WorldWideScience

Sample records for state waters interactions

  1. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W A; Smalling, K L; Anderson, C; Calhoun, D; Chestnut, T; Muths, E

    2016-10-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for >90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature. Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to survive

  2. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Anderson, Chauncey; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for > 90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature.Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to

  3. Waters Without Borders: Scarcity and the Future of State Interactions over Shared Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    earth’s water is fresh water , stored in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, glaciers, permanent snow, groundwater aquifers, and the atmosphere. 10 This... freshwater resources between and within countries. 13 There is significant media attention given to intra-state water sharing issues. One...intrusion into coastal ground freshwater sources, among other effects. Consequently, water scarcity brought about by climate change could drive

  4. Special features of high-speed interaction of supercavitating solids in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishchenko, Aleksandr, E-mail: ichan@niipmm.tsu.ru; Afanas’eva, Svetlana, E-mail: s.a.afanasyeva@mail.ru; Burkin, Viktor, E-mail: v.v.burkin@mail.ru; Diachkovskii, Aleksei, E-mail: lex-okha@mail.ru; Korolkov, Leonid, E-mail: dmm1@sibmail.com; Moiseev, Dmitrii; Khabibullin, Marat, E-mail: lenmar07@rambler.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Akinshin, Ruslan, E-mail: rakinshin@yandex.ru; Borisenkov, Igor, E-mail: rakinshin@yandex.ru [Subdivision of applied problems under the RAS presidium 3, Gubkin St, Moscow, 117971 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Special features of material behavior of a supercavitating projectile are investigated at various initial velocities of entering water on the basis of the developed stress-strain state model with possibility of destruction of solids when moving in water and interacting with various underwater barriers with the use of consistent methodological approach of mechanics of continuous media. The calculation-experimental method was used to study the modes of motion of supercavitating projectiles at sub- and supersonic velocities in water medium after acceleration in the barrelled accelerator, as well as their interaction with barriers. Issues of stabilization of the supercavitating projectile on the initial flight path in water were studied. Microphotographs of state of solids made of various materials, before and after interaction with water, at subsonic and supersonic velocities were presented. Supersonic velocity of the supercavitating projectile motion in water of 1590 m/s was recorded.

  5. Special features of high-speed interaction of supercavitating solids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchenko, Aleksandr; Afanas’eva, Svetlana; Burkin, Viktor; Diachkovskii, Aleksei; Korolkov, Leonid; Moiseev, Dmitrii; Khabibullin, Marat; Akinshin, Ruslan; Borisenkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Special features of material behavior of a supercavitating projectile are investigated at various initial velocities of entering water on the basis of the developed stress-strain state model with possibility of destruction of solids when moving in water and interacting with various underwater barriers with the use of consistent methodological approach of mechanics of continuous media. The calculation-experimental method was used to study the modes of motion of supercavitating projectiles at sub- and supersonic velocities in water medium after acceleration in the barrelled accelerator, as well as their interaction with barriers. Issues of stabilization of the supercavitating projectile on the initial flight path in water were studied. Microphotographs of state of solids made of various materials, before and after interaction with water, at subsonic and supersonic velocities were presented. Supersonic velocity of the supercavitating projectile motion in water of 1590 m/s was recorded

  6. Wood–water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the performance of wood for decades ahead is important when using the material for structural purposes. The performance is closely related to the hierarchical material structure of wood and the dependent interaction with water in the structure. Accurately predicting wood performance...... therefore requires an understanding of material structure from molecular to macroscopic level as well as of the impact of water molecules. The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of wood in terms of mechanical response of the material and effect of water. To understand the latter, one...... must first know in which parts of the wood structure, water is located. If parts of the water in wood are held in capillaries in the wood structure, these water molecules interact with the material differently than those held within wood cell walls. In this study, the occurrence of capillary water...

  7. Investigating the Interaction of Water Vapour with Aminopropyl Groups on the Surface of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Geo; Musso, Giorgia Elena; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Cossi, Maurizio; Marchese, Leonardo; Berlier, Gloria

    2017-04-05

    The interaction of water molecules with the surface of hybrid silica-based mesoporous materials is studied by 29 Si, 1 H and 13 C solid-state NMR and IR spectroscopy, with the support of ab initio calculations. The surface of aminopropyl-grafted mesoporous silica nanoparticles is studied in the dehydrated state and upon interaction with controlled doses of water vapour. Former investigations described the interactions between aminopropyl and residual SiOH groups; the present study shows the presence of hydrogen-bonded species (SiOH to NH 2 ) and weakly interacting "free" aminopropyl chains with restricted mobility, together with a small amount of protonated NH 3 + groups. The concentration of the last-named species increased upon interaction with water, and this indicates reversible and fast proton exchange from water molecules to a fraction of the amino groups. Herein, this is discussed and explained for the first time, by a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  9. Novel Structures for the Excess Electron State of the Water Hexamer and the Interaction Forces Governing the Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The geometrical and electronic structures of partially hydrated electron systems, in particular, the water hexamer, which have been controversial for decades, have been clarified by an exhaustive search for possible low-lying energy structures. Several competing interaction forces governing the conformation have been examined for the first time. The low-lying energy structures are hybrid (or partially internal and partially surface) excess electron states. Our prediction is evidenced from excellent agreements with available experimental data. The vertical electron-detachment energies are mainly determined by the number of dangling H atoms (H d ) . copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Relationships of stable isotopes, water-rock interaction and salinization in fractured aquifers, Petrolina region, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Sousa, E-mail: priscila.silva@cprm.gov.br [Serviço Geológico do Brasil (CPRM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Campos, José Eloi Guimarães; Cunha, Luciano Soares; Mancini, Luís Henrique, E-mail: eloi@unb.br, E-mail: lucianosc@unb.br, E-mail: lmancini@unb.br [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    The Petrolina County, Pernambuco State, Brazil, presents specificities that make it unique from a hydrogeological point of view. Water resource scarcity is both a quantitative and qualitative issue. The climate is classified as semiarid, having low precipitation, along with high temperatures and evapotranspiration rates. Aquifer zones are related to low connected fractures resulting in a restricted water flow in the aquifer. The recharge is limited and the groundwater salinity is high. Stable isotope analyses of H and O were developed in groundwater samples (with different electrical conductivity) and surface water collected in a bypass channel flowing from the São Francisco River. The results were plotted in a δD ‰ versus δ{sup 18}O ‰ graph along with the curves of the global and local meteoric water line. Groundwater samples showed unexpected results showing a lighter sign pattern when compared to the meteoric waters. More negative δD and δ{sup 18}O values indicate an enrichment in light isotopes, which show that this process is not influenced by surface processes, where the enrichment occurs in heavy isotopes due to evaporation. The isotopic signature observed is interpreted either as resulting from the water-rock interaction, or as resulting from recharge from paleo rains. The waters are old and show restricted flow. So the water-rock contact time is extended. In the rock weathering processes, through the hydration of feldspars, there is preferential assimilation of heavy isotopes at the expense of the lighter ones that remain in the water. Analyses of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and isotopic groundwater dating assist in the interpretations. (author)

