made between the advantages and the disadvantages of such a kind of detectors with the position sensitive detectors. (L.C.) [pt

  18. X-ray Computed Tomography Image Quality Indicator (IQI) Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase one of the program is to identify suitable x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Image Quality Indicator (IQI) design(s) that can be used to adequately capture CT...

  19. Tomographic image reconstruction using x-ray phase information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Hirano, Keiichi

    1996-04-01

    We have been developing phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (CT) to make possible the observation of biological soft tissues without contrast enhancement. Phase-contrast x-ray CT requires for its input data the x-ray phase-shift distributions or phase-mapping images caused by an object. These were measured with newly developed fringe-scanning x-ray interferometry. Phase-mapping images at different projection directions were obtained by rotating the object in an x-ray interferometer, and were processed with a standard CT algorithm. A phase-contrast x-ray CT image of a nonstained cancerous tissue was obtained using 17.7 keV synchrotron x rays with 12 micrometer voxel size, although the size of the observation area was at most 5 mm. The cancerous lesions were readily distinguishable from normal tissues. Moreover, fine structures corresponding to cancerous degeneration and fibrous tissues were clearly depicted. It is estimated that the present system is sensitive down to a density deviation of 4 mg/cm3.

  20. Imaging efficiency of an X-ray contrast agent-incorporated polymeric microparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Jung, Sung Yong; Lee, Jin Pyung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible polymeric encapsulants have been widely used as a delivery vehicle for a variety of drugs and imaging agents. In this study, X-ray contrast agent (iopamidol) is encapsulated into a polymeric microparticle (polyvinyl alcohol) as a particulate flow tracer in synchrotron X-ray imaging system. The physical properties of the designed microparticles are investigated and correlated with enhancement in the imaging efficiency by experimental observation and theoretical interpretation. The X-ray absorption ability of the designed microparticle is assessed by Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Particle size, either in dried state or in solvent, primarily dominates the X-ray absorption ability under the given condition, thus affecting imaging efficiency of the designed X-ray contrast flow tracers. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Ghost imaging with paired x-ray photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, A.; Borodin, D.; Tamasaku, K.; Shwartz, S.

    2018-06-01

    We report the experimental observation of ghost imaging with paired x-ray photons, which are generated by parametric downconversion. We use the one-to-one relation between the photon energies and the emission angles and the anticorrelation between the k -vectors of the signal and the idler photons to reconstruct the images of slits with nominally zero background levels. Further extension of our procedure can be used for the observation of various quantum phenomena at x-ray wavelengths.

  2. Improvements in x-ray image converters and phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabatin, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements to an X-ray image converter comprising crystals of rare earth phosphor admixtures are described. The phosphor admixtures utilize thulium-activated lanthanum and/or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphor material to increase the relative speed and resolution of an X-ray image compared with conventional rare earth phosphors. Examples of various radiographic screens containing one or more of the phosphor materials are given. (U.K.)

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, David, E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Gammino, Santo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Caliri, Claudia [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia, via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, Francesco Paolo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, DIIES, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed “on-line” during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  4. Computed tomography of x-ray images using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Lloyd G.; Jones, Martin H.; Sheats, Matthew J.; Davis, Anthony W.

    2000-03-01

    Traditional CT reconstruction is done using the technique of Filtered Backprojection. While this technique is widely employed in industrial and medical applications, it is not generally understood that FB has a fundamental flaw. Gibbs phenomena states any Fourier reconstruction will produce errors in the vicinity of all discontinuities, and that the error will equal 28 percent of the discontinuity. A number of years back, one of the authors proposed a biological perception model whereby biological neural networks perceive 3D images from stereo vision. The perception model proports an internal hard-wired neural network which emulates the external physical process. A process is repeated whereby erroneous unknown internal values are used to generate an emulated signal with is compared to external sensed data, generating an error signal. Feedback from the error signal is then sued to update the erroneous internal values. The process is repeated until the error signal no longer decrease. It was soon realized that the same method could be used to obtain CT from x-rays without having to do Fourier transforms. Neural networks have the additional potential for handling non-linearities and missing data. The technique has been applied to some coral images, collected at the Los Alamos high-energy x-ray facility. The initial images show considerable promise, in some instances showing more detail than the FB images obtained from the same data. Although routine production using this new method would require a massively parallel computer, the method shows promise, especially where refined detail is required.

  5. Ultrafast secondary emission x-ray imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkerman, A.; Gibrekhterman, A.; Majewski, S.

    1991-07-01

    Fast high accuracy, x-ray imaging at high photon flux can be achieved when coupling thin solid convertors to gaseous electron multipliers, operating at low gas pressures. Secondary electron emitted from the convertor foil are multiplied in several successive amplification elements. The obvious advantage of solid x-ray detectors, as compared to gaseous conversion, are the production of parallax-free images and the fast (subnanoseconds) response. These x-ray detectors have many potential applications in basic and applied research. Of particular interest is the possibility of an efficient and ultrafast high resolution imaging of transition radiation,with a reduced dE/dx background. We present experimental results on the operation of the secondary emission x-ray (SEX) detectors, their detection efficiency, localization and time resolution. The experimental work is accompanied by mathematical modelling and computer simulation of transition radiation detectors based on CsI transition radiation convertors. (author)

  6. Real-time digital X-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, C.A.; Kruger, R.A.; Houk, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    A diagnostic anatomical X-ray apparatus comprising a converter and a television camera for converting an X-ray image of a subject into a series of television fields of video signals is described in detail. A digital memory system stores and integrates the video signals over a time interval corresponding to a plurality of successive television fields. The integrated video signals are recovered from storage and fed to a digital or analogue subtractor, the resulting output being displayed on a television monitor. Thus the display represents on-going changes in the anatomical X-ray image. In a modification, successive groups of fields are stored and integrated in three memories, cyclically, and subtractions are performed between successive pieces of integrated signals to provide a display of successive alterations in the X-ray image. For investigations of the heart, the integrating interval should be of the order of one cardiac cycle. (author)

  7. Translate rotate scanning method for X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, J.W.; Kwog Cheong Tam.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid x-ray inspection of objects larger than an x-ray detector array is based on a translate rotate scanning motion of the object related to the fan beam source and detector. The scan for computerized tomography imaging is accomplished by rotating the object through 360 degrees at two or more positions relative to the source and detector array, in moving to another position the object is rotated and the object or source and detector are translated. A partial set of x-ray data is acquired at every position which are combined to obtain a full data set for complete image reconstruction. X-ray data for digital radiography imaging is acquired by scanning the object vertically at a first position at one view angle, rotating and translating the object relative to the source and detector to a second position, scanning vertically, and so on to cover the object field of view, and combining the partial data sets. (author)

  8. X-ray Microtomography of Intermittency in Multiphase Flow at Steady State Using a Differential Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Lin, Qingyang; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2017-12-01

    We imaged the steady state flow of brine and decane in Bentheimer sandstone. We devised an experimental method based on differential imaging to examine how flow rate impacts impact the pore-scale distribution of fluids during coinjection. This allows us to elucidate flow regimes (connected, or breakup of the nonwetting phase pathways) for a range of fractional flows at two capillary numbers, Ca, namely 3.0 × 10-7 and 7.5 × 10-6. At the lower Ca, for a fixed fractional flow, the two phases appear to flow in connected unchanging subnetworks of the pore space, consistent with conventional theory. At the higher Ca, we observed that a significant fraction of the pore space contained sometimes oil and sometimes brine during the 1 h scan: this intermittent occupancy, which was interpreted as regions of the pore space that contained both fluid phases for some time, is necessary to explain the flow and dynamic connectivity of the oil phase; pathways of always oil-filled portions of the void space did not span the core. This phase was segmented from the differential image between the 30 wt % KI brine image and the scans taken at each fractional flow. Using the grey scale histogram distribution of the raw images, the oil proportion in the intermittent phase was calculated. The pressure drops at each fractional flow at low and high flow rates were measured by high-precision differential pressure sensors. The relative permeabilities and fractional flow obtained by our experiment at the mm-scale compare well with data from the literature on cm-scale samples.

  9. Calibrating the Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS)

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Missy; Hong, Jaesub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the onboard calibration process of REXIS (the Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer), an instrument on OSIRIS-REx. OSIRIS-REx, scheduled to be launched in 2016, is a planetary mission intending to return a regolith sample from a near Earth asteroid called Bennu. REXIS, a student-led collaboration between Harvard and MIT, is a soft X-ray (0.5-7.5 keV) coded-aperture telescope with four X-ray CCDs and a gold coated stainless steel mask. REXIS will measure the surface elementa...

  10. High-speed image converter x-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryukhnevitch, G.I.; Kas'yanov, Yu.S.; Korobkin, V.V.; Prokhorov, A.M.; Stepanov, B.M.; Chevokin, V.K.; Schelev, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    Two X-ray high-speed image-converter cameras (ICC) have been developed. In the first one a soft X-ray radiation is converted into visible light with the aid of a 0.5ns response time, plastic scintillator. The second camera incorporates a photocathode which is sensitive to visible and X-ray radiation. Its calculated temporal resolution approaches 5 to 7ps. Both developed cameras were employed for studies of X-ray radiation emitted by laser plasma. For the smooth nanosecond excited laser pulses, a noticeable amplitude modulation was recorded in all laser pulses reflected by plasma as well as in each third pulse of X-ray plasma radiation. It was also observed that the duration of X-ray plasma radiation is 20 to 40% shorter than that of the incident nanosecond laser pulses and this duration being 3 to 6 times longer than that of the picosecond irradiating pulses. The half-width of the recorded X-ray plasma pulses was 30 to 60ps. (author)

  11. Advanced imaging technology using carbon nanotube x ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hae Young; Seol, Seung Kown; Kim, Jaehoon; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jong Uk

    2008-01-01

    Recently, X ray imaging technology is a useful and leading medical diagnostic tool for healthcare professionals to diagnose disease in human body. CNTs(i.e. carbon nanotubes)are used in many applications like FED, Micro wave amplifier, X ray source, etc. because of its suitable electrical, chemical and physical properties. Specially, CNTs are well used electron emitters for x ray source. Conventionally, thermionic type of tungsten filament x ray tube is widely employed in the field of bio medical and industrial application fields. However, intrinsic problems such as, poor emission efficiency and low imaging resolution cause the limitation of use of the x ray tube. To fulfill the current market requirement specifically for medical diagnostic field, we have developed rather a portable and compact CNT based x ray source in which high imaging resolution is provided. Electron sources used in X ray tubes should be well focused to the anode target for generation of high quality x ray. In this study, Pierce type x ray generation module was tested based its simulation results using by OPERA 3D code. Pierce type module is composed of cone type electrical lens with its number of them and inner angles of them that shows different results with these parameters. And some preliminary images obtained using the CNT x ray source were obtained. The represented images are the finger bone and teeth in human body. It is clear that the trabeculation shape is observed in finger bone. To obtain the finger bone image, tube currents of 250A at 42kV tube voltage was applied. The human tooth image, however, is somewhat unclear because the supplied voltage to the tube was limited to max. 50kV in the system developed. It should be noted that normally 60∼70kV of tube voltage is supplied in dental imaging. Considering these it should be emphasized that if the tube voltage is over 60kV then clearer image is possible. In this paper, we are discussed comparing between these experiment results and

  12. Device for congruent X-ray images of teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.; Zeumer, H.

    1987-01-01

    This invention has to do with a device for congruent X-ray images of teeth by means of the long-tube parallel technique and the long-tube semi-angle technique. The aim is to have no disturbing lever forces in order to avoid mechanical tensions between patient and X-ray tube assembly and to achieve a true projection of teeth and jaw-bone part also under unfavourable anatomical conditions

  13. Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treis, J; Andritschke, R; Hartmann, R; Herrmann, S; Holl, P; Lauf, T; Lechner, P; Lutz, G; Meidinger, N; Porro, M; Richter, R H; Schopper, F; Soltau, H; Strueder, L

    2009-01-01

    Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 x 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

  14. Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treis, J.; Andritschke, R.; Hartmann, R.; Herrmann, S.; Holl, P.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Lutz, G.; Meidinger, N.; Porro, M.; Richter, R. H.; Schopper, F.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.

    2009-03-01

    Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 × 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

  15. Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, J; Andritschke, R; Hartmann, R; Herrmann, S; Holl, P; Lauf, T; Lechner, P; Lutz, G; Meidinger, N; Porro, M; Richter, R H; Schopper, F; Soltau, H; Strueder, L [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: jft@hll.mpg.de

    2009-03-15

    Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 x 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

  16. Dilation x-ray imager a new∕faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Barrios, M A; Felker, B; Smith, R F; Collins, G W; Jones, O S; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Piston, K; Raman, K S; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2012-10-01

    As the yield on implosion shots increases it is expected that the peak x-ray emission reduces to a duration with a FWHM as short as 20 ps for ∼7 × 10(18) neutron yield. However, the temporal resolution of currently used gated x-ray imagers on the NIF is 40-100 ps. We discuss the benefits of the higher temporal resolution for the NIF and present performance measurements for dilation x-ray imager, which utilizes pulse-dilation technology [T. J. Hilsabeck et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E317 (2010)] to achieve x-ray imaging with temporal gate times below 10 ps. The measurements were conducted using the COMET laser, which is part of the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. Dilation x-ray imager a new/faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Felker, B.; Smith, R. F.; Collins, G. W.; Jones, O. S.; Piston, K.; Raman, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    As the yield on implosion shots increases it is expected that the peak x-ray emission reduces to a duration with a FWHM as short as 20 ps for {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} neutron yield. However, the temporal resolution of currently used gated x-ray imagers on the NIF is 40-100 ps. We discuss the benefits of the higher temporal resolution for the NIF and present performance measurements for dilation x-ray imager, which utilizes pulse-dilation technology [T. J. Hilsabeck et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E317 (2010)] to achieve x-ray imaging with temporal gate times below 10 ps. The measurements were conducted using the COMET laser, which is part of the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Quality criteria for chest X-ray image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1985-01-01

    A distinction has to be made between invariable and variable criteria in the determination of chest X-ray picture quality criteria. The invariable criteria are defined by the properties of the object and the psychophysiological laws of perception and cognition, and the variable criteria are determined by the prevailing state of the art of technology. An agreement on these criteria is based on the knowledge of the nature and the technical conditions of X-ray picture production and reproduction. The slogan 'the best picture at the lowest dose' dominates, too, the discussion centering around the X-ray picture of the chest, its quality and criteria. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Spectral and imaging characterization of tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Moon, S.J.; Fournier, K.B.; Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Magunov, A.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). DAS

    2001-07-01

    We have performed L-shell spectroscopy and one-dimensional (1-D) imaging of a line focus plasma from a laser-heated Fe polished slab using the tabletop COMET laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These plasmas are used to generate a Ne-like Fe transient gain X-ray laser that is recorded simultaneously. A spherically-curved crystal spectrometer gives high resolution X-ray spectra of the n=3-2 and n=4-2 resonance lines with 1-D spatial resolution along the line focus. Spectra are presented for different laser pulse conditions. In addition, a variety of X-ray imaging techniques are described. We discuss imaging results from a double-slit X-ray camera with a spherically-curved crystal spectrometer. We show a high resolution Fe K-{alpha} spectrum from the X-ray laser target that indicates the presence of hot electrons in the X-ray laser plasma. (orig.)

  20. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The invention provides a method of producing visible difference images derived from an X-ray image of an anatomical subject, comprising the steps of directing X-rays through the anatomical subject for producing an image, converting the image into television fields comprising trains of on-going video signals, digitally storing and integrating the on-going video signals over a time interval corresponding to several successive television fields and thereby producing stored and integrated video signals, recovering the video signals from storage and producing integrated video signals, producing video difference signals by performing a subtraction between the integrated video signals and the on-going video signals outside the time interval, and converting the difference signals into visible television difference images representing on-going changes in the X-ray image

  1. X-ray energy selected imaging with Medipix II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, J.; Zwerger, A.; Benz, K.-W.; Fiederle, M.; Braml, H.; Fauler, A.; Konrath, J.-P.

    2004-01-01

    Two different X-ray tube accelerating voltages (60 and 70 kV) are used for diagnosis of front teeth and molars. Different energy ranges are necessary as function of tooth thickness to obtain similar contrast for imaging. This technique drives the costs for the X-ray tube up and allows for just two optimized settings. Energy range selection for the detection of the penetrating X-rays would overcome these severe setbacks. The single photon counting chip MEDIPIX2 http://www.cern.ch/medipix exhibits exactly this feature. First simulations and measurements have been carried out using a dental X-ray source. As a demonstrator a real tooth has been used with different cavities and filling materials. Simulations showed in general larger improvements as compared to measurements regarding SNR and contrast: A beneficial factor of 4% wrt SNR and 25% for contrast, measurements showed factors of 2.5 and up to 10%, respectively

  2. X-ray energy selected imaging with Medipix II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, J.; Zwerger, A.; Benz, K.-W.; Fiederle, M.; Braml, H.; Fauler, A.; Konrath, J.-P.

    2004-09-01

    Two different X-ray tube accelerating voltages (60 and 70kV) are used for diagnosis of front teeth and molars. Different energy ranges are necessary as function of tooth thickness to obtain similar contrast for imaging. This technique drives the costs for the X-ray tube up and allows for just two optimized settings. Energy range selection for the detection of the penetrating X-rays would overcome these severe setbacks. The single photon counting chip MEDIPIX2 http://www.cern.ch/medipix exhibits exactly this feature.First simulations and measurements have been carried out using a dental X-ray source. As a demonstrator a real tooth has been used with different cavities and filling materials. Simulations showed in general larger improvements as compared to measurements regarding SNR and contrast: A beneficial factor of 4% wrt SNR and 25% for contrast, measurements showed factors of 2.5 and up to 10%, respectively.

  3. X-ray images in the digital mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, F.; Balter, S.

    1981-01-01

    In addition to computed tomography which presents actually the most important processing and transfer procedure of digital X-ray images, application of real time addition and substraction of X-ray images in a digital mode has found considerable interest. An estimation of the information contents of both digital and analog images is made in close relation to applications. As example of an image processing system on digital base a recently developed system for intravenous arteriography is described: the Philips-DVI. (orig.) [de

  4. X-ray generation by femtosecond laser pulses and its application to soft X-ray imaging microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kenichi; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    We have developed laser-produced plasma X-ray sources using femtosecond laser pulses at 10Hz repetition rate in a table-top size in order to investigate basic mechanism of X-ray emission from laser-matter interactions and its application to a X-ray microscope. In a soft X-ray region over 5 nm wavelength, laser-plasma X-ray emission from a solid target achieved an intense flux of photons of the order of 1011 photons/rad per pulse with duration of a few 100 ps, which is intense enough to make a clear imaging in a short time exposure. As an application of laser-produced plasma X-ray source, we have developed a soft X-ray imaging microscope operating in the wavelength range around 14 nm. The microscope consists of a cylindrically ellipsoidal condenser mirror and a Schwarzshird objective mirror with highly-reflective multilayers. We report preliminary results of performance tests of the soft X-ray imaging microscope with a compact laser-produced plasma X-ray source

  5. Two digital X-ray imaging systems for applications in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Flesher, A.C.; Tucker, P.A.; Swanton, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two digital X-ray imaging systems developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are described: the Mark I and the Mark II. Both use a bidimensionally sensitive multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) as the basic X-ray image transducer coupled, in the case of the Mark I to a Digital LSI 11-23 microcomputer system via CAMAC, and in the case of the Mark II to a Digital LSI 11-73 microcomputer system via custom-built data acquisition hardware mounted directly on the Q-bus of the microcomputer. The Mark I system provides the advantages of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging directly into the computer with the potential for software control of the sample orientation and environment. The Mark II system adds the novel features of signal averaging and multiframe exposures. The dedicated digital memories have a resolution of 512x512 pixels of 16 bits, matching well to the spatial resolution of the xenon-filled MWPC (0.5 mm fwhm over an aperture of 200 mm x 200 mm). A 512x512x4 bit video graphics system displays the images in grey scales or colour. (orig.)

  6. Panel type X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    A panel shaped, proximity type, X-ray image intensifier tube for medical X-ray diagnostic is disclosed. It has all linear components and yet a high brightness gain, in the range of 500 to 20,000 cd-sec/m 2 -R, the tube being comprised of a rugged metallic tube envelope, an inwardly concave metallic input window of full size output display screen, an alkaline-halide scintillator photocathode screen suspended on insulators within the envelope and in between the input window and the output screen, and a high Z glass output window to reduce X-ray backscatter inside and outside of the tube. An X-ray sensitive photographic camera for medical diagnostic use is also disclosed which includes an X-ray sensitive image intensifier means of the proximity type and a reduction type optical system having an effective foral length in excess of 100mm for focusing the emage generated on the output display screen of the image intensifier tube onto a small size but directly viewable photographic film. The parameters of the image intensifier, the optics and the film are specified and linked to each other in a manner which maximizes the image quality for a camera system of this type and at the same time restricts the system speed of the camera to a range of 500 to 5,000 R -1 for the film to achieve a net density of 1.0. (Auth.)

  7. X-ray backscatter imaging with a spiral scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Cline, J.L.; Friddell, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray backscatter imaging allows radiographic inspections to be performed with access to only one side of the object. A collimated beam of radiation striking an object will scatter x-rays by Compton scatter and x-ray fluorescence. A detector located on the source side of the part will measure the backscatter signal. By plotting signal strength as gray scale intensity vs. beam position on the object, an image of the object can be constructed. A novel approach to the motion of the collimated incident beam is a spiral scanner. The spiral scanner approach, described in this paper, can image an area of an object without the synchronized motion of the object or detector, required by other backscatter imaging techniques. X-ray backscatter is particularly useful for flaw detection in light element materials such as composites. The ease of operation and the ability to operate non-contact from one side of an object make x-ray backscatter imaging of increasing interest to industrial inspection problems

  8. Development of the water window imaging x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, R.B.; Shealy, D.L.; Baker, P.C.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Walker, A.B.C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Water Window Imaging X-ray Microscopy which is currently being developed by a consortium from the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Baker Consulting, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Stanford University. The high quality solar images achieved during the Stanford/MSFC/LLNL Rocket X-ray Spectroheliograph flight conclusively established that excellent imaging could be obtained with doubly reflecting multilayer optical systems. Theoretical studies carried out as part of the MSFC X-ray Microscopy Program, demonstrated that high quality, high resolution multilayer x-ray imaging microscopes could be achieved with spherical optics in the Schwarzschild configuration and with Aspherical optical systems. Advanced Flow Polishing methods have been used to fabricate substrates for multilayer optics. On hemlite grade Sapphire, the authors have achieved microscopy mirror substrates on concave and convex spherical surfaces with 0.5 Angstrom rms surface smoothness, as measured by the Zygo profilometer. In this paper the authors report on the current status of fabrication and testing of the optical and mechanical subsystems for the Water Window Imaging X-ray Microscope

  9. Image processing for x-ray inspection of pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.

    2001-03-01

    A review is provided of image processing techniques that have been applied to the inspection of pistachio nuts using X-ray images. X-ray sensors provide non-destructive internal product detail not available from other sensors. The primary concern in this data is detecting the presence of worm infestations in nuts, since they have been linked to the presence of aflatoxin. We describe new techniques for segmentation, feature selection, selection of product categories (clusters), classifier design, etc. Specific novel results include: a new segmentation algorithm to produce images of isolated product items; preferable classifier operation (the classifier with the best probability of correct recognition Pc is not best); higher-order discrimination information is present in standard features (thus, high-order features appear useful); classifiers that use new cluster categories of samples achieve improved performance. Results are presented for X-ray images of pistachio nuts; however, all techniques have use in other product inspection applications.

  10. Ancient administrative handwritten documents: X-ray analysis and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, F.; Astolfo, A.; Stampanoni, M.; Peccenini, Eva; Hwu, Y.; Kaplan, F.; Margaritondo, G.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy-element content of ink in ancient administrative documents makes it possible to detect the characters with different synchrotron imaging techniques, based on attenuation or refraction. This is the first step in the direction of non-interactive virtual X-ray reading. Handwritten characters in administrative antique documents from three centuries have been detected using different synchrotron X-ray imaging techniques. Heavy elements in ancient inks, present even for everyday administrative manuscripts as shown by X-ray fluorescence spectra, produce attenuation contrast. In most cases the image quality is good enough for tomography reconstruction in view of future applications to virtual page-by-page ‘reading’. When attenuation is too low, differential phase contrast imaging can reveal the characters from refractive index effects. The results are potentially important for new information harvesting strategies, for example from the huge Archivio di Stato collection, objective of the Venice Time Machine project

  11. Ancient administrative handwritten documents: X-ray analysis and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertin, F., E-mail: fauzia.albertin@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Astolfo, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Stampanoni, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); ETHZ, Zürich (Switzerland); Peccenini, Eva [University of Ferrara (Italy); Technopole of Ferrara (Italy); Hwu, Y. [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kaplan, F. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland); Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-01-30

    The heavy-element content of ink in ancient administrative documents makes it possible to detect the characters with different synchrotron imaging techniques, based on attenuation or refraction. This is the first step in the direction of non-interactive virtual X-ray reading. Handwritten characters in administrative antique documents from three centuries have been detected using different synchrotron X-ray imaging techniques. Heavy elements in ancient inks, present even for everyday administrative manuscripts as shown by X-ray fluorescence spectra, produce attenuation contrast. In most cases the image quality is good enough for tomography reconstruction in view of future applications to virtual page-by-page ‘reading’. When attenuation is too low, differential phase contrast imaging can reveal the characters from refractive index effects. The results are potentially important for new information harvesting strategies, for example from the huge Archivio di Stato collection, objective of the Venice Time Machine project.

  12. Energy weighted x-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Georg; Zang, Andrea; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Horn, Florian; Kraus, Manuel; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, Andre; Wandner, Johannes; Weber, Thomas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael; Wong, Winnie S; Campbell, Michael; Meiser, Jan; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo

    2014-10-06

    The dark-field image obtained in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide information about the objects' microstructures on a scale smaller than the pixel size even with low geometric magnification. In this publication we demonstrate that the dark-field image quality can be enhanced with an energy-resolving pixel detector. Energy-resolved x-ray dark-field images were acquired with a 16-energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector with a 1 mm thick CdTe sensor in a Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometer. A method for contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) enhancement is proposed and validated experimentally. In measurements, a CNR improvement by a factor of 1.14 was obtained. This is equivalent to a possible radiation dose reduction of 23%.

  13. Transforming Our Understanding of the X-ray Universe: The Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Matt, Giorgio; Marshall, Herman; ODell, Stephen L.; Pavlov, George; Ramsey, Brian; Romani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Accurate X-ray polarimetry can provide unique information on high-energy-astrophysical processes and sources. As there have been no meaningful X-ray polarization measurements of cosmic sources since our pioneering work in the 1970's, the time is ripe to explore this new parameter space in X-ray astronomy. To accomplish this requires a well-calibrated and well understood system that-particularly for an Explorer mission-has technical, cost, and schedule credibility. The system that we shall present satisfies these conditions, being based upon completely calibrated imaging- and polarization-sensitive detectors and proven X-ray-telescope technology.

  14. X-ray imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Fluorescent and phase-contrast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-05-01

    To obtain the high sensitive x-ray images of biomedical object, new x-ray imaging techniques using fluorescent x-ray and phase-contrast x-ray are being developed in Japan. Fluorescent x-ray CT can detect very small amounts of specific elements in the order of ppm at one pixel, whereas phase-contrast x-ray imaging with interferometer can detect minute differences of biological object. Here, our recent experimental results are presented. (author)

  15. X-ray imaging spectroscopic diagnostics on Nike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Electron temperature and density diagnostics of the laser plasma produced within the focal spot of the NRL's Nike laser are being explored with the help of X-ray imaging spectroscopy. Spectra of He-like and H-like ions were taken by Nike focusing spectrometers in a range of lower (1.8 kev, Si XIV) and higher (6.7 kev, Fe XXV) x-ray energies. Data that were obtained with spatial resolution were translated into the temperature and density as functions of distance from the target. As an example electron density was determined from He-like satellites to Ly-alpha in Si XIV. The dielectronic satellites with intensity ratios that are sensitive to collisional transfer of population between different triplet groups of double-excited states 2l2l' in Si XIII were observed with high spatial and spectral resolution Lineouts taken at different axial distances from the planar Si target show changing spectral shapes due to the different electron densities as determined by supporting non-LTE simulations. These shapes are relatively insensitive to the plasma temperature which was measured using different spectral lines. This work was supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

  16. Submicron hard X-ray fluorescence imaging of synthetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Aryal, Baikuntha P; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2012-04-13

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurements such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used XFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L(3) or L(2)-edge as well as Th and lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope (242)Pu. Elemental maps demonstrate that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions with an incident X-ray energy of 18 keV for an average 202 μm(2) cell is 1.4 fg Pu or 2.9×10(-20) moles Pu μm(-2), which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge XFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its L(α) X-ray emission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Femtosecond X-ray Fourier holography imaging of freeflying nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorkhover, Tais; Ulmer, Anatoli; Ferguson, Ken R.; Bucher, Max; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.; Bielecki, Johan; Ekeberg, Tomas; Hantke, Max F.; Daurer, Benedikt J.; Bostedt, Christoph

    2018-02-26

    Ultrafast X-ray imaging on individual fragile specimens such as aerosols1, metastable particles2, superfluid quantum systems3 and live biospecimen4 provides high resolution information, which is inaccessible with conventional imaging techniques. Coherent X-ray diffractive imag- 2 ing, however, suffers from intrinsic loss of phase, and therefore structure recovery is often complicated and not always uniquely-defined4, 5. Here, we introduce the method of in-flight holography, where we use nanoclusters as reference X-ray scatterers in order to encode relative phase information into diffraction patterns of a virus. The resulting hologram contains an unambiguous three-dimensional map of a virus and two nanoclusters with the highest lateral resolution so far achieved via single shot X-ray holography. Our approach unlocks the benefits of holography for ultrafast X-ray imaging of nanoscale, non-periodic systems and paves the way to direct observation of complex electron dynamics down to the attosecond time scale.

  18. Analyser-based x-ray imaging for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suortti, Pekka; Keyriläinen, Jani; Thomlinson, William

    2013-01-01

    Analyser-based imaging (ABI) is one of the several phase-contrast x-ray imaging techniques being pursued at synchrotron radiation facilities. With advancements in compact source technology, there is a possibility that ABI will become a clinical imaging modality. This paper presents the history of ABI as it has developed from its laboratory source to synchrotron imaging. The fundamental physics of phase-contrast imaging is presented both in a general sense and specifically for ABI. The technology is dependent on the use of perfect crystal monochromator optics. The theory of the x-ray optics is developed and presented in a way that will allow optimization of the imaging for specific biomedical systems. The advancement of analytical algorithms to produce separate images of the sample absorption, refraction angle map and small-angle x-ray scattering is detailed. Several detailed applications to biomedical imaging are presented to illustrate the broad range of systems and body sites studied preclinically to date: breast, cartilage and bone, soft tissue and organs. Ultimately, the application of ABI in clinical imaging will depend partly on the availability of compact sources with sufficient x-ray intensity comparable with that of the current synchrotron environment. (paper)

  19. Direct comparison of soft x-ray images of organelles with optical fluorescence images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Kado, Masataka; Kishimoto, Maki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ohba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yasuda, Keiko; Mikata, Yuji; Shinohara, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Soft x-ray microscopes operating in the water window region are capable of imaging living hydrated cells. Up to now, we have been able to take some soft x-ray images of living cells by the use of a contact x-ray microscope system with laser produced plasma soft x-ray source. Since the soft x-ray images are different from the optical images obtained with an ordinary microscope, it is very important to identify what is seen in the x-ray images. Hence, we have demonstrated the direct comparison between the images of organelles obtained with a fluorescence microscope and those with a soft x-ray microscope. Comparing the soft x-ray images to the fluorescence images, the fine structures of the organelles could be identified and observed. (author)

  20. X-ray images in primary bone chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrtmadzhieva, S.; Andreev, I.; Velichkov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The X-ray images of primary bone chondrosarcomas in 76 patients are reviewed. The tumors have been localized largely in the long tubular bones - in some patients centrally or excentrically, in others superficially. The X-ray images presented with osteolytic, osteoplastic and mixed changes, intratumor calcifications and reactive bone and periosteal changes. The presence of any of these changes and their combinations, depending on the localization and the influence of a variety of other factors, resembled much many other primary and metastatic malignant bone tumors, benign bone tumors and tumor-like diseases. The X-ray images showed a major complexity in the development of the primary chondrosarcoma and its relations with the bone as organ. (author)

  1. Noise reduction in real time x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Motohisa; Kimura, Yutaro

    1986-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio of real-time digital X-ray imaging systems consisting of an X-ray image intensifer-television chain was investigated while concentrating on the effect of the X-ray quantum nature. Along with conventional signal accumulation, logarithmic conversion and subtraction, a new technique called the peak hold method is introduced. Theoretical and simulational studies were made with practical parameters. Theory and simulation showed good agreement. An accumulation of signal is most effective for improving the signal-to-noise ratio; the peak-hold method comes next. The peak hold method, however, offers a new image-display mode. Moreover, this method is superior to signal accumulation for specific conditions. (author)

  2. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author)

  3. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-11-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author).

  4. Synchrotron X-ray imaging applied to solar photovoltaic silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafford, T A; Villanova, J; Plassat, N; Dubois, S; Camel, D

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cell performance is dictated by the material of the cell, its quality and purity, the type, quantity, size and distribution of defects, as well as surface treatments, deposited layers and contacts. A synchrotron offers unique opportunities for a variety of complementary X-ray techniques, given the brilliance, spectrum, energy tunability and potential for (sub-) micron-sized beams. Material properties are revealed within in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces. X-ray Diffraction Imaging (X-ray Topography), Rocking Curve Imaging and Section Topography reveal defects such as dislocations, inclusions, misorientations and strain in the bulk and at surfaces. Simultaneous measurement of micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) and micro-X-ray Beam Induced Current (μ-XBIC) gives direct correlation between impurities and PV performance. Together with techniques such as microscopy and Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) measurements, the correlation between structural properties and photovoltaic performance can be deduced, as well as the relative influence of parameters such as defect type, size, spatial distribution and density (e.g [1]). Measurements may be applied at different stages of solar cell processing in order to follow the evolution of the material and its properties through the manufacturing process. Various grades of silicon are under study, including electronic and metallurgical grades in mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline and mono-like forms. This paper aims to introduce synchrotron imaging to non-specialists, giving example results on selected solar photovoltaic silicon samples.

  5. X-ray imaging in the laser-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Imaging devices which are used or planned for x-ray imaging in the laser-fusion program are discussed. Resolution criteria are explained, and a suggestion is made for using the modulation transfer function as a uniform definition of resolution for these devices

  6. Nanoscale X-Ray Microscopic Imaging of Mammalian Mineralized Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Joy C.; Almeida, Eduardo; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Lee, Chialing; Liu, Yijin; Chen, Jie; Meirer, Florian; Feser, Michael; Gelb, Jeff; Rudati, Juana; Tkachuk, Andrei; Yun, Wenbing; Pianetta, Piero

    2010-01-01

    A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light-source operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 µm2 field of view has been used for high-resolution (30–40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks in mammalian mineralized tissues using relatively thick (50 µm), untreated samples that preserve tissue micro- and nanostructure. To test this...

  7. Magnetic imaging by dichroic x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisebitt, S.; Loergen, M.; Eberhardt, W.; Luening, M.; Schlotter, W.F.; Stoehr, J.; Hellwig, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: While holography has evolved to a powerful technique in the visible spectral range, it is difficult to apply at shorter wavelength as no intrinsically coherent (soft) x-ray laser is available as a light source. The progression from visible light towards shorter wavelength is motivated by the increase in spatial resolution that can be achieved. Of equal importance is the possibility to exploit special contrast mechanisms provided by scattering in resonance with transitions between electronic core and valence levels. These contrast mechanisms can be utilized in x-ray holography to form a spectroscopic image of the sample, in analogy to spectromicroscopy. So far, successful x-ray spectroholography has not been reported due to the experimental difficulties associated with the short wavelength and the limited coherent photon flux available. We present images of magnetic domain patterns forming in thin film Co-Pt multilayers, obtained by spectroholography at a wavelength of 1.59 nm. At this wavelength, we exploit x ray magnetic dichroism at the Co 2p 3/2 level in a Fourier transform holography experiment. Holography at this wavelength was made possible by combining nanostructured masks with coherence l tered synchrotron radiation from an undulator source in the experimental setup. The magnetic multilayers have perpendicular anisotropy and are probed using circular polarized x-rays. Dichroic holograms are recorded by combining measurements with positive and negative helicities. The spectroholograms can be numerically inverted to show the pure magnetic sample structure, such as labyrinth or stripe domains. Currently, we achieve a spatial resolution of 100 nm in the magnetic image. The advantages and limitations of this technique will be compared to other lensless imaging techniques such as over sampling phasing. The future prospects of imaging techniques based on coherent scattering are discussed in the context of the current development of free electron x-ray

  8. The Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian; O’Dell, Stephen; Tennant, Allyn; Elsner, Ronald; Soffita, Paolo; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Kaspi, Victoria; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is an exciting international collaboration for a scientific mission that dramatically brings together the unique talents of the partners to expand observation space by simultaneously adding polarization measurements to the array of source properties currently measured (energy, time, and location). IXPE uniquely brings to the table polarimetric imaging. IXPE will thus open new dimensions for understanding how X-ray emission is produced in astrophysical objects, especially systems under extreme physical conditions-such as neutron stars and black holes. Polarization singularly probes physical anisotropies-ordered magnetic fields, aspheric matter distributions, or general relativistic coupling to black-hole spin-that are not otherwise measurable. Hence, IXPE complements all other investigations in high-energy astrophysics by adding important and relatively unexplored information to the parameter space for studying cosmic X-ray sources and processes, as well as for using extreme astrophysical environments as laboratories for fundamental physics.

  9. Dilation x-ray imager a new/faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF [DIXI (Dilation x-ray imager) a new/faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Bell, P. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ayers, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barrios, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, R. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, O. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Piston, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Raman, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hares, J. D. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-19

    As the yield on implosion shots increases it is expected that the peak x-ray emission reduces to a duration with a FWHM as short as 20 ps for ~7 1018 neutron yield. However, the temporal resolution of currently used gated x-ray imagers on the NIF is 40-100 ps. We discuss the benefits of the higher temporal resolution for the NIF and present performance measurements for DIXI, which utilizes pulse-dilation technology [1] to achieve x-ray imaging with temporal gate times below 10 ps. Lastly, the measurements were conducted using the COMET laser, which is part of the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  10. The display of X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In order to decrease the radiation doses incurred by radiological investigation of patients, a method is developed to fix an image on a screen in a thermoluminescent phosphor and subsequently heating that phosphor by scanning the screen with a laser

  11. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 μm, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40 keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation σ h =(8.6±0.1) μm in the horizontal and σ v =(7.5±0.1) μm in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4 m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σ v =(0.50±0.05) μm in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 μm 2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σ f =(1.2±0.4) μm, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size in vertical direction of σ v =(1.2±0.3)μm and a

  12. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 {mu}m, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40 keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation {sigma}{sub h}=(8.6{+-}0.1) {mu}m in the horizontal and {sigma}{sub v}=(7.5{+-}0.1) {mu}m in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4 m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size {sigma}{sub v}=(0.50{+-}0.05) {mu}m in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 {mu}m{sup 2} provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be {sigma}{sub f}=(1.2{+-}0.4) {mu}m, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size

  13. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T.

    2006-05-01

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450μm, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation σh = (8.6±0.1)μm in the horizontal and σv = (7.5±0.1)μm in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σv = (0.50±0.05)μm in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13×13μm^2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σf = (1.2±0.4)μm, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size in vertical direction of σv = (1.2±0.3)μm and a geometrical

  14. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snigireva, I. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  15. X-ray image amplifying tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The photo electrons from the picture on the fluorescent input screen are amplified by an electron optical system and produce an intensified image on the output screen. This can be photographed and shown on a TV screen. The effects of stray magnetic fields are reduced by covering the input screen with a grating made of strips of ferromagnetic material such as μ metal. (T.S.E.T.)

  16. Diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging of mammals crystalline lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, A.; Hoennicke, M.G.; Safatle, A.M.V.; Cusatis, C.; Moraes Barros, P.S.; Morelhao, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline lenses are transparent biological materials where the organization of the lens fibers can also be affected by changes at molecular level, and therefore the structure and morphology of the tissue can be correlated to the loss of transparency of the lens. In this work, internal structure of mammal lenses regarding the long-range ordering of the fibers are investigated by diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging (DEI) radiography. Moreover, DEI and absorption X-ray synchrotron radiographs for healthy and cataractous crystalline lenses are compared. Significant differences in healthy and cataractous crystalline lenses are observed

  17. Gas microstrip detectors for X-ray tomographic flow imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Key, M J; Luggar, R D; Kundu, A

    2003-01-01

    A investigation into the suitability of gas microstrip detector technology for a high-speed industrial X-ray tomography system is reported. X-ray energies in the region 20-30 keV are well suited to the application, which involves imaging two-dimensional slices through gas/liquid multiphase pipeline flows for quantitative component fraction measurement. Stable operation over a period representing several hundred individual tomographic scans at gas gains of 500 is demonstrated using a Penning gas mixture of krypton/propylene.

  18. Low Mass X-ray Binary 4U1705-44 Exiting an Extended High X-ray State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U1705-44, which exhibited high amplitude long-term X-ray variability on the order of hundreds of days during the 16-year continuous monitoring by the RXTE ASM (1995-2012), entered an anomalously long high state in July 2012 as observed by MAXI (2009-present).

  19. Image quality of medical X-ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoen, P.J. 't.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of images made by medical X-ray systems can only be properly described if the visual system is also taken into account. In this thesis, the visual threshold contrast of edges, bars and disks has been chosen as the criterion. Since these objects resemble medical objects like tumour-mass outlines, blood vessels and micro-calcifications, a correlation with X-ray practice is possible. Only the conventional X-ray systems are considered, but a brief analysis of computerized tomography is given. Considerable attention is paid to unsharpness and the minimization of its influence on the threshold contrast, to the influence of the noise on the threshold contrast, and to the contrast formation as such. The consequences for the dose administered to the patient are also briefly analysed. (Auth.)

  20. Structured scintillators for X-ray imaging with micrometre resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2009-01-01

    A 3D X-ray detector for imaging of 30–200 keV photons is described. It comprises a stack of semitransparent structured scintillators, where each scintillator is a regular array of waveguides in silicon, and with pores filled with CsI. The performance of the detector is described theoretically...

  1. The hard x-ray imager onboard IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Limousin, Olivier; Kokubun, Motohide; Watanabe, Shin; Laurent, Philippe; Arnaud, Monique; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2010-07-01

    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is one of the instruments onboard International X-ray Observatory (IXO), to be launched into orbit in 2020s. It covers the energy band of 10-40 keV, providing imaging-spectroscopy with a field of view of 8 x 8 arcmin2. The HXI is attached beneath the Wide Field Imager (WFI) covering 0.1-15 keV. Combined with the super-mirror coating on the mirror assembly, this configuration provides observation of X-ray source in wide energy band (0.1-40.0 keV) simultaneously, which is especially important for varying sources. The HXI sensor part consists of the semiconductor imaging spectrometer, using Si in the medium energy detector and CdTe in the high energy detector as its material, and an active shield covering its back to reduce background in orbit. The HXI technology is based on those of the Japanese-lead new generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H, and partly from those developed for Simbol-X. Therefore, the technological development is in good progress. In the IXO mission, HXI will provide a major assets to identify the nature of the object by penetrating into thick absorbing materials and determined the inherent spectral shape in the energy band well above the structure around Fe-K lines and edges.

  2. A gas pixel detector for X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    A simple, robust form of gas pixel detector is discussed which is based on the use of electronic connector pins as the gain elements. With a rate capability of >10 5 counts/s per pin, an X-ray imaging detector system capable of counting at global rates of the order of 10 10 counts/s is foreseen. (author)

  3. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  4. Improved image alignment method in application to X-ray images and biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Chen, Hsiang-Chou

    2013-08-01

    Alignment of medical images is a vital component of a large number of applications throughout the clinical track of events; not only within clinical diagnostic settings, but prominently so in the area of planning, consummation and evaluation of surgical and radiotherapeutical procedures. However, image registration of medical images is challenging because of variations on data appearance, imaging artifacts and complex data deformation problems. Hence, the aim of this study is to develop a robust image alignment method for medical images. An improved image registration method is proposed, and the method is evaluated with two types of medical data, including biological microscopic tissue images and dental X-ray images and compared with five state-of-the-art image registration techniques. The experimental results show that the presented method consistently performs well on both types of medical images, achieving 88.44 and 88.93% averaged registration accuracies for biological tissue images and X-ray images, respectively, and outperforms the benchmark methods. Based on the Tukey's honestly significant difference test and Fisher's least square difference test tests, the presented method performs significantly better than all existing methods (P ≤ 0.001) for tissue image alignment, and for the X-ray image registration, the proposed method performs significantly better than the two benchmark b-spline approaches (P < 0.001). The software implementation of the presented method and the data used in this study are made publicly available for scientific communities to use (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/∼cweiwang/ImprovedImageRegistration/). cweiwang@mail.ntust.edu.tw.

  5. Applications of phase-contrast x-ray imaging to medicine using an x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Yoneyama, Akio; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tu, Jinhong; Hirano, Keiichi

    1999-10-01

    We are investigating possible medical applications of phase- contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer. This paper introduces the strategy of the research project and the present status. The main subject is to broaden the observation area to enable in vivo observation. For this purpose, large X-ray interferometers were developed, and 2.5 cm X 1.5 cm interference patterns were generated using synchrotron X-rays. An improvement of the spatial resolution is also included in the project, and an X-ray interferometer designed for high-resolution phase-contrast X-ray imaging was fabricated and tested. In parallel with the instrumental developments, various soft tissues are observed by phase- contrast X-ray CT to find correspondence between the generated contrast and our histological knowledge. The observation done so far suggests that cancerous tissues are differentiated from normal tissues and that blood can produce phase contrast. Furthermore, this project includes exploring materials that modulate phase contrast for selective imaging.

  6. Recent developments in X-ray imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Moy, J P

    2000-01-01

    The replacement of the radiographic film in medical imaging has been the driving force in X-ray imaging developments. It requires a approx 40 cm wide detector to cover all examinations, an equivalent noise level of 1-5 X-ray quanta per pixel, and spatial resolution in the range 100-150 mu m. The need for entirely electronic imaging equipments has fostered the development of many X-ray detectors, most of them based on an array of amorphous silicon pixels, which is the only technology capable to achieve such large areas. Essentially, two concepts have been implemented: - intermediate conversion of X-rays to light by a scintillator, detected by an array of light sensitive pixels, comprising a photodiode and a switching device, either a TFT or a diode. - conversion into electron-hole pairs in a photoconductor, collected by an array of electrodes and switches. In both cases, charge amplifiers read the generated charges line by line. Scintillator and photoconductor-based systems are now close to production. They ac...

  7. Electronic roentgenographic images in presurgical X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Hohmann, D.; Maass, W.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen

    1981-01-01

    An essential part of radiation exposure in surgery is due to devices and results from the required radiation time interval for continuous X-ray play-back up to the point at which all diagnostically relevant information can be retrieved from the screening image. With single-image storage and short exposure times as well as instant image play-back, this superfluous i.e. redundant radiation can be avoided. The electronic X-ray image is realized by means of a laboratory prototype and evaluated in hospitals. There is a report on clinical results and new technical developments. Remarkable are: the high radiation reduction that could be obtained, the problem - free instant image technique, and especially the advantages of automated exposure in direct film settings. The positive results yield the basis for the product development. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Cheryl; Deininger, William D.; Baggett, Randy; Primo, Attina; Bowen, Mike; Cowart, Chris; Del Monte, Ettore; Ingram, Lindsey; Kalinowski, William; Kelley, Anthony; hide

    2018-01-01

    The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) project is an international collaboration to build and fly a polarization sensitive X-ray observatory. The IXPE Observatory consists of the spacecraft and payload. The payload is composed of three X-ray telescopes, each consisting of a mirror module optical assembly and a polarization-sensitive X-ray detector assembly; a deployable boom maintains the focal length between the optical assemblies and the detectors. The goal of the IXPE Mission is to provide new information about the origins of cosmic X-rays and their interactions with matter and gravity as they travel through space. IXPE will do this by exploiting its unique capability to measure the polarization of X-rays emitted by cosmic sources. The collaboration for IXPE involves national and international partners during design, fabrication, assembly, integration, test, and operations. The full collaboration includes NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Ball Aerospace, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), the Italian Institute of Astrophysics and Space Planetology (IAPS)/Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), the University of Colorado (CU) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), Stanford University, McGill University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The goal of this paper is to discuss risk management as it applies to the IXPE project. The full IXPE Team participates in risk management providing both unique challenges and advantages for project risk management. Risk management is being employed in all phases of the IXPE Project, but is particularly important during planning and initial execution-the current phase of the IXPE Project. The discussion will address IXPE risk strategies and responsibilities, along with the IXPE management process which includes risk identification, risk assessment, risk response, and risk monitoring, control, and reporting.

  9. Recent developments in detectors/phantoms for dosimetry, X-ray quality assurance and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.

    2009-01-01

    During the past years, many new developments have taken place in detectors/phantoms for high energy photon and electron dosimetry (for radiotherapy), protection monitoring, X-ray quality assurance and X-ray imaging (for radiodiagnosis). A variety of detectors and systems, quality assurance (QA) gadgets and special phantoms have been developed for diverse applications. This paper discusses the important developments with some of which the author was actively associated in the past. For dosimetry and QA of 60 Co and high energy X-ray units, state-of-the-art radiation field analyzers, matrix ion chambers, MOSFET devices and Gafchromic films are described. OSL detectors find wide use in radiotherapy dosimetry and provide a good alternative for personnel monitoring. New systems introduced for QA/dosimetry of X-ray units and CT scanners include: multi-function instruments for simultaneous measurement of kVp, dose, time, X-ray waveform and HVT on diagnostic X-ray units; pencil chamber with head and body phantoms for CTDI check on CT scanners. Examples of phantoms used for dosimetry and imaging are given. Advancements in the field of diagnostic X-ray imaging (with applications in portal imaging/dosimetry of megavoltage X-ray units) have led to emergence of: film-replacement systems employing CCD-scintillator arrays, computed radiography (CR) using storage phosphor plate; digital radiography (DR), using a pixel-matrix of amorphous selenium, or amorphous silicon diode coupled to scintillator. All these provide (a) in radiotherapy, accurate dose delivery to tumour, saving the surrounding tissues and (b) in radiodiagnosis, superior image quality with low patient exposure. Lastly, iPODs and flash drives are utilized for storage of gigabyte-size images encountered in medical and allied fields. Although oriented towards medical applications, some of these have been of great utility in other fields, such as industrial radiography as well as a host of other research areas. (author)

  10. Ultrahigh-speed X-ray imaging of hypervelocity projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stuart; Singh, Bipin; Cool, Steven; Entine, Gerald; Campbell, Larry; Bishel, Ron; Rushing, Rick; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2011-08-01

    High-speed X-ray imaging is an extremely important modality for healthcare, industrial, military and research applications such as medical computed tomography, non-destructive testing, imaging in-flight projectiles, characterizing exploding ordnance, and analyzing ballistic impacts. We report on the development of a modular, ultrahigh-speed, high-resolution digital X-ray imaging system with large active imaging area and microsecond time resolution, capable of acquiring at a rate of up to 150,000 frames per second. The system is based on a high-resolution, high-efficiency, and fast-decay scintillator screen optically coupled to an ultra-fast image-intensified CCD camera designed for ballistic impact studies and hypervelocity projectile imaging. A specially designed multi-anode, high-fluence X-ray source with 50 ns pulse duration provides a sequence of blur-free images of hypervelocity projectiles traveling at speeds exceeding 8 km/s (18,000 miles/h). This paper will discuss the design, performance, and high frame rate imaging capability of the system.

  11. Flexible digital x-ray technology for far-forward remote diagnostic and conformal x-ray imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph; Marrs, Michael; Strnad, Mark; Apte, Raj B.; Bert, Julie; Allee, David; Colaneri, Nicholas; Forsythe, Eric; Morton, David

    2013-05-01

    Today's flat panel digital x-ray image sensors, which have been in production since the mid-1990s, are produced exclusively on glass substrates. While acceptable for use in a hospital or doctor's office, conventional glass substrate digital x-ray sensors are too fragile for use outside these controlled environments without extensive reinforcement. Reinforcement, however, significantly increases weight, bulk, and cost, making them impractical for far-forward remote diagnostic applications, which demand rugged and lightweight x-ray detectors. Additionally, glass substrate x-ray detectors are inherently rigid. This limits their use in curved or bendable, conformal x-ray imaging applications such as the non-destructive testing (NDT) of oil pipelines. However, by extending low-temperature thin-film transistor (TFT) technology previously demonstrated on plastic substrate- based electrophoretic and organic light emitting diode (OLED) flexible displays, it is now possible to manufacture durable, lightweight, as well as flexible digital x-ray detectors. In this paper, we discuss the principal technical approaches used to apply flexible display technology to two new large-area flexible digital x-ray sensors for defense, security, and industrial applications and demonstrate their imaging capabilities. Our results include a 4.8″ diagonal, 353 x 463 resolution, flexible digital x-ray detector, fabricated on a 6″ polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrate; and a larger, 7.9″ diagonal, 720 x 640 resolution, flexible digital x-ray detector also fabricated on PEN and manufactured on a gen 2 (370 x 470 mm) substrate.

  12. Basic studies in X-ray radiography and imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, Paresh R.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the basic characteristics related to a new branch of radiography viz. the micro-focal radiography. The most important among them was to find methods of measurement of focal spot size of these X-ray sources. It is important to accomplish this because the design of such units is specifically meant to produce very fine source size. To this end. first the process of radiography test was introduced. Among other things. various properties of an image and image forming systems (like PSF, LSF, MTF etc.) were introduced and explained. Methods used for microfocus measurement of focal spot size in conventional units were reviewed. It was shown how they are not suitable for microfocal tubes. Next the microfocus X-ray unit meant for the study was installed and commissioned. Features which are different from conventional X-ray units were observed more carefully. Data was collected and analyzed for various aspects. Procedure for focussing the electron beam while getting the feed back about beam diameter from the oscilloscope was established by experiments. In addition, influence of change in tube voltage and tube current on the focal spot size was studied. Relationship between tube current and target current vis-a-vis focus size was established. Radiation zone was determined. Focal spot size was qualitatively compared with that of a conventional X-ray unit by taking radiographs of different wire meshes at different magnifications by both the units

  13. New developments in simulating X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterzol, A.; Berthier, J.; Duvauchelle, P.; Babot, D.; Ferrero, C.

    2007-01-01

    A deterministic algorithm simulating phase contrast (PC) x-ray images for complex 3- dimensional (3D) objects is presented. This algorithm has been implemented in a simulation code named VXI (Virtual X-ray Imaging). The physical model chosen to account for PC technique is based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The algorithm consists mainly of two parts. The first one exploits the VXI ray-tracing approach to compute the object transmission function. The second part simulates the PC image due to the wave front distortion introduced by the sample. In the first part, the use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex 3D objects. Differently from the VXI original version, which makes use of an object description via triangular facets, the new code requires a more 'sophisticated' object representation based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). As a first step we produce a spatial high resolution image by using a point and monochromatic source and an ideal detector. To simulate the polychromatic case, the intensity image is integrated over the considered x-ray energy spectrum. Then, in order to account for the system spatial resolution properties, the high spatial resolution image (mono or polychromatic) is convolved with the total point spread function of the imaging system under consideration. The results supplied by the presented algorithm are examined with the help of some relevant examples. (authors)

  14. X-ray volume imaging in bladder radiotherapy verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Ann M.; Stratford, Julia; McCarthy, Claire; Davies, Julie; Sykes, Jonathan R.; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Tom; Cowan, Richard; Wylie, James; Logue, John; Livsey, Jacqueline; Khoo, Vincent S.; Moore, Chris; Price, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical utility of X-ray volume imaging (XVI) for verification of bladder radiotherapy and to quantify geometric error in bladder radiotherapy delivery. Methods and Materials: Twenty subjects undergoing conformal bladder radiotherapy were recruited. X-ray volume images and electronic portal images (EPIs) were acquired for the first 5 fractions and then once weekly. X-ray volume images were co-registered with the planning computed tomography scan and clinical target volume coverage assessed in three dimensions (3D). Interfraction bladder volume change was described by quantifying changes in bladder volume with time. Bony setup errors were compared from both XVI and EPI. Results: The bladder boundary was clearly visible on coronal XVI views in nearly all images, allowing accurate 3D treatment verification. In 93.5% of imaged fractions, the clinical target volume was within the planning target volume. Most subjects displayed consistent bladder volumes, but 25% displayed changes that could be predicted from the first three XVIs. Bony setup errors were similar whether calculated from XVI or EPI. Conclusions: Coronal XVI can be used to verify 3D bladder radiotherapy delivery. Image-guided interventions to reduce geographic miss and normal tissue toxicity are feasible with this technology

  15. Coding aperture applied to X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunol, J.; Sauneuf, R.; Gex, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    We present some X-ray images of grids and plasmas. These images were obtained by using a single circular slit (annular code) as coding aperture and a computer decoding process. The experimental resolution is better than 10μm and it is expected to be in the order of 2 or 3 μm with the same code and an improved decoding process

  16. Operation of a separated-type x-ray interferometer for phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Momose, Atsushi; Seya, Eiichi; Hirano, Keiichi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1999-12-01

    Aiming at large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging, a separated-type x-ray interferometer system was designed and developed to produce 25×20 mm interference patterns. The skew-symmetric optical system was adopted because of the feasibility of alignment. The rotation between the separated crystal blocks was controlled within a drift of 0.06 nrad using a feedback positioning system. This interferometer generated a 25×15 mm interference pattern with 0.07 nm synchrotron x-rays. A slice of a rabbit's kidney was observed, and its tubular structure could be revealed in a measured phase map.

  17. X-ray states of redback millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Compact binary millisecond pulsars with main-sequence donors, often referred to as 'redbacks', constitute the long-sought link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars and offer a unique probe of the interaction between pulsar winds and accretion flows. We present a systematic study of eight nearby redbacks, using more than 100 observations obtained with Swift's X-ray Telescope. We distinguish between three main states: pulsar, disk, and outburst states. We find X-ray mode switching in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, similar to what was found in the other redback that showed evidence for accretion: rapid, recurrent changes in X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV, L {sub X}), between (6-9) × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1} (disk-passive state) and (3-5) × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1} (disk-active state). This strongly suggests that mode switching—which has not been observed in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries—is universal among redback millisecond pulsars in the disk state. We briefly explore the implications for accretion disk truncation and find that the inferred magnetospheric radius in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 lies outside the light cylinder. Finally, we note that all three redbacks that have developed accretion disks have relatively high L {sub X} in the pulsar state (>10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}).

  18. Trends in NOAA Solar X-ray Imager Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Steven M.; Darnell, John A.; Seaton, Daniel B.

    2016-05-01

    NOAA has provided operational soft X-ray imaging of the sun since the early 2000’s. After 15 years of observations by four different telescopes, it is appropriate to examine the data in terms of providing consistent context for scientific missions. In particular, this presentation examines over 7 million GOES Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) images for trends in performance parameters including dark current, response degradation, and inter-calibration. Because observations from the instrument have overlapped not only with each other, but also with research observations like Yohkoh SXT and Hinode XRT, relative performance comparisons can be made. The first GOES Solar X-ray Imager was launched in 2001 and entered operations in 2003. The current SXIs will remain in operations until approximately 2020, when a new series of Solar (extreme-)Ultraviolet Imagers (SUVIs) will replace them as the current satellites reach their end of life. In the sense that the SXIs are similar to Yokoh’s SXT and Hinode’s XRT, the SUVI instruments will be similar to SOHO’s EIT and SDO’s AIA. The move to narrowband EUV imagers will better support eventual operational estimation of plasma conditions. While NOAA’s principal use of these observations is real-time space weather forecasting, they will continue to provide a reliable context measurement for researchers for decades to come.

  19. Fast X-ray imaging of cavitating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khlifa, Ilyass; Fuzier, Sylvie; Roussette, Olivier [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, Lille (France); Vabre, Alexandre [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hocevar, Marko [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fezzaa, Kamel [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source, Lemont, IL (United States); Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier [Virginia Tech, Kevin T. Crofton Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    A new method based on ultra-fast X-ray imaging was developed in this work for the investigation of the dynamics and the structures of complex two-phase flows. In this paper, cavitation was created inside a millimetric 2D Venturi-type test section, while seeding particles were injected into the flow. Thanks to the phase-contrast enhancement technique provided by the APS (Advanced Photon Source) synchrotron beam, high definition X-ray images of the complex cavitating flows were obtained. These images contain valuable information about both the liquid and the gaseous phases. By means of image processing, the two phases were separated, and velocity fields of each phase were, therefore, calculated using image cross-correlations. The local vapour volume fractions were also obtained, thanks to the local intensity levels within the recorded images. These simultaneous measurements, provided by this new technique, afford more insight into the structure and the dynamic of two-phase flows as well as the interactions between them, and hence enable to improve our understanding of their behaviour. In the case of cavitating flows inside a Venturi-type test section, the X-ray measurements demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of significant slip velocities between the phases within sheet cavities for both steady and unsteady flow configurations. (orig.)

  20. FIRST IMAGES FROM THE FOCUSING OPTICS X-RAY SOLAR IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krucker, Säm; Glesener, Lindsay; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; Lin, Robert [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christe, Steven [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka (Japan); Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Saito, Shinya [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, Sagamihara (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Solar-Terrestial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tanaka, Takaaki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); White, Stephen [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November 2, producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5 keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

  1. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  2. The Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE): Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Steve; Weisskopf, M.; Soffitta, P.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Costa, E.; Elsner, R.; Kaspi, V.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Latronico, L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Mission background: Imaging x-ray polarimetry in 2–8 kiloelectronvolt band; NASA Astrophysics Small Explorer (SMEX) selected in 2017 January. Orbit: Pegasus-XL (airborne) launch in 2021, from Kwajalein; Equatorial circular orbit at greater than or approximately equal to 540 kilometers (620 kilometers, goal) altitude. Flight system: Spacecraft, payload structure, and integration by Ball Aerospace - Deployable payload boom from Orbital-ATK, under contract to Ball; X-ray Mirror Module Assemblies by NASA/MSFC; X-ray (polarization-sensitive) Instruments by IAPS/INAF (Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali / Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). Ground system: ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) Malindi ground station, with Singapore backup; Mission Operations Center at LASP (Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado); Science Operations Center at NASA/MSFC; Data archive at HEASARC (High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center), (NASA/GSFC), mirror at ASI Data Center. Science: Active galactic nuclei; Microquasars; Radio pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae; Supernova remnants; Magnetars; Accreting x-ray pulsars.

  3. Direct view panel type X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.-P.; Robbins, C.D.; Merrit, E.

    1977-01-01

    A panel shaped, proximity type, X-ray image intensifier tube for medical X-ray fluoroscopy use is described. It has all linear components and yet a high brightness gain, in excess of 4,000 cd-sec/m 2 -R, the tube being comprised of a rugged metallic tube envelope, an inwardly concave metallic input window, a directly viewable full size output display screen, and a scintillator-photocathode screen having a thickness of at least 200 microns for a high X-ray photon utilization ability as well as X-ray stopping power, the scintillator-photocathode screen being suspended on insulators within the envelope and in between the input window and the output screen. The scintillator-photocathode screen is spaced from the output screen by at least 8mm to allow the application of a high negative potential at the scintillator-photocathode screen with respect to the output screen for high gain with low field emission, since all of the remaining components within the tube envelope are at neutral potential with respect to the output display screen. (Auth.)

  4. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F. E-mail: vfd217@ire216.msk.su; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A

    2004-09-21

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 {mu}A min/(Gy cm{sup 2}). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received.

  5. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 μA min/(Gy cm 2 ). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received

  6. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Mokso, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 729, NOV (2013), s. 85-89 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffractive-refractive optics * hard X-ray FEL * X-ray imaging Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900213009613

  7. A Soft X-ray Imager for MIRAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zand, Jean in 't; Mels, Wim; Heise, John

    2006-01-01

    The flight spare model of the BeppoSAX Wide Field Cameras is being considered as the Soft X-ray Imager for MIRAX. A description is provided of this instrument, the performance of its siblings on BeppoSAX, and the prospects of flying it on MIRAX. Like on BeppoSAX, the instrument on MIRAX will excel in the study of transient phenomena lasting shorter than 1 day

  8. NASA Unveils First Images From Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Extraordinary first images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory trace the aftermath of a gigantic stellar explosion in such stunning detail that scientists can see evidence of what may be a neutron star or black hole near the center. Another image shows a powerful X-ray jet blasting 200,000 light years into intergalactic space from a distant quasar. Released today, both images confirm that NASA's newest Great Observatory is in excellent health and its instruments and optics are performing up to expectations. Chandra, the world's largest and most sensitive X-ray telescope, is still in its orbital check-out and calibration phase. "When I saw the first image, I knew that the dream had been realized," said Dr. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra Project Scientist, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. "This observatory is ready to take its place in the history of spectacular scientific achievements." "We were astounded by these images," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X- ray Center, Cambridge, MA. "We see the collision of the debris from the exploded star with the matter around it, we see shock waves rushing into interstellar space at millions of miles per hour, and, as a real bonus, we see for the first time a tantalizing bright point near the center of the remnant that could possibly be a collapsed star associated with the outburst." Chandra's PKS 0637-752 PKS 0637-752 After the telescope's sunshade door was opened last week, one of the first images taken was of the 320-year-old supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, which astronomers believe was produced by the explosion of a massive star. Material blasted into space from the explosion crashed into surrounding material at 10 million miles per hour. This collision caused violent shock waves, like massive sonic booms, creating a vast 50-million degree bubble of X-ray emitting gas. Heavy elements in the hot gas produce X-rays of specific energies. Chandra's ability

  9. Design of a normal incidence multilayer imaging X-ray microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Gabardi, David R.; Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.

    Normal incidence multilayer Cassegrain X-ray telescopes were flown on the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-ray Spectroheliograph. These instruments produced high spatial resolution images of the sun and conclusively demonstrated that doubly reflecting multilayer X-ray optical systems are feasible. The images indicated that aplanatic imaging soft X-ray/EUV microscopes should be achievable using multilayer optics technology. A doubly reflecting normal incidence multilayer imaging X-ray microscope based on the Schwarzschild configuration has been designed. The design of the microscope and the results of the optical system ray trace analysis are discussed. High resolution aplanatic imaging X-ray microscopes using normal incidence multilayer X-ray mirrors should have many important applications in advanced X-ray astronomical instrumentation, X-ray lithography, biological, biomedical, metallurgical, and laser fusion research.

  10. X-ray photon-in/photon-out methods for chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Matthew A.

    2010-03-24

    Most interesting materials in nature are heterogeneous, so it is useful to have analytical techniques with spatial resolution sufficient to resolve these heterogeneities.This article presents the basics of X-ray photon-in/photon-out chemical imaging. This family of methods allows one to derive images reflectingthe chemical state of a given element in a complex sample, at micron or deep sub-micron scale. X-ray chemical imaging is relatively non-destructiveand element-selective, and requires minimal sample preparation. The article presents the basic concepts and some considerations of data takingand data analysis, along with some examples.

  11. Wide Field-of-View Soft X-Ray Imaging for Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Snowden, S. L.; Carter, J. A.; Collado-Vega, Y.; Connor, H. K.; Cravens, T. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray imagers can be used to study the mesoscale and macroscale density structures that occur whenever and wherever the solar wind encounters neutral atoms at comets, the Moon, and both magnetized and unmagnetized planets. Charge exchange between high charge state solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals results in the isotropic emission of soft X-ray photons with energies from 0.1 to 2.0 keV. At Earth, this process occurs primarily within the magnetosheath and cusps. Through providing a global view, wide field-of-view imaging can determine the significance of the various proposed solar wind-magnetosphere interaction mechanisms by evaluating their global extent and occurrence patterns. A summary of wide field-of-view (several to tens of degrees) soft X-ray imaging is provided including slumped micropore microchannel reflectors, simulated images, and recent flight results.

  12. Tolerance limits of X-ray image intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stargardt, A.; Juran, R.; Brandt, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of the tolerance limits of X-ray image density accepted by the radiologist shows that for different kinds of examinations, deviations of more than 50% from optimal density lead to images which cannot be used diagnostically. Within this range diagnostic accuracy shows a distinct maximum and diminishes to the limits by 20%. These figures are related to differences in the intensifying factor of screens, sensitivity of films, sensitometric parameters of film processing as well as the doses employed with automatic exposure control devices, measured in clinical conditions. Maximum permissible tolerance limits of the whole imaging system and of its constituents are discussed using the Gaussian law of error addition. (author)

  13. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla; Paredes, Ramon S.C.; Godoi, Walmor C.; Souza, Gabriel Pinto de

    2011-01-01

    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  14. IXPE - The Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is a Small Explorer Mission that will be proposed in response to NASA's upcoming Announcement of Opportunity. IXPE will transform our understanding of the most energetic and exotic astrophysical objects, especially neutron stars and black holes, by measuring the linear polarization of astronomical objects as a function of energy, time and, where relevant, position. As the first dedicated polarimetry observatory IXPE will add a new dimension to the study of cosmic sources, enlarging the observational phase space and providing answers to fundamental questions. IXPE will feature x-ray optics fabricated at NASA/MSFC and gas pixel focal plane detectors provided by team members in Italy (INAF and INFN). This presentation will give an overview of the proposed IXPE mission, detailing the payload configuration, the expected sensitivity, and a typical observing program.

  15. Method of making tomographic images of X-rayed objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickel, R.

    1979-01-01

    A tomographic image of a selected layer of a stationary object is made by moving the source of X-rays along a first path at one side of the selected layer and by moving an ionography imaging chamber which contains a dielectric receptor sheet along a second path at the other side of the selected layer. The movement of the sheet is synchronized with movement of the source of X-rays and includes a translatory movement in a direction counter to the direction of movement of the source, a pivotal movement to maintain the sheet in a plane which is normal to the central beam of the bundle of X-rays, and a sidewise movement to vary the distance between the selected layer and the sheet so that the length of the projection of selected layer upon the sheet remains unchanged. If the sheet is rectangular, the pivotal movement is performed about an axis which is located in the plane of the selected layer and is parallel to the shorter sides of the sheet

  16. Evolution of Cygnus X-3 through its Radio and X-ray States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szostek, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; McCollough, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    Based on X-ray spectra and studies of the long-term correlated behavior between radio and soft X-ray, we present a detailed evolution of Cyg X-3 through its radio and X-ray states. We comment on the nature of the hard X-ray tail and possible Simbol X contribution in constraining the models.

  17. Evolution of Cygnus X-3 through its Radio and X-ray States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; McCollough, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    Based on X-ray spectra and studies of the long-term correlated behavior between radio and soft X-ray, we present a detailed evolution of Cyg X-3 through its radio and X-ray states. We comment on the nature of the hard X-ray tail and possible Simbol X contribution in constraining the models.

  18. TU-G-207-00: Emerging Applications of X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Last few years has witnessed the development of novel of X-ray imaging modalities, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT, and X-ray acoustic/fluorescence/luminescence imaging. This symposium will present the recent advances of these emerging X-ray imaging modalities and update the attendees with knowledge in various related topics, including X-ray photon-counting detectors, X-ray physics underlying the emerging applications beyond the traditional X-ray imaging, image reconstruction for the novel modalities, characterization and evaluation of the systems, and their practical implications. In addition, the concept and practical aspects of X-ray activatable targeted nanoparticles for molecular X-ray imaging will be discussed in the context of X-ray fluorescence and luminescence CT. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of various emerging X-ray imaging techniques, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT and X-ray fluorescence/luminescence CT. Discuss the practical need, technical aspects and current status of the emerging X-ray imaging modalities. Describe utility and future impact of the new generation of X-ray imaging applications

  19. Real time 2 dimensional detector for charged particle and soft X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Ito, M.; Endo, T.; Oba, K.

    1995-01-01

    The conventional instruments used in experiments for the soft X-ray region such as X-ray diffraction analysis are X-ray films or imaging plates. However, these instruments are not suitable for real time observation. In this paper, newly developed imaging devices will be presented, which have the capability to take X-ray images in real time with a high detection efficiency. Also, another capability, to take elementary particle tracking images, is described. (orig.)

  20. X-ray image intensifier camera tubes and semiconductor targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A semiconductor target for use in an image intensifier camera tube and a camera using the target are described. The semiconductor wafer for converting an electron image onto electrical signal consists mainly of a collector region, preferably n-type silicon. It has one side for receiving the electron image and an opposite side for storing charge carriers generated in the collector region by high energy electrons forming a charge image. The first side comprises a highly doped surface layer covered with a metal buffer layer permeable to the incident electrons and thick enough to dissipate some of the incident electron energy thereby improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This layer comprises beryllium on niobium on the highly doped silicon surface zone. Low energy Kα X-ray radiation is generated in the first layer, the radiation generated in the second layer (mainly Lα radiation) is strongly absorbed in the silicon layer. A camera tube using such a target with a photocathode for converting an X-ray image into an electron image, means to project this image onto the first side of the semiconductor wafer and means to read out the charge pattern on the second side are also described. (U.K.)

  1. Rapid characterization of a nanomaterial structure using X-ray reciprocal-lattice-space imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Osami; Yoshimoto, Mamoru; Miki, Kazushi

    2006-01-01

    The X-ray reciprocal-lattice-space imaging method is able to record the reciprocal-lattice-space of nanostructure by sample-and-detector fixed geometry. This method was developed by the surface structure analysis beam line BL13XU of SPring-8. Outline of the X-ray diffraction method and basic principles of the X-ray reciprocal-lattice-space imaging method, and application examples are stated. The method is able to find out the Bragg conditions of nanostructure of surface in the atmosphere. The reciprocal-lattice of the embedded trace atomic wires was observed. The trace atoms of Bi atomic wires embedded in silicone showed the diffraction signal and image by a short exposure time. This method is useful at rapid non-destructive measurement of nanostructure. (S.Y.)

  2. Development of a hardened X-ray imager for the Megajoule Laser radiative environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion experiments are led on Megajoule class laser facility by imploding a capsule filled with Deuterium and Tritium. In this context, it is necessary to diagnose the core size and the shape of the compressed target in order to provide valuable information and identify reasons for failure. State of the art X-ray imaging diagnostics cannot realize measurements without being perturbed by the nuclear background. The diagnostic that has been designed in this thesis combine high spatial resolution X-ray imaging at high energy and radiation tolerance to nuclear background. We have first guaranteed, theoretically and experimentally, survivability of X ray multilayer coating to energetic neutrons irradiation. Consequently, we have design the X-ray imaging system in order to achieve 5 μm resolution in a spectral range up to 95 keV. The X-ray image has then been converted into visible light in order to be easily transferred through a hardened optical relay to a protected area where the optical analyser is set. This analyser, combining light amplifier and pixelised detector, has also been studied and a novel method has been developed to reduce nuclear related transient perturbations on the device. This by parts design associated with Monte-Carlo Simulation (GEANT4) and experimental campaign on FCI facility (OMEGA) led to a coherent diagnostic architecture which will sustain high level of nuclear perturbation. (author) [fr

  3. Materials science with SR using x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Masao

    1990-01-01

    Some examples of applications of synchrotron radiation to materials science demonstrate the importance of microstructure information within structural as well as functional materials in order to control their properties and quality as designed for industrial purposes. To collect such information, x-ray imaging in quasi real time is required in either the microradiographic mode or the diffraction (in transmission) mode. New measurement technologies based on imaging are applied to polycrystalline materials, single crystal materials and multilayered device materials to illustrate what kind of synchrotron radiation facility is most desirable for materials science and engineering. (author)

  4. Imaging Macromolecules with X-ray laser pulses

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The short wavelength of X-rays allows us to resolve atoms, but in practise for biological materials the achievable resolution is limited by the destruction of the sample by the radiation that forms the image.  For over 100 years, the workaround to this problem of radiation damage has been to average signals from repeating copies of the object arranged in a large crystal.  It is now possible to overcome damage limits by using intense X-ray pulses that vaporise the sample, but which are short enough in duration to freeze any motion of the sample on the atomic scale.  With the advent of X-ray FELs we have been able to confirm this principle, and are now applying it to overcoming a major bottleneck for protein crystallography, which is the need for large well-diffracting crystals.  The intense pulses also open up opportunities to help solve the crystallographic phase problem.  In particular we have found that commonly-occurring disordered crystals that are usually not ...

  5. Moving-Article X-Ray Imaging System and Method for 3-D Image Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An x-ray imaging system and method for a moving article are provided for an article moved along a linear direction of travel while the article is exposed to non-overlapping x-ray beams. A plurality of parallel linear sensor arrays are disposed in the x-ray beams after they pass through the article. More specifically, a first half of the plurality are disposed in a first of the x-ray beams while a second half of the plurality are disposed in a second of the x-ray beams. Each of the parallel linear sensor arrays is oriented perpendicular to the linear direction of travel. Each of the parallel linear sensor arrays in the first half is matched to a corresponding one of the parallel linear sensor arrays in the second half in terms of an angular position in the first of the x-ray beams and the second of the x-ray beams, respectively.

  6. X-ray fluorescence holography and multiple-energy x-ray holography: A critical comparison of atomic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Len, P.M.; Gog, T.; Fadley, C.S.; Materlik, G.

    1997-01-01

    We compare x-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) and multiple-energy x-ray holography (MEXH), two techniques that have recently been used to obtain experimental three-dimensional atomic images. For single-energy holograms, these methods are equivalent by virtue of the optical reciprocity theorem. However, XFH can only record holographic information at the characteristic fluorescence energies of the emitting species, while MEXH can record holographic information at any energy above the fluorescent edge of the emitter, thus enabling the suppression of real-twin overlaps and other aberrations and artifacts in atomic images. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Image quality analysis of vibration effects In C-arm-flat panel X-ray imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, R.M.; Kroon, J.N.; With, de P.H.N.