  11. A critical discussion of the physics of wood–water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund; Thygesen, L. G.; Svensson, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews recent findings on wood–water interaction and puts them into context of established knowledge in the field. Several new findings challenge prevalent theories and are critically discussed in an attempt to advance current knowledge and highlight gaps. The focus of this review...... is put on water in the broadest concept of wood products, that is, the living tree is not considered. Moreover, the review covers the basic wood–water relation, states and transitions. Secondary effects such as the ability of water to alter physical properties of wood are only discussed in cases where...

  12. Three-dimensional model of the thermo-hydrodynamic neutron interaction in the core of water reactors (stationary states)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Victor.

    1977-01-01

    A thermo-hydrodynamic neutron interaction model for permanent working conditions is developed in the case of closed circuits (boiling water reactors) and open circuits (pressurized water reactors). Two numerical convergence acceleration methods are then worked out for the resolution of linear problems by successive iterations. A physical study is devoted to the convergence of the thermo-hydrodynamic neutron interaction process. The model developed is applied to the calculation of the power distribution for the core of a 980 MWe BWR-6 type boiling water power station and to the study of normal and accidental working configurations of the pressurized water core of a 900 MWe PWR-CP1 unit [fr

  13. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, Roland [Institute for Earth Sciences - ISTerre, CNRS UMR 5275 Grenoble (France); Pitsch, Helmut [IRSN, DSDP, SPIIC, BP17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    The 14. edition of the International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction was held from 9-14 June 2013 in the Palais des Papes in the historic city of Avignon, located in southeastern France. As is the tradition with WRI symposia, earth scientists and guests from around the world convened over a week's time to exchange the latest ideas, advances, and data covering some of the most important aspects of rock-water interactions. The research that was presented in both oral and poster format covered studies derived from experimental and laboratory work, modeling and theoretical approaches, and field measurements. The presentations at the symposium showed the immense range of conditions associated with natural, experimental, and theoretical rock-water systems, encompassing a wide range of pH, as well as temperature and pressure conditions ranging from ambient to beyond the critical point of water. In addition, as can be evidenced from the presentations, many water-rock systems are increasingly being described in terms of control by both abiotic and biogeochemical processes. Advances in fundamental WRI research are also making significant contributions to better understanding current environmental problems, which are quite often highlighted in today's media headlines. Reflecting the importance of these environmental and societal challenges, an important number of presentations in this symposium described the current state of the knowledge concerning acid mine drainage, geological CO{sub 2} sequestration, shale gas extraction, aquifer salinization and diminishing potable water resources, and nuclear waste storage. Some 260 manuscripts were submitted to WRI-14 by scientists from 37 countries. Each manuscript was peer reviewed for scientific content by two reviewers. In the end, 230 manuscripts were accepted for either oral or poster presentation at the symposium. Each one of these papers can be found in this special symposium volume. The WRI-14 symposium has been

  14. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, Roland; Pitsch, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The 14. edition of the International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction was held from 9-14 June 2013 in the Palais des Papes in the historic city of Avignon, located in southeastern France. As is the tradition with WRI symposia, earth scientists and guests from around the world convened over a week's time to exchange the latest ideas, advances, and data covering some of the most important aspects of rock-water interactions. The research that was presented in both oral and poster format covered studies derived from experimental and laboratory work, modeling and theoretical approaches, and field measurements. The presentations at the symposium showed the immense range of conditions associated with natural, experimental, and theoretical rock-water systems, encompassing a wide range of pH, as well as temperature and pressure conditions ranging from ambient to beyond the critical point of water. In addition, as can be evidenced from the presentations, many water-rock systems are increasingly being described in terms of control by both abiotic and biogeochemical processes. Advances in fundamental WRI research are also making significant contributions to better understanding current environmental problems, which are quite often highlighted in today's media headlines. Reflecting the importance of these environmental and societal challenges, an important number of presentations in this symposium described the current state of the knowledge concerning acid mine drainage, geological CO 2 sequestration, shale gas extraction, aquifer salinization and diminishing potable water resources, and nuclear waste storage. Some 260 manuscripts were submitted to WRI-14 by scientists from 37 countries. Each manuscript was peer reviewed for scientific content by two reviewers. In the end, 230 manuscripts were accepted for either oral or poster presentation at the symposium. Each one of these papers can be found in this special symposium volume. The WRI-14 symposium has been