    2011-01-01

    The motion of C-arm scanning X-ray systems may result in vibrations of the imaging sub-system. In this paper, we connect C-arm system vibrations to Image Quality (IQ) deterioration for 2D angiography and 3D cone beam X-ray imaging, using large Flat Panel detectors. Vibrations will affect the

  8. A highly sensitive x-ray imaging modality for hepatocellular carcinoma detection in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Walsh, Edward G.; Derdak, Zoltan; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Innovations that improve sensitivity and reduce cost are of paramount importance in diagnostic imaging. The novel x-ray imaging modality called spatial frequency heterodyne imaging (SFHI) is based on a linear arrangement of x-ray source, tissue, and x-ray detector, much like that of a conventional x-ray imaging apparatus. However, SFHI rests on a complete paradigm reversal compared to conventional x-ray absorption-based radiology: while scattered x-rays are carefully rejected in absorption-based x-ray radiology to enhance the image contrast, SFHI forms images exclusively from x-rays scattered by the tissue. In this study we use numerical processing to produce x-ray scatter images of hepatocellular carcinoma labeled with a nanoparticle contrast agent. We subsequently compare the sensitivity of SFHI in this application to that of both conventional x-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although SFHI is still in the early stages of its development, our results show that the sensitivity of SFHI is an order of magnitude greater than that of absorption-based x-ray imaging and approximately equal to that of MRI. As x-ray imaging modalities typically have lower installation and service costs compared to MRI, SFHI could become a cost effective alternative to MRI, particularly in areas of the world with inadequate availability of MRI facilities.

  9. Hard state neutron star and black hole X-ray binaries in the radio:X-ray luminosity plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Elena; Degenaar, Nathalie; van den Eijnden, Jakob

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the large body of literature around the phenomenological properties of accreting black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries in the radio:X-ray luminosity plane, we carry out a comparative regression analysis on 36 BHs and 41 NSs in hard X-ray states, with data over 7 dex in X-ray luminosity for both. The BHs follow a radio to X-ray (logarithmic) luminosity relation with slope β = 0.59 ± 0.02, consistent with the NSs' slope (β =0.44^{+0.05}_{-0.04}) within 2.5σ. The best-fitting intercept for the BHs significantly exceeds that for the NSs, cementing BHs as more radio loud, by a factor ˜22. This discrepancy can not be fully accounted for by the mass or bolometric correction gap, nor by the NS boundary layer contribution to the X-rays, and is likely to reflect physical differences in the accretion flow efficiency, or the jet powering mechanism. Once importance sampling is implemented to account for the different luminosity distributions, the slopes of the non-pulsating and pulsating NS subsamples are formally inconsistent (>3σ), unless the transitional millisecond pulsars (whose incoherent radio emission mechanism is not firmly established) are excluded from the analysis. We confirm the lack of a robust partitioning of the BH data set into separate luminosity tracks.

  10. Detection of soft X-rays from α Lyrae and eta Bootis with an imaging X-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topka, K.; Fabricant, D.; Harnden, F.R. Jr.; Gorenstein, P.; Rosner, R.

    1979-01-01

    Two nearby stars have been detected in the soft X-ray band with an imaging X-ray telescope flown aboard two sounding rockets. The exposure times were 4.8 and 4.5 s for the images of the AO V star α Lyrae (Vega) and the GO IV star eta Bootis, respectively. Laboratory measurements rule out the possibility that the observed signals were due to UV contamination. These X-ray observations imply luminosities of L/sub X/(0.2--0.8 keV) approx. =3 x 10 28 ergs s -1 for Vega and L/sub X/(0.15--1.5 keV) approx. =1 x 10 29 ergs s -1 for eta Boo. A coronal interpretation of the X-rays from Vega is in serious conflict with simple convective models for early-type main-sequence stars. Magnetic field activity may be responsible for heating the corona, as has been suggested for the Sun. In the case of eta Boo, a coronal interpretation is also favored; however, if the unseen companion of eta Boo is degenerate, the X-ray emission may instead originate in a stellar wind accreting upon a white dwarf or neutron star

  11. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) SMEX Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.; Krucker, S.; Glesener, L.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Caspi, A.; Allred, J. C.; Battaglia, M.; Chen, B.; Drake, J. F.; Gary, D. E.; Goetz, K.; Gburek, S.; Grefenstette, B.; Hannah, I. G.; Holman, G.; Hudson, H. S.; Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Kontar, E.; Kowalski, A. F.; Massone, A. M.; Piana, M.; Ramsey, B.; Schwartz, R.; Steslicki, M.; Turin, P.; Ryan, D.; Warmuth, A.; Veronig, A.; Vilmer, N.; White, S. M.; Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    We present FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager), a Small Explorer (SMEX) Heliophysics mission that is currently undergoing a Phase A concept study. FOXSI will provide a revolutionary new perspective on energy release and particle acceleration on the Sun. FOXSI is a direct imaging X-ray spectrometer with higher dynamic range and better than 10x the sensitivity of previous instruments. Flown on a 3-axis-stabilized spacecraft in low-Earth orbit, FOXSI uses high-angular-resolution grazing-incidence focusing optics combined with state-of-the-art pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of solar hard X-rays for the first time. FOXSI is composed of a pair of x-ray telescopes with a 14-meter focal length enabled by a deployable boom. Making use of a filter-wheel and high-rate-capable solid-state detectors, FOXSI will be able to observe the largest flares without saturation while still maintaining the sensitivity to detect x-ray emission from weak flares, escaping electrons, and hot active regions. This mission concept is made possible by past experience with similar instruments on two FOXSI sounding rocket flights, in 2012 and 2014, and on the HEROES balloon flight in 2013. FOXSI's hard X-ray imager has a field of view of 9 arcminutes and an angular resolution of better than 8 arcsec; it will cover the energy range from 3 up to 50-70 keV with a spectral resolution of better than 1 keV; and it will have sub-second temporal resolution.

  12. Optimisation in X-ray and Molecular Imaging 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, Magnus; Hoeschen, Christoph; Mattsson, Soeren; Mansson, Lars Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    This issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry is based on contributions to Optimisation in X-ray and Molecular Imaging 2015 - the 4. Malmoe Conference on Medical Imaging (OXMI 2015). The conference was jointly organised by members of former and current research projects supported by the European Commission EURATOM Radiation Protection Research Programme, in cooperation with the Swedish Society for Radiation Physics. The conference brought together over 150 researchers and other professionals from hospitals, universities and industries with interests in different aspects of the optimisation of medical imaging. More than 100 presentations were given at this international gathering of medical physicists, radiologists, engineers, technicians, nurses and educational researchers. Additionally, invited talks were offered by world-renowned experts on radiation protection, spectral imaging and medical image perception, thus covering several important aspects of the generation and interpretation of medical images. The conference consisted of 13 oral sessions and a poster session, as reflected by the conference title connected by their focus on the optimisation of the use ionising radiation in medical imaging. The conference included technology-specific topics such as computed tomography and tomosynthesis, but also generic issues of interest for the optimisation of all medical imaging, such as image perception and quality assurance. Radiation protection was covered by e.g. sessions on patient dose benchmarking and occupational exposure. Technically-advanced topics such as modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, reconstruction, classification, and segmentation were seen taking advantage of recent developments of hardware and software, showing that the optimisation community is at the forefront of technology and adapts well to new requirements. These peer-reviewed proceedings, representing a continuation of a series of selected reports from meetings in the field of medical imaging

  13. Method and apparatus for enhanced sensitivity filmless medical x-ray imaging, including three-dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sherwood

    1995-01-01

    A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.

  14. The pin pixel detector--X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a soft X-ray gas pixel detector, which uses connector pins for the anodes is reported. Based on a commercial 100 pin connector block, a prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mm centre dot 25.4 mm can be economically fabricated. The individual pin anodes all show the expected characteristics of small gas detectors capable of counting rates reaching 1 MHz per pin. A 2-dimensional resistive divide readout system has been developed to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics.

  15. Improved fluorescent X-ray image intensifying screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeghem, W.K. van; Suys, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray image intensifying screen is described, which includes at least one fluorescent layer comprising phosphor particles dispersed in a binder and on top of such layer a protective layer containing a crosslinked polymer mass obtained by an acid-catalyzed reaction of a polymer or mixture of polymers containing reactive hydrogen atoms and a cross-linking agent, the cross-linking agent being an organic compound containing a plurality of etherified N-methylol groups. Examples are given of appropriate polymers and cross-linking agents. (author)

  16. Design considerations for soft X-ray television imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalata, K.; Golub, L.

    1988-01-01

    Television sensors for X-rays can be coupled to converters and image intensifiers to obtain active areas, high flux capabilities, quantum efficiency, high time resolution, or ease of construction and operation that may not be obtained with a directly illuminated sensor. A general purpose system which makes use of these capabilities for a number of applications is decribed. Some of the performance characteristics of this type of system are examined, and the expected future developments for such systems are briefly addressed. 19 refs

  17. Multiframe digitization of x-ray (TV) images (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, V. A.; Khil'chenko, A. D.; Lysenko, A. P.; Panchenko, V. E.

    1989-07-01

    The work in progress deals with the experimental search for a technique of digitizing x-ray TV images. The small volume of the buffer memory of the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) we have previously used to detect TV signals made it necessary to digitize only one line at a time of the television raster and also to make use of gating to gain the video information contained in the whole frame. This paper is devoted to multiframe digitizing. The recorder of video signals comprises a broadband 8-bit A/D converter, a buffer memory having 128K words and a control circuit which forms a necessary sequence of advance pulses for the A/D converter and the memory relative to the input frame and line sync pulses (FSP and LSP). The device provides recording of video signals corresponding to one or a few frames following one after another, or to their fragments. The control circuit is responsible for the separation of the required fragment of the TV image. When loading the limit registers, the following input parameters of the control circuit are set: the skipping of a definite number of lines after the next FSP, the number of the lines of recording inside a fragment, the frequency of the information lines inside a fragment, the delay in the start of the ADC conversion relative to the arrival of the LSP, the length of the information section of a line, and the frequency of taking the readouts in a line. In addition, among the instructions given are the number of frames of recording and the frequency of their sequence. Thus, the A/D converter operates only inside a given fragment of the TV image. The information is introduced into the memory in sequence, fragment by fragment, without skipping and is then extracted as samples according to the addresses needed for representation in the required form, and processing. The video signal recorder governs the shortest time of the ADC conversion per point of 250 ns. As before, among the apparatus used were an image vidicon with

  18. Structure determination of spider silk from X-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Stephan; Zippelius, Annette [Universitaet Goettingen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany); Meling, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (Germany); Glisovic, Anja; Salditt, Tim [Universitaet Goettingen, Institut fuer Roentgenphysik (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Spider silk consists of interconnected crystallites, which are typically aligned along the fiber axis. We present a method to systematically determine the structure of these crystallites. Hereby we introduce a model that calculates the scattering function G(q) which is fitted to the measured X-ray image (silk from nephila clavipes). With it, the crystallites' size, the constitution and dimensions of their unit cell, as well as their tilt with respect to the fiber axis is identified, and furthermore the effect of coherent scattering from different crystallites is investigated. The shown methods and the presented model can easily be generalized to a wide class of composite materials.

  19. Principles of image reconstruction in X-ray computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwierz, G.; Haerer, W.; Ruehrnschopf, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The presented geometrical interpretation elucidates the convergence behavior of the classical iteration technique in X-ray computer tomography. The filter techniques nowadays used in preference are derived from a concept of linear system theory which excels due to its particular clarity. The one-dimensional form of the filtering is of decisive importance for immediate image reproduction as realized by both Siemens systems, the SIRETOM 2000 head scanner and the SOMATOM whole-body machine, as such unique to date for whole-body machines. The equivalence of discrete and continuous filtering when dealing with frequency-band-limited projections is proved. (orig.) [de

  20. Three-dimensional phase-contrast X-ray microtomography with scanning–imaging X-ray microscope optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional X-ray microtomographic micro-imaging system which enables simultaneous measurement of differential phase contrast and absorption contrast has been developed. The optical system consists of a scanning microscope with one-dimensional focusing device and an imaging microscope with one-dimensional objective. A three-dimensional (3D) X-ray tomographic micro-imaging system has been developed. The optical system is based on a scanning–imaging X-ray microscope (SIXM) optics, which is a hybrid system consisting of a scanning microscope optics with a one-dimensional (1D) focusing (line-focusing) device and an imaging microscope optics with a 1D objective. In the SIXM system, each 1D dataset of a two-dimensional (2D) image is recorded independently. An object is illuminated with a line-focused beam. Positional information of the region illuminated by the line-focused beam is recorded with the 1D imaging microscope optics as line-profile data. By scanning the object with the line focus, 2D image data are obtained. In the same manner as for a scanning microscope optics with a multi-pixel detector, imaging modes such as phase contrast and absorption contrast can be arbitrarily configured after the image data acquisition. By combining a tomographic scan method and the SIXM system, quantitative 3D imaging is performed. Results of a feasibility study of the SIXM for 3D imaging are shown

  1. Fast Fiber-Coupled Imaging of X-rays Events, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HyperV Technologies Corp. proposes to construct a long-record-length, fiber-coupled, fast imaging diagnostic for recording X-ray back-lit material flows and X-ray...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1650 - Image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fluoroscopic x-ray system. (a) Identification. An image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system is a device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system. 892... equipment, patient and equipment supports, component parts, and accessories. (b) Classification. Class II...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1660 - Non-image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fluoroscopic x-ray system. (a) Identification. A non-image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system is a device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system... display equipment, patient and equipment supports, component parts, and accessories. (b) Classification...

  4. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  5. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  6. Compression of the digitized X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terae, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Takamura, Akio; Irie, Goro; Inamura, Kiyonari.

    1987-01-01

    Medical images are using an increased amount of space in the hospitals, while they are not accessed easily. Thus, suitable data filing system and precise data compression will be necessitated. Image quality was evaluated before and after image data compression, using local filing system (MediFile 1000, NEC Co.) and forty-seven modes of compression parameter. For this study X-ray images of 10 plain radiographs and 7 contrast examinations were digitized using a film reader of CCD sensor in MediFile 1000. Those images were compressed into forty-seven kinds of image data to save in an optical disc and then the compressed images were reconstructed. Each reconstructed image was compared with non-compressed images in respect to several regions of our interest by four radiologists. Compression and extension of radiological images were promptly made by employing the local filing system. Image quality was much more affected by the ratio of data compression than by the mode of parameter itself. In another word, the higher compression ratio became, the worse the image quality were. However, image quality was not significantly degraded until the compression ratio was about 15: 1 on plain radiographs and about 8: 1 on contrast studies. Image compression by this technique will be admitted by diagnostic radiology. (author)

  7. X-ray diagnostic device with an X-ray image amplifier, whose output image is fed into a movie camera, as well as a brightness control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, H

    1978-02-09

    The X-ray relief appearing behind a patient is immediately or with amplificating foils converted into a latent film image. By using a X-ray image amplifier the X-ray relief is then converted into a reduced and brighter optical image and fed into a photographic or movie camera and shot. To avoid a reduction in the image quality by quantum noise and a too large patient and physician dose a brightness control is provided for the X-ray diagnostic device. The control only dims as far as a brightness per image is produced that avoids quantum noise. On the other side it opens more by strongly beam absorbing patients or a smaller imaging ratio of the X-ray image amplifier to obtain a desired irradiation.

  8. X-ray diagnostic device with an X-ray image amplifier, whose output image is fed into a movie camera, as well as a brightness control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.

    1978-01-01

    The X-ray relief appearing behind a patient is immediately or with amplificating foils converted into a latent film image. By using a X-ray image amplifier the X-ray relief is then converted into a reduced and brighter optical image and fed into a photographic or movie camera and shot. To avoid a reduction in the image quality by quantum noise and a too large patient and physician dose a brightness control is provided for the X-ray diagnostic device. The control only dims as far as a brightness per image is produced that avoids quantum noise. On the other side it opens more by strongly beam absorbing patients or a smaller imaging ratio of the X-ray image amplifier to obtain a desired irradiation. (DG) [de

  9. Imaging properties and its improvements of scanning/imaging x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A scanning / imaging X-ray microscope (SIXM) system has been developed at SPring-8. The SIXM consists of a scanning X-ray microscope with a one-dimensional (1D) X-ray focusing device and an imaging (full-field) X-ray microscope with a 1D X-ray objective. The motivation of the SIXM system is to realize a quantitative and highly-sensitive multimodal 3D X-ray tomography by taking advantages of both the scanning X-ray microscope using multi-pixel detector and the imaging X-ray microscope. Data acquisition process of a 2D image is completely different between in the horizontal direction and in the vertical direction; a 1D signal is obtained with the linear-scanning while the other dimensional signal is obtained with the imaging optics. Such condition have caused a serious problem on the imaging properties that the imaging quality in the vertical direction has been much worse than that in the horizontal direction. In this paper, two approaches to solve this problem will be presented. One is introducing a Fourier transform method for phase retrieval from one phase derivative image, and the other to develop and employ a 1D diffuser to produce an asymmetrical coherent illumination

  10. Effective high voltage at X-ray tube in hard X-ray chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1987-01-01

    The FRG standard TGL 36 661 (March 1980) for synoptical chest pictures of large size in adults specifies the 120 kV voltage at the X-ray tube together with maximal, 100% use of the capacity of the tube (hard picture, short exposure time). By means of circular recording and by measuring the high voltage at the X-ray tube it was quantitatively shown that the effective voltage during exposure is (according to the exposure time and the attenuation phase of the generator) always lower than the set-up voltage of 120 kV. This phenomenon is the more marked the shorter the actual exposure time in comparison with the attenuation phase of the generator. The typical characteristic of a hard X-ray chest picture is thus not given only by the setting-up of voltage. The impact of the reduction in voltage is thus quantitatively shown also from the aspect of the radiation burden for the patient. (author). 7 figs., 8 refs

  11. The model of illumination-transillumination for image enhancement of X-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Kwang Yeul [Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Sang Min [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    In digital image processing, the homomorphic filtering approach is derived from an illumination - reflectance model of the image. It can also be used with an illumination-transillumination model X-ray film. Several X-ray images were applied to enhancement with histogram equalization and homomorphic filter based on an illumination-transillumination model. The homomorphic filter has proven theoretical claim of image density range compression and balanced contrast enhancement, and also was found a valuable tool to process analog X-ray images to digital images.

  12. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Judge, J.

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark

  13. Imaging escape gated MPWC for hard X-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; La Padula, C.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Barbareschi, L.; Perotti, F.; Villa, G.

    1983-11-15

    A scientific forward step in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray astronomy will only be possible with the use of a new generation of space borne instruments. Their main characteristics have to be the two-dimensional imaging capability over a large collecting area and the fine spectral resolution in order to discriminate between the weak signal coming from cosmic sources to be detected and the strong background induced by cosmic rays, in the space environment, on the detector. To reach this goal we have developed a new hard X-ray position sensitive proportional counter operating with the escape gate technique in the range 15-150 keV, to be used together with a pseudo-random coded mask in order to obtain sky images. The detector is a high pressure (5 bar) xenon-argon-isobutane filled chamber with a spatial resolution of 30x2 mm and a spectral resolution of 5% at 60 keV on the sensitive area of 3000 cm/sup 2/.

  14. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W. [Univ. of London, Surrey (United Kingdom); Judge, J. [Unilever plc, Sharnbrook (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark.

  15. IXPE the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffitta, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    IXPE, the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, has been selected as a NASA SMEX mission to be flown in 2021. It will perform polarimetry resolved in energy, in time and in angle as a break-through in High Energy Astrophysics. IXPE promises to 're-open', after 40 years, a window in X-ray astronomy adding two more observables to the usual ones. It will directly measure the geometrical parameters of many different classes of sources eventually breaking possible degeneracies. The probed angular scales (30") are capable of producing the first X-ray polarization maps of extended objects with scientifically relevant sensitivity. This will permit mapping the magnetic fields in Pulsar Wind Nebulae and Super-Nova Remnants at the acceleration sites of 10-100 TeV electrons. Additionally, it will probe vacuum birefringence effects in systems with magnetic fields far larger than those reachable with experiments on Earth. The payload of IXPE consists of three identical telescopes with mirrors provided by MSFC/NASA. The focal plane is provided by ASI with IAPS/INAF responsible for the overall instrument that includes detector units that are provided by INFN. ASI also provides, in kind, the Malindi Ground Station. LASP is responsible for the Mission Operation Center while the Science Operation Center is at MSFC. The operations phase lasts at least two years. All the data including those related to polarization will be made available quickly to the general user. In this paper we present the mission, its payload and we discuss a few examples of astrophysical targets.

  16. Feasibility study on X-ray source with pinhole imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Rui; Li Junli

    2007-01-01

    In order to verify the feasibility of study on X-ray source with pinhole imaging method, and optimize the design of X-ray pinhole imaging system, an X-ray pinhole imaging equipment was set up. The change of image due to the change of the position and intensity of X-ray source was estimated with mathematical method and validated with experiment. The results show that the change of the spot position and gray of the spot is linearly related with the change of the position and intensity of X-ray source, so it is feasible to study X-ray source with pinhole imaging method in this application. The results provide some references for the design of X-ray pinhole imaging system. (authors)

  17. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-28

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  18. X-ray fluorescence method for trace analysis and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Shinjiro

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has a long history as conventional bulk elemental analysis with medium sensitivity. However, with the use of synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence method has become a unique analytical technique which can provide tace elemental information with the spatial resolution. To obtain quantitative information of trace elemental distribution by using the x-ray fluorescence method, theoretical description of x-ray fluorescence yield is described. Moreover, methods and instruments for trace characterization with a scanning x-ray microprobe are described. (author)

  19. High-Resolution X-Ray Lensless Imaging by Differential Holographic Encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Diling [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Inst. of Optics; Wu, Benny [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Scherz, Andreas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Acremann, Yves [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE); Tyliszczak, Tolek [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Fischer, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for X-ray Optics; Friedenberger, Nina [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Ollefs, Katharina [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Farle, Michael [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Fienup, James R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Inst. of Optics; Stöhr, Joachim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    2010-07-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by split and- delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with state of-the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  20. In-line X-ray lensless imaging with lithium fluoride film detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfigli, F.; Cecilia, A.; Bateni, S. Heidari; Nichelatti, E.; Pelliccia, D.; Somma, F.; Vagovic, P.; Vincenti, M.A.; Baumbach, T.; Montereali, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present preliminary in-line X-ray lensless projection imaging results at a synchrotron facility by using novel solid-state detectors based on non-destructive readout of photoluminescent colour centres in lithium fluoride thin films. The peculiarities of LiF radiation detectors are high spatial resolution on a large field of view, wide dynamic range, versatility and simplicity of use. These properties offered the opportunity to test a broadband X-ray synchrotron source for lensless projection imaging experiments at the TopoTomo beamline of the ANKA synchrotron facility by using a white beam spectrum (3–40 keV). Edge-enhancement effects were observed for the first time on a test object; they are discussed and compared with simulations, on the basis of the colour centre photoluminescence linear response found in the investigated irradiation conditions. -- Highlights: ► We performed broadband X-ray imaging at synchrotron by novel LiF imaging detectors. ► X-ray phase contrast experiments on LiF crystals and thin films were performed. ► Photoluminescent high-quality X-images on a LiF film only 1 μm thick were obtained. ► Edge-enhancement effects were detected and compared with simulations. ► A linearity of colour centre fluorescence response of LiF film was found

  1. Femtosecond Single-Shot Imaging of Nanoscale Ferromagnetic Order in Co/Pd Multilayers using Resonant X-ray Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianhan; Zhu, Diling; Benny Wu,; Graves, Catherine; Schaffert, Stefan; Rander, Torbjorn; Muller, leonard; Vodungbo, Boris; Baumier, Cedric; Bernstein, David P.; Brauer, Bjorn; Cros, Vincent; Jong, Sanne de; Delaunay, Renaud; Fognini, Andreas; Kukreja, Roopali; Lee, Sooheyong; Lopez-Flores, Victor; Mohanty, Jyoti; Pfau, Bastian; Popescu, 5 Horia

    2012-05-15

    We present the first single-shot images of ferromagnetic, nanoscale spin order taken with femtosecond x-ray pulses. X-ray-induced electron and spin dynamics can be outrun with pulses shorter than 80 fs in the investigated fluence regime, and no permanent aftereffects in the samples are observed below a fluence of 25 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Employing resonant spatially-muliplexed x-ray holography results in a low imaging threshold of 5 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our results open new ways to combine ultrafast laser spectroscopy with sequential snapshot imaging on a single sample, generating a movie of excited state dynamics.

  2. Analysis of the frequency components of X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Satoru; Komizu, Mitsuru; Kida, Tetsuo; Noma, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Keiji; Onishi, Hideo; Masuda, Kazutaka

    1997-01-01

    We examined the relation between the frequency components of x-ray images of the chest and phalanges and their read sizes for digitizing. Images of the chest and phalanges were radiographed using three types of screens and films, and the noise images in background density were digitized with a drum scanner, changing the read sizes. The frequency components for these images were evaluated by converting them to the secondary Fourier to obtain the power spectrum and signal to noise ratio (SNR). After changing the cut-off frequency on the power spectrum to process a low pass filter, we also examined the frequency components of the images in relation to the normalized mean square error (NMSE) for the image converted to reverse Fourier and the original image. Results showed that the frequency components were 2.0 cycles/mm for the chest image and 6.0 cycles/mm for the phalanges. Therefore, it is necessary to collect data applying the read sizes of 200 μm and 50 μm for the chest and phalangeal images, respectively, in order to digitize these images without loss of their frequency components. (author)

  3. Hybrid lightweight X-ray optics for half arcsecond imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul

    This proposal is for the development of grazing incidence optics suitable to meet the 0.5 arcsec imaging and 2.3 square meter effective area requirements of the X-ray Surveyor mission concept, currently under study by NASA. Our approach is to combine two promising technologies, as yet individually unproven at the 0.5 arcsec level, into a hybrid mirror approach. The two technologies are thin piezoelectric film adjustable optics under development at SAO and PSU, and differential deposition under development at NASA MSFC. These technologies are complementary: adjustable optics are best suited to fixing low spatial frequency errors due to piezoelectric cell size limitations, and differential deposition is best suited for fixing mid-spatial frequency errors so as to limit the amount of material that must be deposited. Thus, the combination of the two techniques extends the bandwidth of figure errors that can be corrected beyond what it was for either individual technique. Both technologies will be applied to fabricate Wolter-I mirror segment from single thermally formed glass substrates. This work is directed at mirror segments only (not full shells), as we believe segments are the most appropriate for developing the 3 m diameter X-ray Surveyor high resolution mirror. In this program we will extend differential deposition to segment surfaces (from line profiles), investigate the most realistic error bandwidths for each technology, and determine the impacts of one technologys processing steps on the other to find if there is an optimal order to combining the technologies. In addition, we will also conduct a conical/cylindrical mirror metrology "round-robin," to cross-calibrate the different cylindrical metrology to one another as a means of minimizing systematic errors. Finally, we will examine the balancing and compensating of mirror stress due to the various thin films employed (piezoelectric layer, differential deposition, X-ray reflecting layer(s)) with an eye to

  4. X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells

    CERN Document Server

    Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    In this book, the author describes the development of the experimental diffraction setup and structural analysis of non-crystalline particles from material science and biology. Recent advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)-coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiments allow for the structural analysis of non-crystalline particles to a resolution of 7 nm, and to a resolution of 20 nm for biological materials. Now XFEL-CXDI marks the dawn of a new era in structural analys of non-crystalline particles with dimensions larger than 100 nm, which was quite impossible in the 20th century. To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. In addition, in XFEL ex...

  5. Ultrafast X-ray Imaging of Fuel Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2007-01-01

    Detailed analysis of fuel sprays has been well recognized as an important step for optimizing the operation of internal combustion engines to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Ultrafast radiographic and tomographic techniques have been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzles of direct-injection diesel and gasoline injectors. The measurement was made using x-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution on the order of 1 μs. Furthermore, an accurate 3-dimensional fuel-density distribution, in the form of fuel volume fraction, was obtained by the time-resolved computed tomography. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date. With high-energy and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source, propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the interior of an injection nozzle through a 3-mm-thick steel with a 10-μs temporal resolution, which is virtually impossible by any other means.

  6. Ultrafast X-ray Imaging of Fuel Sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin

    2007-01-01

    Detailed analysis of fuel sprays has been well recognized as an important step for optimizing the operation of internal combustion engines to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Ultrafast radiographic and tomographic techniques have been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzles of direct-injection diesel and gasoline injectors. The measurement was made using x-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution on the order of 1 μs. Furthermore, an accurate 3-dimensional fuel-density distribution, in the form of fuel volume fraction, was obtained by the time-resolved computed tomography. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date. With high-energy and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source, propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the interior of an injection nozzle through a 3-mm-thick steel with a 10-μs temporal resolution, which is virtually impossible by any other means

  7. Industrial X-ray imaging based on scintillators and CMOS APS array: direct X-ray irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Jeon, Sung Chae; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Gyuseong

    2005-01-01

    To see the effects of the direct X-ray in a Lanex screen-coupled CMOS APS imager, we measured modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). These measurements were performed under the condition of non-destructive test (NDT). By increasing the cumulative exposure on the imager, the MTF was degraded, and also leading to the DQE degradation. Each parameter changed by the exposure is described in detail

  8. X-ray imaging and detection using plastic scintillating fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhlef, A; Beddar, A S

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plastic scintillating fiber array in X-ray imaging with low-energy radiation. This array is coupled to a multichannel intensified photocathode and then to a CCD detector via a fiber optics taper. The length of the fiber array is experimentally optimized for the radiation used. We found here that the length of the fibers (interaction medium) does not contribute too much in the degradation of the spatial resolution under 10 keV irradiation along the axis of the fiber array. Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) measurements of the PSF array are compared to the optics MTF of the imaging system (without the sample) and that cross-talk in the fiber array is found to be negligible for a fiber array thickness of 20 mm.

  9. Images of the laser entrance hole from the static x-ray imager at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M B; Jones, O S; Meezan, N B; Milovich, J L; Town, R P; Alvarez, S S; Beeler, R G; Bradley, D K; Celeste, J R; Dixit, S N; Edwards, M J; Haugh, M J; Kalantar, D H; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Moody, J D; Oberhelman, S K; Piston, K W; Pivovaroff, M J; Suter, L J; Teruya, A T; Thomas, C A; Vernon, S P; Warrick, A L; Widmann, K; Wood, R D; Young, B K

    2010-10-01

    The static x-ray imager at the National Ignition Facility is a pinhole camera using a CCD detector to obtain images of Hohlraum wall x-ray drive illumination patterns seen through the laser entrance hole (LEH). Carefully chosen filters, combined with the CCD response, allow recording images in the x-ray range of 3-5 keV with 60 μm spatial resolution. The routines used to obtain the apparent size of the backlit LEH and the location and intensity of beam spots are discussed and compared to predictions. A new soft x-ray channel centered at 870 eV (near the x-ray peak of a 300 eV temperature ignition Hohlraum) is discussed.

  10. Terahertz pulsed imaging for the monitoring of dental caries: a comparison with x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Kamburoglu, Kıvanc; Altan, Hakan

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries in sliced samples are investigated using terahertz pulsed imaging. Frequency domain terahertz response of these structures consistent with X-ray imaging results show the potential of this technique in the detection of early caries.

  11. Pick up screens for x-ray image intensifier tubes employing evaporated activated scintillator layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates in general to methods for making pick-up screens for x-ray image intensifier tubes and, more particularly, to an improved method wherein the x-ray fluorescent phosphor screen element is formed by evaporation of an alkali metal halide material in vacuum and condensing the evaporated material on an x-ray transparent portion of the x-ray intensifier tube, whereby a curved x-ray image pick-up screen is formed which has improved quantum efficiency and resolution. Such improved x-ray image intensifier tubes are especially useful for, but not limited in use to x-ray systems and for intensifying gamma ray images obtained in applications of nuclear medicine. 7 claims, 5 drawing figures

  12. XIPE, the X-ray imaging polarimetry explorer: Opening a new window in the X-ray sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffitta, Paolo; XIPE Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    XIPE, the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer, is a candidate ESA fourth medium size mission, now in competitive phase A, aimed at time-spectrally-spatially-resolved X-ray polarimetry of a large number of celestial sources as a breakthrough in high energy astrophysics and fundamental physics. Its payload consists of three X-ray optics with a total effective area larger than one XMM mirror but with a low mass and of three Gas Pixel Detectors at their focus. The focal length is 4 m and the whole satellite fits within the fairing of the Vega launcher without the need of an extendable bench. XIPE will be an observatory with 75% of the time devoted to a competitive guest observer program. Its consortium across Europe comprises Italy, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Poland, Sweden Until today, thanks to a dedicated experiment that dates back to the '70, only the Crab Nebula showed a non-zero polarization with large significance [1] in X-rays. XIPE, with its innovative detector, promises to make significative measurements on hundreds of celestial sources.

  13. X-ray phase imaging using a X-ray tube with a small focal spot. Improvement of image quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Chika; Ohara, Hiromu; Ishisaka, Akira; Shimada, Fumio

    2002-01-01

    Phase contrast X-ray imaging has been studied intensively using X-rays from synchrotron radiation and micro-focus X-ray tubes. However, these studies have revealed the difficulty of this technique's application to practical medical imaging. We have created a phase contrast imaging technique using a molybdenum X-ray tube with a small focal spot size for mammography. We identified the radiographic conditions in phase contrast magnification mammography with a screen-film system, where edge effect due to phase contrast overcomes geometrical unsharpness caused by the 0.1 mm-focal spot of a molybdenum X-ray tube. The edge enhancement due to phase imaging was observed in an image of a plastic tube, and then geometrical configuration of the X-ray tube, the object and the screen-film system was determined for phase imaging of mammography. In order to investigate a potential for medical application of this method, we conducted evaluation of the images of the American Collage of Radiology (ACR) 156 mammography phantom. We obtained higher scores for phase imaging using high speed screen-film systems without any increase of X-ray dose than the score for contract imaging using a standard speed screen-film system. (author)

  14. Two-energy twin image removal in atomic-resolution x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Matsubara, E.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a two-energy twin image removal algorithm for atomic-resolution x-ray holography. The validity of the algorithm is shown in a theoretical simulation and in an experiment of internal detector x-ray holography using a ZnSe single crystal. The algorithm, compared to the widely used multiple-energy algorithm, allows efficient measurement of holograms, and is especially important when the available x-ray energies are fixed. It enables twin image free holography using characteristic x rays from laboratory generators and x-ray pulses of free-electron lasers

  15. Imaging plate, a new type of x-ray area detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Nobuo; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Miyahara, Junji.

    1986-01-01

    In respective fields of X-ray crystallography, for the purpose of the efficient collection of reciprocal space information, two-dimensional X-ray detectors such as multiwire proportional chambers and X-ray television sets have been used together with conventional X-ray films. X-ray films are characterized by uniform sensitivity and high positional resolution over a wide area, but the sensitivity is low, and the range of action and the linearity of the sensitivity is problematic. They require the development process, accordingly lack promptitude. The MWPCs and X-ray television sets are superior in the sensitivity, its linearity, the range of action and promptitude, but interior in the uniformity and resolution to the films. Imaging plate is a new X-ray area detector developed by Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd., for digital X-ray medical image diagnosis. This detector is superior in all the above mentioned performances, and it seems very useful also for X-ray crystallography. In this paper, the system composed of an imaging plate and its reader is described, and the basic performance as an X-ray area detector and the results of having recorded the diffraction images of protein crystals as the example of applying it to X-ray crystallography are reported. The imaging plate is that the crystalline fluorescent powder of BaFBr doped with Eu 2+ ions is applied on plastic films. (Kako, I.)

  16. Diffraction enhanced kinetic depth X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, A.

    An increasing number of fields would benefit from a single analytical probe that can characterise bulk objects that vary in morphology and/or material composition. These fields include security screening, medicine and material science. In this study the X-ray region is shown to be an effective probe for the characterisation of materials. The most prominent analytical techniques that utilise X-radiation are reviewed. The study then focuses on methods of amalgamating the three dimensional power of kinetic depth X-ray (KDFX) imaging with the materials discrimination of angular dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD), thus providing KDEX with a much needed material specific counterpart. A knowledge of the sample position is essential for the correct interpretation of diffraction signatures. Two different sensor geometries (i.e. circumferential and linear) that are able to collect end interpret multiple unknown material diffraction patterns and attribute them to their respective loci within an inspection volume are investigated. The circumferential and linear detector geometries are hypothesised, simulated and then tested in an experimental setting with the later demonstrating a greater ability at discerning between mixed diffraction patterns produced by differing materials. Factors known to confound the linear diffraction method such as sample thickness and radiation energy have been explored and quantified with a possible means of mitigation being identified (i.e. via increasing the sample to detector distance). A series of diffraction patterns (following the linear diffraction approach) were obtained from a single phantom object that was simultaneously interrogated via KDEX imaging. Areas containing diffraction signatures matched from a threat library have been highlighted in the KDEX imagery via colour encoding and match index is inferred by intensity. This union is the first example of its kind and is called diffraction enhanced KDEX imagery. Finally an additional

  17. XIPE the X-Ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffitta, Paolo; Barcons, Xavier; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Braga, Joao; Costa, Enrico; Fraser, George W.; Gburek, Szymon; Huovelin, Juhani; Matt, Giorgio; Pearce, Mark; hide

    2013-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry, sometimes alone, and sometimes coupled to spectral and temporal variability measurements and to imaging, allows a wealth of physical phenomena in astrophysics to be studied. X-ray polarimetry investigates the acceleration process, for example, including those typical of magnetic reconnection in solar flares, but also emission in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars and white dwarfs. It detects scattering in asymmetric structures such as accretion disks and columns, and in the so-called molecular torus and ionization cones. In addition, it allows fundamental physics in regimes of gravity and of magnetic field intensity not accessible to experiments on the Earth to be probed. Finally, models that describe fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity and the extension of the Standard Model) can be tested. We describe in this paper the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE), proposed in June 2012 to the first ESA call for a small mission with a launch in 2017. The proposal was, unfortunately, not selected. To be compliant with this schedule, we designed the payload mostly with existing items. The XIPE proposal takes advantage of the completed phase A of POLARIX for an ASI small mission program that was cancelled, but is different in many aspects: the detectors, the presence of a solar flare polarimeter and photometer and the use of a light platform derived by a mass production for a cluster of satellites. XIPE is composed of two out of the three existing JET-X telescopes with two Gas Pixel Detectors (GPD) filled with a He-DME mixture at their focus. Two additional GPDs filled with a 3-bar Ar-DME mixture always face the Sun to detect polarization from solar flares. The Minimum Detectable Polarization of a 1 mCrab source reaches 14 in the 210 keV band in 105 s for pointed observations, and 0.6 for an X10 class solar flare in the 1535 keV energy band. The imaging capability is 24 arcsec Half Energy Width (HEW) in a Field of View of 14

  18. Scintillating Quantum Dots for Imaging X-rays (SQDIX) for Aircraft Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eric (Principal Investigator); Williams, Phillip (Principal Investigator); Dehaven, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Scintillation is the process currently employed by conventional x-ray detectors to create x-ray images. Scintillating quantum dots or nano-crystals (StQDs) are a novel, nanometer-scale material that upon excitation by x-rays, re-emit the absorbed energy as visible light. StQDs theoretically have higher output efficiency than conventional scintillating materials and are more environmental friendly. This paper will present the characterization of several critical elements in the use of StQDs that have been performed along a path to the use of this technology in wide spread x-ray imaging. Initial work on the SQDIX system has shown great promise to create state-of-the-art sensors using StQDs as a sensor material. In addition, this work also demonstrates a high degree of promise using StQDs in microstructured fiber optics. Using the microstructured fiber as a light guide could greatly increase the capture efficiency a StQDs based imaging sensor.