  15. Water dynamics as affected by interaction with biomolecules and change of thermodynamic state: a neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orecchini, A; Paciaroni, A; Petrillo, C; Sebastiani, F; Sacchetti, F; De Francesco, A

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of water as subtly perturbed by both the interaction with biomolecules and the variation of temperature and pressure has been investigated via neutron scattering spectroscopy. A measurement of inelastic neutron scattering devoted to the study of the coherent THz dynamics of water in a water-rich mixture with DNA (hydration level of 1 g DNA/15 g D 2 O) at room temperature is reported. The DNA hydration water coherent dynamics is characterised by the presence of collective modes, whose dispersion relations are similar to those observed in bulk water. These dispersion relations are well described by the interaction model developed in the case of bulk water, and the existence of a fast sound is experimentally demonstrated. The behaviour of the collective water dynamics was complemented by studying the single-particle dynamics of bulk water along the isotherm T = 298 K in the pressure range 0.1-350 MPa by means of incoherent scattering. This experiment is an attempt to simulate the change of the water molecular arrangement due to the interaction with DNA, by increasing the pressure as the presence of the biomolecule produces an increase in the density. An anomaly is found in the behaviour of the relaxation time derived from the quasi-elastic scattering signal, which can be related to the hypothetical second critical point in water. This anomaly and the transition from slow to fast sound take place in the same Q range, thus suggesting that the two phenomena could be related at some microscopic level.

  16. The interaction between hexagonal boron nitride and water from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanbin; Aluru, Narayana R., E-mail: aluru@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wagner, Lucas K. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    The use of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in microfluidic and nanofluidic applications requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction between water and the h-BN surface. A crucial component of the interaction is the binding energy, which is sensitive to the treatment of electron correlation. In this work, we use state of the art quantum Monte Carlo and quantum chemistry techniques to compute the binding energy. Compared to high-level many-body theory, we found that the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory captures the interaction accurately and can thus be used to develop force field parameters between h-BN and water for use in atomic scale simulations. On the contrary, density functional theory with standard dispersion corrections tends to overestimate the binding energy by approximately 75%.

  17. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  18. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  19. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  20. Groundwater-surface water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.A.; Clausen, B.; Hunt, B.; Cameron, S.; Weir, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses natural and modified interactions between groundwater and surface water. Theory on recharge to groundwater from rivers is introduced, and the relative importance of groundwater recharge from rivers is illustrated with an example from the Ngaruroro River, Hawke's Bay. Some of the techniques used to identify and measure recharge to groundwater from gravel-bed rivers will be outlined, with examples from the Ngaruroro River, where the recharge reach is relatively well defined, and from the Rakaia River, where it is poorly defined. Groundwater recharged from rivers can have characteristic chemical and isotopic signatures, as shown by Waimakariri River water in the Christchurch-West Melton groundwater system. The incorporation of groundwater-river interaction in a regional groundwater flow model is outlined for the Waimea Plains, and relationships between river scour and groundwater recharge are examined for the Waimakariri River. Springs are the result of natural discharge from groundwater systems and are important water sources. The interactions between groundwater systems, springs, and river flow for the Avon River in New Zealand will be outlined. The theory of depletion of stream flow by groundwater pumpage will be introduced with a case study from Canterbury, and salt-water intrusion into groundwater systems with examples from Nelson and Christchurch. The theory of artificial recharge to groundwater systems is introduced with a case study from Hawke's Bay. Wetlands are important to flora, and the relationship of the wetland environment to groundwater hydrology will be discussed, with an example from the South Taupo wetland. (author). 56 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Water's Interfacial Hydrogen Bonding Structure Reveals the Effective Strength of Surface-Water Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sucheol; Willard, Adam P

    2018-06-05

    We combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with a mean field model of interfacial hydrogen bonding to analyze the effect of surface-water interactions on the structural and energetic properties of the liquid water interface. We show that the molecular structure of water at a weakly interacting ( i.e., hydrophobic) surface is resistant to change unless the strength of surface-water interactions are above a certain threshold. We find that below this threshold water's interfacial structure is homogeneous and insensitive to the details of the disordered surface, however, above this threshold water's interfacial structure is heterogeneous. Despite this heterogeneity, we demonstrate that the equilibrium distribution of molecular orientations can be used to quantify the energetic component of the surface-water interactions that contribute specifically to modifying the interfacial hydrogen bonding network. We identify this specific energetic component as a new measure of hydrophilicity, which we refer to as the intrinsic hydropathy.

  2. Conceptualizing Biopolitics: Citizen-State Interactions in the Securing of Water Services in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulled, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite constitutional obligations to provide clean water to all citizens in South Africa, access to water and related services remains highly contested. The discord between constitutional promises and lived realities of water access, particularly through national infrastructure, provides a platform on which to examine Foucauldian notions of biopolitics, the control of populations through technologies of governing. Drawing on the situations of residents in the rural Vhembe district in the north eastern corner of the country, I examine how individuals conceptualize the relationship that exists between citizen and state and the responsibilities of each in post-Apartheid South Africa as it relates to water access. In addition, I describe strategies employed throughout South Africa to voice rights to water and how these approaches are perceived. Finally, I consider how the three primary forms of 'water citizenship'-citizen, agent, and subject-influence the current and future health of vulnerable residents.

  3. Energetics of the protein-DNA-water interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marabotti Anna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the energetics of the interaction between protein and DNA we analyzed 39 crystallographically characterized complexes with the HINT (Hydropathic INTeractions computational model. HINT is an empirical free energy force field based on solvent partitioning of small molecules between water and 1-octanol. Our previous studies on protein-ligand complexes demonstrated that free energy predictions were significantly improved by taking into account the energetic contribution of water molecules that form at least one hydrogen bond with each interacting species. Results An initial correlation between the calculated HINT scores and the experimentally determined binding free energies in the protein-DNA system exhibited a relatively poor r2 of 0.21 and standard error of ± 1.71 kcal mol-1. However, the inclusion of 261 waters that bridge protein and DNA improved the HINT score-free energy correlation to an r2 of 0.56 and standard error of ± 1.28 kcal mol-1. Analysis of the water role and energy contributions indicate that 46% of the bridging waters act as linkers between amino acids and nucleotide bases at the protein-DNA interface, while the remaining 54% are largely involved in screening unfavorable electrostatic contacts. Conclusion This study quantifies the key energetic role of bridging waters in protein-DNA associations. In addition, the relevant role of hydrophobic interactions and entropy in driving protein-DNA association is indicated by analyses of interaction character showing that, together, the favorable polar and unfavorable polar/hydrophobic-polar interactions (i.e., desolvation mostly cancel.

  4. State of dissolved water in triglycerides as determined by Fourier transform infrared and near infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashige, J. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Takaoka, K.; Takasago, M.; Taru, Y.; Kobayashi, K. (Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-20

    The states of dissolved water in triglycerides (TG) such as tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, and compared with those of water itself. In the case of water, its states were considered to be mainly polymer clusters larger than dimer ones at 20{degree}C, and mostly monomer or dimer clusters at 120{degree}C. In TG, the states varied widely from monomer to polymer clusters at 20{degree}C. The distribution ratios of the water clusters observed in TG depended on the kinds of fatty acids of TG, and the water state was noted to change due to the interaction between unsaturated bonds and dissolved water. Although the states of dissolved water in trilinolein were similar to those of original water at 20{degree}C, the ratio of monomer water decreased and polymer clusters bigger than those in original water increased with an increase in number of unsaturated bonds of TG. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  6. Water-Protein Interactions: The Secret of Protein Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-protein interactions help to maintain flexible conformation conditions which are required for multifunctional protein recognition processes. The intimate relationship between the protein surface and hydration water can be analyzed by studying experimental water properties measured in protein systems in solution. In particular, proteins in solution modify the structure and the dynamics of the bulk water at the solute-solvent interface. The ordering effects of proteins on hydration water are extended for several angstroms. In this paper we propose a method for analyzing the dynamical properties of the water molecules present in the hydration shells of proteins. The approach is based on the analysis of the effects of protein-solvent interactions on water protons NMR relaxation parameters. NMR relaxation parameters, especially the nonselective (R1NS and selective (R1SE spin-lattice relaxation rates of water protons, are useful for investigating the solvent dynamics at the macromolecule-solvent interfaces as well as the perturbation effects caused by the water-macromolecule interactions on the solvent dynamical properties. In this paper we demonstrate that Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy can be used to determine the dynamical contributions of proteins to the water molecules belonging to their hydration shells.

  7. The interaction of CsCl with films of solid water

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, A; Krischok, S; Kempter, V

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of CsCl molecules with films of solid water (three layers thick, typically), deposited on a tungsten crystal at 130 K, was studied. Metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES) and UPS(HeI) were applied to study the emission from Cl3p and Cs5p and the highest occupied states 1b sub 1 , 3a sub 1 and 1b sub 2 of molecular water. Below a critical stoichiometry of about CsCl centre dot nH sub 2 O with n=6 the UPS spectra are quite similar to those from chlorides solvated in liquid water in as much as the relative positions and intensities of the water and salt features are concerned; very little emission from the ionization of Cl3p and Cs5p is observed with MIES. We conclude that the CsCl molecules become solvated in the water film. As long as n>6, the water spectrum remains characteristic for condensed water; at n6, water molecules not involved directly into the hydration of the salt molecules desorb around 140 K. Around 160 K all water has disappeared from the surface. Above this temperature o...

  8. 50 CFR 648.54 - State waters exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State waters exemption. 648.54 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.54 State waters exemption. (a) State eligibility for exemption. (1) A state may be eligible for a state waters exemption if it has a scallop fishery and a scallop...

  9. Regional Analysis of Energy, Water, Land and Climate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Averyt, K.; Harriss, R. C.; Hibbard, K. A.; Newmark, R. L.; Rose, S. K.; Shevliakova, E.; Wilson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, water, and land systems interact in many ways and are impacted by management and climate change. These systems and their interactions often differ in significant ways from region-to-region. To explore the coupled energy-water-land system and its relation to climate change and management a simple conceptual model of demand, endowment and technology (DET) is proposed. A consistent and comparable analysis framework is needed as climate change and resource management practices have the potential to impact each DET element, resource, and region differently. These linkages are further complicated by policy and trade agreements where endowments of one region are used to meet demands in another. This paper reviews the unique DET characteristics of land, energy and water resources across the United States. Analyses are conducted according to the eight geographic regions defined in the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Evident from the analyses are regional differences in resources endowments in land (strong East-West gradient in forest, cropland and desert), water (similar East-West gradient), and energy. Demands likewise vary regionally reflecting differences in population density and endowment (e.g., higher water use in West reflecting insufficient precipitation to support dryland farming). The effect of technology and policy are particularly evident in differences in the energy portfolios across the eight regions. Integrated analyses that account for the various spatial and temporal differences in regional energy, water and land systems are critical to informing effective policy requirements for future energy, climate and resource management. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Mössbauer spectroscopy research of interaction of alumosilicic reagent and iron dissolved in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feklistov, D Y; Filippov, V P; Kurchatov, I M; Laguntsov, N I; Salomasov, V A; Permyakov, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to reveal the results of alumosilicic reagent interaction with iron compounds contained in the water. This reagent is simultaneously coagulant-flocculant and adsorbent. The iron atoms state is studied in the reagent and in reacted sediment. The valence state of iron atoms are determined in the reagents and sediments. The existence of iron containing superparamagnetic particles in the sediment is shown. (paper)

  11. Liquid nitrogen - water interaction experiments for fusion reactor accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.; Murphy, J.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Corradini, M.