  19. Exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging system for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshimichi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiko; Kuroyanagi, Kinya; Ota, Yoshiko

    1997-01-01

    To measure exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging systems for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter. Two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital (Pana-Heraus Dental) and CDR (Schick Technologies), were applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. Due to the high sensitivity to x-rays, additional x-ray beam filters for output reduction were used for examination. An Orex W II (Osada Electric Industry) x-ray generator was operated at 60 kVp, 7 mA. X-ray output (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images was measured at 0 to 20 cm in 5 cm steps from the cone tip using an ionizing chamber type 660 (Nuclear Associates) and compared with those for Ektaspeed Plus film (Eastman Kodak). The Pana Digital system was used with the optional filter supplied by Pana-Heraus Dental which reduced the output to 38%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 40% of that for the film. The CDR system was used with the Dental X-ray Beam Filter Kit (Eastman Kodak) which reduced the x-ray output to 30%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 20% of that for the film. The two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital and CDR, provided large dose savings (60-80%) compared with Ektaspeed Plus film when applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. (author)

  20. X-ray imaging and spectroscopic measurements of implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, B.A.; Ress, D.R.; Keane, C.J.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Landen, O.L.; Bell, P.; Pasha, R.; Wallace, R.J.; Bradley, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray measurements are essential in the investigation of laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, where neutron and x-ray emission are the only observable signatures of the compressed core conditions. High-speed detectors, available for x-ray measurement, provide a means of measuring the rapidly evolving conditions in imploding capsules on picosecond time scales. We address a wide range of issues in our indirectly driven implosion experiments on Nova, with a large variety of x-ray measurement techniques. Critical issues include symmetry of the compressed core, fuel density and temperature and hydrodynamic mix at the pusher/fuel interface

  1. The Advanced X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging Observatory (AXSIO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas E.; Bookbinder, Jay; Petre, Robert; Smith, Randall; Ptak, Andrew; Tananbaum, Harvey; Garcia, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Following recommendations from the 2010 "New Worlds, New Horizons" (NWNH) report, the Advanced X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging Observatory (AXSIO) concept streamlines the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) mission to concentrate on the science objectives that are enabled by high-resolution spectroscopic capabilities. AXSIO will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin for tens of supermassive black holes (SMBH), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN during their peak activity, observe 5MBH out to redshift z=6, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, find the missing baryons in the cosmic web using background quasars, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes and supernovae inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. These measurements are enabled by a 0.9 sq m collecting area at 1.25 keV, a micro calorimeter array providing high-resolution spectroscopic imaging and a deployable high efficiency grating spectrometer. AXSIO delivers a 30-fold increase in effective area for high resolution spectroscopy. The key simplifications are guided by recommendations in the NWNH panel report include a reduction in focal length from 20m to 10m, eliminating the extendable optical bench, and a reduction in the instrument complement from six to two, avoiding a movable instrument platform. A focus on spectroscopic science allows the spatial resolution requirement to be relaxed to 10 arc sec (with a 5 arc sec goal). These simplifications decrease the total mission cost to under the $2B cost to NASA recommended by NWNH. AXSIO will be available to the entire astronomical community with observing allocations based on peer-review.

  2. An autonomous CZT module for X-ray diffraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemont, G.; Monnet, O.; Stanchina, S.; Verger, L.; Kosciesza, D.; Schlomka, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the development of a CZT-based detection module dedicated to X-ray diffraction imaging. This kind of application requires a good energy and spatial resolution in order to resolve Bragg peaks. In a first part, we present the detector configuration used and dimensioning constraints. As the input energy range is comprised between 20 and 150 keV, we use 5 mm thick high resistivity CZT crystals. The 660 mm 2 detection area is segmented on both sides into 192 anodes and 12 cathodes. Signals from both sides are read jointly in order to perform multi parametric event corrections (depth of interaction, charge sharing, induction sharing). In order to be integrated easily inside an X-ray imaging system, the system has been conceived to be completely autonomous: it is powered by a single 12 V supply and is interfaced with the external system by Ethernet for communication and RS485 for synchronization. In a second part, we describe the system readout architecture and then the implementation of the data processing. An FPGA circuit embeds a digital processing chain that carries out readout ASIC interfacing and advanced multi parametric data corrections. Gain, offset but also depth of interaction and charge sharing are corrected on the flow. Incoming events from different channels are clustered together by comparing their location and time of occurrence. The FPGA also embeds a processor running an operating system that controls the system, carries out all calibrations, automated tests and acquisitions. Eventually, we show the results obtained and demonstrate the relative influence of depth of interaction and charge sharing. Homogeneity of detector behavior is also discussed and the reproducibility of the performance between modules is presented. The average energy resolution at 25 C is 2.4 % FWHM at 122 keV and 3.8 % FWHM at 60 keV and the average efficiency is 73 %. (authors)

  3. X-ray core states, atomic size and Moseley's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.Y.; Karstens, William

    2000-01-01

    Vinti's dipolar sum-rule for the spatial extent of quantum states was tested on atomic K-shell and ns valence states. Agreement between radii derived from absorption spectra and from atomic-structure calculations is excellent, provided Pauli-principle-prohibited transitions are accounted for. These many-electron corrections to the single-electron sum-rule contributed less than 20% to the radii, which supports application of single-electron rules to electron-excess defects as a first approximation. We found the oscillator strength for K-shell excitations decreases rapidly with atomic number because of strength transfer to higher-lying p states. Hence, K-shell contributions to radiation damage decrease with increasing atomic number. A new interpretation of Moseley's law for the X-ray K edge in terms of K-shell radii is described

  4. Correction method and software for image distortion and nonuniform response in charge-coupled device-based x-ray detectors utilizing x-ray image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazuki; Kamikubo, Hironari; Yagi, Naoto; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    An on-site method of correcting the image distortion and nonuniform response of a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based X-ray detector was developed using the response of the imaging plate as a reference. The CCD-based X-ray detector consists of a beryllium-windowed X-ray image intensifier (Be-XRII) and a CCD as the image sensor. An image distortion of 29% was improved to less than 1% after the correction. In the correction of nonuniform response due to image distortion, subpixel approximation was performed for the redistribution of pixel values. The optimal number of subpixels was also discussed. In an experiment with polystyrene (PS) latex, it was verified that the correction of both image distortion and nonuniform response worked properly. The correction for the 'contrast reduction' problem was also demonstrated for an isotropic X-ray scattering pattern from the PS latex. (author)

  5. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, J. R., E-mail: jrfein@umich.edu; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Peebles, J. L. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-α x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  6. X-ray imaging device for one-dimensional and two-dimensional radioscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The X-ray imaging device for the selectable one-dimensional or two-dimensional pictures of objects illuminated by X-rays, comprising an X-ray source, an X-ray screen, and an opto-electrical picture development device placed behind the screen, is characterized by an anamorphotic optical system, which is positioned with a one-dimensional illumination between the X-ray screen and the opto-electrical device and that a two-dimensional illumination will be developed, and that in view of the lens system which forms part of the opto-electrical device, there is placed an X-ray screen in a specified beam direction so that a magnified image may be formed by equalisation of the distance between the X-ray screen and the lens system. (G.C.)

  7. X-ray CCD image sensor with a thick depletion region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Watabe, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    To develop a solid-state image sensor for high energy X-ray above 1 -- 2 keV, basic studies have been made on the CCD (charge coupled device) with a thick depletion region. A method of super-imposing a high DC bias voltage on low voltage signal pulses was newly proposed. The characteristics of both SCCD and BCCD were investigated, and their ability as X-ray sensors was compared. It was found that a depletion region of 60 μm thick was able to be obtained with ordinary doping density of 10 20 /m 3 , and that even thicker over 1 mm depletion region was able to be obtained with doping density of about 10 18 /m 3 , and a high bias voltage above 1 kV was able to be applied. It is suggested that the CCD image sensors for 8 keV or 24 keV X-ray can be realized since the absorption length of these X-ray in Si is about 60 μm and 1 mm, respectively. As for the characteristics other than the depletion thickness, the BCCD is preferable to SCCD for the present purpose because of lower noise and dark current. As for the transfer method, the frame-transfer method is recommended. (Aoki, K.)

  8. Preliminary research on dual-energy X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hua-Jie; Wang, Sheng-Hao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Can; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Pei-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been widely applied to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) and soft-tissue composition of the human body. However, the use of DEXA is greatly limited for low-Z materials such as soft tissues due to their weak absorption, while X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) shows significantly improved contrast in comparison with the conventional standard absorption-based X-ray imaging for soft tissues. In this paper, we propose a novel X-ray phase-contrast method to measure the area density of low-Z materials, including a single-energy method and a dual-energy method. The single-energy method is for the area density calculation of one low-Z material, while the dual-energy method aims to calculate the area densities of two low-Z materials simultaneously. Comparing the experimental and simulation results with the theoretical ones, the new method proves to have the potential to replace DEXA in area density measurement. The new method sets the prerequisites for a future precise and low-dose area density calculation method for low-Z materials. Supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program (2012CB825800), Science Fund for Creative Research Groups (11321503) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11179004, 10979055, 11205189, 11205157)

  9. Modeling the expected performance of the REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Niraj K.; Binzel, Richard P.; Hong, Jae Sub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-09-01

    OSIRIS-REx is the third spacecraft in the NASA New Frontiers Program and is planned for launch in 2016. OSIRIS-REx will orbit the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, characterize it, and return a sample of the asteroid's regolith back to Earth. The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is an instrument on OSIRIS-REx designed and built by students at MIT and Harvard. The purpose of REXIS is to collect and image sun-induced fluorescent X-rays emitted by Bennu, thereby providing spectroscopic information related to the elemental makeup of the asteroid regolith and the distribution of features over its surface. Telescopic reflectance spectra suggest a CI or CM chondrite analog meteorite class for Bennu, where this primitive nature strongly motivates its study. A number of factors, however, will influence the generation, measurement, and interpretation of the X-ray spectra measured by REXIS. These include: the compositional nature and heterogeneity of Bennu, the time-variable solar state, X-ray detector characteristics, and geometric parameters for the observations. In this paper, we will explore how these variables influence the precision to which REXIS can measure Bennu's surface composition. By modeling the aforementioned factors, we place bounds on the expected performance of REXIS and its ability to ultimately place Bennu in an analog meteorite class.

  10. Improving of chest x-ray picture to state typical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnakarkle, S.; Glazs, A.; Kadakovska, E.; Markovics, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Improving of quality of chest x-rays imagings to state plain films peculiarities of such lung diseases as tuberculosis and tumor is presented in this article. It is necessary to increase the confidence of physician in the diagnoses. The characteristics symptoms - size, shape, contours and margins definition of shadows and shift of trachea or mediastinum are hardly detected generally, more over in the cases when quality of pictures is bad. The computer, HP ScanJet 5370 scanner with transparency adapter and software Adobe Photoshop 6.0 were used. The scanning of plain film and developing of raster image file were done. Adobe Photoshop were used to improve the quality of x-rays imaging. It allows to state fluffy, smooth, radiate, wrinkled margins of shadows and in such way to differentiate above lung diseases. Ten unrelated plain films - tuberculosis and tumor were processed in our study and it demonstrates effectiveness of applied algorithm. (authors)

  11. ASSESSMENT OF RESTORATION METHODS OF X-RAY IMAGES WITH EMPHASIS ON MEDICAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hosseinian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various medical X-ray imaging methods such as digital radiography, computed tomography and fluoroscopy are used as important tools in diagnostic and operative processes especially in the computer and robotic assisted surgeries. The procedures of extracting information from these images require appropriate deblurring and denoising processes on the pre- and intra-operative images in order to obtain more accurate information. This issue becomes more considerable when the X-ray images are planned to be employed in the photogrammetric processes for 3D reconstruction from multi-view X-ray images since, accurate data should be extracted from images for 3D modelling and the quality of X-ray images affects directly on the results of the algorithms. For restoration of X-ray images, it is essential to consider the nature and characteristics of these kinds of images. X-ray images exhibit severe quantum noise due to limited X-ray photons involved. The assumptions of Gaussian modelling are not appropriate for photon-limited images such as X-ray images, because of the nature of signal-dependant quantum noise. These images are generally modelled by Poisson distribution which is the most common model for low-intensity imaging. In this paper, existing methods are evaluated. For this purpose, after demonstrating the properties of medical X-ray images, the more efficient and recommended methods for restoration of X-ray images would be described and assessed. After explaining these approaches, they are implemented on samples from different kinds of X-ray images. By considering the results, it is concluded that using PURE-LET, provides more effective and efficient denoising than other examined methods in this research.

  12. New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre lengthscale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Reischig, P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-destructive, three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the grain structure in mono-phase polycrystalline materials is an open challenge in material science. Recent advances in synchrotron based X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer interesting possibilities for mapping 3D grain shapes....... A recent extension of this methodology, termed X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT), combines the principles of X-ray diffraction imaging, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD) and image reconstruction from projections. DCT provides simultaneous access to 3D grain shape...

  13. Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    We have developed a microscope for soft x-ray diffraction imaging of dry or frozen hydrated biological specimens. This lensless imaging system does not suffer from the resolution or specimen thickness limitations that other short wavelength microscopes experience. The microscope, currently situated at beamline 9.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source, can collect diffraction data to 12 nm resolution with 750 eV photons and 17 nm resolution with 520 eV photons. The specimen can be rotated with a precision goniometer through an angle of 160 degrees allowing for the collection of nearly complete three-dimensional diffraction data. The microscope is fully computer controlled through a graphical user interface and a scripting language automates the collection of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional data. Diffraction data from a freeze-dried dwarf yeast cell, Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying the CLN3-1 mutation, was collected to 12 run resolution from 8 specimen orientations spanning a total rotation of 8 degrees. The diffraction data was phased using the difference map algorithm and the reconstructions provide real space images of the cell to 30 nm resolution from each of the orientations. The agreement of the different reconstructions provides confidence in the recovered, and previously unknown, structure and indicates the three dimensionality of the cell. This work represents the first imaging of the natural complex refractive contrast from a whole unstained cell by the diffraction microscopy method and has achieved a resolution superior to lens based x-ray tomographic reconstructions of similar specimens. Studies of the effects of exposure to large radiation doses were also carried out. It was determined that the freeze-dried cell suffers from an initial collapse, which is followed by a uniform, but slow, shrinkage. This structural damage to the cell is not accompanied by a diminished ability to see small features in the specimen. Preliminary measurements on frozen

  14. Future of X-ray phase imaging in medical imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Weakly absorbing materials, such as biological, soft tissues, can be imaged by generating contrast due to the phase shift of X-rays. In the past decade, several methods for X-ray phase imaging were proposed and demonstrated. The performance of X-ray phase imaging is attractive in the field of medical imaging technology, and its development for practical use is expected. Many methods, however, have been developed under the assumption of the use of synchrotron radiation, which is an obstacle to practical use. The method based on Talbot (-Lau) interferometry enables us to use a compact X-ray source, and its development is expected as a breakthrough for medical applications. (author)

  15. Characterization of Polycrystalline Materials Using Synchrotron X-ray Imaging and Diffraction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Wolfgang; King, A.; Herbig, M.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of synchrotron radiation x-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offers new possibilities for in-situ observation of deformation and damage mechanisms in the bulk of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (i.e., cracks, porosities) can be detected using...... propagation based phase contrast imaging, a 3-D imaging mode exploiting the coherence properties of third generation synchrotron beams. Furthermore, for some classes of polycrystalline materials, one may use a 3-D variant of x-ray diffraction imaging, termed x-ray diffraction contrast tomography. X-ray...

  16. Amorphous and Polycrystalline Photoconductors for Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-Ray Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S. Karim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs. We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE. Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI2 and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the

  17. Relationship between x-ray illumination field size and flat field intensity and its impacts on x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xue; Niu Tianye; Jia Xun; Zhu Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray cone-beam CT (CBCT) is being increasingly used for various clinical applications, while its performance is still hindered by image artifacts. This work investigates a new source of reconstruction error, which is often overlooked in the current CBCT imaging. The authors find that the x-ray flat field intensity (I 0 ) varies significantly as the illumination volume size changes at different collimator settings. A wrong I 0 value leads to inaccurate CT numbers of reconstructed images as well as wrong scatter measurements in the CBCT research. Methods: The authors argue that the finite size of x-ray focal spot together with the detector glare effect cause the I 0 variation at different illumination sizes. Although the focal spot of commercial x-ray tubes typically has a nominal size of less than 1 mm, the off-focal-spot radiation covers an area of several millimeters on the tungsten target. Due to the large magnification factor from the field collimator to the detector, the penumbra effects of the collimator blades result in different I 0 values for different illumination field sizes. Detector glare further increases the variation, since one pencil beam of incident x-ray is scattered into an area of several centimeters on the detector. In this paper, the authors study these two effects by measuring the focal spot distribution with a pinhole assembly and the detector point spread function (PSF) with an edge-spread function method. The authors then derive a formula to estimate the I 0 value for different illumination field sizes, using the measured focal spot distribution and the detector PSF. Phantom studies are carried out to investigate the accuracy of scatter measurements and CT images with and without considering the I 0 variation effects. Results: On our tabletop system with a Varian Paxscan 4030CB flat-panel detector and a Varian RAD-94 x-ray tube as used on a clinical CBCT system, the focal spot distribution has a measured full

  18. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T., E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Mitsuya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fushie, T. [Radiment Lab. Inc., Setagaya, Tokyo 156-0044 (Japan); Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A. [XIT Co., Naruse, Machida, Tokyo 194-0045 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 µm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  19. Spectromicroscope for the PHotoelectron Imaging of Nanostructures with X-rays (SPHINX): performance in biology, medicine and geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazer, B.H.; Girasole, Marco; Wiese, L.M.; Franz, Torsten; De Stasio, G

    2004-05-15

    Several X-ray PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopes (X-PEEMs) exist around the world at this time. We present recent performance and resolution tests of one of them, the Spectromicroscope for PHotoelectron Imaging of Nanostructures with X-rays (SPHINX) X-PEEM, installed at the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center. With this state-of-the-art instrument we demonstrate chemical analysis capabilities on conducting and insulating specimens of diverse interests, and an unprecedented lateral resolution of 10 nm with monochromatic X-rays and 7.2 nm with ultraviolet illumination.

  20. Human thyroid specimen imaging by fluorescent x-ray computed tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Yu, Quanwen; Yashiro, Toru; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yasuo; Itai, Yuji; Akatsuka, Takao

    1999-09-01

    Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (FXCT) is being developed to detect non-radioactive contrast materials in living specimens. The FXCT system consists of a silicon (111) channel cut monochromator, an x-ray slit and a collimator for fluorescent x ray detection, a scanning table for the target organ and an x-ray detector for fluorescent x-ray and transmission x-ray. To reduce Compton scattering overlapped on the fluorescent K(alpha) line, incident monochromatic x-ray was set at 37 keV. The FXCT clearly imaged a human thyroid gland and iodine content was estimated quantitatively. In a case of hyperthyroidism, the two-dimensional distribution of iodine content was not uniform, and thyroid cancer had a small amount of iodine. FXCT can be used to detect iodine within thyroid gland quantitatively and to delineate its distribution.

  1. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, Eduardo; Sperl, Jonathan I.; Bequé, Dirk; Benz, Tobias; Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Cozzini, Cristina; Grandl, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well.

  2. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coello, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.coello@tum.de [GE Global Research, Garching (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality, Institut für Informatik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Sperl, Jonathan I.; Bequé, Dirk [GE Global Research, Garching (Germany); Benz, Tobias [Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality, Institut für Informatik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Cozzini, Cristina [GE Global Research, Garching (Germany); Grandl, Susanne [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well.

  3. 21 CFR 892.1630 - Electrostatic x-ray imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system. (a) Identification. An electrostatic x-ray imaging system is a device intended for medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrostatic x-ray imaging system. 892.1630... visible image. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and...

  4. Soft X-ray imaging by optically stimulated luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfigli, F. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)], E-mail: bonfigli@frascati.enea.it; Almaviva, S.; Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Flora, F.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R.M. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Nichelatti, E. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy); Tomassetti, G.; Ritucci, A.; Reale, L. [Universita de L' Aquila e INFN, Dip. di Fisica, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Larciprete, R. [ISC-CNR, Sezione Montelibretti, Via Salaria, Km. 29.3, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Gregoratti, L.; Kiskinova, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14, Km. 163.5, 34012 Basovizza (TS) (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    An innovative X-ray imaging detector based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride is presented. Regular photoluminescent patterns produced on LiF samples by different intense X-ray sources, like synchrotrons, laser plasma sources and a capillary discharge laser have been investigated by a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. The use of a LiF-based imaging plate for X-ray microscopy is also discussed showing microradiographies of small animals.

  5. The first X-ray imaging spectroscopy of quiescent solar active regions with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannah, Iain G.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Smith, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first observations of quiescent active regions (ARs) using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), a focusing hard X-ray telescope capable of studying faint solar emission from high-temperature and non-thermal sources. We analyze the first directly imaged and spectrally...... resolved X-rays above 2 keV from non-flaring ARs, observed near the west limb on 2014 November 1. The NuSTAR X-ray images match bright features seen in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays. The NuSTAR imaging spectroscopy is consistent with isothermal emission of temperatures 3.1-4.4 MK and emission...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system. Comparison with X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajima, Toshio; Kagawa, Yoshihiro; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1987-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) have been performed in 169 consecutive patients with central nervous system diseases. The findings from the two methods were compared for the capacity to defect lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than or equivalent to X-ray CT in detecting lesions - especially detecting. Arnold-Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, spinal cord injury, and pituitary adenoma - in 158 patients (94 %). In six patients (10 %), lesion detection was possible only by MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging was inferior to X-ray CT in 11 patients (7 %) in detecting calcified lesions, meningioma, and cavernous hemangioma. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. A computer code to simulate X-ray imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvauchelle, Philippe; Freud, Nicolas; Kaftandjian, Valerie; Babot, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    A computer code was developed to simulate the operation of radiographic, radioscopic or tomographic devices. The simulation is based on ray-tracing techniques and on the X-ray attenuation law. The use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex three-dimensional (3D) objects and the geometry of every component of the imaging chain, from the source to the detector, can be defined. Geometric unsharpness, for example, can be easily taken into account, even in complex configurations. Automatic translations or rotations of the object can be performed to simulate radioscopic or tomographic image acquisition. Simulations can be carried out with monochromatic or polychromatic beam spectra. This feature enables, for example, the beam hardening phenomenon to be dealt with or dual energy imaging techniques to be studied. The simulation principle is completely deterministic and consequently the computed images present no photon noise. Nevertheless, the variance of the signal associated with each pixel of the detector can be determined, which enables contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) maps to be computed, in order to predict quantitatively the detectability of defects in the inspected object. The CNR is a relevant indicator for optimizing the experimental parameters. This paper provides several examples of simulated images that illustrate some of the rich possibilities offered by our software. Depending on the simulation type, the computation time order of magnitude can vary from 0.1 s (simple radiographic projection) up to several hours (3D tomography) on a PC, with a 400 MHz microprocessor. Our simulation tool proves to be useful in developing new specific applications, in choosing the most suitable components when designing a new testing chain, and in saving time by reducing the number of experimental tests

  8. A computer code to simulate X-ray imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvauchelle, Philippe E-mail: philippe.duvauchelle@insa-lyon.fr; Freud, Nicolas; Kaftandjian, Valerie; Babot, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    A computer code was developed to simulate the operation of radiographic, radioscopic or tomographic devices. The simulation is based on ray-tracing techniques and on the X-ray attenuation law. The use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex three-dimensional (3D) objects and the geometry of every component of the imaging chain, from the source to the detector, can be defined. Geometric unsharpness, for example, can be easily taken into account, even in complex configurations. Automatic translations or rotations of the object can be performed to simulate radioscopic or tomographic image acquisition. Simulations can be carried out with monochromatic or polychromatic beam spectra. This feature enables, for example, the beam hardening phenomenon to be dealt with or dual energy imaging techniques to be studied. The simulation principle is completely deterministic and consequently the computed images present no photon noise. Nevertheless, the variance of the signal associated with each pixel of the detector can be determined, which enables contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) maps to be computed, in order to predict quantitatively the detectability of defects in the inspected object. The CNR is a relevant indicator for optimizing the experimental parameters. This paper provides several examples of simulated images that illustrate some of the rich possibilities offered by our software. Depending on the simulation type, the computation time order of magnitude can vary from 0.1 s (simple radiographic projection) up to several hours (3D tomography) on a PC, with a 400 MHz microprocessor. Our simulation tool proves to be useful in developing new specific applications, in choosing the most suitable components when designing a new testing chain, and in saving time by reducing the number of experimental tests.

  9. The use of x-ray imaging technology in cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palgan, Renato D.

    2009-01-01

    The aftermath of the September 11,2001 terrorist attack in the United States has brought a significant change in the conduct of trade and commerce among nations. The introduction on non-intrusive cargo inspection equipment, most x-ray and gamma ray scanners, among customs administrations worldwide has been widely employed and incorporated in their respective cargo examination procedures as part of their security initiative to deter terrorist threats. In compliance with our international commitment and agreement passed by the World Customs Organization which required the use of modern technology in cargo inspection, the Bureau of Customs had acquired 30 units of container x-ray scanners in 2006 from China that became operational in 2007 and the acquisition of which was guided by the following objectives: maximize collection of government revenues,facilitate trade and commerce, prevent smuggling, and safeguard the public and environment against the entry of hazardous and harmful substance. In this light, this paper discusses the brief background of the non-intrusive container inspection system project of the Bureau of Customs, an overview of the technical features of x-ray imaging technology acquired, the procedures in the application of x-ray inspection in containerized cargo, the radiation safety infrastructures and considerations, and a review of some major accomplishments after its two years of existence. (author)

  10. X-ray image processing software for computing object size and object location coordinates from acquired optical and x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Akash; Tiwari, Shyam Sunder; Tiwari, Railesha; Panday, Lokesh; Panday, Jeet; Suri, Nitin

    2004-01-01

    X-ray and Visible image data processing software has been developed in Visual Basic for real time online and offline image information processing for NDT and Medical Applications. Software computes two dimension image size parameters from its sharp boundary lines by raster scanning the image contrast data. Code accepts bit map image data and hunts for multiple tumors of different sizes that may be present in the image definition and then computes size of each tumor and locates its approximate center for registering its location coordinates. Presence of foreign metal and glass balls industrial product such as chocolate and other food items imaged out using x-ray imaging technique are detected by the software and their size and position co-ordinates are computed by the software. Paper discusses ways and means to compute size and coordinated of air bubble like objects present in the x-ray and optical images and their multiple existences in image of interest. (author)

  11. Phase-contrast tomographic imaging using an X-ray interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, A. [Hitachi Ltd, Advanced Research Lab., Saitama (Japan); Takeda, T.; Itai, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, A. [Hitachi Ltd, Central Resarch Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Hirano, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Inst. of Materials Structure Science, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Apparatus for phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using a monolithic X-ray interferometer is presented with some observational results for human breast tissues. Structures characteristic of the tissues were revealed in the phase-contrast tomograms. The procedure of image analysis consists of phase retrieval from X-ray interference patterns and tomographic image reconstruction from the retrieved phase shift. Next, feasibility of phase-contrast imaging using a two-crystal X-ray interferometer was studied aiming at in vivo observation in the future. In a preliminary study, the two-crystal X-ray interferometer was capable of generating fringes of 70% visibility using synchrotron X-rays. 35 refs.

  12. Phase-contrast tomographic imaging using an X-ray interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, A.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Yoneyama, A.; Hirano, K.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using a monolithic X-ray interferometer is presented with some observational results for human breast tissues. Structures characteristic of the tissues were revealed in the phase-contrast tomograms. The procedure of image analysis consists of phase retrieval from X-ray interference patterns and tomographic image reconstruction from the retrieved phase shift. Next, feasibility of phase-contrast imaging using a two-crystal X-ray interferometer was studied aiming at in vivo observation in the future. In a preliminary study, the two-crystal X-ray interferometer was capable of generating fringes of 70% visibility using synchrotron X-rays

  13. Transmission X-ray microscopy for full-field nano-imaging of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDREWS, JOY C; MEIRER, FLORIAN; LIU, YIJIN; MESTER, ZOLTAN; PIANETTA, PIERO

    2010-01-01

    Imaging of cellular structure and extended tissue in biological materials requires nanometer resolution and good sample penetration, which can be provided by current full-field transmission X-ray microscopic techniques in the soft and hard X-ray regions. The various capabilities of full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) include 3D tomography, Zernike phase contrast, quantification of absorption, and chemical identification via X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) imaging. These techniques are discussed and compared in light of results from imaging of biological materials including microorganisms, bone and mineralized tissue and plants, with a focus on hard X-ray TXM at ≤ 40 nm resolution. PMID:20734414

  14. Transmission X-ray microscopy for full-field nano imaging of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joy C; Meirer, Florian; Liu, Yijin; Mester, Zoltan; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-07-01

    Imaging of cellular structure and extended tissue in biological materials requires nanometer resolution and good sample penetration, which can be provided by current full-field transmission X-ray microscopic techniques in the soft and hard X-ray regions. The various capabilities of full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) include 3D tomography, Zernike phase contrast, quantification of absorption, and chemical identification via X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure imaging. These techniques are discussed and compared in light of results from the imaging of biological materials including microorganisms, bone and mineralized tissue, and plants, with a focus on hard X-ray TXM at ≤ 40-nm resolution. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. X-Ray imager power source on distribution trailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance for Beneficial Use documents the work completed on the addition of an X-ray cable reel on distribution trailer HO-64-3533 for core sampling equipment. Work and documentation remaining to be completed is identified

  16. X-ray fluorescence imaging with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The micro-distribution of trace elements is of great interest in fields such as geochemistry, biology and material science. The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe provides a technique to quantitatively measure trace element compositions at individual points and to construct semiquantitative two dimensional maps of trace element compositions. This paper describes an x-ray fluorescence system used at the National Synchrotron Light Source

  17. A laser driven pulsed X-ray backscatter technique for enhanced penetrative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, R M; Wilson, L A; Rusby, D; Alejo, A; Allott, R; Black, P P; Black, S E; Borghesi, M; Brenner, C M; Bryant, J; Clarke, R J; Collier, J C; Edwards, B; Foster, P; Greenhalgh, J; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Kar, S; Lockley, D; Moss, R M; Najmudin, Z; Pattathil, R; Symes, D; Whittle, M D; Wood, J C; McKenna, P; Neely, D

    2015-01-01

    X-ray backscatter imaging can be used for a wide range of imaging applications, in particular for industrial inspection and portal security. Currently, the application of this imaging technique to the detection of landmines is limited due to the surrounding sand or soil strongly attenuating the 10s to 100s of keV X-rays required for backscatter imaging. Here, we introduce a new approach involving a 140 MeV short-pulse (< 100 fs) electron beam generated by laser wakefield acceleration to probe the sample, which produces Bremsstrahlung X-rays within the sample enabling greater depths to be imaged. A variety of detector and scintillator configurations are examined, with the best time response seen from an absorptive coated BaF2 scintillator with a bandpass filter to remove the slow scintillation emission components. An X-ray backscatter image of an array of different density and atomic number items is demonstrated. The use of a compact laser wakefield accelerator to generate the electron source, combined with the rapid development of more compact, efficient and higher repetition rate high power laser systems will make this system feasible for applications in the field. Content includes material subject to Dstl (c) Crown copyright (2014). Licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@ nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.

  18. Present status and future prospect of x-ray microscopes. Is it possible to realize x-ray 1 nm imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Sadao

    2010-01-01

    High resolution X-ray imaging has been developed by using various optical elements and optical systems. In the soft X-ray region (∼3 nm) about 20 nm spatial resolution has been obtained, while in the hard X-ray (∼0.1 nm) about 50 nm. In the research frontier the spatial resolution better than 10 nm has been reported. The possibility to approach 1 nm spatial resolution is presented. (author)

  19. New gonad protector for public survey X-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joos, M.

    1976-01-01

    A new gonad shield intended to be used for pubic survey X-ray images is introduced. This protector is mounted on the light sight and produces a shadow free of central radiation on the patient's body. The shield provides such a shape that in women the area limited by the terminal line and in which 95% of the ovaria are situated, is covered, and that in men the region below the pubic angle is protected. The 2 mm thick lead shield has dimensions of 4.0 to 2.5 cm and is inserted into a plexiglass ruler which lies freely movable on a plexiglass plate under the light sight. This shield was tested on the water phantom and on 125 patients. With this protector it was possible to lower the surface dosages calculated by film dosimeters to 20% in women, and also to reduce the gonade dosages to 9% of the dosages without protection. The position of the new gonad protector at a distance from the body provides several advantages: the shield does not alter its position when the patient moves, the protector does not slip off the abdomen in adipose female patients, the radiation protected region has always the same extent, independent from the abdominal curvature of the female patient, the hygienic problems are eliminated, and the shield can be used for both sexes.

  20. Federated repositories of X-ray diffraction images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, Steve; Schmidberger, Jason; Bate, Mark A; DeGori, Ross; Beitz, Anthony; Keong, Cyrus; Cameron, Bob; McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J; Harrison, Andrew; Hunter, Jane; Martin, Jennifer L; Kobe, Bostjan; Dobson, Renwick C J; Parker, Michael W; Whisstock, James C; Gray, Joan; Treloar, Andrew; Groenewegen, David; Dickson, Neil; Buckle, Ashley M

    2008-07-01

    There is a pressing need for the archiving and curation of raw X-ray diffraction data. This information is critical for validation, methods development and improvement of archived structures. However, the relatively large size of these data sets has presented challenges for storage in a single worldwide repository such as the Protein Data Bank archive. This problem can be avoided by using a federated approach, where each institution utilizes its institutional repository for storage, with a discovery service overlaid. Institutional repositories are relatively stable and adequately funded, ensuring persistence. Here, a simple repository solution is described, utilizing Fedora open-source database software and data-annotation and deposition tools that can be deployed at any site cheaply and easily. Data sets and associated metadata from federated repositories are given a unique and persistent handle, providing a simple mechanism for search and retrieval via web interfaces. In addition to ensuring that valuable data is not lost, the provision of raw data has several uses for the crystallographic community. Most importantly, structure determination can only be truly repeated or verified when the raw data are available. Moreover, the availability of raw data is extremely useful for the development of improved methods of image analysis and data processing.

  1. X-ray image segmentation for vertebral mobility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Said

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to extract the parameters determining vertebral motion and its variation during flexion-extension movements using a computer vision tool for estimating and analyzing vertebral mobility. To compute vertebral body motion parameters we propose a comparative study between two segmentation methods proposed and applied to lateral X-ray images of the cervical spine. The two vertebra contour detection methods include (1) a discrete dynamic contour model (DDCM) and (2) a template matching process associated with a polar signature system. These two methods not only enable vertebra segmentation but also extract parameters that can be used to evaluate vertebral mobility. Lateral cervical spine views including 100 views in flexion, extension and neutral orientations were available for evaluation. Vertebral body motion was evaluated by human observers and using automatic methods. The results provided by the automated approaches were consistent with manual measures obtained by 15 human observers. The automated techniques provide acceptable results for the assessment of vertebral body mobility in flexion and extension on lateral views of the cervical spine. (orig.)

  2. In-Line Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and Tomography for Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sheridan C; Stevenson, Andrew W; Wilkins, Stephen W

    2012-05-24

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography make use of the refraction of X-rays by the sample in image formation. This provides considerable additional information in the image compared to conventional X-ray imaging methods, which rely solely on X-ray absorption by the sample. Phase-contrast imaging highlights edges and internal boundaries of a sample and is thus complementary to absorption contrast, which is more sensitive to the bulk of the sample. Phase-contrast can also be used to image low-density materials, which do not absorb X-rays sufficiently to form a conventional X-ray image. In the context of materials science, X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography have particular value in the 2D and 3D characterization of low-density materials, the detection of cracks and voids and the analysis of composites and multiphase materials where the different components have similar X-ray attenuation coefficients. Here we review the use of phase-contrast imaging and tomography for a wide variety of materials science characterization problems using both synchrotron and laboratory sources and further demonstrate the particular benefits of phase contrast in the laboratory setting with a series of case studies.

  3. Imaging mammalian cells with soft x rays: The importance of specimen preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of mammalian cell structure and spatial organization are a very prominent part of modern cell biology. The interest in them as well as their size make them very accommodating subject specimens for imaging with soft x-rays using the XM-1 transmission microscope built and operated by The Center for X-ray Optics on Beam Line 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if the fixative protocols normally used in electron or visible light microscopy were adequate to allow imaging cells, either fibroblasts or neurons, with minimal visible radiation damage due to imaging with soft x-rays at 2.4 nm. Two cell types were selected. Fibroblasts are easily cultured but fragile cells which are commonly used as models for the detailed study of cell physiology. Neurons are complex and sensitive cells which are difficult to prepare and to culture for study in isolation from their connections with surrounding cells. These cell types pose problems in their preparation for any microscopy. To improve the contrast and to prevent postmortem alteration of the chemistry and hence the structure of cells extracted from culture or from living organisms, fixation and staining techniques are employed in electron and visible light microscopy. It has been accepted by biologists for years that these treatments create artifacts and false structure. The authors have begun to develop protocols for specimens of each of these two cell types for soft x-ray microscopy which will preserve them in as near normal state as possible using minimal fixation, and make it possible to image them in either a hydrated or dried state free of secondary addition of stains or other labels

  4. Imaging mammalian cells with soft x rays: The importance of specimen preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Studies of mammalian cell structure and spatial organization are a very prominent part of modern cell biology. The interest in them as well as their size make them very accommodating subject specimens for imaging with soft x-rays using the XM-1 transmission microscope built and operated by The Center for X-ray Optics on Beam Line 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if the fixative protocols normally used in electron or visible light microscopy were adequate to allow imaging cells, either fibroblasts or neurons, with minimal visible radiation damage due to imaging with soft x-rays at 2.4 nm. Two cell types were selected. Fibroblasts are easily cultured but fragile cells which are commonly used as models for the detailed study of cell physiology. Neurons are complex and sensitive cells which are difficult to prepare and to culture for study in isolation from their connections with surrounding cells. These cell types pose problems in their preparation for any microscopy. To improve the contrast and to prevent postmortem alteration of the chemistry and hence the structure of cells extracted from culture or from living organisms, fixation and staining techniques are employed in electron and visible light microscopy. It has been accepted by biologists for years that these treatments create artifacts and false structure. The authors have begun to develop protocols for specimens of each of these two cell types for soft x-ray microscopy which will preserve them in as near normal state as possible using minimal fixation, and make it possible to image them in either a hydrated or dried state free of secondary addition of stains or other labels.