    2001-01-01

    With the implementation of superconducting magnets in fusion reactors, the possibility exists for the interaction between water and cryogenic systems. The interaction between liquid nitrogen and water was investigated experimentally and numerically. The rate of pressurization and peak pressure were found to be driven thermodynamically by the expansion of the water and the boil-off of the liquid nitrogen and did not have a vapor explosion nature. Since the peak pressure was small in comparison to previous work with stratified geometries, the role of the geometry of the interacting fluids has been shown to be significant. Comparisons of the peak pressure and the rate of pressurization with respect to the ratio of the liquid nitrogen mass to water mass reveal no functional dependence as was observed in the liquid helium-water experiments. A simple thermodynamic model provides a fairly good description of the pressure rise data. From the data, the model will allow one to extract the interaction area of the water. As with previous liquid helium-water interaction experiments, more extensive investigation of the mass ratio and interaction geometry is needed to define boundaries between explosive and non-explosive conditions. (authors)

  12. Lowest auto-detachment state of the water anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houfek, K.; Cizek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the abundance of water in living tissue the reactive low-energy electron collisions with the water molecule represent an important step in the radiation damage of cells. In this paper, the potential energy surface of the ground state of the water anion H_2O"- is carefully mapped using multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations for a large range of molecular geometries. Particular attention is paid to a consistent description of both the O"-+H_2 and OH"-+H asymptotes and to a relative position of the anion energy to the ground state energy of the neutral molecule. The auto-detachment region, where the anion state crosses to the electronic continuum is identified. The local minimum in the direction of the O"- + H_2 channel previously reported by Werner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2913 (1987)] is found to be slightly off the linear geometry and is separated by a saddle from the auto-detachment region. The auto-detachment region is directly accessible from the OH"-+H asymptote. For the molecular geometries in the auto-detachment region and in its vicinity we also performed fixed-nuclei electron-molecule scattering calculations using the R-matrix method. Tuning of consistency of a description of the correlation energy in both the multireference CI and R-matrix calculations is discussed. Two models of the correlation energy within the R-matrix method that are consistent with the quantum chemistry calculations are found. Both models yield scattering quantities in a close agreement. The results of this work will allow a consistent formulation of the nonlocal resonance model of the water anion in a future publication

  13. Interaction of surface water and groundwater in the Nile River basin: isotopic and piezometric evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Seifu; Abdalla, Osman; Sefelnasr, Ahmed; Tindimugaya, Callist; Mustafa, Osman

    2017-05-01

    Past discussions around water-resources management and development in the River Nile basin disregard groundwater resources from the equation. There is an increasing interest around factoring the groundwater resources as an integral part of the Nile Basin water resources. This is hampered by knowledge gap regarding the groundwater resources dynamics (recharge, storage, flow, quality, surface-water/groundwater interaction) at basin scale. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the state of surface-water/groundwater interaction from the headwater to the Nile Delta region. Piezometric and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H) evidence reveal that the Nile changes from a gaining stream in the headwater regions to mostly a loosing stream in the arid lowlands of Sudan and Egypt. Specific zones of Nile water leakage to the adjacent aquifers is mapped using the two sources of evidence. Up to 50% of the surface-water flow in the equatorial region of the Nile comes from groundwater as base flow. The evidence also shows that the natural direction and rate of surface-water/groundwater interaction is largely perturbed by human activities (diversion, dam construction) particularly downstream of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. The decrease in discharge of the Nile River along its course is attributed to leakage to the aquifers as well as to evaporative water loss from the river channel. The surface-water/groundwater interaction occurring along the Nile River and its sensitivity to infrastructure development calls for management strategies that account groundwater as an integral part of the Nile Basin resources.

  14. Combined stable isotope trajectories for water-rock interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1981-01-01

    The 'mixed' model of water-rock interaction (1980 Workshop) is explained in detail. Based on the magnitude of the oxygen isotope shifts of their recharge water, different geothermal systems can be placed in an evolutionary series, from incipient (large shift of water) to mature (small shift of water). Isotopes of different chemical elements may be combined, to yield a stringent test of whether or not a given change in rock composition may be ascribed to interaction with water (L-shaped trajectories). For the acidic eruptives of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, available strontium and oxygen isotope data practically rule out an origin by partial melting of greywacke basement

  15. Interaction of acetonitrile with thin films of solid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, S.; Kempter, V.

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of water were prepared on Ag at 124 K. Their properties were studied with metastable impact electron spectroscopy, reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption. The interaction of acetonitrile (ACN) with these films was studied with the abovementioned techniques. From the absence of any infrared activity in the initial adsorption stage, it is concluded that ACN adsorbs linearly and that the C≡N axis is aligned parallel to the water surface (as also found on neat Ag). Initially, the interaction with water surface species involves their dangling OD groups. During the completion of the first adlayer the ACN-ACN lateral interaction becomes of importance as well, and the ACN molecules become tilted with respect to the water surface. ACN shows propensity to stay at the surface after surface adsorption even during annealing up to the onset of desorption. The present results for the ACN-water interaction are compared with available classical molecular dynamics calculations providing the orientation profile for ACN on water as well as the ACN bonding properties.

  16. Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Downstream Transport of Water, Heat, and Solutes in a Hydropeaked River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, S. B.; Cardenas, M. B.; Neilson, B. T.; Watson, J.

    2017-12-01

    A majority of the world's largest river systems are regulated by dams. In addition to being used for water resources management and flood prevention, many large dams are also used for hydroelectric power generation. In the United States, dams account for 7% of domestic electricity, and hydropower accounts for 16% of worldwide electricity production. To help meet electricity demand during peak usage times, hydropower utilities often increase their releases of water during high demand periods. This practice, termed hydropeaking, can cause large transient flow regimes downstream of hydroelectric dams. These transient flow increases can result in order of magnitude daily fluctuations in discharge, and the released water can have different thermal and chemical properties than ambient river water. As hydropeaking releases travel downstream, the temporary rise in stage and increase in discharge can enhance surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) exchange between the river and its alluvial aquifer. This dam-induced SW-GW exchange, combined with hydrodynamic attenuation and heat exchange processes, result in complex responses downstream. The dam-regulated Lower Colorado River downstream of Austin, TX was used as a natural laboratory to observe SW-GW interactions and downstream transport of water, heat, and solutes under hydropeaking conditions. To characterize SW-GW interactions, well transects were installed in the banks of the river to observe exchanges between the river and alluvial aquifer. The well transects were installed at three different distances from the dam (15km, 35km, and 80km). At each well transect conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors were deployed in the monitoring wells and in the channel. Additional conductivity and temperature sensors were deployed along the study reach to provide a more detailed record of heat and solute transport during hydropeaking releases. The field data spans over two months of daily dam releases that were punctuated by two

  17. Channel water balance and exchange with subsurface flow along a mountain headwater stream in Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Payn; M.N. Gooseff; B.L. McGlynn; K.E. Bencala; S.M. Wondzell

    2009-01-01

    Channel water balances of contiguous reaches along streams represent a poorly understood scale of stream-subsurface interaction. We measured reach water balances along a headwater stream in Montana, United States, during summer base flow recessions. Reach water balances were estimated from series of tracer tests in 13 consecutive reaches delineated evenly along a 2.6-...

  18. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  19. STABLE STATIONARY STATES OF NON-LOCAL INTERACTION EQUATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    FELLNER, KLEMENS

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the large-time behaviour of a solution to a non-local interaction equation, where a density of particles/individuals evolves subject to an interaction potential and an external potential. It is known that for regular interaction potentials, stable stationary states of these equations are generically finite sums of Dirac masses. For a finite sum of Dirac masses, we give (i) a condition to be a stationary state, (ii) two necessary conditions of linear stability w.r.t. shifts and reallocations of individual Dirac masses, and (iii) show that these linear stability conditions imply local non-linear stability. Finally, we show that for regular repulsive interaction potential Wε converging to a singular repulsive interaction potential W, the Dirac-type stationary states ρ̄ ε approximate weakly a unique stationary state ρ̄ ∈ L∞. We illustrate our results with numerical examples. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  20. The anomalous halogen bonding interactions between chlorine and bromine with water in clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureckova, Hana; Woo, Tom K; Udachin, Konstantin A; Ripmeester, John A; Alavi, Saman

    2017-10-13

    Clathrate hydrate phases of Cl 2 and Br 2 guest molecules have been known for about 200 years. The crystal structure of these phases was recently re-determined with high accuracy by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In these structures, the water oxygen-halogen atom distances are determined to be shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii, which indicates the action of some type of non-covalent interaction between the dihalogens and water molecules. Given that in the hydrate phases both lone pairs of each water oxygen atom are engaged in hydrogen bonding with other water molecules of the lattice, the nature of the oxygen-halogen interactions may not be the standard halogen bonds characterized recently in the solid state materials and enzyme-substrate compounds. The nature of the halogen-water interactions for the Cl 2 and Br 2 molecules in two isolated clathrate hydrate cages has recently been studied with ab initio calculations and Natural Bond Order analysis (Ochoa-Resendiz et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 145, 161104). Here we present the results of ab initio calculations and natural localized molecular orbital analysis for Cl 2 and Br 2 guests in all cage types observed in the cubic structure I and tetragonal structure I clathrate hydrates to characterize the orbital interactions between the dihalogen guests and water. Calculations with isolated cages and cages with one shell of coordinating molecules are considered. The computational analysis is used to understand the nature of the halogen bonding in these materials and to interpret the guest positions in the hydrate cages obtained from the X-ray crystal structures.

  1. Hexagonal boron nitride and water interaction parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanbin; Aluru, Narayana R., E-mail: aluru@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wagner, Lucas K. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The study of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in microfluidic and nanofluidic applications at the atomic level requires accurate force field parameters to describe the water-hBN interaction. In this work, we begin with benchmark quality first principles quantum Monte Carlo calculations on the interaction energy between water and hBN, which are used to validate random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. We then proceed with RPA to derive force field parameters, which are used to simulate water contact angle on bulk hBN, attaining a value within the experimental uncertainties. This paper demonstrates that end-to-end multiscale modeling, starting at detailed many-body quantum mechanics and ending with macroscopic properties, with the approximations controlled along the way, is feasible for these systems.

  2. Water Services in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: How Does State Regulation Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Verónica Rocca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the State regulation of drinking water and sanitation services in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Its main objective is to identify the continuities and ruptures in State regulation during the transition from private management (1993-2006 to renationalisation and State management (2006 onwards. The concept of “State capacities” (both administrative and relational is used to assess regulatory performance. For the administrative capacities, the correspondence between the design and resources of the agencies, as well as the differences between their formal functions and actual practices, is examined. For the relational capacities, the policies of the National Government and its interaction with both the water and sanitation companies and the regulatory and control agencies are considered. The analysis is based on official documents, legislation and statistics, company balance sheets and reports, newspaper articles and semi-structured interviews.