  5. Simultaneous X-ray imaging and diffraction study of shock propagation and phase transition in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtier, Eric

    2017-06-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging technique using a free electron laser have observed the propagation of laser-driven shock waves directly inside materials. While providing images with few hundred nanometers spatial resolution, access to more quantitative information like the material density and the various shock front speeds remain challenging due to imperfections in the images limiting the convergence in the reconstruction algorithm. Alternatively, pump-probe X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a robust technique to extract atomic crystalline structure of compressed matter, providing insight into the kinetics of phase transformation and material response to stress. However, XRD by itself is not sufficient to extract the equation of state of the material under study. Here we report on the use of the LCLS free electron laser as a source of a high-resolution X-ray microscopy enabling the direct imaging of shock waves and phase transitions in optically opaque silicon. In this configuration, no algorithm is necessary to extract the material density and the position of the shock fronts. Simultaneously, we probed the crystalline structure via XRD of the various phases in laser compressed silicon. E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, S. Brown, E. Granados, A. Hashim, E. McBride, A. Mackinnon, I. Nam, J. Zimmerman (SLAC) A. Gleason (Stanford, LANL) A. Higginbotham (University of York) A. Schropp, F. Seiboth (DESY).

  6. Soft X-ray Foucault test: A path to diffraction-limited imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.; Ng, W.; Liang, S.; Cerrina, F.

    1994-08-01

    We present the development of a soft X-ray Foucault test capable of characterizing the imaging properties of a soft X-ray optical system at its operational wavelength and its operational configuration. This optical test enables direct visual inspection of imaging aberrations and provides real-time feedback for the alignment of high resolution soft X-ray optical systems. A first application of this optical test was carried out on a Mo-Si multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective as part of the MAXIMUM project. Results from the alignment procedure are presented as well as the possibility for testing in the hard X-ray regime.

  7. X-ray luminescence computed tomography imaging via multiple intensity weighted narrow beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Limin; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce and study a novel x-ray beam irradiation pattern for X-ray Luminescence Computed Tomography (XLCT), termed multiple intensity-weighted narrow-beam irradiation. The proposed XLCT imaging method is studied through simulations of x-ray and diffuse lights propagation. The emitted optical photons from X-ray excitable nanophosphors were collected by optical fiber bundles from the right-side surface of the phantom. The implementation of image reconstruction is based on the simulated measurements from 6 or 12 angular projections in terms of 3 or 5 x-ray beams scanning mode. The proposed XLCT imaging method is compared against the constant intensity weighted narrow-beam XLCT. From the reconstructed XLCT images, we found that the Dice similarity and quantitative ratio of targets have a certain degree of improvement. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can offer simultaneously high image quality and fast image acquisition.

  8. A simple methodology for obtaining X-ray color images in scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, M.M. da; Pietroluongo, L.R.V.

    1985-01-01

    A simple methodology for obtaining at least 3 elements X-ray images in only one photography is described. The fluorescent X-ray image is obtained from scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion analysis system. The change of detector analytic channels, color cellophane foils and color films are used sequentially. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT images with X-ray CT. Effects of registration errors between X-ray CT and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Murase, Kenya; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Motomura, Nobutoku

    2002-01-01

    Attenuation correction with an X-ray CT image is a new method to correct attenuation on SPECT imaging, but the effect of the registration errors between CT and SPECT images is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the registration errors on myocardial SPECT, analyzing data from a phantom and a human volunteer. Registerion (fusion) of the X-ray CT and SPECT images was done with standard packaged software in three dimensional fashion, by using linked transaxial, coronal and sagittal images. In the phantom study, and X-ray CT image was shifted 1 to 3 pixels on the x, y and z axes, and rotated 6 degrees clockwise. Attenuation correction maps generated from each misaligned X-ray CT image were used to reconstruct misaligned SPECT images of the phantom filled with 201 Tl. In a human volunteer, X-ray CT was acquired in different conditions (during inspiration vs. expiration). CT values were transferred to an attenuation constant by using straight lines; an attenuation constant of 0/cm in the air (CT value=-1,000 HU) and that of 0.150/cm in water (CT value=0 HU). For comparison, attenuation correction with transmission CT (TCT) data and an external γ-ray source ( 99m Tc) was also applied to reconstruct SPECT images. Simulated breast attenuation with a breast attachment, and inferior wall attenuation were properly corrected by means of the attenuation correction map generated from X-ray CT. As pixel shift increased, deviation of the SPECT images increased in misaligned images in the phantom study. In the human study, SPECT images were affected by the scan conditions of the X-ray CT. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT with an X-ray CT image is a simple and potentially beneficial method for clinical use, but accurate registration of the X-ray CT to SPECT image is essential for satisfactory attenuation correction. (author)

  10. Optimization of in-line phase contrast particle image velocimetry using a laboratory x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, I.; Fouras, A.; Paganin, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase contrast particle image velocimetry (PIV) using a laboratory x-ray microfocus source is investigated using a numerical model. Phase contrast images of 75 μm air bubbles, embedded within water exhibiting steady-state vortical flow, are generated under the paraxial approximation using a tungsten x-ray spectrum at 30 kVp. Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast speckle images at a range of source-object and object-detector distances are generated, and used as input into a simulated PIV measurement. The effects of source-size-induced penumbral blurring, together with the finite dynamic range of the detector, are accounted for in the simulation. The PIV measurement procedure involves using the cross-correlation between temporally sequential speckle images to estimate the transverse displacement field for the fluid. The global error in the PIV reconstruction, for the set of simulations that was performed, suggests that geometric magnification is the key parameter for designing a laboratory-based x-ray phase-contrast PIV system. For the modeled system, x-ray phase-contrast PIV data measurement can be optimized to obtain low error ( 15 μm) of the detector, high geometric magnification (>2.5) is desired, while for large source size system (FWHM > 30 μm), low magnification (<1.5) would be suggested instead. The methods developed in this paper can be applied to optimizing phase-contrast velocimetry using a variety of laboratory x-ray sources.

  11. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  12. Sparse representations via learned dictionaries for x-ray angiogram image denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jingfan; Huang, Zhenghua; Li, Qian; Zhang, Tianxu

    2018-03-01

    X-ray angiogram image denoising is always an active research topic in the field of computer vision. In particular, the denoising performance of many existing methods had been greatly improved by the widely use of nonlocal similar patches. However, the only nonlocal self-similar (NSS) patch-based methods can be still be improved and extended. In this paper, we propose an image denoising model based on the sparsity of the NSS patches to obtain high denoising performance and high-quality image. In order to represent the sparsely NSS patches in every location of the image well and solve the image denoising model more efficiently, we obtain dictionaries as a global image prior by the K-SVD algorithm over the processing image; Then the single and effectively alternating directions method of multipliers (ADMM) method is used to solve the image denoising model. The results of widely synthetic experiments demonstrate that, owing to learned dictionaries by K-SVD algorithm, a sparsely augmented lagrangian image denoising (SALID) model, which perform effectively, obtains a state-of-the-art denoising performance and better high-quality images. Moreover, we also give some denoising results of clinical X-ray angiogram images.

  13. Directional x-ray dark-field imaging of strongly ordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Torben Haugaard; Bech, Martin; Zanette, Irene; Weitkamp, Timm; David, Christian; Deyhle, Hans; Rutishauser, Simon; Reznikova, Elena; Mohr, Jürgen; Feidenhans'L, Robert; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2010-12-01

    Recently a novel grating based x-ray imaging approach called directional x-ray dark-field imaging was introduced. Directional x-ray dark-field imaging yields information about the local texture of structures smaller than the pixel size of the imaging system. In this work we extend the theoretical description and data processing schemes for directional dark-field imaging to strongly scattering systems, which could not be described previously. We develop a simple scattering model to account for these recent observations and subsequently demonstrate the model using experimental data. The experimental data includes directional dark-field images of polypropylene fibers and a human tooth slice.

  14. Control of the Low-energy X-rays by Using MCNP5 and Numerical Analysis for a New Concept Intra-oral X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jangyong; Ji, Yunseo; Lee, Rena

    2018-05-01

    An X-ray control algorithm to modulate the X-ray intensity distribution over the FOV (field of view) has been developed by using numerical analysis and MCNP5, a particle transport simulation code on the basis of the Monte Carlo method. X-rays, which are widely used in medical diagnostic imaging, should be controlled in order to maximize the performance of the X-ray imaging system. However, transporting X-rays, like a liquid or a gas is conveyed through a physical form such as pipes, is not possible. In the present study, an X-ray control algorithm and technique to uniformize the Xray intensity projected on the image sensor were developed using a flattening filter and a collimator in order to alleviate the anisotropy of the distribution of X-rays due to intrinsic features of the X-ray generator. The proposed method, which is combined with MCNP5 modeling and numerical analysis, aimed to optimize a flattening filter and a collimator for a uniform distribution of X-rays. Their size and shape were estimated from the method. The simulation and the experimental results both showed that the method yielded an intensity distribution over an X-ray field of 6×4 cm2 at SID (source to image-receptor distance) of 5 cm with a uniformity of more than 90% when the flattening filter and the collimator were mounted on the system. The proposed algorithm and technique are not only confined to flattening filter development but can also be applied for other X-ray related research and development efforts.

  15. Enhancement of dental x-ray images by two channel image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Yu, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the authors develop a new algorithm for the enhancement of low-contrast details of dental X-ray images using a two channel structure. The algorithm first decomposes an input image in the frequency domain into two parts by filtering: one containing the low frequency components and the other containing the high frequency components. Then these parts are enhanced separately using a transform magnitude modifier. Finally a contrast enhanced image is formed by combining these two processed pats. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through enhancement of dental X-ray images. The algorithm can be easily implemented on a personal computer

  16. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm. - Highlights: • We investigated a small plasma focus as pulsed x-ray source for radiography applications. • The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, LSF and MTF. • The x-ray source focal spot was obtained to be ∼0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. • The x-ray dose measurement showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. • The profiles of LSF and MTF showed that the cut-off frequency is about 1.5 cycles/mm

  17. Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1997-10-01

    We have shown so far that 3D structures in biological sot tissues such as cancer can be revealed by phase-contrast x- ray computed tomography using an x-ray interferometer. As a next step, we aim at applications of this technique to in vivo observation, including radiographic applications. For this purpose, the size of view field is desired to be more than a few centimeters. Therefore, a larger x-ray interferometer should be used with x-rays of higher energy. We have evaluated the optimal x-ray energy from an aspect of does as a function of sample size. Moreover, desired spatial resolution to an image sensor is discussed as functions of x-ray energy and sample size, basing on a requirement in the analysis of interference fringes.

  18. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Peter; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Pauling, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  19. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, Peter, E-mail: pr20@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Temnykh, Alexander B. [Cornell University, Laboratory for Elem-Particle Physics, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Pauling, Alan K. [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States)

    2011-09-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  20. Observation of parametric X-ray radiation by an imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, Y.; Shchagin, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated experimentally the application of an imaging plate for registering the angular distribution of parametric X-ray radiation. The imaging plate was used as a two-dimensional position-sensitive X-ray detector. High-quality images of the fine structure in the angular distributions of the yield around the reflection of the parametric X-ray radiation produced in a silicon crystal by a 255-MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator have been observed in the Laue geometry. A fairly good agreement between results of measurements and calculations by the kinematic theory of parametric X-ray radiation is shown. Applications of the imaging plates for the observation of the angular distribution of X-rays produced by accelerated particles in a crystal are also discussed.

  1. Compact x-ray microradiograph for in situ imaging of solidification processes: Bringing in situ x-ray micro-imaging from the synchrotron to the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakete, C.; Baumbach, C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Samberg, D.; Schroer, C. G. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Breede, F.; Stenzel, C. [Astrium-Space Transportation, Department: TO 611, Claude-Dornier-Strasse, D-88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Zimmermann, G.; Pickmann, C. [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Houltz, Y.; Lockowandt, C. [Science Services Division, SSC, Box 4207, SE-17104 Solna (Sweden); Svenonius, O.; Wiklund, P. [Scint-X AB, Torshamnsgatan 35, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Mathiesen, R. H. [Inst. for Fysikk, NTNU, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    A laboratory based high resolution x-ray radiograph was developed for the investigation of solidification dynamics in alloys. It is based on a low-power microfocus x-ray tube and is potentially appropriate for x-ray diagnostics in space. The x-ray microscope offers a high spatial resolution down to approximately 5 {mu}m. Dynamic processes can be resolved with a frequency of up to 6 Hz. In reference experiments, the setup was optimized to yield a high contrast for AlCu-alloys. With samples of about 150 {mu}m thickness, high quality image sequences of the solidification process were obtained with high resolution in time and space.

  2. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Peng, Song; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays

  3. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-05-11

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays.

  4. Automated analysis of hot spot X-ray images at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. F.; Izumi, N.; Glenn, S.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Kyrala, G. A.; Springer, P.; Bradley, D. K.; Town, R. P. J.

    2016-11-01

    At the National Ignition Facility, the symmetry of the hot spot of imploding capsules is diagnosed by imaging the emitted x-rays using gated cameras and image plates. The symmetry of an implosion is an important factor in the yield generated from the resulting fusion process. The x-ray images are analyzed by decomposing the image intensity contours into Fourier and Legendre modes. This paper focuses on the additional protocols for the time-integrated shape analysis from image plates. For implosions with temperatures above ˜4 keV, the hard x-ray background can be utilized to infer the temperature of the hot spot.

  5. Automated analysis of hot spot X-ray images at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S. F., E-mail: khan9@llnl.gov; Izumi, N.; Glenn, S.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Springer, P.; Bradley, D. K.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kyrala, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    At the National Ignition Facility, the symmetry of the hot spot of imploding capsules is diagnosed by imaging the emitted x-rays using gated cameras and image plates. The symmetry of an implosion is an important factor in the yield generated from the resulting fusion process. The x-ray images are analyzed by decomposing the image intensity contours into Fourier and Legendre modes. This paper focuses on the additional protocols for the time-integrated shape analysis from image plates. For implosions with temperatures above ∼4 keV, the hard x-ray background can be utilized to infer the temperature of the hot spot.

  6. System for automatic x-ray-image analysis, measurement, and sorting of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Automatic X-Ray Image Analysis and Sorting (AXIAS) system which is designed to analyze and measure x-ray images of opaque hollow microspheres used as laser fusion targets. The x-ray images are first recorded on a high resolution film plate. The AXIAS system then digitizes and processes the images to accurately measure the target parameters and defects. The primary goals of the AXIAS system are: to provide extremely accurate and rapid measurements, to engineer a practical system for a routine production environment and to furnish the capability of automatically measuring an array of images for sorting and selection

  7. Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

    2009-03-01

    A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

  8. Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

    2009-01-01

    A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

  9. X-ray yields of superdeformed states in 193Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.M.; Lee, I.Y.; Baktash, C.

    1993-01-01

    The K α =x-ray yields associated with the superdeformed and normal-deformed bands in 193 Hg have been measured. The results indicate an excess yield of K α -x rays in coincidence with the superdeformed cascade relative to that in coincidence with the normal-deformed cascade. The internal conversion of known transitions along the superdeformed cascade cannot account for the observed K α -x ray yield. It is likely that this excess x-ray yield is associated with low energy M1 transitions competing with the low-spin superdeformed E2 transitions. These M1 γ rays are expected to connect the two superdeformed bands which are observed in coincidence with each other. Calculations based on the measured γ-ray intensities indicate that within the experimental uncertainties the excess K α yield can be entirely accounted for by interband-M1 transitions. X-ray yields from the recent 193 Hg EUROGAM experiment will also be discussed

  10. Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan, E-mail: joan.vila.comamala@gmail.com; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; Rau, Christoph [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bosgra, Jeroen; David, Christian [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 PSI-Villigen (Switzerland); Eastwood, David S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK and Research Complex at Harwell, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-28

    Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale.

  11. Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; Rau, Christoph; Bosgra, Jeroen; David, Christian; Eastwood, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale

  12. Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Bosgra, Jeroen; Eastwood, David S.; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; David, Christian; Rau, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale.

  13. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hönnicke, M.G.; Delben, G.J.; Godoi, W.C.; Swinka-Filho, V.

    2014-01-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films

  14. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Delben, G. J.; Godoi, W. C.; Swinka-Filho, V.

    2014-11-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films.

  15. X-ray framing cameras for > 5 keV imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O.L.; Bell, P.M.; Costa, R.; Kalantar, D.H.; Bradley, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    Recent and proposed improvements in spatial resolution, temporal resolution, contrast, and detection efficiency for x-ray framing cameras are discussed in light of present and future laser-plasma diagnostic needs. In particular, improvements in image contrast above hard x-ray background levels is demonstrated by using high aspect ratio tapered pinholes

  16. Interferometric and optical tests of water window imaging x ray microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Interferometric tests of Schwarzchild X-ray Microscope are performed to evaluate the optical properties and alignment of the components. Photographic measurements of the spatial resolution, focal properties, and vignetting characteristics of the prototype Water Window Imaging X-ray Microscope are made and analyzed.

  17. X-ray holographic imaging of magnetic order in meander domain structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaouen Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed x-ray holography experiments using synchrotron radiation. By analyzing the scattering of coherent circularly polarized x-rays tuned at the Co-2p resonance, we imaged perpendicular magnetic domains in a Co/Pd multilayer. We compare results obtained for continuous and laterally confined films.

  18. Trace Element Mapping of a Biological Specimen by a Full-Field X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Microscope with a Wolter Mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Masato; Yamada, Norimitsu; Ishino, Toyoaki; Namiki, Takashi; Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao

    2007-01-01

    A full-field X-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror was applied to the element mapping of alfalfa seeds. The X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Photon Factory BL3C2 (KEK). X-ray fluorescence images of several growing stages of the alfalfa seeds were obtained. X-ray fluorescence energy spectra were measured with either a solid state detector or a CCD photon counting method. The element distributions of iron and zinc which were included in the seeds were obtained using a photon counting method

  19. Applications of Novel X-Ray Imaging Modalities in Food Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Schou

    science for understanding and designing food products. In both of these aspects, X-ray imaging methods such as radiography and computed tomography provide a non-destructive solution. However, since the conventional attenuation-based modality suers from poor contrast in soft matter materials, modalities...... with improved contrast are needed. Two possible candidates in this regard are the novel X-ray phase-contrast and X-ray dark-eld imaging modalities. The contrast in phase-contrast imaging is based on dierences in electron density which is especially useful for soft matter materials whereas dark-eld imaging....... Furthermore, the process of translating the image in image analysis was addressed. For improved handling of multimodal image data, a multivariate segmentation scheme of multimodal X-ray tomography data was implemented. Finally, quantitative data analysis was applied for treating the images. Quantitative...

  20. Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Ren, B.; Wu, X.Y.; Orion, I.; Zhong, Z.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new, synchrotron-based, x-ray radiography method that uses monochromatic, fan-shaped beams, with an analyser crystal positioned between the subject and the detector. The analyser allows the detection of only those x-rays transmitted by the subject that fall into the acceptance angle (central part of the rocking curve) of the monochromator/analyser system. As shown by Chapman et al , in addition to the x-ray attenuation, the method provides information on the out-of-plane angular deviation of x-rays. New images result in which the image contrast depends on the x-ray index of refraction and on the yield of small-angle scattering, respectively. We implemented DEI in the tomography mode at the National Synchrotron Light Source using 22 keV x-rays, and imaged a cylindrical acrylic phantom that included oil-filled, slanted channels. The resulting 'refraction CT image' shows the pure image of the out-of-plane gradient of the x-ray index of refraction. No image artefacts were present, indicating that the CT projection data were a consistent set. The 'refraction CT image' signal is linear with the gradient of the refractive index, and its value is equal to that expected. The method, at the energy used or higher, has the potential for use in clinical radiography and in industry. (author)

  1. X-ray imaging of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Susan Elizabeth

    The goal of this research was to develop an improved diagnostic technique to identify the location of defects that limit superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity performance during cavity testing or in existing accelerators. SRF cavities are primarily constructed of niobium. Electrons within the metal of a cavity under high electric field gradient have a probability of tunneling through the potential barrier. i e. leave the surface or are field emitted in regions where defects are encountered. Field emitted electrons are accelerated in the electric fields within the cavity. The electrons can have complicated trajectories and strike the cavity walls thus producing x-rays via Coulomb interactions and/or bremsstrahlung radiation. The endpoint energy of an x-ray spectrum predicts the electron maximum final kinetic energy within the cavity. Field emission simulations can then predict the source of the field-emitted electrons and the defect(s). In a multicell cavity the cells are coupled together and act as a set of coupled oscillators. There are multiple passbands of excitation for a multicell structure operating in a particular mode. For different passbands of operation the direction and amplitude of the fields within a cavity change from that of the normal accelerating mode. Field emitted electrons have different trajectories depending on the mode and thus produce x-rays in different locations. Using a collimated sodium iodide detector and subjecting a cavity to multiple passband modes at high electric field gradient the source of a cavity's x-rays can be determined. Knowing the location of the x-rays and the maximum electron kinetic energy; field emission simulations for different passband modes can be used to determine and verify the source of the field emitted electrons from mode to mode. Once identified, the defect(s) can be repaired or modifications made to the manufacturing process.

  2. Laboratory of computerized tomography and X-ray of Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET) from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelin, Hugo R.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Jakubiak, Rosangela J.; David, Denise E.H.; Gomes, Cintia L.; Soboll, Daniel S.; Ruehle, Gustavo; Carvalho, Arnolfo

    1996-01-01

    The development of X-ray laboratory at CEFET-PR (Brazil) is considered. The advancement and hospital practice application of an Image Quality Program for X-ray and tomography scanning is studied. A project regarding to the modernization of installed X-ray equipment, particularly X-ray detector, software and hardware is reported

  3. Changes of surface electron states of InP under soft X-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhian; Yang Zushen; Jin Tao; Qui Rexi; Cui Mingqi; Liu Fengqin

    1999-01-01

    Changes of surface electronic states of InP under 1 keV X-ray irradiation is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet ray energy spectroscopy (UPS). The results show that the soft X-ray irradiation has little effect on In atoms but much on P atoms. The authors analysed the mechanism of irradiation and explained the major effect

  4. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberta, P., E-mail: peter.oberta@rigaku.com [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, Praha 8, CZ-18221 (Czech Republic); Rigaku, Novodvorská 994, Praha 4, CZ-14221 (Czech Republic); Mokso, R. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-11-21

    A new configuration of diffractive–refractive optics for beam splitting is investigated. The set-up can be applied to perform imaging with two beams simultaneously. It brings advantages toward dynamic studies using image guided diffraction or fluorescence spectroscopy. The optimal energy range of operation for the beam-splitter is between 7 keV and 24 keV, reaching best efficiency at an energy of 10 keV. Due to the long focusing distances (several tens of meters) created by the diffractive–refractive optics and the higher refraction efficiency in the softer energy range, the presented set-ups are ideal for hard X-ray FEL sources.

  5. Individual GaAs nanorods imaged by coherent X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Ullrich; Biermanns, Andreas; Davydok, Anton [Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Paetzelt, Hendrik [Universitaet Leipzig (Germany); IOM Leipzig (Germany); Diaz, Ana; Metzger, Hartmut [ID01 Beamline, ESRF (France); Gottschalch, Volker [Universitaet Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Semiconductor nanorods are of particular interest for new semiconductor devices because the nanorod approach can be used to form heterostructures of materials with a large lattice mismatch and to define nanorod arrays with tailored inter-rod distance. However, all applications require objects with uniform physical properties based on uniform morphology. Complementary to electron microscopy techniques, destruction free X-ray diffraction techniques can be used to determine structural and morphological details. Using scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy with a spot size of 220 x 600 nm{sup 2} we were able to inspect individual GaAs nanorods grown by seed-free MOVPE through circular openings in a SiN{sub x} mask in a periodic array with 3 {mu}m spacing on GaAs[111]B. The focussed X-ray beam allows the determination of the strain state of individual rods and in combination with coherent diffraction imaging, we were able to characterize also morphological details. Rods grown at different positions in the array show significant differences in shape, size and strain state.

  6. Functional imaging - a new tool for X-ray functional diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Erbe, W.; Sonne, B.; Hoehne, K.H.; Nicolae, G.C.; Pfeiffer, G.

    1978-05-01

    The method of functional imaging is applied to X-ray angiograms. Functional images are generated by inserting at each point of an X-ray image a computed grey value proportional to a dynamic parameter (such as blood velocity) instead of the recorded X-ray absorption value. For this purpose a new system for angiographic image processing has been developed. First results show that the method is a tool to extract more information about the blood dynamics in organs in an easier and faster way than with the conventional angiographic technique. (orig.)

  7. Real-time soft x-ray imaging on composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polichar, R.

    1985-01-01

    The increased use of composite materials in aircraft structures has emphasized many of the unique and difficult aspects of the inspection of such components. Ultrasound has been extensively applied to certain configurations since it is relatively sensitive to laminar discontinuities in structure. Conversely, the use of conventional x-ray examination has been severely hampered by the fact that these composite materials are virtually transparent to the x-ray energies commonly encountered in industrial radiography (25 kv and above). To produce images with contrast approaching conventional radiography, one must use x-ray beams with average energies below 10 KEV where the absorption coefficients begin to rise rapidly for these low atomic number materials. This new regime of soft x-rays presents a major challenge to real-time imaging components. Special screen and window technology is required if these lower energy x-rays are to be effectively detected. Moreover, conventional x-ray tubes become very inefficient for generating the required x-ray flux at potentials much below 29 kv and the increased operating currents put significant limitations on conventional power sources. The purpose of this paper is to explore these special problems related to soft x-ray real-time imaging and to define the optimal technologies. Practical results obtained with the latest commerical and developmental instruments for real-time imaging will be shown. These instruments include recently developed imaging systems, new x-ray tubes and various approaches to generator design. The measured results convincingly demonstrate the effectiveness practicality of real-time soft x-ray imaging. They also indicate the major changes in technology and approach that must be taken for practical systems to be truly effective

  8. Information extracting and processing with diffraction enhanced imaging of X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing; Chen Chunchong; Jiang Fan; Chen Jie; Ming Hai; Shu Hang; Zhu Peiping; Wang Junyue; Yuan Qingxi; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    X-ray imaging at high energies has been used for many years in many fields. Conventional X-ray imaging is based on the different absorption within a sample. It is difficult to distinguish different tissues of a biological sample because of their small difference in absorption. The authors use the diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) method. The authors took images of absorption, extinction, scattering and refractivity. In the end, the authors presented pictures of high resolution with all these information combined. (authors)

  9. X-ray volume imaging in image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, Theodore; Prosser, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Treatment simulation has significantly improved the accuracy and precision of radiation therapy delivery. A new generation of therapy systems promises to take the simulation and imaging process to a new level of accuracy; however, this will require changes in the workflow process. We describe the first generation of these devices, review the various imaging options and how they might be used in the clinic to improve treatment outcomes, and suggest several workflow approaches. Workflows discussed include on-line interventional, off-line adaptive, and off-line predictive approaches, with both geometric and dosimetric considerations. These changes will place new knowledge requirements on the medical dosimetrist and will necessitate involvement in the development of new departmental processes

  10. Diagnosing and mapping pulmonary emphysema on X-ray projection images: incremental value of grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Felix G; Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Auweter, Sigrid; Bamberg, Fabian; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Loewen, Rod; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging can increase the sensitivity of X-ray projection images in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema and allow for a more accurate assessment of emphysema distribution. Lungs from three mice with pulmonary emphysema and three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Median signal intensities of transmission (T), dark-field (V) and a combined parameter (normalized scatter) were compared between emphysema and control group. To determine the diagnostic value of each parameter in differentiating between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue, a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed both on a per-pixel and a per-individual basis. Parametric maps of emphysema distribution were generated using transmission, dark-field and normalized scatter signal and correlated with histopathology. Transmission values relative to water were higher for emphysematous lungs than for control lungs (1.11 vs. 1.06, pemphysema provides color-coded parametric maps, which show the best correlation with histopathology. In a murine model, the complementary information provided by X-ray transmission and dark-field images adds incremental diagnostic value in detecting pulmonary emphysema and visualizing its regional distribution as compared to conventional X-ray projections.

  11. Differential X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a grating interferometer using a laboratory X-ray micro-focus tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Won [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Jo; Kwon, Young-Man [Jeonbuk Technopark, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi-Ran; Cho, Seung-Ryong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chon, Kwon-Su [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide images with much greater soft-tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based images. In this paper, we describe differential X-ray phase-contrast images of insect specimens that were obtained using a grating-based Talbot interferometer and a laboratory X-ray source with a spot size of a few tens of micrometers. We developed the interferometer on the basis of the wavelength, periods, and height of the gratings; the field of view depends on the size of the grating, considering the refractive index of the specimen. The phase-contrast images were acquired using phase-stepping methods. The phase contrast imaging provided a significantly enhanced soft-tissue contrast compared with the attenuation data. The contour of the sample was clearly visible because the refraction from the edges of the object was strong in the differential phase-contrast image. Our results demonstrate that a grating-based Talbot interferometer with a conventional X-ray tube may be attractive as an X-ray imaging system for generating phase images. X-ray phase imaging obviously has sufficient potential and is expected to soon be a great tool for medical diagnostics.

  12. Differential X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a grating interferometer using a laboratory X-ray micro-focus tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Won; Ryu, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Jo; Kwon, Young-Man; Park, Mi-Ran; Cho, Seung-Ryong; Chon, Kwon-Su

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide images with much greater soft-tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based images. In this paper, we describe differential X-ray phase-contrast images of insect specimens that were obtained using a grating-based Talbot interferometer and a laboratory X-ray source with a spot size of a few tens of micrometers. We developed the interferometer on the basis of the wavelength, periods, and height of the gratings; the field of view depends on the size of the grating, considering the refractive index of the specimen. The phase-contrast images were acquired using phase-stepping methods. The phase contrast imaging provided a significantly enhanced soft-tissue contrast compared with the attenuation data. The contour of the sample was clearly visible because the refraction from the edges of the object was strong in the differential phase-contrast image. Our results demonstrate that a grating-based Talbot interferometer with a conventional X-ray tube may be attractive as an X-ray imaging system for generating phase images. X-ray phase imaging obviously has sufficient potential and is expected to soon be a great tool for medical diagnostics

  13. 2D-3D image registration in diagnostic and interventional X-Ray imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, I.M.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Clinical procedures that are conventionally guided by 2D x-ray imaging, may benefit from the additional spatial information provided by 3D image data. For instance, guidance of minimally invasive procedures with CT or MRI data provides 3D spatial information and visualization of structures that are

  14. Alzheimer's disease imaging biomarkers using small-angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mina; Alam, Nadia; Dahal, Eshan; Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badano, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    There is a need for novel imaging techniques for the earlier detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two hallmarks of AD are amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and tau tangles that are formed in the brain. Well-characterized x-ray cross sections of Aβ and tau proteins in a variety of structural states could potentially be used as AD biomarkers for small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) imaging without the need for injectable probes or contrast agents. First, however, the protein structures must be controlled and measured to determine accurate biomarkers for SAXS imaging. Here we report SAXS measurements of Aβ42 and tau352 in a 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution in which these proteins are believed to remain monomeric because of the stabilizing interaction of DMSO solution. Our SAXS analysis showed the aggregation of both proteins. In particular, we found that the aggregation of Aβ42 slowly progresses with time in comparison to tau352 that aggregates at a faster rate and reaches a steady-state. Furthermore, the measured signals were compared to the theoretical SAXS profiles of Aβ42 monomer, Aβ42 fibril, and tau352 that were computed from their respective protein data bank structures. We have begun the work to systematically control the structural states of these proteins in vitro using various solvent conditions. Our future work is to utilize the distinct SAXS profiles of various structural states of Aβ and tau to build a library of signals of interest for SAXS imaging in brain tissue.

  15. Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence and absorption imaging techniques at the IAEA Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, Dariusz; Markowicz, A.; Bamford, S.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Bogovac, M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray tube based, micro-beam X-ray fluorescence scanning spectrometer has been equipped with two energy dispersive X-ray detectors. The two-detector configuration allows for simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and transmitted X-ray beam signals with a spatial resolution in the range of 10-50 μm, depending on the X-ray focussing element in use. The XRF signal is collected with a standard, liquid nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector. The X-ray beam transmitted through the sample is acquired with a thermoelectrically cooled, silicon drift (SD) detector. The data acquisition is carried out in a fully automatic way under control of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR software. The software controls the scanning procedure and X-ray spectra acquisition during the scan. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra collected at every 'pixel' are stored for off-line processing. For selected regions of interest (ROI's), the element maps are constructed and displayed on-line. The spectrometer has been used for mapping elemental distributions and for performing 2D- and 3D-tomograpic imaging of minute objects in X-ray absorption and in X-ray fluorescence mode. A unique feature of the described system is simultaneous utilization of the two detectors, Si(Li) and SD, which adds new options for quantitative analysis and data interpretation. Examples of elemental mapping and 3D tomographic imaging as well as the advanced features of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR measurement control and data acquisition software are presented in this work

  16. Image alignment for tomography reconstruction from synchrotron X-ray microscopic images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chieh Cheng

    Full Text Available A synchrotron X-ray microscope is a powerful imaging apparatus for taking high-resolution and high-contrast X-ray images of nanoscale objects. A sufficient number of X-ray projection images from different angles is required for constructing 3D volume images of an object. Because a synchrotron light source is immobile, a rotational object holder is required for tomography. At a resolution of 10 nm per pixel, the vibration of the holder caused by rotating the object cannot be disregarded if tomographic images are to be reconstructed accurately. This paper presents a computer method to compensate for the vibration of the rotational holder by aligning neighboring X-ray images. This alignment process involves two steps. The first step is to match the "projected feature points" in the sequence of images. The matched projected feature points in the x-θ plane should form a set of sine-shaped loci. The second step is to fit the loci to a set of sine waves to compute the parameters required for alignment. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms two previously proposed methods, Xradia and SPIDER. The developed software system can be downloaded from the URL, http://www.cs.nctu.edu.tw/~chengchc/SCTA or http://goo.gl/s4AMx.

  17. Image alignment for tomography reconstruction from synchrotron X-ray microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chang-Chieh; Chien, Chia-Chi; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Hwu, Yeukuang; Ching, Yu-Tai

    2014-01-01

    A synchrotron X-ray microscope is a powerful imaging apparatus for taking high-resolution and high-contrast X-ray images of nanoscale objects. A sufficient number of X-ray projection images from different angles is required for constructing 3D volume images of an object. Because a synchrotron light source is immobile, a rotational object holder is required for tomography. At a resolution of 10 nm per pixel, the vibration of the holder caused by rotating the object cannot be disregarded if tomographic images are to be reconstructed accurately. This paper presents a computer method to compensate for the vibration of the rotational holder by aligning neighboring X-ray images. This alignment process involves two steps. The first step is to match the "projected feature points" in the sequence of images. The matched projected feature points in the x-θ plane should form a set of sine-shaped loci. The second step is to fit the loci to a set of sine waves to compute the parameters required for alignment. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms two previously proposed methods, Xradia and SPIDER. The developed software system can be downloaded from the URL, http://www.cs.nctu.edu.tw/~chengchc/SCTA or http://goo.gl/s4AMx.

  18. Soft X-ray images of krypton gas-puff Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Mengtong; Kuai Bin; Zeng Zhengzhong; Lu Min; Wang Kuilu; Qiu Aici; Zhang Mei; Luo Jianhui

    2002-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on Qiang-guang I generator to study the dynamics of krypton gas-puff Z-pinches. The generator was operated at a peak current of 1.5 MA with a rise-time of 80 ns. The specific linear mass of gas liner was about 20 μg/cm in these experiments. In the diagnostic system, a four-frame x-ray framing camera and a pinhole camera were employed. A novel feature of this camera is that it can give time-resolved x-ray images with four frames and energy-resolved x-ray images with two different filters and an array of 8 pinholes integrated into one compact assemble. As a typical experimental result, an averaged radial imploding velocity of 157 km/s over 14 ns near the late phase of implosion was measured from the time-resolved x-ray images. From the time-integrated x-ray image an averaged radial convergence of 0.072 times of the original size was measured. An averaged radial expansion velocity was 130 km/s and the maximum radial convergence of 0.04 times of the original size were measured from the time-resolved x-ray images. The dominant axial wavelengths of instabilities in the plasma were between 1 and 2 mm. The change in average photons energy was observed from energy spectrum- and time-resolved x-ray images

  19. On the image formation in x-ray radiography using aligned carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, F., E-mail: okuya@mui.biglobe.ne.jp

    2017-04-11

    Evidence is presented that field electrons emitted from vertically-aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) yield clearer x-ray images than do thermionic electrons, under the identical electron-optical condition. Specifically, the same sample, an LSI circuit, mounted on the same x-ray chamber could be imaged far more sharply with a CNF emitter than with a thermionic one. It is hypothesized that electrons discharged from CNF tips hit the target to form “discrete focal points” thereon, thereby generating multiple x-ray beams that interplay to form a brilliant, sharply-delineated x-ray image. This hypothesis may stimulate open discussion on how to define the “focal point” for the x-ray imaging using nano-structured electron sources. Also, the improved resolution attained with CNFs might indicate that the heat generation originating in electron-target interactions is not so serious in the present field-emission mode. - Highlights: • Field-emission (FE) x-ray radiography (XR) is based on nanotechnology. • FE-XR surpasses thermionic XR in image resolution and brilliance. • Highly-resolved FE-XR images are due possibly to a discrete array of x-ray spots. • This hypothesis stimulates open discussion on how to define the focal-point in FE-XR.

  20. Soft X-ray Images of Krypton Gas-Puff Z-Pinches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱孟通; 蒯斌; 曾正中; 吕敏; 王奎禄; 邱爱慈; 张美; 罗建辉

    2002-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on Qiang-guang Ⅰ generator to study the dynamics of krypton gas-puff Z-pinches. The generator was operated at a peak current of 1.5 MA with a rise-time of 80 ns. The specific linear mass of gas liner was about 20 μg/cm in these experiments. In the diagnostic system, a four-frame x-ray framing camera and a pinhole camera were employed. A novel feature of this camera is that it can give time-resolved x-ray images with four frames and energy-resolved x-ray images with two different filters and an array of 8 pinholes integrated into one compact assemble. As a typical experimental result, an averaged radial imploding velocity of 157 km/s over 14 ns near the late phase of implosion was measured from the time-resolved x-ray images. From the time-integrated x-ray image an averaged radial convergence of 0.072 times of the original size was measured. An averaged radial expansion velocity was 130 km/s and the maximum radial convergence of 0.04 times of the original size were measured from the time-resolved x-ray images. The dominant axial wavelengths of instabilities in the plasma were between 1 and 2 mm. The change in average photons energy was observed from energy spectrum- and time-resolved x-ray images.