  3. Ground water chemistry and water-rock interaction at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Front, K.

    1992-02-01

    Bedrock investigations for the final repository for low- and intermediate level wastes (VLJ repository) generated at the Olkiluoto (TVO-I and TVO-II) nuclear power plant, stareted in 1980. Since 1988 the area has been investigated for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the report the geochemistry at the nuclear waste investigation site, Olkiluoto, is evaluated. The hydrogeological data are collected from boreholes drilled down to 1000-m depth into Proterozoic crystalline bedrock. The interpretation is based on groundwater chemistry and isotope data, mineralogical data, and the structure and hydrology of the bedrock, using correlation diagrams and thermodynamic calculations (PHREEQE). The hydrogeochemistry and major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry are discussed. The groundwater types are characterized by water-rock interaction but they also show features of other origins. The fresh and brackish waters are contaminated by varying amounts of young meteoric water and brackish seawater. The saline water contains residues of possibly ancient hydrothermal waters, imprints of which are occasionally seen in the rock itself. Different mixing phenomenas are indicated by the isotope contents (O-l8/H-2, H-3) and the Ca/Cl, Na/Cl, HCO 3 /Cl, SO 4 /Cl, Br/Cl, SI(calcite)/SI(dolomite) ratios. The interaction between bedrock and groundwater is reflected by the behaviour of pH, Eh, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, HCO 3 and S0 4 . Dissolution and precipitation of calcite and pyrite, and aluminosilicate hydrolysis play the major role in defining the groundwater composition of the above components

  4. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State...) The integration of water quantity and water quality planning and management; (ii) The protection and... integration of ground and surface water planning and management; and (v) Water conservation. (4) Identify...

  5. Extant or Absent: Formation Water in New York State Drinking Water Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, K.; Lautz, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    The current moratorium on hydraulic fracturing in New York State (NYS) provides an opportunity to collect baseline shallow groundwater quality data pre-hydraulic fracturing, which is essential for determining the natural variability of groundwater chemistry and to evaluate future claims of impaired groundwater quality if hydraulic fracturing occurs in the State. Concerns regarding the future environmental impact of shale gas extraction in NYS include potential shallow groundwater contamination due to migration of methane or formation water from shale gas extraction sites. Treatment, storage and disposal of saline flowback fluids after gas extraction could also be a source of water contamination. In this study, we combine southern NYS shallow groundwater chemistry data from Project Shale-Water Interaction Forensic Tools (SWIFT, n=60), the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program (NURE, n=684), and the USGS 305(b) Ambient Groundwater Quality Monitoring program (USGS, n=89) to examine evidence of formation water mixing with groundwater using the methodology of Warner et al. (2012). Groundwater characterized as low salinity (20 mg/L Cl-). A plot of bromide versus chloride shows high salinity groundwater samples with Br/Cl ratios >0.0001 fall on the mixing line between low salinity groundwater and Appalachian Basin formation water. Based on the observed linear relationship between bromide and chloride, it appears there is up to 1% formation water mixing with shallow groundwater in the region. The presence of formation water in shallow groundwater would indicate the existence of natural migratory pathways between deep formation wells and shallow groundwater aquifers. A plot of sodium versus chloride also illustrates a linear trend for Type D waters (R^2= 0.776), but the relationship is weaker than that for bromide versus chloride (R^2= 0.924). Similar linear relationships are not observed between other ions and chloride, including Mg, Ca, and Sr. If high salinity

  6. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Lung, R.H.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The study of structural response to seismic inputs has been extensively studied and, particularly with the advent of the growth of digital computer capability, has lead to the development of numerical methods of analysis which are used as standard tools for the design of structures. One aspect of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) process which has not been developed to the same degree of sophistication is the impact of ground water (or pure water) on the response of the soil-structure system. There are very good reasons for his state of affairs, however, not the least of which is the difficulty of incorporating the true constitutive behavior of saturated soils into the analysis. At the large strain end of the spectrum, the engineer is concerned with the potential development of failure conditions under the structure, and is typically interested in the onset of liquefaction conditions. The current state of the art in this area is to a great extent based on empirical methods of analysis which were developed from investigations of limited failure data from specific sites around the world. Since it is known that analytic solutions are available for only the simplest of configurations, a numerical finite element solution process was developed. Again, in keeping with typical SSI analyses, in order to make the finite element approach yield resonable results, a comparable transmitting boundary formulation was included in the development. The purpose of the transmitting boundary is, of course, to allow for the treatment of extended soil/water half-space problems. For the calculations presented herein, a simple one dimensional transmitting boundary model was developed and utilized

  7. 33 CFR 2.38 - Waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; waters over which the United States has...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; waters over which the United States has jurisdiction. 2.38 Section 2.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION...

  8. Water quality responses to the interaction between surface water and groundwater along the Songhua River, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yanguo; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Jieqiong; Wang, Jinsheng; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Zhu, Chen

    2018-03-01

    Investigation of surface water and groundwater interaction (SW-GW interaction) provides basic information for regional water-resource protection, management, and development. In this survey of a 10-km-wide area along both sides of the Songhua River, northeast China, the hydrogeochemical responses to different SW-GW interactions were studied. Three types of SW-GW interactions were identified—"recharge", "discharge", and "flow-through"—according to the hydraulic connection between the surface water and groundwater. The single factor index, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis of the hydrogeochemistry and pollutant data illuminated the hydrogeochemical response to the various SW-GW interactions. Clear SW-GW interactions along the Songhua River were revealed: (1) upstream in the study area, groundwater usually discharges into the surface water, (2) groundwater is recharged by surface water downstream, and (3) discharge and flow-through coexist in between. Statistical analysis indicated that the degree of hydrogeochemical response in different types of hydraulic connection varied, being clear in recharge and flow-through modes, and less obvious in discharge mode. During the interaction process, dilution, adsorption, redox reactions, nitrification, denitrification, and biodegradation contributed to the pollutant concentration and affected hydrogeochemical response in the hyporheic zone.