  1. On the image formation in x-ray radiography using aligned carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, F.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is presented that field electrons emitted from vertically-aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) yield clearer x-ray images than do thermionic electrons, under the identical electron-optical condition. Specifically, the same sample, an LSI circuit, mounted on the same x-ray chamber could be imaged far more sharply with a CNF emitter than with a thermionic one. It is hypothesized that electrons discharged from CNF tips hit the target to form “discrete focal points” thereon, thereby generating multiple x-ray beams that interplay to form a brilliant, sharply-delineated x-ray image. This hypothesis may stimulate open discussion on how to define the “focal point” for the x-ray imaging using nano-structured electron sources. Also, the improved resolution attained with CNFs might indicate that the heat generation originating in electron-target interactions is not so serious in the present field-emission mode. - Highlights: • Field-emission (FE) x-ray radiography (XR) is based on nanotechnology. • FE-XR surpasses thermionic XR in image resolution and brilliance. • Highly-resolved FE-XR images are due possibly to a discrete array of x-ray spots. • This hypothesis stimulates open discussion on how to define the focal-point in FE-XR.

  2. High-speed videography combined with an x-ray image intensifier for dynamic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Spin Physics SP-2000 high-speed video system can be combined with an x-ray source, a dynamic event having internal (not directly visible) movement and an x-ray image intensifier to perform dynamic radiography. The cesium iodide input fluor and P-20 output fluor of the image intensifier have rapid decay to allow x-ray imaging up to 12,000 pictures per second. Applications of this technique include internal functioning of a compressor, turbulent-water action, and other mechanical actions

  3. Data and videos for ultrafast synchrotron X-ray imaging studies of metal solidification under ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the paper entitled ‘Ultrafast synchrotron X-ray imaging studies of microstructure fragmentation in solidification under ultrasound’ [Wang et al., Acta Mater. 144 (2018 505-515]. This data article provides further supporting information and analytical methods, including the data from both experimental and numerical simulation, as well as the Matlab code for processing the X-ray images. Six videos constructed from the processed synchrotron X-ray images are also provided.

  4. Parallelized Bayesian inversion for three-dimensional dental X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Ville; Vanne, Antti; Siltanen, Samuli; Järvenpää, Seppo; Kaipio, Jari P; Lassas, Matti; Kalke, Martti

    2006-02-01

    Diagnostic and operational tasks based on dental radiology often require three-dimensional (3-D) information that is not available in a single X-ray projection image. Comprehensive 3-D information about tissues can be obtained by computerized tomography (CT) imaging. However, in dental imaging a conventional CT scan may not be available or practical because of high radiation dose, low-resolution or the cost of the CT scanner equipment. In this paper, we consider a novel type of 3-D imaging modality for dental radiology. We consider situations in which projection images of the teeth are taken from a few sparsely distributed projection directions using the dentist's regular (digital) X-ray equipment and the 3-D X-ray attenuation function is reconstructed. A complication in these experiments is that the reconstruction of the 3-D structure based on a few projection images becomes an ill-posed inverse problem. Bayesian inversion is a well suited framework for reconstruction from such incomplete data. In Bayesian inversion, the ill-posed reconstruction problem is formulated in a well-posed probabilistic form in which a priori information is used to compensate for the incomplete information of the projection data. In this paper we propose a Bayesian method for 3-D reconstruction in dental radiology. The method is partially based on Kolehmainen et al. 2003. The prior model for dental structures consist of a weighted l1 and total variation (TV)-prior together with the positivity prior. The inverse problem is stated as finding the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate. To make the 3-D reconstruction computationally feasible, a parallelized version of an optimization algorithm is implemented for a Beowulf cluster computer. The method is tested with projection data from dental specimens and patient data. Tomosynthetic reconstructions are given as reference for the proposed method.

  5. Novelty detection of foreign objects in food using multi-modal X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Emerson, Monica Jane; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a method for novelty detection of foreign objects in food products using grating-based multimodal X-ray imaging. With this imaging technique three modalities are available with pixel correspondence, enhancing organic materials such as wood chips, insects and soft...... plastics not detectable by conventional X-ray absorption radiography. We conduct experiments, where several food products are imaged with common foreign objects typically found in the food processing industry. To evaluate the benefit from using this multi-contrast X-ray technique over conventional X......-ray absorption imaging, a novelty detection scheme based on well known image- and statistical analysis techniques is proposed. The results show that the presented method gives superior recognition results and highlights the advantage of grating-based imaging....

  6. Matrix inversion tomosynthesis improvements in longitudinal x-ray slice imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbines, J.T. III.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a tomosynthesis apparatus. It comprises: an x-ray tomography machine for producing a plurality of x-ray projection images of a subject including an x-ray source, and detection means; and processing means, connected to receive the plurality of projection images, for: shifting and reconstructing the projection x-ray images to obtain a tomosynthesis matrix of images T; acquiring a blurring matrix F having components which represent out-of-focus and in-focus components of the matrix T; obtaining a matrix P representing only in-focus components of the imaged subject by solving a matrix equation including the matrix T and the matrix F; correcting the matrix P for low spatial frequency components; and displaying images indicative of contents of the matrix P

  7. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager Small Explorer Concept Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Dennis, Brian R.; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian

    2016-05-01

    We present the FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager) small explorer (SMEX) concept, a mission dedicated to studying particle acceleration and energy release on the Sun. FOXSI is designed as a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft in low-Earth orbit making use of state-of-the-art grazing incidence focusing optics combined withpixelated solid-state detectors, allowing for direct imaging of solar X-rays. The current design being studied features multiple telescopes with a 14 meter focal length enabled by a deployable boom.FOXSI will observe the Sun in the 3-100 keV energy range. The FOXSI imaging concept has already been tested on two sounding rocket flights, in 2012 and 2014 and on the HEROES balloon payload flight in 2013. FOXSI will image the Sun with an angular resolution of 5'', a spectral resolution of 0.5 keV, and sub-second temporal resolution. FOXSI is a direct imaging spectrometer with high dynamic range and sensitivity and will provide a brand-new perspective on energy release on the Sun. We describe the mission and its science objectives.

  8. X-ray Imaging and preliminary studies of the X-ray self-emission from an innovative plasma-trap based on the Bernstein waves heating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliri, C.; Romano, F. P.; Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Musumarra, A.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Neri, L.; Altana, C.

    2013-10-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are based on ECR heated plasmas emitting high fluxes of X-rays. Here we illustrate a pilot study of the X-ray emission from a compact plasma-trap in which an off-resonance microwave-plasma interaction has been attempted, highlighting a possible Bernstein-Waves based heating mechanism. EBWs-heating is obtained via the inner plasma EM-to-ES wave conversion and enables to reach densities much larger than the cut-off ones. At LNS-INFN, an innovative diagnostic technique based on the design of a Pinhole Camera (PHC) coupled to a CCD device for X-ray Imaging of the plasma (XRI) has been developed, in order to integrate X-ray traditional diagnostics (XRS). The complementary use of electrostatic probes measurements and X-ray diagnostics enabled us to gain knowledge about the high energy electrons density and temperature and about the spatial structure of the source. The combination of the experimental data with appropriate modeling of the plasma-source allowed to estimate the X-ray emission intensity in different energy domains (ranging from EUV up to Hard X-rays). The use of ECRIS as X-ray source for multidisciplinary applications, is now a concrete perspective due to the intense fluxes produced by the new plasma heating mechanism.

  9. Quantitative phase imaging using quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry. Application to X-ray domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Since Roentgen discovered X-rays, X-ray imaging systems are based on absorption contrast. This technique is inefficient for weakly absorbing objects. As a result, X-ray standard radiography can detect bones lesions, but cannot detect ligament lesions. However, phase contrast imaging can overcome this limitation. Since the years 2000, relying on former works of opticians, X-ray scientists are developing phase sensitive devices compatible with industrial applications such as medical imaging or non destructive control. Standard architectures for interferometry are challenging to implement in the X-ray domain. This is the reason why grating based interferometers became the most promising devices to envision industrial applications. They provided the first x-ray phase contrast images of living human samples. Nevertheless, actual grating based architectures require the use of at least two gratings, and are challenging to adapt on an industrial product. So, the aim of my thesis was to develop a single phase grating interferometer. I demonstrated that such a device can provide achromatic and propagation invariant interference patterns. I used this interferometer to perform quantitative phase contrast imaging of a biological fossil sample and x-ray at mirror metrology. (author)

  10. X-ray phase imaging-From static observation to dynamic observation-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, A.; Yashiro, W.; Olbinado, M. P.; Harasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    We are attempting to expand the technology of X-ray grating phase imaging/tomography to enable dynamic observation. X-ray phase imaging has been performed mainly for static cases, and this challenge is significant since properties of materials (and hopefully their functions) would be understood by observing their dynamics in addition to their structure, which is an inherent advantage of X-ray imaging. Our recent activities in combination with white synchrotron radiation for this purpose are described. Taking advantage of the fact that an X-ray grating interferometer functions with X-rays of a broad energy bandwidth (and therefore high flux), movies of differential phase images and visibility images are obtained with a time resolution of a millisecond. The time resolution of X-ray phase tomography can therefore be a second. This study is performed as a part of a project to explore X-ray grating interferometry, and our other current activities are also briefly outlined.

  11. A new X-ray pinhole camera for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A new X-ray pinhole camera for the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution, was designed and developed. It consists of a back-illuminated and deep depleted CCD detector (composed of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a lateral size of 13 μm) coupled to a 70 μm laser-drilled pinhole-collimator, positioned between the sample under analysis and the CCD. The X-ray pinhole camera works in a coaxial geometry allowing a wide range of magnification values. The characteristic X-ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube working at a maximum power of 100 W (50 kV and 2 mA operating conditions). The spectroscopic capabilities of the X-ray pinhole camera were accurately investigated. Energy response and energy calibration of the CCD detector were determined by irradiating pure target-materials emitting characteristic X-rays in the energy working-domain of the system (between 3 keV and 30 keV). Measurements were performed by using a multi-frame acquisition in single-photon counting. The characteristic X-ray spectra were obtained by an automated processing of the acquired images. The energy resolution measured at the Fe–Kα line is 157 eV. The use of the X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D resolved elemental analysis was investigated by using reference-patterns of different materials and geometries. The possibility of the elemental mapping of samples up to an area of 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. Finally, the spatial resolution of the pinhole camera was measured by analyzing the profile function of a sharp-edge. The spatial resolution determined at the magnification values of 3.2 × and 0.8 × (used as testing values) is about 90 μm and 190 μm respectively. - Highlights: • We developed an X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D X-ray fluorescence imaging. • X-ray spectra are obtained by a multi-frame acquisition in single photon mode. • The energy resolution in the X-ray

  12. The MAXIM Pathfinder Mission: X-Ray Imaging at 100 Micro-Arcseconds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Webster; White, Nick; Joy, Marshall

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a study to show how it is possible to build a super high resolution x-ray imaging mission based on the principles of x-ray interferometry. The mission concept uses today's technology to specify a 1.4 meter baseline interferometer that will resolve features as fine as 100 micro-arcsecond imaging at 1keV. This resolution is sufficient to produce high quality images of the coronae of other stars.

  13. Use of backscattered electron imaging, X-ray microanalysis and X-ray microscopy in demonstrating physiological cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, I.D.; Worrill, N.A.; Winters, C.A.; Mullarkey, K.

    1988-01-01

    The cytochemical localization of enzymatic activity by means of backscattered electron imaging (BEI) is reviewed and the application of BEI to changes in acid phosphatase and ATPase distribution during physiological (programmed) cell death in Heliothis midgut is explored. Programmed cell death entails the release of nascent free acid phosphatase as extracisternal hydrolase. This shift can readily be detected by means of the atomic number contrast imparted by BEI of the lead phosphatase reaction product, thus enabling the distribution of dying cells to be mapped. BEI is particularly useful in this context as it allows the examination of bulk specimens at low magnification. Death of cells is also accompanied by a collapse in ATPase activity which shows up as cytochemically negative areas in the X-ray microscope and by means of BEI. Acid phosphatase in normal cells is localized in the apical microvilli and lysosomes. Senescent or dying cells, however, clearly show a basally situated free hydrolase which migrates throughout the cell. Parallel TEM results confirm that this enzyme is ribosomal and extracisternal rather than lysosomal in origin. ATPase activity is largely limited to the apical microvilli, although there is some activity associated with the basal plasma membranes. The apical ATPase, however is partially resistant to ouabain. Young and mature cells are positive although in the latter case some microvilli may be lost as the cells acquire a negative cap or dome. Inhibition by bromotetramizole indicates that apical activity is not to any significant extent contributed to by alkaline phosphatase. Degenerate or dead cells are negative and can be seen as a mozaic of black patches among normal cells when imaged by means of BEI or X-ray microscopy

  14. TU-G-207-03: High Spatial Resolution and High Sensitivity X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, L.

    2015-01-01

    Last few years has witnessed the development of novel of X-ray imaging modalities, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT, and X-ray acoustic/fluorescence/luminescence imaging. This symposium will present the recent advances of these emerging X-ray imaging modalities and update the attendees with knowledge in various related topics, including X-ray photon-counting detectors, X-ray physics underlying the emerging applications beyond the traditional X-ray imaging, image reconstruction for the novel modalities, characterization and evaluation of the systems, and their practical implications. In addition, the concept and practical aspects of X-ray activatable targeted nanoparticles for molecular X-ray imaging will be discussed in the context of X-ray fluorescence and luminescence CT. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of various emerging X-ray imaging techniques, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT and X-ray fluorescence/luminescence CT. Discuss the practical need, technical aspects and current status of the emerging X-ray imaging modalities. Describe utility and future impact of the new generation of X-ray imaging applications

  15. Single-particle coherent diffractive imaging with a soft x-ray free electron laser: towards soot aerosol morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Michael J.; Starodub, Dmitri; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond G.

    2010-10-01

    The first of its kind, the Free electron LASer facility in Hamburg, FLASH, produces soft x-ray pulses with unprecedented properties (10 fs, 6.8-47 nm, 1012 photons per pulse, 20 µm diameter). One of the seminal FLASH experiments is single-pulse coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI). CXDI utilizes the ultrafast and ultrabright pulses to overcome resolution limitations in x-ray microscopy imposed by x-ray-induced damage to the sample by 'diffracting before destroying' the sample on sub-picosecond timescales. For many lensless imaging algorithms used for CXDI it is convenient when the data satisfy an oversampling constraint that requires the sample to be an isolated object, i.e. an individual 'free-standing' portion of disordered matter delivered to the centre of the x-ray focus. By definition, this type of matter is an aerosol. This paper will describe the role of aerosol science methodologies used for the validation of the 'diffract before destroy' hypothesis and the execution of the first single-particle CXDI experiments being developed for biological imaging. FLASH CXDI now enables the highest resolution imaging of single micron-sized or smaller airborne particulate matter to date while preserving the native substrate-free state of the aerosol. Electron microscopy offers higher resolution for single-particle analysis but the aerosol must be captured on a substrate, potentially modifying the particle morphology. Thus, FLASH is poised to contribute significant advancements in our knowledge of aerosol morphology and dynamics. As an example, we simulate CXDI of combustion particle (soot) morphology and introduce the concept of extracting radius of gyration of fractal aggregates from single-pulse x-ray diffraction data. Future upgrades to FLASH will enable higher spatially and temporally resolved single-particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science and nanotechnology. Many of the methodologies described for FLASH will

  16. A Compressed Sensing-based Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Solar Flare X-Ray Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Simon; Bolzern, Roman; Battaglia, Marina, E-mail: simon.felix@fhnw.ch, E-mail: roman.bolzern@fhnw.ch, E-mail: marina.battaglia@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2017-11-01

    One way of imaging X-ray emission from solar flares is to measure Fourier components of the spatial X-ray source distribution. We present a new compressed sensing-based algorithm named VIS-CS, which reconstructs the spatial distribution from such Fourier components. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm on synthetic and observed solar flare X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite and compare its performance with existing algorithms. VIS-CS produces competitive results with accurate photometry and morphology, without requiring any algorithm- and X-ray-source-specific parameter tuning. Its robustness and performance make this algorithm ideally suited for the generation of quicklook images or large image cubes without user intervention, such as for imaging spectroscopy analysis.

  17. A Compressed Sensing-based Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Solar Flare X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Simon; Bolzern, Roman; Battaglia, Marina

    2017-11-01

    One way of imaging X-ray emission from solar flares is to measure Fourier components of the spatial X-ray source distribution. We present a new compressed sensing-based algorithm named VIS_CS, which reconstructs the spatial distribution from such Fourier components. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm on synthetic and observed solar flare X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite and compare its performance with existing algorithms. VIS_CS produces competitive results with accurate photometry and morphology, without requiring any algorithm- and X-ray-source-specific parameter tuning. Its robustness and performance make this algorithm ideally suited for the generation of quicklook images or large image cubes without user intervention, such as for imaging spectroscopy analysis.

  18. Comparative analysis of partial imaging performance parameters of home and imported X-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yunxi; Wang Xianyun; Liu Huiqin; Guo Yongxin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare and analyze the performance indexes and the imaging quality of the home and imported X-ray machines through testing their partial imaging performance parameters. Methods: By separate sampling from 10 home and 10 imported X-ray machines, the parameters including tube current, time of exposure, machine total exposure, and repeatability were tested, and the imaging performance was evaluated according to the national standard. Results: All the performance indexes met the standard of GB4505-84. The first sampling tests showed the maximum changing coefficient of imaging performance repeatability of the home X-ray machines was Δmax1 = 0.025, while that of the imported X-ray machine was Δmax1 = 0.016. In the second sampling tests, the maximum changing coefficients of the two were Δmax2 = 0.048 and Δmax2 = 0.022, respectively. Conclusion: The 2 years' follow-up tests indicate that there is no significant difference between the above-mentioned parameters of the elaborately adjusted home X-ray machines and imported ones, but the home X-ray machines are no better than the imported X-ray machines in stability and consistency

  19. Current state of radiation protection in x-ray diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orito, T; Koshida, K; Maekawa, R; Sanada, S; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine

    1979-09-01

    The therapeutic roentgenologic technician's concern for and providing of protection from radiation while patients underwent x-ray examination in 1973 was reported. An investigation was carried out to determine the degree of changes 5 years later. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 subjects. These subjects were selected, according to duoble sampling process, from a membership list of the Japan Society of Radiologic Technologists. Answers were obtained from 135 (67.5%). The results showed that the size of the field was restricted in 60.7% of the patients, the germinal glands were protected in 64.4% of the patients, the apparatuses were checked regularly in 9.6% of the institutions, and protectors were put on 62.5% of the attendants (mothers, etc.) when children underwent x-ray examination. Also, all of the apparatuses were set up in on section in 61.6% of the institutions and the films were monitored in 57.0% of departments.

  20. Edge enhancement algorithm for low-dose X-ray fluoroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Seok; Park, Chul Hee; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose X-ray fluoroscopy has continually evolved to reduce radiation risk to patients during clinical diagnosis and surgery. However, the reduction in dose exposure causes quality degradation of the acquired images. In general, an X-ray device has a time-average pre-processor to remove the generated quantum noise. However, this pre-processor causes blurring and artifacts within the moving edge regions, and noise remains in the image. During high-pass filtering (HPF) to enhance edge detail, this noise in the image is amplified. In this study, a 2D edge enhancement algorithm comprising region adaptive HPF with the transient improvement (TI) method, as well as artifacts and noise reduction (ANR), was developed for degraded X-ray fluoroscopic images. The proposed method was applied in a static scene pre-processed by a low-dose X-ray fluoroscopy device. First, the sharpness of the X-ray image was improved using region adaptive HPF with the TI method, which facilitates sharpening of edge details without overshoot problems. Then, an ANR filter that uses an edge directional kernel was developed to remove the artifacts and noise that can occur during sharpening, while preserving edge details. The quantitative and qualitative results obtained by applying the developed method to low-dose X-ray fluoroscopic images and visually and numerically comparing the final images with images improved using conventional edge enhancement techniques indicate that the proposed method outperforms existing edge enhancement methods in terms of objective criteria and subjective visual perception of the actual X-ray fluoroscopic image. The developed edge enhancement algorithm performed well when applied to actual low-dose X-ray fluoroscopic images, not only by improving the sharpness, but also by removing artifacts and noise, including overshoot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel X-ray imaging diagnostics of high energy nanosecond pulse accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham W.; Gallegos, Roque Rosauro; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Beutler, David Eric; Dudley, John; Seymour, Calvin L.G.; Bell, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering x-ray imaging has been undertaken on a number of AWE's and Sandia National Laboratories radiation effects x-ray simulators. These simulators typically yield a single very short (<50ns) pulse of high-energy (MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung) x-ray radiation with doses in the kilorad (krad(Si)) region. X-ray source targets vary in size from 2 to 25cm diameter, dependent upon the particular simulator. Electronic imaging of the source x-ray emission under dynamic conditions yields valuable information upon how the simulator is performing. The resultant images are of interest to the simulator designer who may configure new x-ray source converter targets and diode designs. The images can provide quantitative information about machine performance during radiation effects testing of components under active conditions. The effects testing program is a valuable interface for validation of high performance computer codes and models for the radiation effects community. A novel high-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer is described whereby the spectral energy (0.1 to 2.5MeV) profile may be discerned from the digitally recorded and viewable images via a pinhole/scintillator/CCD imaging system and knowledge of the filtration parameters. Unique images, analysis and a preliminary evaluation of the capability of the spectrometer are presented. Further, a novel time resolved imaging system is described that captures a sequence of high spatial resolution temporal images, with zero interframe time, in the nanosecond timeframe, of our source x-rays.

  2. Preliminary study on X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhuang; Wang Jianhua; Yu Yongqiang; Jiang Shiping; Chen Yang; Tian Yulian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology of X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation, and evaluate the quality of phase contrast images. Methods: Several experiments to obtain phase contrast images and absorption contrast images of various biological samples were conducted in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), and then these images were interpreted to find out the difference between the two kinds of imaging methods. Results: Satisfactory phase contrast images of these various samples were obtained, and the quality of these images was superior to that obtained with absorption contrast imaging. The phase contrast formation is based on the phenomenon of fresnel diffraction which transforms phase shifts into intensity variations upon a simple act of free-space propagation, so it requires highly coherent X-rays and appropriate distance between sample and detector. This method of imaging is very useful in imaging of low-absorption objects or objects with little absorption variation, and its resolution is far higher than that of the conventional X-ray imaging. The photographs obtained showed very fine inner microstructure of the biological samples, and the smallest microstructure to be distinguished is within 30-40 μm. There is no doubt that phase contrast imaging has a practical applicability in medicine. Moreover, it improves greatly the efficiency and the resolution of the existing X-ray diagnostic techniques. Conclusions: X-ray phase contrast imaging can be performed with synchrotron radiation source and has some advantages over the conventional absorption contrast imaging. (authors)

  3. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics - Phase 2 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcalorimeter x-ray instruments are non-dispersive, high spectral resolution, broad-band, high cadence imaging spectrometers. We have been developing these...

  4. Small angle X-ray scattering experiments with three-dimensional imaging gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Monaca, A.; Iannuzzi, M.; Messi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of small angle X-ray scattering of lupolen - R, dry collagen and dry cornea are presented. The experiments have been performed with synchrotron radiation and a new three-dimensional imaging drif-chamber gas detector

  5. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T. E-mail: ttakeda@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T

    2001-07-21

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  6. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T.; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  7. eHXI: a permanently installed, hard x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Döppner, T.; Bachmann, B.; Albert, F.; Bell, P.; Burns, S.; Celeste, J.; Chow, R.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E.L.; Huntington, C.M.; Izumi, N.; LaCaille, G.; Landen, O.L.; Palmer, N.; Park, H.-S.; Thomas, C.A.; Hohenberger, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and built a multi-pinhole imaging system for high energy x-rays (≥ 50 keV) that is permanently installed in the equatorial plane outside of the target chamber at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It records absolutely-calibrated, time-integrated x-ray images with the same line-of-sight as the multi-channel, spatially integrating hard x-ray detector FFLEX [McDonald et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75 (2004) 3753], having a side view of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion targets. The equatorial hard x-ray imager (eHXI) has recorded images on the majority of ICF implosion experiments since May 2011. eHXI provides valuable information on hot electron distribution in hohlraum experiments, target alignment, potential hohlraum drive asymmetries and serves as a long term reference for the FFLEX diagnostics.

  8. Knot detection in X-ray images of wood planks using dictionary learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Nils Mattias; Enescu, Alexandru; Brandt, Sami Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a novel application of x-ray imaging of planks, for the purpose of detecting knots in high quality furniture wood. X-ray imaging allows the detection of knots invisible from the surface to conventional cameras. Our approach is based on texture analysis, or more specifically, ......, discriminative dictionary learning. Experiments show that the knot detection and segmentation can be accurately performed by our approach. This is a promising result and can be directly applied in industrial processing of furniture wood.......This paper considers a novel application of x-ray imaging of planks, for the purpose of detecting knots in high quality furniture wood. X-ray imaging allows the detection of knots invisible from the surface to conventional cameras. Our approach is based on texture analysis, or more specifically...

  9. Three-Dimensional Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the proposal is to design, develop and demonstrate a potentially portable Compton x-ray scatter 3D-imaging system by using specially...

  10. Noise removal for medical X-ray images in wavelet domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ling; Lu, Jianming; Li, Yeqiu; Yahagi, Takashi; Okamoto, Takahide

    2006-01-01

    Many important problems in engineering and science are well-modeled by Poisson noise, the noise of medical X-ray image is Poisson noise. In this paper, we propose a method of noise removal for degraded medical X-ray image using improved preprocessing and improved BayesShrink (IBS) method in wavelet domain. Firstly, we pre-process the medical X-ray image, Secondly, we apply the Daubechies (db) wavelet transform to medical X-ray image to acquire scaling and wavelet coefficients. Thirdly, we apply the proposed IBS method to process wavelet coefficients. Finally, we compute the inverse wavelet transform for the thresholded coefficeints. Experimental results show that the proposed method always outperforms traditional methods. (author)

  11. Imaging of Composites by Helical X-Ray Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ying; Pyka, Grzegorz; Jespersen, Kristine Munk

    Understanding the fatigue damage mechanisms of composite materials used in wind turbine rotor blades could potentially enhance the reliability and energy efficiency of wind turbines by improving the structure design. In this paper, the fatigue damage propagating mechanisms of unidirectional glass...... fibre composites was characterised by helical X-ray CT. The staining approach was used and it was effective to enhance the visibility of thin matrix cracks and partly closed fibre breaks instead of widely opened cracks. Fibre breaks in the centre UD bundle were found to occur locally, instead of being...

  12. Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Poludniowski, G; Evans, PM; Webb, S

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'inte...

  13. Wavelet based Image Registration Technique for Matching Dental x-rays

    OpenAIRE

    P. Ramprasad; H. C. Nagaraj; M. K. Parasuram

    2008-01-01

    Image registration plays an important role in the diagnosis of dental pathologies such as dental caries, alveolar bone loss and periapical lesions etc. This paper presents a new wavelet based algorithm for registering noisy and poor contrast dental x-rays. Proposed algorithm has two stages. First stage is a preprocessing stage, removes the noise from the x-ray images. Gaussian filter has been used. Second stage is a geometric transformation stage. Proposed work uses two l...

  14. Osteophyte detection for hand osteoarthritis identification in x-ray images using CNNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sreeparna; Bhunia, Satyajit; Schaefer, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a class of analog algorithms based on the concept of cellular neural networks (CNNs) for detecting osteoarthritis (OA) from x-ray images. The indicator of OA that we examine is the presence of bony spurs or osteophytes in the vicinity of the weight bearing joints of the fingers. Results on a series of hand x-ray images are shown to be promising.

  15. X-ray CT core imaging of Oman Drilling Project on D/V CHIKYU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michibayashi, K.; Okazaki, K.; Leong, J. A. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Greenberger, R. N.; Manning, C. E.; Harris, M.; de Obeso, J. C.; Abe, N.; Hatakeyama, K.; Ildefonse, B.; Takazawa, E.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Coggon, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    We obtained X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) images for all cores (GT1A, GT2A, GT3A and BT1A) in Oman Drilling Project Phase 1 (OmanDP cores), since X-ray CT scanning is a routine measurement of the IODP measurement plan onboard Chikyu, which enables the non-destructive observation of the internal structure of core samples. X-ray CT images provide information about chemical compositions and densities of the cores and is useful for assessing sample locations and the quality of the whole-round samples. The X-ray CT scanner (Discovery CT 750HD, GE Medical Systems) on Chikyu scans and reconstructs the image of a 1.4 m section in 10 minutes and produces a series of scan images, each 0.625 mm thick. The X-ray tube (as an X-ray source) and the X-ray detector are installed inside of the gantry at an opposing position to each other. The core sample is scanned in the gantry with the scanning rate of 20 mm/sec. The distribution of attenuation values mapped to an individual slice comprises the raw data that are used for subsequent image processing. Successive two-dimensional (2-D) slices of 512 x 512 pixels yield a representation of attenuation values in three-dimensional (3-D) voxels of 512 x 512 by 1600 in length. Data generated for each core consist of core-axis-normal planes (XY planes) of X-ray attenuation values with dimensions of 512 × 512 pixels in 9 cm × 9 cm cross-section, meaning at the dimensions of a core section, the resolution is 0.176 mm/pixel. X-ray intensity varies as a function of X-ray path length and the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) of the target material is a function of the chemical composition and density of the target material. The basic measure of attenuation, or radiodensity, is the CT number given in Hounsfield units (HU). CT numbers of air and water are -1000 and 0, respectively. Our preliminary results show that CT numbers of OmanDP cores are well correlated to gamma ray attenuation density (GRA density) as a function of chemical

  16. Enhanced renal image contrast by ethanol fixation in phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Ryota; Kunii, Takuya; Yoneyama, Akio; Ooizumi, Takahito; Maruyama, Hiroko; Lwin, Thet Thet; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Tohoru

    2014-07-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using a crystal X-ray interferometer can depict the fine structures of biological objects without the use of a contrast agent. To obtain higher image contrast, fixation techniques have been examined with 100% ethanol and the commonly used 10% formalin, since ethanol causes increased density differences against background due to its physical properties and greater dehydration of soft tissue. Histological comparison was also performed. A phase-contrast X-ray system was used, fitted with a two-crystal X-ray interferometer at 35 keV X-ray energy. Fine structures, including cortex, tubules in the medulla, and the vessels of ethanol-fixed kidney could be visualized more clearly than that of formalin-fixed tissues. In the optical microscopic images, shrinkage of soft tissue and decreased luminal space were observed in ethanol-fixed kidney; and this change was significantly shown in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. The ethanol fixation technique enhances image contrast by approximately 2.7-3.2 times in the cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla; the effect of shrinkage and the physical effect of ethanol cause an increment of approximately 78% and 22%, respectively. Thus, the ethanol-fixation technique enables the image contrast to be enhanced in phase-contrast X-ray imaging.

  17. MMX-I: data-processing software for multimodal X-ray imaging and tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.bergamaschi@synchrotron-soleil.fr; Medjoubi, Kadda [Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Messaoudi, Cédric; Marco, Sergio [Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Institut Curie, INSERM, PSL Reseach University, F-91405 Orsay (France); Somogyi, Andrea [Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2016-04-12

    The MMX-I open-source software has been developed for processing and reconstruction of large multimodal X-ray imaging and tomography datasets. The recent version of MMX-I is optimized for scanning X-ray fluorescence, phase-, absorption- and dark-field contrast techniques. This, together with its implementation in Java, makes MMX-I a versatile and friendly user tool for X-ray imaging. A new multi-platform freeware has been developed for the processing and reconstruction of scanning multi-technique X-ray imaging and tomography datasets. The software platform aims to treat different scanning imaging techniques: X-ray fluorescence, phase, absorption and dark field and any of their combinations, thus providing an easy-to-use data processing tool for the X-ray imaging user community. A dedicated data input stream copes with the input and management of large datasets (several hundred GB) collected during a typical multi-technique fast scan at the Nanoscopium beamline and even on a standard PC. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first software tool that aims at treating all of the modalities of scanning multi-technique imaging and tomography experiments.

  18. Video x-ray progressive scanning: new technique for decreasing x-ray exposure without decreasing image quality during cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.R. Jr.; Bove, A.A.; Wondrow, M.A.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A newly developed video x-ray progressive scanning system improves image quality, decreases radiation exposure, and can be added to any pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray system using a video display without major system modifications. With use of progressive video scanning, the radiation entrance exposure rate measured with a vascular phantom was decreased by 32 to 53% in comparison with a conventional fluoroscopic x-ray system. In addition to this substantial decrease in radiation exposure, the quality of the image was improved because of less motion blur and artifact. Progressive video scanning has the potential for widespread application to all pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray systems. Use of this technique should make cardiac catheterization procedures and all other fluoroscopic procedures safer for the patient and the involved medical and paramedical staff

  19. Interferometric phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of VX2 rabbit cancer at 35keV X-ray energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet-Thet; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    2004-05-01

    Imaging of large objects at 17.7-keV low x-ray energy causes huge x-ray exposure to the objects even using interferometric phase-contrast x-ray CT (PCCT). Thus, we tried to obtain PCCT images at high x-ray energy of 35keV and examined the image quality using a formalin-fixed VX2 rabbit cancer specimen with 15-mm in diameter. The PCCT system consisted of an asymmetrically cut silicon (220) crystal, a monolithic x-ray interferometer, a phase-shifter, an object cell and an x-ray CCD camera. The PCCT at 35 keV clearly visualized various inner structures of VX2 rabbit cancer such as necrosis, cancer, the surrounding tumor vessels, and normal liver tissue. Besides, image-contrast was not degraded significantly. These results suggest that the PCCT at 35 KeV is sufficient to clearly depict the histopathological morphology of VX2 rabbit cancer specimen.

  20. Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of paint pigment particles by scanning a phase plate modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.S.; Chen, B.; Zhang, F.; Berenguer, F.; Bean, R.; Kewish, C.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Rodenburg, J.; Robinson, I.

    2011-01-01

    We have implemented a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique that scans a phase plate to modulate wave-fronts of the x-ray beam transmitted by samples. The method was applied to measure a decorative alkyd paint containing iron oxide red pigment particles. By employing an iterative algorithm for wave-front modulation phase retrieval, we obtained an image of the paint sample that shows the distribution of the pigment particles and is consistent with the result obtained from a transmission x-ray microscope. The technique has been experimentally proven to be a feasible coherent x-ray imaging method with about 120 nm spatial resolution and was shown to work well with industrially relevant specimens.

  1. Micro-structural characterization of materials using synchrotron hard X-ray imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Ashish; Singh, Balwant; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sarkar, P. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging has been an important tool to study the materials microstructure with the laboratory based sources however the advent of third generation synchrotron sources has introduced new concepts in X-ray imaging such as phase contrast imaging, micro-tomography, fluorescence imaging and diffraction enhance imaging. These techniques are being used to provide information of materials about their density distribution, porosity, geometrical and morphological characteristics at sub-micron scalewith improved contrast. This paper discusses the development of various imaging techniques at synchrotron based imaging beamline Indus-2 and few recent experiments carried out at this facility

  2. Modeling of X-ray Images and Energy Spectra Produced by Stepping Lightning Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Marshall, Robert A.; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.

    2017-11-01

    Recent ground-based measurements at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) have greatly improved our knowledge of the energetics, fluence, and evolution of X-ray emissions during natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulations and the response matrix of unshielded detectors in the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA), we calculate the energy spectra of X-rays as would be detected by TERA and directly compare with the observational data during event MSE 10-01. The good agreement obtained between TERA measurements and theoretical calculations supports the mechanism of X-ray production by thermal runaway electrons during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders. Modeling results also suggest that measurements of X-ray bursts can be used to estimate the approximate range of potential drop of lightning leaders. Moreover, the X-ray images produced during the leader stepping process in natural negative CG discharges, including both the evolution and morphological features, are theoretically quantified. We show that the compact emission pattern as recently observed in X-ray images is likely produced by X-rays originating from the source region, and the diffuse emission pattern can be explained by the Compton scattering effects.

  3. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan, C.; Ferrero, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Instrumental facilities of the ICMUV include: a Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF), laboratory and portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometers. These equipments are employed in the field of the art and archaeometry. Current projects are: EDXRF analysis of blue pigments used in Valencian ceramics. EDXRF analyses of cobalt-blue pigments were made on 73 pieces of Valencian ceramics from the beginning of the 14th century up to 20th century. These ceramic samples have the pigment decoration applied together with a tin opacified lead glaze cover on the clay body. The comparison between EDXRF spectra from coloured and non-coloured areas provides information about the pigment composition. The following elements: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As are identified as characteristics of the blue pigments. Different association of these elements as well as correlation with the chronology of the samples were found. These results can be used for identifying the different types of cobalt ores employed in the manufacture of the blue pigments to study their provenance. Non-destructive analysis of paper supports used in prints: In paper based works of art it is not possible to separate the support from the work of the author. Then, the maximum knowledge of the support in this kind of works is desirable. In this work, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to determine the elemental composition of a set of European and Oriental papers from the 20th century and an Arabian paper from the 14th century. These papers were manufactured with different production techniques and used as support for writing, drawing and printing. Normalised fluorescence yields of the elements to the weight of the paper show that there are some correlations between its elemental composition and the type of paper, provenance and use. Therefore, the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique could be used for a better characterization and

  4. Arcsecond and Sub-arcsedond Imaging with X-ray Multi-Image Interferometer and Imager for (very) small sattelites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, K.; Kawabata, T.; Nakajima, H.; Inoue, S.; Tsunemi, H.

    2017-10-01

    The best angular resolution of 0.5 arcsec is realized with the X-ray mirror onborad the Chandra satellite. Nevertheless, further better or comparable resolution is anticipated to be difficult in near future. In fact, the goal of ATHENA telescope is 5 arcsec in the angular resolution. We propose a new type of X-ray interferometer consisting simply of an X-ray absorption grating and an X-ray spectral imaging detector, such as X-ray CCDs or new generation CMOS detectors, by stacking the multi images created with the Talbot interferenece (Hayashida et al. 2016). This system, now we call Multi Image X-ray Interferometer Module (MIXIM) enables arcseconds resolution with very small satellites of 50cm size, and sub-arcseconds resolution with small sattellites. We have performed ground experiments, in which a micro-focus X-ray source, grating with pitch of 4.8μm, and 30 μm pixel detector placed about 1m from the source. We obtained the self-image (interferometirc fringe) of the grating for wide band pass around 10keV. This result corresponds to about 2 arcsec resolution for parrallel beam incidence. The MIXIM is usefull for high angular resolution imaging of relatively bright sources. Search for super massive black holes and resolving AGN torus would be the targets of this system.

  5. Suitable post processing algorithms for X-ray imaging using oversampled displaced multiple images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thim, J; Reza, S; Nawaz, K; Norlin, B; O'Nils, M; Oelmann, B

    2011-01-01

    X-ray imaging systems such as photon counting pixel detectors have a limited spatial resolution of the pixels, based on the complexity and processing technology of the readout electronics. For X-ray imaging situations where the features of interest are smaller than the imaging system pixel size, and the pixel size cannot be made smaller in the hardware, alternative means of resolution enhancement require to be considered. Oversampling with the usage of multiple displaced images, where the pixels of all images are mapped to a final resolution enhanced image, has proven a viable method of reaching a sub-pixel resolution exceeding the original resolution. The effectiveness of the oversampling method declines with the number of images taken, the sub-pixel resolution increases, but relative to a real reduction of imaging pixel sizes yielding a full resolution image, the perceived resolution from the sub-pixel oversampled image is lower. This is because the oversampling method introduces blurring noise into the mapped final images, and the blurring relative to full resolution images increases with the oversampling factor. One way of increasing the performance of the oversampling method is by sharpening the images in post processing. This paper focus on characterizing the performance increase of the oversampling method after the use of some suitable post processing filters, for digital X-ray images specifically. The results show that spatial domain filters and frequency domain filters of the same type yield indistinguishable results, which is to be expected. The results also show that the effectiveness of applying sharpening filters to oversampled multiple images increase with the number of images used (oversampling factor), leaving 60-80% of the original blurring noise after filtering a 6 x 6 mapped image (36 images taken), where the percentage is depending on the type of filter. This means that the effectiveness of the oversampling itself increase by using sharpening

  6. Development of a Wolter Optic X-ray Imager on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Jeffrey R.; Ampleford, David J.; Vogel, Julia K.; Kozioziemski, Bernie; Walton, Christopher C.; Wu, Ming; Ayers, Jay; Ball, Chris J.; Bourdon, Chris J.; Maurer, Andrew; Pivovaroff, Mike; Ramsey, Brian; Romaine, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    A Wolter optic x-ray imager is being developed for the Z Machine to study the dynamics of warm x-ray sources with energies above 10 keV. The optic is adapted from observational astronomy and uses multilayer-coated, hyperbolic and parabolic x-ray mirrors to form a 2D image with predicted 100- μm resolution over a 5x5-mm field of view. The imager is expected to have several advantages over a simple pinhole camera. In particular, it can form quasi mono-energetic images due to the inherent band-pass nature of the x-ray mirrors from Bragg diffraction. As well, its larger collection solid angle can lead to an overall increase in efficiency for the x-rays in the desirable energy band. We present the design of the imaging system, which is initially optimized to view Mo K-alpha x-rays (17.5 keV). In addition, we will present preliminary measurements of the point-spread function as well as the spectral sensitivity of the instrument. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by NTESS, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  7. Optimization of X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on in-line holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong; Yan Aimin

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a newly conceived formalism for clinical in-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging. The new formalism applies not only to ideal 'thin' objects analyzed in previous studies, but also applies to the real-world tissues used in actual clinical practice. Moreover we have identified the four clinically important factors that affect phase-contrast characteristics. These factors are: (1) body part attenuation (2) the spatial coherence of incident X-rays from an X-ray tube (3) the polychromatic nature of the X-ray source and (4) radiation dose to patients for clinical applications. Techniques of phase image-reconstruction based on the new X-ray in-line holography theory are discussed. Numerical simulations are described which were used to validate the theory. The design parameters of an optimal clinical phase-contrast mammographic imaging system which were determined based on the new theory, and validated in the simulations, are presented. The theory, image reconstruction algorithms, and numerical simulation techniques presented in this paper can be applied widely to clinical diagnostic X-ray imaging applications

  8. X-ray imaging diagnostics for the inertial confinement fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Pawley, C.; Sethian, J.; Koch, J.A.; Holland, G.

    2000-01-01

    We report on our continued development of the advanced x-ray plasma diagnostics based on spherically curved crystals. The diagnostics include x-ray spectroscopy with 1-D spatial resolution, 2-D monochromatic self-imaging and back-lighting, and can be extended to the x-ray collimating and 2-D absorption and emission spectroscopy. The system is currently used, but not limited to the diagnostics of the targets ablatively accelerated by the NRL Nike KrF laser. In cooperation with LLNL a comprehensive test of the NIF prototype spherically curved crystal assembly has been performed on the Nova laser. (authors)

  9. Cylindrical Crystal Imaging Spectrometer (CCIS) for cosmic X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopper, H. W.; Taylor, P. O.

    1981-01-01

    A "stigmatic" focusing, Bragg crystal spectrometer was developed and used for high spectral resolution X-ray emission line diagnostics on hot laboratory plasmas. The concept be applied at the focal plane of an orbiting X-ray telescope where it offers several advantages over conventional spectrometers, i.e., mechanical simplicity, high resolving power and sensitivity, simultaneous measurement of an extended segment of spectrum, and good imaging properties. The instrument features a simple, unambiguous, non-scanning spectrum readout that is not adversely affected by either spacecraft pointing error or source extent. The performance of the instrument is estimated in the context of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysical Facility mission.

  10. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube emitter on metal foil for medical X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Je Hwang; Kim, Wan Sun; Lee, Seung Ho; Eom, Young Ju; Park, Hun Kuk; Park, Kyu Chang

    2013-10-01

    A simple method is proposed for growing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on metal foil using the triode direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The carbon nanotube (CNT) electron emitter was fabricated using fewer process steps with an acid treated metal substrate. The CNT emitter was used for X-ray generation, and the X-ray image of mouse's joint was obtained with an anode current of 0.5 mA at an anode bias of 60 kV. The simple fabrication of a well-aligned CNT with a protection layer on metal foil, and its X-ray application, were studied.

  11. Radiation exposure and image quality in x-Ray diagnostic radiology physical principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aichinger, Horst; Joite-Barfuß, Sigrid; Säbel, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The largest contribution to radiation exposure to the population as a whole arises from diagnostic X-rays. Protecting the patient from radiation is a major aim of modern health policy, and an understanding of the relationship between radiation dose and image quality is of pivotal importance in optimising medical diagnostic radiology. In this volume the data provided for exploring these concerns are partly based on X-ray spectra, measured on diagnostic X-ray tube assemblies, and are supplemented by the results of measurements on phantoms and simulation calculations.

  12. X-ray imaging diagnostics for the inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Obenschain, S.; Pawley, C.; Sethian, J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J. [Naval Research Lab., Space Sciences Div, Washington, DC (United States); Koch, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Holland, G. [SFA, Landover MD (United States)

    2000-07-01

    We report on our continued development of the advanced x-ray plasma diagnostics based on spherically curved crystals. The diagnostics include x-ray spectroscopy with 1-D spatial resolution, 2-D monochromatic self-imaging and back-lighting, and can be extended to the x-ray collimating and 2-D absorption and emission spectroscopy. The system is currently used, but not limited to the diagnostics of the targets ablatively accelerated by the NRL Nike KrF laser. In cooperation with LLNL a comprehensive test of the NIF prototype spherically curved crystal assembly has been performed on the Nova laser. (authors)

  13. Thin, X-ray-Transparent Windows for Imaging Applications with a Pneumatically Pressurized Enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Deming; Wang Jin; Preissner, Curt

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a novel thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 10 bar. The windows allow for x-ray access to fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions. The design of the window system and its experimental test results are presented in this paper, as well as its further development for in situ x-ray imaging applications in a high-pressure and high-temperature environment

  14. Contrast optimization in X-ray radiography with single photon counting imagers of Medipix type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandejsek, Ivan; Dammer, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Vavřík, Daniel; Žemlička, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, C12011 (2012), s. 1-5 ISSN 1748-0221. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /14./. Figueira da Foz, Coimbra, 01.07.2012-05.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/11/1551 Grant - others:GA MKO(CZ) DF12P01OVV048 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : X-ray detectors * X-ray radiography and digital radiography * inspection with x-rays Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/7/12/C12011/

  15. Coherent scattering X-ray imaging at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Laboratory: Preliminary breast images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.R.F. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory-COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Barroso, R.C. [Physics Institute-University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerij.br; Oliveira, L.F. de [Physics Institute-University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory-COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2005-08-11

    The angular distribution of coherent scatter (low-momentum transfer) carries information about atomic structures, resulting in a pattern, which can be used to reconstruct a series of images. Coherent-scatter computed tomography is a novel imaging method developed to produce cross-sectional images based on the X-ray diffraction properties of an object. A different approach to coherent X-ray imaging is possible by fixing the detector at a given scatter angle {theta}, which produces an interference peak and then, carried out a tomography in the standard way. The cross-sectional images obtained allow determining the spatial dependence of coherent scatter cross-section of selected volume elements of inhomogeneous, extend objects for a single predetermined value of {theta} of interest, leading to a simplification of the data processing and the complexity of the apparatus. This work presents preliminary coherent scattering images carried out at the X-ray Diffraction beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas, Brazil. The specimens were excised human breast tissues fixed in formaline. No frozen procedure was used in order to minimize preferred orientation during sample preparation. About 1mm thick slices cut from each of the fresh samples were mounted in frames without windows and placed on a translator to allow acquisition of scattering spectra. Cylinders containing healthy and cancerous (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) breast tissues were imagined at the characteristic angle for adipose tissue. Transmission and coherent scatter images are compared.

  16. Image quality assessment and medical physics evaluation of different portable dental X-ray units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittayapat, Pisha; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; Thevissen, Patrick; Michielsen, Koen; Bergans, Niki; Willems, Guy; Debruyckere, Deborah; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2010-09-10

    Recently developed portable dental X-ray units increase the mobility of the forensic odontologists and allow more efficient X-ray work in a disaster field, especially when used in combination with digital sensors. This type of machines might also have potential for application in remote areas, military and humanitarian missions, dental care of patients with mobility limitation, as well as imaging in operating rooms. To evaluate radiographic image quality acquired by three portable X-ray devices in combination with four image receptors and to evaluate their medical physics parameters. Images of five samples consisting of four teeth and one formalin-fixed mandible were acquired by one conventional wall-mounted X-ray unit, MinRay 60/70 kVp, used as a clinical standard, and three portable dental X-ray devices: AnyRay 60 kVp, Nomad 60 kVp and Rextar 70 kVp, in combination with a phosphor image plate (PSP), a CCD, or a CMOS sensor. Three observers evaluated images for standard image quality besides forensic diagnostic quality on a 4-point rating scale. Furthermore, all machines underwent tests for occupational as well as patient dosimetry. Statistical analysis showed good quality imaging for all system, with the combination of Nomad and PSP yielding the best score. A significant difference in image quality between the combination of the four X-ray devices and four sensors was established (p1m: Rextar <0.2 microGy, MinRay <0.1 microGy). The present study demonstrated the feasibility of three portable X-ray systems to be used for specific indications, based on acceptable image quality and sufficient accuracy of the machines and following the standard guidelines for radiation hygiene. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A multiplex coding imaging spectrometer for X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchia, R.; Deschamps, J.Y.; Koch-Miramond, L.; Tarrius, A.

    1985-06-01

    The paper describes a multiplex coding system associated with a solid state spectrometer Si(Li) designed to be placed at the focus of a grazing incidence telescope. In this instrument the spectrometric and imaging functions are separated. The coding system consists in a movable mask with pseudo randomly distributed holes, located in the focal plane of the telescope. The pixel size lies in the range 100-200 microns. The close association of the coding system with a Si(Li) detector gives an imaging spectrometer combining the good efficiency (50% between 0,5 and 10 keV) and energy resolution (ΔE approximately 90 to 160 eV) of solid state spectrometers with the spatial resolution of the mask. Simulations and results obtained with a laboratory model are presented

  18. Current state of radiation protection in x-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, Takeo; Koshida, Kichiro; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Sanada, Shigeru; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke

    1979-01-01

    The therapeutic roentgenologic technician's concern for and providing of protection from radiation while patients underwent x-ray examination in 1973 was reported. An investigation was carried out to determine the degree of changes 5 years later. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 subjects. These subjects were selected, according to duoble sampling process, from a membership list of the Japan Society of Radiologic Technologists. Answers were obtained from 135 (67.5%). The results showed that the size of the field was restricted in 60.7% of the patients, the germinal glands were protected in 64.4% of the patients, the apparatuses were checked regularly in 9.6% of the institutions, and protectors were put on 62.5% of the attendants (mothers, etc.) when children underwent x-ray examination. Also, all of the apparatuses were set up in on section in 61.6% of the institutions and the films were monitored in 57.0% of departments. (Nishio, M.)

  19. X-ray image converters utilizing rare earth phosphor mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabatin, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    In an X-ray screen comprising a transparent support with a photographic film on each side, each film has a coating of a phosphor mixture comprising polyhedral Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb of average size 6 to 20 μ and plate-like LnOX:Tm of average size 2 to 12 μ wherein Ln=La or Gd, X=Cl or Br and Tm is present from 0.05 to 1 mole %. The mixture gives improved resolution and reduces the problem of light crossing over the transparent support. According to whether blue sensitive or green sensitive film is used, the ratio of phosphors is varied. U.V. absorbing and light reflecting layers may be incorporated in the structure. (author)

  20. Development of a fluorescent x-ray source for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, F.; Tokumori, K.; Nishimura, K.; Saito, T.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M.; Endo, M.; Naito, H.; Uyama, C.

    1995-02-01

    A fluorescent x-ray source for medical imaging, such as K-edge subtraction angiography and monochromatic x-ray CT, has been developed. Using a 6.5 GeV accumulation ring in Tsukuba, fluorescent x rays, which range from about 30 to 70 keV are generated by irradiating several target materials. Measurements have been made of output intensities and energy spectra for different target angles and extraction angles. The intensities of fluorescent x rays at a 30 mA beam current are on the order of 1-3×106 photons/mm2/s at 30 cm from the local spot where the incident beam is collimated to 1 mm2. A phantom which contains three different contrast media (iodine, barium, gadolinium) was used for the K-edge energy subtraction, and element selective CT images were obtained.

  1. Laser plasmas as x-ray sources for lithographic imaging of submicron structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, F.; van Dorssen, G.E.; van der Wiel, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser radiation can be used efficiently to generate x-rays for lithographic imaging of submicron patterns, e.g., for VLSI device fabrication. Due to their short wavelength and high average power, excimer lasers show much potential for this application. Results are presented of scaling studies for high repetition rate excimer laser application, using the frequency doubled output of a low repetition rate Nd:YAG/Glass laser. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray emission of the laser plasma are shown. The power density in the laser focus was 3 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . With this source Si x-ray masks with submicron Au absorber profiles are imaged into high sensitivity x-ray photoresist. For the exposures 80 laser shots sufficed to yield high quality submicron structures. Extrapolation of the results to a high power excimer laser reduces the exposure time of the photoresists to several seconds, enabling a wafer throughput at an industrial level

  2. Analysis of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic X-ray sources in imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maximillian; Lim, Sara; Nahar, Sultana; Orban, Christopher; Pradhan, Anil

    2017-04-01

    We studied biomedical imaging and therapeutic applications of recently developed quasi-monochromatic and monochromatic X-ray sources. Using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4, we found that the quasi-monochromatic 65 keV Gaussian X-ray spectrum created by inverse Compton scattering with relatavistic electron beams were capable of producing better image contrast with less radiation compared to conventional 120 kV broadband CT scans. We also explored possible experimental detection of theoretically predicted K α resonance fluorescence in high-Z elements using the European Synchrotron Research Facility with a tungsten (Z = 74) target. In addition, we studied a newly developed quasi-monochromatic source generated by converting broadband X-rays to monochromatic K α and β X-rays with a zirconium target (Z = 40). We will further study how these K α and K β dominated spectra can be implemented in conjunction with nanoparticles for targeted therapy. Acknowledgement: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, OH.

  3. High resolution x-ray stereomicroscopy: True three-dimensional imaging of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.W.Jr.; Williams, S.; Meizel, S.; Rothman, S.S.; Univ. of California, Berkeley/San Francisco, CA; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA

    1993-01-01

    X-ray microscopy has the potential to become a powerful tool for the study of biological samples, allowing the imaging of intact cells and subcellular organelles in an aqueous environment at resolutions previously achievable only by electron microscopy. The ability to examine a relatively thick sample raises the issue of superposition of objects from multiple planes within the sample, making difficult the interpretation of conventional, orthogonally projected images. This paper describes early attempts at developing three-dimensional methods for x-ray microimaging: the first to use x-ray optics, and to the authors' knowledge, the first demonstrating sub-visible resolutions and natural contrast. These studies were performed using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory

  4. On the limitations and optimisation of high-resolution 3D medical X-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shuang; Brahme, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Based on a quantitative analysis of both attenuation and refractive properties of X-ray propagation in human body tissues and the introduction of a mathematical model for image quality analysis, some limitations and optimisation of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) medical X-ray imaging techniques are studied. A comparison is made of conventional attenuation-based X-ray imaging methods with the phase-contrast X-ray imaging modalities that have been developed recently. The results indicate that it is theoretically possible through optimal design of the X-ray imaging system to achieve high spatial resolution (<100 μm) in 3D medical X-ray imaging of the human body at a clinically acceptable dose level (<10 mGy) by introducing a phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique.

  5. Asymmetrically cut crystal pair as x-ray magnifier for imaging at high intensity laser facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., 2922 Excelsior Spring Circle, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Seely, J. F. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Curry, J. J.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The potential of an x-ray magnifier prepared from a pair of asymmetrically cut crystals is studied to explore high energy x-ray imaging capabilities at high intensity laser facilities. OMEGA-EP and NIF when irradiating mid and high Z targets can be a source of high-energy x-rays whose production mechanisms and use as backlighters are a subject of active research. This paper studies the properties and potential of existing asymmetric cut crystal pairs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) built in a new enclosure for imaging x-ray sources. The technique of the x-ray magnifier has been described previously. This new approach is aimed to find a design that could be used at laser facilities by magnifying the x-ray source into a screen far away from the target chamber center, with fixed magnification defined by the crystals' lattice spacing and the asymmetry angles. The magnified image is monochromatic and the imaging wavelength is set by crystal asymmetry and incidence angles. First laboratory results are presented and discussed.

  6. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B.; Hilsabeck, T.; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Reed, C.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Alexander, N.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Forsman, A.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  7. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, B., E-mail: bachmann2@llnl.gov; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T.; Reed, C.; Alexander, N.; Forsman, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  8. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B; Hilsabeck, T; Field, J; Masters, N; Reed, C; Pardini, T; Rygg, J R; Alexander, N; Benedetti, L R; Döppner, T; Forsman, A; Izumi, N; LePape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Nagel, S; Patel, P; Spears, B; Landen, O L

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  9. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B.; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L.; Hilsabeck, T.; Reed, C.; Alexander, N.; Forsman, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  10. Evaluation of an X-ray-excited optical microscope for chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Pieter-Jan; Dowsett, Mark; Hand, Matthew; Grayburn, Rosie; Thompson, Paul; Bras, Wim; Adriaens, Annemie

    2014-12-02

    The application of a modular system for the nondestructive chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces is described using heritage metals as an example. The custom-built X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) microscope, XEOM 1, images the chemical state and short-range atomic order of the top 200 nm of both amorphous and crystalline surfaces. A broad X-ray beam is used to illuminate large areas (up to 4 mm(2)) of the sample, and the resulting XEOL emission is collected simultaneously for each pixel by a charge-coupled device sensor to form an image. The input X-ray energy is incremented across a range typical for the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and an image collected for each increment. The use of large-footprint beams combined with parallel detection allows the power density to be kept low and facilitates complete nondestructive XANES mapping on a reasonable time scale. In this study the microscope was evaluated by imaging copper surfaces with well-defined patterns of different corrosion products (cuprite Cu2O and nantokite CuCl). The images obtained show chemical contrast, and filtering the XEOL light allowed different corrosion products to be imaged separately. Absorption spectra extracted from software-selected regions of interest exhibit characteristic XANES fingerprints for the compounds present. Moreover, when the X-ray absorption edge positions were extracted from each spectrum, an oxidation state map of the sample could be compiled. The results show that this method allows one to obtain nondestructive and noninvasive information at the micrometer scale while using full-field imaging.

  11. Image processing techniques for thermal, x-rays and nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes image acquisition techniques for the non-visible range of electromagnetic spectrum especially thermal, x-rays and nuclear radiations. Thermal imaging systems are valuable tools used for applications ranging from PCB inspection, hot spot studies, fire identification, satellite imaging to defense applications. Penetrating radiations like x-rays and gamma rays are used in NDT, baggage inspection, CAT scan, cardiology, radiography, nuclear medicine etc. Neutron radiography compliments conventional x-rays and gamma radiography. For these applications, image processing and computed tomography are employed for 2-D and 3-D image interpretation respectively. The paper also covers main features of image processing systems for quantitative evaluation of gray level and binary images. (author)

  12. Phase-contrast imaging and tomography at 60 keV using a conventional x-ray tube source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, Tilman; Bunk, Oliver; Groot, Waldemar; Bednarzik, Martin; Gruenzweig, Christian; David, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hempel, Eckhard; Popescu, Stefan; Hoheisel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Phase-contrast imaging at laboratory-based x-ray sources using grating interferometers has been developed over the last few years for x-ray energies of up to 28 keV. Here, we show first phase-contrast projection and tomographic images recorded at significantly higher x-ray energies, produced by an x-ray tube source operated at 100 kV acceleration voltage. We find our measured tomographic phase images in good agreement with tabulated data. The extension of phase-contrast imaging to this significantly higher x-ray energy opens up many applications of the technique in medicine and industrial nondestructive testing.

  13. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm.

  14. 'Taking X-ray phase contrast imaging into mainstream applications' and its satellite workshop 'Real and reciprocal space X-ray imaging'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Alessandro; Robinson, Ian

    2014-03-06

    A double event, supported as part of the Royal Society scientific meetings, was organized in February 2013 in London and at Chicheley Hall in Buckinghamshire by Dr A. Olivo and Prof. I. Robinson. The theme that joined the two events was the use of X-ray phase in novel imaging approaches, as opposed to conventional methods based on X-ray attenuation. The event in London, led by Olivo, addressed the main roadblocks that X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is encountering in terms of commercial translation, for clinical and industrial applications. The main driver behind this is the development of new approaches that enable XPCI, traditionally a synchrotron method, to be performed with conventional laboratory sources, thus opening the way to its deployment in clinics and industrial settings. The satellite meeting at Chicheley Hall, led by Robinson, focused on the new scientific developments that have recently emerged at specialized facilities such as third-generation synchrotrons and free-electron lasers, which enable the direct measurement of the phase shift induced by a sample from intensity measurements, typically in the far field. The two events were therefore highly complementary, in terms of covering both the more applied/translational and the blue-sky aspects of the use of phase in X-ray research. 

  15. Recording soft-X-ray images with photographic materials at large gamma background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izrailev, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    The sensitivity of photographic materials to soft X-rays and 60 Co γ-quanta when developed by visible light and a chemical developer is investigated. When the photographic paper is developed by visible light, its sensitivity is reduced by 200-300 times independent of the quantum energy. This method allows an X-ray image to be recorded even when there is γ-background of 10 5 R. 2 refs., 1 tab

  16. The spectrometer/telescope for imaging X-rays on board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krucker, S.; Benz, A.O.; Hurford, G.J.; Arnold, N.G.; Orleański, P.; Gröbelbauer, H.-P.; Casadei, D.; Kobler, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H.J.; Csillaghy, A.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Bednarzik, M.; Resanovic, R.; Grimm, O.; Viertel, G.; Commichau, V.; Howard, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar Orbiter is a Sun-observing mission led by the European Space Agency, addressing the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. It will carry ten instruments, among them the X-ray imaging spectrometer STIX. STIX will determine the intensity, spectrum, timing, and location of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their bremsstrahlung X-ray emission. This report gives a brief overview of the STIX scientific goals and covers in more detail the instrument design and challenges

  17. Optimized polychromatic x-ray imaging with asymmetrically cut bent crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podorov, S. G.; Renner, Oldřich; Wehrhan, O.; Förster, E.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2001), s. 2363-2368 ISSN 0022-3727 Grant - others:-(DE) B508-99027; CZ-DE Bilateral Corporation in Science(XC) CZE-00-008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray imaging * x-ray diffraction * ray-tracing simulations Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2001

  18. Development of fast parallel multi-technique scanning X-ray imaging at Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjoubi, K.; Leclercq, N.; Langlois, F.; Buteau, A.; Lé, S.; Poirier, S.; Mercère, P.; Kewish, C. M.; Somogyi, A.

    2013-10-01

    A fast multimodal scanning X-ray imaging scheme is prototyped at Soleil Synchrotron. It permits the simultaneous acquisition of complementary information on the sample structure, composition and chemistry by measuring transmission, differential phase contrast, small-angle scattering, and X-ray fluorescence by dedicated detectors with ms dwell time per pixel. The results of the proof of principle experiments are presented in this paper.

  19. X-ray diffraction and imaging with a coherent beam: application to X-ray optical elements and to crystals exhibiting phase inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiello, F.

    2011-05-01

    The exceptional properties of synchrotron light sources have been exploited in very different disciplines, from archaeology to chemistry, from material science to biology, from medicine to physics. Among these properties it is important to mention the high brilliance, continuum spectrum, high degree of polarization, time structure, small source size and divergence of the beam, the last resulting in a high transversal coherence of the produced radiation. This high transversal coherence of the synchrotron sources has permitted the development of new techniques, e.g. phase contrast imaging, X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI). This thesis work will consist essentially of three parts. In the first part it will be presented the work done as a member of the X-ray Optics Group of ESRF in the characterization of high quality diamond crystals foreseen as X-ray optical elements. The characterization has been done using different complementary X-ray techniques, such as high resolution diffraction, topography, grazing incidence diffraction, reflectivity and measurements of the coherence preservation using the Talbot effect. In the second part, I will show the result obtained in the study of the temperature behaviours of the domain in periodically poled ferroelectrics crystals. This type of measurements, based on Bragg-Fresnel diffraction, are possible only thanks to the high degree of coherence of the beam. In the third part, I will present the results obtained in the characterization of diamonds foreseen for applications other than X-ray optical elements. (author)

  20. Image enhancement of x-ray microscope using frequency spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Tian Jinping; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Gang; Tian Yangchao; Liu Yijin; Wu Ziyu

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method for x-ray microscope image enhancement using frequency spectrum analysis. Fine sample characteristics are well enhanced with homogeneous visibility and better contrast from single image. This method is easy to implement and really helps to improve the quality of image taken by our imaging system.

  1. Image enhancement of x-ray microscope using frequency spectrum analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Tian Jinping; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Gang; Tian Yangchao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Liu Yijin; Wu Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.c, E-mail: ychtian@ustc.edu.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-09-01

    We demonstrate a new method for x-ray microscope image enhancement using frequency spectrum analysis. Fine sample characteristics are well enhanced with homogeneous visibility and better contrast from single image. This method is easy to implement and really helps to improve the quality of image taken by our imaging system.

  2. Expanded image database of pistachio x-ray images and classification by conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Le, Lan Chau; Casasent, David P.; Weber, David

    1996-12-01

    In order to develop sorting methods for insect damaged pistachio nuts, a large data set of pistachio x-ray images (6,759 nuts) was created. Both film and linescan sensor images were acquired, nuts dissected and internal conditions coded using the U.S. Grade standards and definitions for pistachios. A subset of 1199 good and 686 insect damaged nuts was used to calculate and test discriminant functions. Statistical parameters of image histograms were evaluated for inclusion by forward stepwise discrimination. Using three variables in the discriminant function, 89% of test set nuts were correctly identified. Comparable data for 6 human subjects ranged from 67 to 92%. If the loss of good nuts is held to 1% by requiring a high probability to discard a nut as insect damaged, approximately half of the insect damage present in clean pistachio nuts may be detected and removed by x-ray inspection.

  3. Phase contrast imaging using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-09-01

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging, a new technique to increase the imaging contrast for the tissues with close attenuation coefficients, has been studied since mid 1990s. This technique reveals the possibility to show the clear details of the soft tissues and tumors in small scale resolution. A compact and low cost phase contrast imaging system using a conventional x-ray source is described in this paper. Using the conventional x-ray source is of great importance, because it provides the possibility to use the method in hospitals and clinical offices. Simple materials and components are used in the setup to keep the cost in a reasonable and affordable range.Tungsten Kα1 line with the photon energy 59.3 keV was used for imaging. Some of the system design details are discussed. The method that was used to stabilize the system is introduced. A chicken thigh bone tissue sample was used for imaging followed by the image quality, image acquisition time and the potential clinical application discussion. High energy x-ray beam can be used in phase contrast imaging. Therefore the radiation dose to the patients can be greatly decreased compared to the traditional x-ray radiography.

  4. Cephalometric landmark detection in dental x-ray images using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansang; Park, Minseok; Kim, Junmo

    2017-03-01

    In dental X-ray images, an accurate detection of cephalometric landmarks plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgical decisions for dental problems. In this work, we propose an end-to-end deep learning system for cephalometric landmark detection in dental X-ray images, using convolutional neural networks (CNN). For detecting 19 cephalometric landmarks in dental X-ray images, we develop a detection system using CNN-based coordinate-wise regression systems. By viewing x- and y-coordinates of all landmarks as 38 independent variables, multiple CNN-based regression systems are constructed to predict the coordinate variables from input X-ray images. First, each coordinate variable is normalized by the length of either height or width of an image. For each normalized coordinate variable, a CNN-based regression system is trained on training images and corresponding coordinate variable, which is a variable to be regressed. We train 38 regression systems with the same CNN structure on coordinate variables, respectively. Finally, we compute 38 coordinate variables with these trained systems from unseen images and extract 19 landmarks by pairing the regressed coordinates. In experiments, the public database from the Grand Challenges in Dental X-ray Image Analysis in ISBI 2015 was used and the proposed system showed promising performance by successfully locating the cephalometric landmarks within considerable margins from the ground truths.

  5. Phase-space evolution of x-ray coherence in phase-sensitive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2008-08-01

    X-ray coherence evolution in the imaging process plays a key role for x-ray phase-sensitive imaging. In this work we present a phase-space formulation for the phase-sensitive imaging. The theory is reformulated in terms of the cross-spectral density and associated Wigner distribution. The phase-space formulation enables an explicit and quantitative account of partial coherence effects on phase-sensitive imaging. The presented formulas for x-ray spectral density at the detector can be used for performing accurate phase retrieval and optimizing the phase-contrast visibility. The concept of phase-space shearing length derived from this phase-space formulation clarifies the spatial coherence requirement for phase-sensitive imaging with incoherent sources. The theory has been applied to x-ray Talbot interferometric imaging as well. The peak coherence condition derived reveals new insights into three-grating-based Talbot-interferometric imaging and gratings-based x-ray dark-field imaging.

  6. Use of a priori information in incomplete data x-ray CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, J.W.; Hedengren, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique for utilizing a priori information is presented which uses CAD electronic part models to make use of effectively all the information which is available in the blueprint of a selected industrial part. Significant improvements in x-ray image quality are demonstrated using the technique in the image enhancement of the model of an exhaust nozzle actuation ring for the F110 aircraft. Three approaches were evaluated: a projection data approach, an iterative reconstruction approach, and an image processing and analysis approach. Results for these approaches are included. X-ray CT images of the simulated part image reconstructed with several choices of available angular range are shown

  7. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Piston, K; Felker, B; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10(17). We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  8. Applying x-ray digital imaging to the verification of cadmium in fuel-storage components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, R.D.; Cook, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor utilizes large underwater fuel-storage arrays to stage irradiated fuel before it is shipped from the facility. Cadmium is required as a thermal neutron absorber in these fuel-storage arrays to produce an acceptable margin of nuclear subcriticality during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. Due to incomplete documentation from the time of their fabrication, the presence of cadmium within two stainless-steel parts of fuel-storage arrays must be experimentally verified before they are reused in new fuel-storage arrays. A cadmium-verification program has been developed in association with the Waste Examination and Assay Facility located at the Oak Ridge national Laboratory to nondestructively examine these older shroud assemblies. The program includes the following elements (1) x-ray analog imaging, (2) x-ray digital imaging, (3) prompt-gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements, and (4) neutron-transmission measurements. X-ray digital imaging utilizes an analog-to-digital convertor to record attenuated x-ray intensities observed on a fluorescent detector by a video camera. These x-ray intensities are utilized in expressions for cadmium thickness based upon x-ray attenuation theory

  9. X-ray imaging with amorphous selenium: Pulse height measurements of avalanche gain fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, Brian J. M.; Hunt, D. C.; Reznik, A.; Tanioka, K.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Avalanche multiplication in amorphous selenium (a-Se) can provide a large, adjustable gain for active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI), enabling quantum noise limited x-ray imaging during both radiography and fluoroscopy. In the case of direct conversion AMFPI, the multiplication factor for each x ray is a function of its depth of interaction, and the resulting variations in gain can reduce the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the system. An experimental method was developed to measure gain fluctuations by analyzing images of individual x rays that were obtained using a video camera with an a-Se target operated in avalanche mode. Pulse height spectra (PHS) of the charge produced per x ray were recorded for monoenergetic 30.9, 49.4, and 73.8 keV x-ray sources. The rapid initial decay and long tail of each PHS can be explained by a model in which positive charge dominates the initiation of avalanche. The Swank information factor quantifies the effect of gain fluctuation on DQE and was calculated from the PHS. The information factor was found to be 0.5 for a 25 μm a-Se layer with a maximum gain of ∼300. Changing the energy of the incident x ray influenced the range of the primary photoelectron and noticeably affected the tail of the experimental PHS, but did not significantly change the avalanche Swank factor

  10. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  11. The Wide Field Imager of the International X-ray Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanescu, A., E-mail: astefan@hll.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Inst. f. anorganische und analytische Chemie, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Bautz, M.W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Burrows, D.N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bombelli, L.; Fiorini, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Milano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Fraser, G. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Heinzinger, K. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Herrmann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Kuster, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstr. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lauf, T. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Lechner, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Lutz, G. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Majewski, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Meuris, A. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Murray, S.S. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-12-11

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) will be a joint X-ray observatory mission by ESA, NASA and JAXA. It will have a large effective area (3 m{sup 2} at 1.25 keV) grazing incidence mirror system with good angular resolution (5 arcsec at 0.1-10 keV) and will feature a comprehensive suite of scientific instruments: an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer, a High Time Resolution Spectrometer, an X-ray Polarimeter, an X-ray Grating Spectrometer, a Hard X-ray Imager and a Wide-Field Imager. The Wide Field Imager (WFI) has a field-of-view of 18 ftx18 ft. It will be sensitive between 0.1 and 15 keV, offer the full angular resolution of the mirrors and good energy resolution. The WFI will be implemented as a 6 in. wafer-scale monolithical array of 1024x1024 pixels of 100x100{mu}m{sup 2} size. The DEpleted P-channel Field-Effect Transistors (DEPFET) forming the individual pixels are devices combining the functionalities of both detector and amplifier. Signal electrons are collected in a potential well below the transistor's gate, modulating the transistor current. Even when the device is powered off, the signal charge is collected and kept in the potential well below the gate until it is explicitly cleared. This makes flexible and fast readout modes possible.

  12. Hard X-ray measurements of A0535+26 during low state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.; Vialetto, G.

    1982-01-01

    A number of measurements of the recurrent transient X-ray source A0535+26 have been made during its outburst phase, since its detection in 1975 by Ariel V. The optical counterpart of the source (Be Star 245770) has also been extensively studied both in active and quiescent state in optical I.R. and U.V. bands. These data show a positive correlation with the X-ray flux during on state. The X-ray flux from the source during the outburst increases to about twice the Crab intensity in soft X-ray band and gradually decreases to 100 mCrab during 30 to 50 days. However positive detection of the sources has not been reported until now during the low state. In this paper we present the spectral measurements of the source in the energy band 20-100 KeV made during the low state in 1981. (orig.)

  13. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: X-ray tube imaging performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, John A.; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation.

  14. Correction for polychromatic X-ray image distortion in computer tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described which correct the polychromatic distortion of CT images that is produced by the non-linear interaction of body constituents with a polychromatic X-ray beam. A CT image is processed to estimate the proportion of the attenuation coefficients of the constituents in each pixel element. A multiplicity of projections for each constituent are generated from the original image and are combined utilizing a multidimensional polynomial which approximates the non-linear interaction involved. An error image is then generated from the combined projections and is subtracted from the original image to correct for the polychromatic distortion. (Auth.)

  15. Soft X-ray imaging with axisymmetry microscope and electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauneuf, A.; Cavailler, C.; Henry, Ph.; Launspach, J.; Mascureau, J. de; Rostaing, M.

    1984-11-01

    An axisymmetric microscope with 10 X magnification has been constructed; its resolution has been measured using severals grids, backlighted by an X-ray source and found to be near 25 μm. So it could be used to make images of laser driven plasmas in the soft X-ray region. In order to see rapidly those images we have associated it with a new detector. It is a small image converter tube with a soft X-ray photocathode and a P20 phosphor deposited on an optic fiber plate. The electronic image appearing on the screen is read by a CCD working in the spectral range. An electronic image readout chain, which is identical to those we use with streak cameras, then processes automatically and immediatly the images given by the microscope

  16. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone: conventional X-ray and MR imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Haeussler, M.D.; Poppek, S.; Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Blasius, S.; Lindner, N.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the conventional X-ray and MR imaging features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone. Design. MRI examinations and conventional radiographs were reviewed in 39 patients with biopsy-proven MFH. Imaging characteristics were analyzed and the differential diagnoses assessed in a masked fashion by two experienced radiologists. Results. Typical X-ray features included aggressive, destructive tumor growth centrally located in the metaphysis of long bones. Periosteal reactions and expansive growth were rarely seen. On MR images extraosseous tumor spread was frequently noted. On T2-weighted images and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images most of the tumors displayed an inhomogeneous, nodular signal pattern with peripheral Gd-DTPA enhancement. Conclusions. Although several MR imaging criteria were typical for MFH none of them was specific. X-ray diagnosis of MFH may also prove difficult, with the main differential diagnosis being metastasis in the older and osteosarcoma in the younger population. (orig.)

  17. Automated X-ray image analysis for cargo security: Critical review and future promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Thomas W; Jaccard, Nicolas; Morton, Edward J; Griffin, Lewis D

    2017-01-01

    We review the relatively immature field of automated image analysis for X-ray cargo imagery. There is increasing demand for automated analysis methods that can assist in the inspection and selection of containers, due to the ever-growing volumes of traded cargo and the increasing concerns that customs- and security-related threats are being smuggled across borders by organised crime and terrorist networks. We split the field into the classical pipeline of image preprocessing and image understanding. Preprocessing includes: image manipulation; quality improvement; Threat Image Projection (TIP); and material discrimination and segmentation. Image understanding includes: Automated Threat Detection (ATD); and Automated Contents Verification (ACV). We identify several gaps in the literature that need to be addressed and propose ideas for future research. Where the current literature is sparse we borrow from the single-view, multi-view, and CT X-ray baggage domains, which have some characteristics in common with X-ray cargo.

  18. Development of X-ray radiography examination technology by image processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Duck Kee; Koo, Dae Seo; Kim, Eun Ka [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    Because the dimension of nuclear fuel rods was measured with rapidity and accuracy by X-ray radiography examination, the set-up of image processing system which was composed of 979 CCD-L camera, image processing card and fluorescent lighting was carried out, and the image processing system enabled image processing to perform. The examination technology of X-ray radiography, which enabled dimension measurement of nuclear fuel rods to perform, was developed by image processing method. The result of dimension measurement of standard fuel rod by image processing method was 2% reduction in relative measuring error than that of X-ray radiography film, while the former was better by 100 {approx} 200 {mu}m in measuring accuracy than the latter. (author). 9 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Applications of 'edge-on' illuminated porous plate detectors for diagnostic X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhaliev, P M

    2002-01-01

    Scanning X-ray imaging systems for non-invasive diagnostics have several advantages over conventional imaging systems using area detectors. They significantly reduce the detected scatter radiation, cover large areas and potentially provide high spatial resolution. Applications of one-dimensional gaseous detectors and 'edge-on' illuminated silicon strip detectors for scanning imaging systems are currently under intensive investigation. The purpose of this work is to investigate 'edge-on' illuminated Porous Plate (PP) detectors for applications in diagnostic X-ray imaging. MicroChannel Plate (MCP), which is a common type of PP, has previously been investigated as a detector in surface-on illumination mode for medical X-ray imaging. However, its detection efficiency was too low for medical imaging applications. In the present study, the PP are used in the 'edge-on' illumination mode. Furthermore, the structural parameters of different PP types are optimized to improve the detection efficiency in the diagnostic X...

  20. Design of a compact high-energy setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Markus; Yaroshenko, Andre; Bech, Martin; Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Chabior, Michael; Wolf, Johannes; Tapfer, Arne; Meiser, Jan; Kunka, Danays; Amberger, Maximilian; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    The main shortcoming of conventional biomedical x-ray imaging is the weak soft-tissue contrast caused by the small differences in the absorption coefficients between different materials. This issue can be addressed by x-ray phasesensitive imaging approaches, e.g. x-ray Talbot-Lau grating interferometry. The advantage of the three-grating Talbot-Lau approach is that it allows to acquire x-ray phase-contrast and dark-field images with a conventional lab source. However, through the introduction of the grating interferometer some constraints are imposed on the setup geometry. In general, the grating pitch and the mean x-ray energy determine the setup dimensions. The minimal length of the setup increases linearly with energy and is proportional to p2, where p is the grating pitch. Thus, a high-energy (100 keV) compact grating-based setup for x-ray imaging can be realized only if gratings with aspect-ratio of approximately 300 and a pitch of 1-2 μm were available. However, production challenges limit the availability of such gratings. In this study we consider the use of non-binary phase-gratings as means of designing a more compact grating interferometer for phase-contrast imaging. We present simulation and experimental data for both monochromatic and polychromatic case. The results reveal that phase-gratings with triangular-shaped structures yield visibilities that can be used for imaging purposes at significantly shorter distances than binary gratings. This opens the possibility to design a high-energy compact setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Furthermore, we discuss different techniques to achieve triangular-shaped phase-shifting structures.

  1. High-resolution X-ray imaging - a powerful nondestructive technique for applications in semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschech, Ehrenfried; Yun, Wenbing; Schneider, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The availability of high-brilliance X-ray sources, high-precision X-ray focusing optics and very efficient CCD area detectors has contributed essentially to the development of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and X-ray computed tomography (XCT) with sub-50 nm resolution. Particularly, the fabrication of high aspect ratio Fresnel zone plates with zone widths approaching 15 nm has contributed to the enormous improvement in spatial resolution during the previous years. Currently, Fresnel zone plates give the ability to reach spatial resolutions of 15 to 20 nm in the soft and of about 30 to 50 nm in the hard X-ray energy range. X-ray microscopes with rotating anode X-ray sources that can be installed in an analytical lab next to a semiconductor fab have been developed recently. These unique TXM/XCT systems provide an important new capability of nondestructive 3D imaging of internal circuit structures without destructive sample preparation such as cross sectioning. These lab systems can be used for failure localization in micro- and nanoelectronic structures and devices, e.g., to visualize voids and residuals in on-chip metal interconnects without physical modification of the chip. Synchrotron radiation experiments have been used to study new processes and materials that have to be introduced into the semiconductor industry. The potential of TXM using synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray energy range is shown for the nondestructive in situ imaging of void evolution in embedded on-chip copper interconnect structures during electromigration and for the imaging of different types of insulating thin films between the on-chip interconnects (spectromicroscopy). (orig.)

  2. Quantitative 3D X-ray imaging of densification, delamination and fracture in a micro-composite under compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bø Fløystad, Jostein; Skjønsfjell, Eirik Torbjørn Bakken; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Phase-contrast three-dimensional tomograms showing in unprecedented detail the mechanical response of a micro-composite subjected to a mechanical compression test are reported. The X-ray ptychography images reveal the deformation and fracture processes of a 10 μm diameter composite, consisting...... X-ray microscopy as a powerful tool for in situ studies of the mechanical properties of nanostructured devices, structures, and composites. Ptychographic X-ray microscopy can be used for quantitatively studying the mechanical properties of microscale composites. Phase-contrast three...... of a spherical polymer bead coated with a nominally 210 nm metal shell. The beginning delamination of the shell from the core can be directly observed at an engineering strain of a few percent. Pre-existing defects are shown to dictate the deformation behavior of both core and shell. The strain state...

  3. Fast and robust ray casting algorithms for virtual X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, N.; Duvauchelle, P.; Letang, J.M.; Babot, D.

    2006-01-01

    Deterministic calculations based on ray casting techniques are known as a powerful alternative to the Monte Carlo approach to simulate X- or γ-ray imaging modalities (e.g. digital radiography and computed tomography), whenever computation time is a critical issue. One of the key components, from the viewpoint of computing resource expense, is the algorithm which determines the path length travelled by each ray through complex 3D objects. This issue has given rise to intensive research in the field of 3D rendering (in the visible light domain) during the last decades. The present work proposes algorithmic solutions adapted from state-of-the-art computer graphics to carry out ray casting in X-ray imaging configurations. This work provides an algorithmic basis to simulate direct transmission of X-rays, as well as scattering and secondary emission of radiation. Emphasis is laid on the speed and robustness issues. Computation times are given in a typical case of radiography simulation

  4. Fast and robust ray casting algorithms for virtual X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, N. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing Using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: Nicolas.Freud@insa-lyon.fr; Duvauchelle, P. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing Using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Letang, J.M. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing Using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Babot, D. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing Using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    Deterministic calculations based on ray casting techniques are known as a powerful alternative to the Monte Carlo approach to simulate X- or {gamma}-ray imaging modalities (e.g. digital radiography and computed tomography), whenever computation time is a critical issue. One of the key components, from the viewpoint of computing resource expense, is the algorithm which determines the path length travelled by each ray through complex 3D objects. This issue has given rise to intensive research in the field of 3D rendering (in the visible light domain) during the last decades. The present work proposes algorithmic solutions adapted from state-of-the-art computer graphics to carry out ray casting in X-ray imaging configurations. This work provides an algorithmic basis to simulate direct transmission of X-rays, as well as scattering and secondary emission of radiation. Emphasis is laid on the speed and robustness issues. Computation times are given in a typical case of radiography simulation.

  5. Design of a prototype tri-electrode ion-chamber for megavoltage X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Gopal, Arun; Jain, Jinesh; Xia Junyi; DiBianca, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy (megavoltage) X-ray imaging is widely used in industry (e.g., aerospace, construction, material sciences) as well as in health care (radiation therapy). One of the fundamental problems with megavoltage imaging is poor contrast and spatial resolution in the detected images due to the dominance of Compton scattering at megavoltage X-ray energies. Therefore, although megavoltage X-rays can be used to image highly attenuating objects that cannot be imaged at kilovoltage energies, the former does not provide the high image quality that is associated with the latter. A high contrast and spatial resolution detector for high-energy X-ray fields called the kinestatic charge detector (KCD) is presented here. The KCD is a tri-electrode ion-chamber based on highly pressurized noble gas. The KCD operates in conjunction with a strip-collimated X-ray beam (for high scatter rejection) to scan across the imaging field. Its thick detector design and unique operating principle provides enhanced charge signal integration for high quality imaging (quantum efficiency ∼50%) despite the unfavorable implications of high-energy X-ray interactions on image quality. The proposed design for a large-field prototype KCD includes a cylindrical pressure chamber along with 576 signal-collecting electrodes capable of resolving at 2 mm -1 . The collecting electrodes are routed out of the chamber through the flat end-cap, thereby optimizing the mechanical strength of the chamber. This article highlights the simplified design of the chamber using minimal components for simple assembly. In addition, fundamental imaging measurements and estimates of ion recombination that were performed on a proof-of-principle test chamber are presented. The imaging performance of the prototype KCD was found to be an order-of-magnitude greater than commercial phosphor screen based flat-panel systems, demonstrating the potential for high-quality megavoltage imaging for a variety of industrial applications

  6. Performance of a static-anode/flat-panel x-ray fluoroscopy system in a diagnostic strength magnetic field: a truly hybrid x-ray/MR imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrig, R; Wen, Z; Ganguly, A; DeCrescenzo, G; Rowlands, J A; Stevens, G M; Saunders, R F; Pelc, N J

    2005-06-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are increasing in variety and frequency, facilitated by advances in imaging technology. Our hybrid imaging system (GE Apollo flat panel, custom Brand x-ray static anode x-ray tube, GE Lunar high-frequency power supply and 0.5 T Signa SP) provides both x-ray and MR imaging capability to guide complex procedures without requiring motion of the patient between two distant gantries. The performance of the x-ray tube in this closely integrated system was evaluated by modeling and measuring both the response of the filament to an externally applied field and the behavior of the electron beam for field strengths and geometries of interest. The performance of the detector was assessed by measuring the slanted-edge modulation transfer function (MTF) and when placed at zero field and at 0.5 T. Measured resonant frequencies of filaments can be approximated using a modified vibrating beam model, and were at frequencies well below the 25 kHz frequency of our generator for our filament geometry. The amplitude of vibration was not sufficient to cause shorting of the filament during operation within the magnetic field. A simple model of electrons in uniform electric and magnetic fields can be used to estimate the deflection of the electron beam on the anode for the fields of interest between 0.2 and 0.5 T. The MTF measured at the detector and the DQE showed no significant difference inside and outside of the magnetic field. With the proper modifications, an x-ray system can be fully integrated with a MR system, with minimal loss of image quality. Any x-ray tube can be assessed for compatibility when placed at a particular location within the field using the models. We have also concluded that a-Si electronics are robust against magnetic fields. Detailed knowledge of the x-ray system installation is required to provide estimates of system operation.

  7. Performance of a static-anode/flat-panel x-ray fluoroscopy system in a diagnostic strength magnetic field: A truly hybrid x-ray/MR imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrig, R.; Wen, Z.; Ganguly, A.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J.A.; Stevens, G.M.; Saunders, R.F.; Pelc, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are increasing in variety and frequency, facilitated by advances in imaging technology. Our hybrid imaging system (GE Apollo TM flat panel, custom Brand x-ray static anode x-ray tube, GE Lunar high-frequency power supply and 0.5 T Signa SP TM ) provides both x-ray and MR imaging capability to guide complex procedures without requiring motion of the patient between two distant gantries. The performance of the x-ray tube in this closely integrated system was evaluated by modeling and measuring both the response of the filament to an externally applied field and the behavior of the electron beam for field strengths and geometries of interest. The performance of the detector was assessed by measuring the slanted-edge modulation transfer function (MTF) and when placed at zero field and at 0.5 T. Measured resonant frequencies of filaments can be approximated using a modified vibrating beam model, and were at frequencies well below the 25 kHz frequency of our generator for our filament geometry. The amplitude of vibration was not sufficient to cause shorting of the filament during operation within the magnetic field. A simple model of electrons in uniform electric and magnetic fields can be used to estimate the deflection of the electron beam on the anode for the fields of interest between 0.2 and 0.5 T. The MTF measured at the detector and the DQE showed no significant difference inside and outside of the magnetic field. With the proper modifications, an x-ray system can be fully integrated with a MR system, with minimal loss of image quality. Any x-ray tube can be assessed for compatibility when placed at a particular location within the field using the models. We have also concluded that a-Si electronics are robust against magnetic fields. Detailed knowledge of the x-ray system installation is required to provide estimates of system operation

  8. Advances in indirect detector systems for ultra high-speed hard X-ray imaging with synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, M. P.; Grenzer, J.; Pradel, P.; De Resseguier, T.; Vagovic, P.; Zdora, M.-C.; Guzenko, V. A.; David, C.; Rack, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report on indirect X-ray detector systems for various full-field, ultra high-speed X-ray imaging methodologies, such as X-ray phase-contrast radiography, diffraction topography, grating interferometry and speckle-based imaging performed at the hard X-ray imaging beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron—ESRF. Our work highlights the versatility of indirect X-ray detectors to multiple goals such as single synchrotron pulse isolation, multiple-frame recording up to millions frames per second, high efficiency, and high spatial resolution. Besides the technical advancements, potential applications are briefly introduced and discussed.

  9. Evaluation of In-Vacuum Imaging Plate Detector for X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    We performed evaluation tests of a newly developed in-vacuum imaging plate (IP) detector for x-ray diffraction microscopy. IP detectors have advantages over direct x-ray detection charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors, which have been commonly used in x-ray diffraction microscopy experiments, in the capabilities for a high photon count and for a wide area. The detector system contains two IPs to make measurement efficient by recording data with the one while reading or erasing the other. We compared speckled diffraction patterns of single particles taken with the IP and a direct x-ray detection CCD. The IP was inferior to the CCD in spatial resolution and in signal-to-noise ratio at a low photon count

  10. Large Imaging X-ray MKID Arrays for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, Benjamin

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, or MKIDs, are a relatively new type of superconducting detector with built-in frequency domain multiplexing. Like Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) microbolometers, MKIDs can count single X-ray photons over a wide energy range and determine their energy and arrival time. MKIDs allow very large pixel counts with a simple room temperature microwave readout. In this investigation we will develop a new type of detector based on a MKID called the Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detector, or TKID. A TKID changes the basic MKID architecture by placing the inductor of the MKID on a suspended SiN membrane. The capacitor will remain on the bulk Si to reduce noise. Much like a TES, the TKID will sense changes in temperature of the isolated SiN island caused by photon absorption. The advantages of a TKID include lack of positional/geometry dependence, a more tunable pulse decay time, a relaxation of the MKID resonator material requirements, and more. We have already fabricated a TKID with the best energy resolution seen to date in any KID. Here we propose to improve the energy resolution below 10 eV, develop mushroom absorbers compatible with our TKIDs, and integrate these detectors into small arrays.

  11. The x-ray time of flight method for investigation of ghosting in amorphous selenium-based flat panel medical x-ray imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.W.; Bakueva, L.; Rowlands, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) based real-time flat-panel imagers (FPIs) are finding their way into the digital radiology department because they offer the practical advantages of digital x-ray imaging combined with an image quality that equals or outperforms that of conventional systems. The temporal imaging characteristics of FPIs can be affected by ghosting (i.e., radiation-induced changes of sensitivity) when the dose to the detector is high (e.g., portal imaging and mammography) or the images are acquired at a high frame rate (e.g., fluoroscopy). In this paper, the x-ray time-of-flight (TOF) method is introduced as a tool for the investigation of ghosting in a-Se photoconductor layers. The method consists of irradiating layers of a-Se with short x-ray pulses. From the current generated in the a-Se layer, ghosting is quantified and the ghosting parameters (charge carrier generation rate and carrier lifetimes and mobilities) are assessed. The x-ray TOF method is novel in that (1) x-ray sensitivity (S) and ghosting parameters can be measured simultaneously (2) the transport of both holes and electrons can be isolated, and (3) the method is applicable to the practical a-Se layer structure with blocking contacts used in FPIs. The x-ray TOF method was applied to an analysis of ghosting in a-Se photoconductor layers under portal imaging conditions, i.e., 1 mm thick a-Se layers, biased at 5 V/μm, were irradiated using a 6 MV LINAC x-ray beam to a total dose (ghosting dose) of 30 Gy. The initial sensitivity (S 0 ) of the a-Se layers was 63±2 nC cm -2 cGy -1 . It was found that S decreases to 30% of S 0 after a ghosting dose of 5 Gy and to 21% after 30 Gy at which point no further change in S occurs. At an x-ray intensity of 22 Gy/s (instantaneous dose rate during a LINAC x-ray pulse), the charge carrier generation rate was 1.25±0.1x10 22 ehp m -3 s -1 and, to a first approximation, independent of the ghosting dose. However, both hole and electron transport showed a

  12. Analysis of the 1980 November 18 limb flare observed by the hard X-ray imaging spectrometer (HXIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, P.; Haug, E.; Elwert, G.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray images of the 18 November 1980 limb flare taken by the HXIS instrument aboard SMM were analysed. The hard X-rays originated from three spots on the SW limb of the solar disk with different altitudes and time evolution. The locations of the brightest spots in hard and soft X-rays are compared

  13. The Study on the Attenuation of X-ray and Imaging Quality by Contents in Stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Kyung Rae; Ji, Youn Sang; Kim, Chang Bok; Choi, Seong Kwan; Moon, Sang In; Dieter, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the change in the attenuation of X-rays with the ROI (Region of Interest) in DR (Digital Radiography) according to the stomach contents by manufacturing a tissue equivalent material phantom to simulate real stomach tissue based on the assumption that there is some attenuation of X-rays and a difference in imaging quality according to the stomach contents. The transit dosage by the attenuation of X-rays decreased with increasing protein thickness, which altered the average ROI values in the film and DR images. A comparison of the change in average ROI values of the film and DR image showed that the image in film caused larger density changes with varying thickness of protein than the image by DR. The results indicate that NPO (nothing by mouth) is more important in film system than in DR system.

  14. The Study on the Attenuation of X-ray and Imaging Quality by Contents in Stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kyung Rae; Ji, Youn Sang; Kim, Chang Bok; Choi, Seong Kwan; Moon, Sang In [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dieter, Kevin [Dept. of Physical Therapy, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study examined the change in the attenuation of X-rays with the ROI (Region of Interest) in DR (Digital Radiography) according to the stomach contents by manufacturing a tissue equivalent material phantom to simulate real stomach tissue based on the assumption that there is some attenuation of X-rays and a difference in imaging quality according to the stomach contents. The transit dosage by the attenuation of X-rays decreased with increasing protein thickness, which altered the average ROI values in the film and DR images. A comparison of the change in average ROI values of the film and DR image showed that the image in film caused larger density changes with varying thickness of protein than the image by DR. The results indicate that NPO (nothing by mouth) is more important in film system than in DR system.

  15. Phase contrast enhanced high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Dammer, Jiri; Hanus, Robert; Holy, Tomas; Pospisil, Stanislav; Tykva, Richard; Uher, Josef; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    A tabletop system for digital high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray micro-radiography has been developed for small-animal and soft-tissue imaging. The system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the semiconductor hybrid position sensitive Medipix2 pixel detector. Transmission radiography imaging, conventionally based only on absorption, is enhanced by exploiting phase-shift effects induced in the X-ray beam traversing the sample. Phase contrast imaging is realized by object edge enhancement. DAQ is done by a novel fully integrated USB-based readout with online image generation. Improved signal reconstruction techniques make use of advanced statistical data analysis, enhanced beam hardening correction and direct thickness calibration of individual pixels. 2D and 3D micro-tomography images of several biological samples demonstrate the applicability of the system for biological and medical purposes including in-vivo and time dependent physiological studies in the life sciences

  16. X-ray imaging of JET. A design study for a streak camera application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Hobby, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    A single dimensional imaging system is proposed which will image a strip of the JET plasma up to 320 times per shot with a time resolution of better than 50 μs using the bremsstrahlung X-rays. The images are obtained by means of a pinhole camera followed by an X-ray image intensifier system the output of which is in turn digitised by a photodiode array. The information is stored digitally in a fast memory and is immediately available for display or analysis. (author)

  17. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin; Zhang Qi; Zheng Futang

    2000-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images are presented. The software for object separating, mass calculating, 3D positioning, speed determining and cavity reconstruction are described

  18. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin

    2003-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images of terminal ballistics are presented. The software for object separating, profile calculating and 3D cavity reconstruction are described

  19. The MicroAnalysis Toolkit: X-ray Fluorescence Image Processing Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    The MicroAnalysis Toolkit is an analysis suite designed for the processing of x-ray fluorescence microprobe data. The program contains a wide variety of analysis tools, including image maps, correlation plots, simple image math, image filtering, multiple energy image fitting, semi-quantitative elemental analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis, principle component analysis, and tomographic reconstructions. To be as widely useful as possible, data formats from many synchrotron sources can be read by the program with more formats available by request. An overview of the most common features will be presented.

  20. REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) Aboard NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JaeSub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Masterson, Rebecca; Inamdar, Niraj K; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew W; Bautz, Mark W.; Kissel, Steven E; Villasenor, Jesus Noel; Oprescu, Antonia

    2014-06-01

    The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is a student-led instrument being designed, built, and operated as a collaborative effort involving MIT and Harvard. It is a part of NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission, which is scheduled for launch in September of 2016 for a rendezvous with, and collection of a sample from the surface of the primitive carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroid 101955 Bennu in 2019. REXIS will determine spatial variations in elemental composition of Bennu's surface through solar-induced X-ray fluorescence. REXIS consists of four X-ray CCDs in the detector plane and an X-ray mask. It is the first coded-aperture X-ray telescope in a planetary mission, which combines the benefit of high X-ray throughput of wide-field collimation with imaging capability of a coded-mask, enabling detection of elemental surface distributions at approximately 50-200 m scales. We present an overview of the REXIS instrument and the expected performance.

  1. Study on two-dimensional distribution of X-ray image based on improved Elman algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Ming-Yuan; Tian, Feng-Shuo; Liu, Yu-Fang; Li, Lei; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The principle of the X-ray detector which can simultaneously perform the measurement of the exposure rate and 2D (two-dimensional) distribution is described. A commercially available CMOS image sensor has been adopted as the key part to receive X-ray without any scintillators. The correlation between the pixel value (PV) and the absorbed exposure rate of X-ray is studied using the improved Elman neural network. Comparing the optimal adjustment process of the BP (Back Propagation) neural network and the improved Elman neural network, the neural network parameters are selected based on the fitting curve and the error curve. The experiments using the practical production data show that the proposed method achieves high accurate predictions to 10 −15 , which is consistent with the anticipated value. It is proven that it is possible to detect the exposure rate using the X-ray detector with the improved Elman algorithm for its advantages of fast converges and smooth error curve. - Highlights: • A method to measure the X-ray radiation with low cost and miniaturization. • A general CMOS image sensor is used to detect X-ray. • The system can measure exposure rate and 2D distribution simultaneously. • The Elman algorithm is adopted to improve the precision of the radiation detector

  2. Image fusion in x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W.; Polyanskaya, M.; Bayer, F.; Gödel, K.; Hofmann, H.; Rieger, J.; Ritter, A.; Weber, T.; Wucherer, L.; Durst, J.; Michel, T.; Anton, G.; Hornegger, J.

    2012-02-01

    Phase-contrast imaging is a novel modality in the field of medical X-ray imaging. The pioneer method is the grating-based interferometry which has no special requirements to the X-ray source and object size. Furthermore, it provides three different types of information of an investigated object simultaneously - absorption, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. Differential phase-contrast and dark-field images represent a completely new information which has not yet been investigated and studied in context of medical imaging. In order to introduce phase-contrast imaging as a new modality into medical environment the resulting information about the object has to be correctly interpreted. The three output images reflect different properties of the same object the main challenge is to combine and visualize these data in such a way that it diminish the information explosion and reduce the complexity of its interpretation. This paper presents an intuitive image fusion approach which allows to operate with grating-based phase-contrast images. It combines information of the three different images and provides a single image. The approach is implemented in a fusion framework which is aimed to support physicians in study and analysis. The framework provides the user with an intuitive graphical user interface allowing to control the fusion process. The example given in this work shows the functionality of the proposed method and the great potential of phase-contrast imaging in medical practice.

  3. Experimental coherent X-ray diffractive imaging: capabilities and limitations of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schropp, Andreas

    2008-08-01

    The investigations pursued during this work were focused on the testing of the applicability of the coherent X-ray diffractive imaging(CXDI)-method in the hard X-ray regime and different measurements were carried out at photon energies between 7 keV and 10 keV. The samples investigated were lithographically prepared two-dimensional gold structures with a size ranging from 3 μm to 10 μm as well as a cluster of gold spheres with a lateral extension of about 3.5 μm. Continuous diffraction patterns were recorded in small angle scattering geometry. In some of the measurements a scattering signal up to the edge of the detector could be measured which corresponds to a lateral resolution of about 30 nm. For certain samples it was possible to reconstruct the object from the measured diffraction data. Since the scattered intensity of non-periodic objects is weak at large scattering angles, the available photon flux is finally the main limitation of the method with regard to the achievable resolution. The experimental data were used to get an estimate of photon flux required for sub-nanometer resolution. The ptychographic iterative phase retrieval algorithm proposed by J. M. Rodenburg et al. (2004) was implemented and tested on simulated diffraction data. Additionally, a genetic algorithm has been developed and implemented for phase retrieval. This algorithm is very different from state-of-the-art algorithms and allows to introduce further experimentally important parameters such as a certain illumination function and partial coherence of the X-ray light. (orig.)

  4. Guidelines on best practice in the X-ray imaging of children. A manual for all X-ray departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Pettett, A.; Shah, K.

    1998-01-01

    When we were first asked to participate in a CEC project looking at best practice in paediatric radiology, we did not appreciate how much our own practice could be improved. The department already had high standards of radiography. However, despite our initial reservations we found that by reassessing all our practices, including choice of screen/film systems, use of filters, grids and exposure factors we were able to standardise our techniques and reduce our doses in many areas by over 50%, while still maintaining diagnostic quality. The published European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images in Paediatrics (1996) was our initiative. They provide a combination of positioning and visibility criteria. Radiographs which do not meet these criteria are not thought to be diagnostic and alternatively aesthetically high quality radiographs which exceed these criteria are not deemed necessary. The reference dose levels in the European Guidelines are those above which corrective action should be taken. The dose measurements in our guidelines are much lower and represent what is achievable with the available equipment at QMHC, while still meeting the European Quality Criteria. A new age of Digital radiography is replacing conventional radiography. However, as digital techniques can mask high doses, careful observation of quality criteria and recommended technique is even more important to obtain the most benefit from these technical advances. Despite the time consuming nature of the initial study the whole department has benefited and we encourage all those involved in the X-ray imaging of children to consider re-evaluating their own practices using these guidelines as a reference for comparison. We recognise that all the recommendations given are entirely dependent on the range of equipment available and pathology expected but can be modified to meet individual departmental needs. If practices/ techniques; diagnostic quality of radiographs or

  5. Digital image analysis of X-ray television with an image digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Yasuo; Akaike, Hisahiko; Ogawa, Hitoshi; Kyuma, Yukishige

    1995-01-01

    When video signals of X-ray fluoroscopy were transformed from analog-to-digital ones with an image digitizer, their digital characteristic curves, pre-sampling MTF's and digital Wiener spectral could be measured. This method was advant ageous in that it was able to carry out data sampling because the pixel values inputted could be verified on a CRT. The system of image analysis by this method is inexpensive and effective in evaluating the image quality of digital system. Also, it is expected that this method can be used as a tool for learning the measurement techniques and physical characteristics of digital image quality effectively. (author)

  6. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. Methods: In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. Results: The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. Conclusions: In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers

  7. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers.

  8. Fluorescence imaging as a diagnostic of M-band x-ray drive condition in hohlraum with fluorescent Si targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Zhimin; Yao, Li; Huang, Chengwu; Yuan, Zheng; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Gang; Qing, Bo; Lv, Min; Zhu, Tuo; Deng, Bo; Li, Jin; Wei, Minxi; Zhan, Xiayu; Li, Jun; Yang, Yimeng; Su, Chunxiao; Yang, Guohong; Zhang, Jiyan; Li, Sanwei

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging of surrogate Si-doped CH targets has been used to provide a measurement for drive condition of high-energy x-ray (i.e. M-band x-ray) drive symmetry upon the capsule in hohlraum on Shenguang-II laser facility. A series of experiments dedicated to the study of photo-pumping and fluorescence effect in Si-plasma are presented. To investigate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging in Si-plasma, an silicon plasma in Si-foil target is pre-formed at ground state by the soft x-ray from a half-hohlraum, which is then photo-pumped by the K-shell lines from a spatially distinct laser-produced Si-plasma. The resonant Si photon pump is used to improve the fluorescence signal and cause visible image in the Si-foil. Preliminary fluorescence imaging of Si-ball target is performed in both Si-doped and pure Au hohlraum. The usual capsule at the center of the hohlraum is replaced with a solid Si-doped CH-ball (Si-ball). Since the fluorescence is proportional to the photon pump upon the Si-plasma, high-energy x-ray drive symmetry is equal to the fluorescence distribution of the Si-ball. (paper)

  9. Line x-ray source for diffraction enhanced imaging in clinical and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    Mammography is one type of imaging modalities that uses a low-dose x-ray or other radiation sources for examination of breasts. It plays a central role in early detection of breast cancers. The material similarity of tumor-cell and health cell, breast implants surgery and other factors, make the breast cancers hard to visualize and detect. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), first proposed and investigated by D. Chapman is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source, which produced images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. It shows dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging when applied to the same phantom. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also on the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. This imaging method may improve image quality of mammography, other medical applications, industrial radiography for non-destructive testing and x-ray computed tomography. However, the size, and cost, of a synchrotron source limits the application of the new modality to be applicable at clinical levels. This research investigates the feasibility of a designed line x-ray source to produce intensity compatible to synchrotron sources. It is composed of a 2-cm in length tungsten filament, installed on a carbon steel filament cup (backing plate), as the cathode and a stationary oxygen-free copper anode with molybdenum coating on the front surface serves as the target. Characteristic properties of the line x-ray source were computationally studied and the prototype was experimentally investigated. SIMIION code was used to computationally study the electron trajectories emanating from the filament towards the molybdenum target. A Faraday cup on the prototype device, proof-of-principle, was used to measure the distribution of electrons on the target, which compares favorably to computational results. The intensities of characteristic x-ray for molybdenum

  10. Imaging of metastatic lymph nodes by X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Haugaard Jensen

    Full Text Available Invasive cancer causes a change in density in the affected tissue, which can be visualized by x-ray phase-contrast tomography. However, the diagnostic value of this method has so far not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the purpose of this study was, in a blinded manner, to investigate whether malignancy could be revealed by non-invasive x-ray phase-contrast tomography in lymph nodes from breast cancer patients. Seventeen formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph nodes from 10 female patients (age range 37-83 years diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas were analyzed by X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Ten lymph nodes had metastatic deposits and 7 were benign. The phase-contrast images were analyzed according to standards for conventional CT images looking for characteristics usually only visible by pathological examinations. Histopathology was used as reference. The result of this study was that the diagnostic sensitivity of the image analysis for detecting malignancy was 100% and the specificity was 87%. The positive predictive value was 91% for detecting malignancy and the negative predictive value was 100%. We conclude that x-ray phase-contrast imaging can accurately detect density variations to obtain information regarding lymph node involvement previously inaccessible with standard absorption x-ray imaging.

  11. Multiframe, Single Line-of-Sight X-Ray Imager for Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    The purpose of this LDRD project was to demonstrate high spatial and temporal resolution x-ray imaging using optical detectors, and in particular the VISAR and OHRV diagnostics on the OMEGA laser. The x-ray source being imaged was a backlighter capsule being imploded by 39 beams of the OMEGA laser. In particular this approach utilized a semiconductor with the side facing the backlighter capsule coated with a thin aluminum layer to allow x rays to pass through the metal layer and then get absorbed in the semiconductor. The other side of the semiconductor was AR coated to allow the VISAR or OHRV probe beam to sample the phase change of the semiconductor as the x rays were absorbed in the semiconductor. This technique is capable of acquiring sub-picosecond 2-D or 1-D x-ray images, detector spatial resolution of better than 10 um and the ability to operate in a high neutron flux environment expected on ignition shots with burning plasmas. In addition to demonstrating this technique on the OMEGA laser, several designs were made to improve the phase sensitivity, temporal resolution and number of frames over the existing diagnostics currently implemented on the OMEGA laser. These designs included both 2-d imaging diagnostics as well as improved 1-D imaging diagnostics which were streaked in time.

  12. State-of-the-art and problems of X-ray diffraction analysis of biomacromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, N. S.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules is briefly characterized, and the challenge imposed by science is discussed. These studies are characterized by a wide scope and extensive use. This field of science is of great interest and is developed in many countries. The main purpose is to solve practical problems in medicine consisting in the design of drugs against various diseases. X-ray diffraction analysis of enzymes brought the pharmaceutical industry to a new level, thus allowing the rational design of drugs against formerly untreatable diseases. Modern X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules laid the basis for a new science called structural biology. This method allows one to solve fundamental problems of physical chemistry for a new state of matter existing in living systems. Here, science poses numerous problems in analysis of X-ray diffraction data on biological macromolecules. Many of theses problems are in their infancy

  13. Frameless image registration of X-ray CT and SPECT by volume matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuko; Kihara, Tomohiko; Yui, Nobuharu; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Yoshifumi.

    1998-01-01

    Image registration of functional (SPECT) and morphological (X-ray CT/MRI) images is studied in order to improve the accuracy and the quantity of the image diagnosis. We have developed a new frameless registration method of X-ray CT and SPECT image using transmission CT image acquired for absorption correction of SPECT images. This is the automated registration method and calculates the transformation matrix between the two coordinate systems of image data by the optimization method. This registration method is based on the similar physical property of X-ray CT and transmission CT image. The three-dimensional overlap of the bone region is used for image matching. We verified by a phantom test that it can provide a good result of within two millimeters error. We also evaluated visually the accuracy of the registration method by the application study of SPECT, X-ray CT, and transmission CT head images. This method can be carried out accurately without any frames. We expect this registration method becomes an efficient tool to improve image diagnosis and medical treatment. (author)

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Japanese monkey brains compared with X-ray photography and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Shinji; Matsuda, Keiji; Kawano, Kenji; Komatsu, Hidehiko; Yamane, Shigeru; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Nose, Tadao.

    1991-01-01

    The localization of a small target area in the brain is usually estimated by using stereotaxic atlases, assisted by X-ray photography or electrophysiological mapping, and determined finally by histological reconstruction. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can visualize, noninvasively cross sections in any plane of three dimensional structures of the brain. We compared images of MRI, X-ray, and histology from a monkey brain. A Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata, male, 11 kg) was anesthetised, fixed in a newly developed magnetic-free stereotaxic apparatus, and mounted in the MRI scanner unit (BRUKER, BIOSPEC 24/40, 2.4 Tesla). Some para-saggital (5 mm thick) and para-frontal (2.5 mm thick, every 5 mm distance) images were obtained. The outline of the bone on the MRI image was compared with that on the X-ray photograph taken by an X-ray instrument (Toshiba, TR-80A). The two images fitted very well. The animal was sacrificed, the brain was sliced in 100 μm and stained with Cresyl violet. The histological preparations were shrunk some 10 % during the process, which was revealed by comparison of MRI, X-ray, and histological images. In conclusion, MRI images are reliable enough to determine a small target in deep structures of the brain, and their superimposed images on X-rays will assist in identifying the location of electrode or needle tips. We constructed a data base of these MRI and histological images on a Macintosh computer, and they can be easily accessed by a mouse operation. (author)

  15. Clinical implementation of x-ray phase-contrast imaging: Theoretical foundations and design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical foundation and design considerations of a clinical feasible x-ray phase contrast imaging technique were presented in this paper. Different from the analysis of imaging phase object with weak absorption in literature, we proposed a new formalism for in-line phase-contrast imaging to analyze the effects of four clinically important factors on the phase contrast. These are the body parts attenuation, the spatial coherence of spherical waves from a finite-size focal spot, and polychromatic x-ray and radiation doses to patients for clinical applications. The theory presented in this paper can be applied widely in diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures. As an example, computer simulations were conducted and optimal design parameters were derived for clinical mammography. The results of phantom experiments were also presented which validated the theoretical analysis and computer simulations

  16. Refraction-enhanced tomosynthesis of a finger joint by X-ray dark-field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimao, Daisuke; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami

    2007-01-01

    A finger joint tomogram based on X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) was demonstrated using the simplest shift-and-add tomosynthesis algorithm. Raw XDFI image data for tomosynthesis were acquired in a total of 11 views through 10deg, in increments of 1deg, by rotating the object and detector synchronously. Incident X-ray energy was monochromatic 36.0 keV, derived from synchrotron radiation. The total dosage in acquiring 11 views for raw image data was equivalent to that of one XDFI image. A clear tomogram was obtained of a finger joint (including articular cartilage, which is invisible by conventional tomosynthesis) without an increase in X-ray dosage. (author)

  17. Characterization of LiF-based soft X-ray imaging detectors by confocal fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfigli, F; Gaudio, P; Lupelli, I; Nichelatti, E; Richetta, M; Vincenti, M A; Montereali, R M

    2010-01-01

    X-ray microscopy represents a powerful tool to obtain images of samples with very high spatial resolution. The main limitation of this technique is represented by the poor spatial resolution of standard imaging detectors. We proposed an innovative high-performance X-ray imaging detector based on the visible photoluminescence of colour centres in lithium fluoride. In this work, a confocal microscope in fluorescence mode was used to characterize LiF-based imaging detectors measuring CC integrated visible fluorescence signals of LiF crystals and films (grown on several kinds of substrates) irradiated by soft X-rays produced by a laser plasma source in different exposure conditions. The results are compared with the CC photoluminescence spectra measured on the same samples and discussed.

  18. MMX-I: data-processing software for multimodal X-ray imaging and tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Antoine; Medjoubi, Kadda; Messaoudi, Cédric; Marco, Sergio; Somogyi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    A new multi-platform freeware has been developed for the processing and reconstruction of scanning multi-technique X-ray imaging and tomography datasets. The software platform aims to treat different scanning imaging techniques: X-ray fluorescence, phase, absorption and dark field and any of their combinations, thus providing an easy-to-use data processing tool for the X-ray imaging user community. A dedicated data input stream copes with the input and management of large datasets (several hundred GB) collected during a typical multi-technique fast scan at the Nanoscopium beamline and even on a standard PC. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first software tool that aims at treating all of the modalities of scanning multi-technique imaging and tomography experiments.

  19. Imaging osteoarthritis in the knee joints using x-ray guided diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhen; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang, Huabei

    2010-02-01

    In our previous studies, near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) had been successfully applied to imaging osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints where significant difference in optical properties of the joint tissues was evident between healthy and OA finger joints. Here we report for the first time that large joints such as the knee can also be optically imaged especially when DOT is combined with x-ray tomosynthesis where the 3D image of the bones from x-ray is incorporated into the DOT reconstruction as spatial a priori structural information. This study demonstrates that NIR light can image large joints such as the knee in addition to finger joints, which will drastically broaden the clinical utility of our x-ray guided DOT technique for OA diagnosis.

  20. Penn State University ground software support for X-ray missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, L. K.; Nousek, J. A.; Corbet, R. H. D.

    1995-03-01

    The X-ray group at Penn State is charged with two software development efforts in support of X-ray satellite missions. As part of the ACIS instrument team for AXAF, the authors are developing part of the ground software to support the instrument's calibration. They are also designing a translation program for Ginga data, to change it from the non-standard FRF format, which closely parallels the original telemetry format, to FITS.