  9. Investigating the association between social interactions and personality states dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Didem; Finnerty, Ailbhe N; Staiano, Jacopo; Teso, Stefano; Passerini, Andrea; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The recent personality psychology literature has coined the name of personality states to refer to states having the same behavioural, affective and cognitive content (described by adjectives) as the corresponding trait, but for a shorter duration. The variability in personality states may be the reaction to specific characteristics of situations. The aim of our study is to investigate whether specific situational factors, that is, different configurations of face-to-face interactions, are predictors of variability of personality states in a work environment. The obtained results provide evidence that within-person variability in personality is associated with variation in face-to-face interactions. Interestingly, the effects differ by type and level of the personality states: adaptation effects for Agreeableness and Emotional Stability, whereby the personality states of an individual trigger similar states in other people interacting with them and complementarity effects for Openness to Experience, whereby the personality states of an individual trigger opposite states in other people interacting with them. Overall, these findings encourage further research to characterize face-to-face and social interactions in terms of their relevance to personality states.

  10. A first principles study of the acetylene-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Mavridis, Aristides; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2000-01-01

    We present an extensive study of the stationary points on the acetylene-water (AW) ground-state potential energy surface (PES) aimed in establishing accurate energetics for the two different bonding scenarios that are considered. Those include arrangements in which water acts either as a proton acceptor from one of the acetylene hydrogen atoms or a proton donor to the triple bond. We used a hierarchy of theoretical methods to account for electron correlation [MP2 (second-order Moller-Plesset), MP4 (fourth-order Moller-Plesset), and CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster single double triple)] coupled with a series of increasing size augmented correlation consistent basis sets (aug-cc-pVnZ, n=2,3,4). We furthermore examined the effect of corrections due to basis set superposition error (BSSE). We found that those have a large effect in altering the qualitative features of the PES of the complex. They are responsible for producing a structure of higher (C 2v ) symmetry for the global minimum. Zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections were found to increase the stability of the C 2v arrangement. For the global (water acceptor) minimum of C 2v symmetry our best estimates are ΔE e =-2.87 kcal/mol (ΔE 0 =-2.04 kcal/mol) and a van der Waals distance of R e =2.190 Aa. The water donor arrangement lies 0.3 kcal/mol (0.5 kcal/mol including ZPE corrections) above the global minimum. The barrier for its isomerization to the global minimum is E e =0.18 kcal/mol; however, inclusion of BSSE- and ZPE-corrections destabilize the water donor arrangement suggesting that it can readily convert to the global minimum. We therefore conclude that there exists only one minimum on the PES in accordance with previous experimental observations. To this end, vibrational averaging and to a lesser extend proper description of intermolecular interactions (BSSE) were found to have a large effect in altering the qualitative features of the ground-state PES of the acetylene-water complex. (c) 2000 American Institute

  11. Methodology to explore interactions between the water system and society in order to identify adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermans, A. G. E.; Haasnoot, M.

    2009-04-01

    Development of sustainable water management strategies involves analysing current and future vulnerability, identification of adaptation possibilities, effect analysis and evaluation of the strategies under different possible futures. Recent studies on water management often followed the pressure-effect chain and compared the state of social, economic and ecological functions of the water systems in one or two future situations with the current situation. The future is, however, more complex and dynamic. Water management faces major challenges to cope with future uncertainties in both the water system as well as the social system. Uncertainties in our water system relate to (changes in) drivers and pressures and their effects on the state, like the effects of climate change on discharges. Uncertainties in the social world relate to changing of perceptions, objectives and demands concerning water (management), which are often related with the aforementioned changes in the physical environment. The methodology presented here comprises the 'Perspectives method', derived from the Cultural Theory, a method on analyzing and classifying social response to social and natural states and pressures. The method will be used for scenario analysis and to identify social responses including changes in perspectives and management strategies. The scenarios and responses will be integrated within a rapid assessment tool. The purpose of the tool is to provide users with insight about the interaction of the social and physical system and to identify robust water management strategies by analysing the effectiveness under different possible futures on the physical, social and socio-economic system. This method allows for a mutual interaction between the physical and social system. We will present the theoretical background of the perspectives method as well as a historical overview of perspective changes in the Dutch Meuse area to show how social and physical systems interrelate. We

  12. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Atmosphere Water Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2011-07-04

    Understanding and quantifying the interaction of the atmosphere with underlying water surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of scientific fields such as water resources management, climate studies of ocean-atmosphere exchange, and regional weat

  13. 29 CFR 825.701 - Interaction with State laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with State laws. 825.701 Section 825.701 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY... Agreements on Employee Rights Under FMLA § 825.701 Interaction with State laws. (a) Nothing in FMLA...

  14. Groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Bad River Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Andrew T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-23

    A groundwater-flow model was developed for the Bad River Watershed and surrounding area by using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference code MODFLOW-NWT. The model simulates steady-state groundwater-flow and base flow in streams by using the streamflow routing (SFR) package. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop an improved understanding of the groundwater-flow system in the Bad River Watershed at the regional scale, including the sources of water to the Bad River Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation (Reservation) and groundwater/surface-water interactions; (2) provide a quantitative platform for evaluating future impacts to the watershed, which can be used as a starting point for more detailed investigations at the local scale; and (3) identify areas where more data are needed. This report describes the construction and calibration of the groundwater-flow model that was subsequently used for analyzing potential locations for the collection of additional field data, including new observations of water-table elevation for refining the conceptualization and corresponding numerical model of the hydrogeologic system.

  15. Human-water interactions in Myanmar's Dry Zone under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    -hydrologic (discharge, sediment load, river biology), climatic (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) and anthropologic (water use, water management, dam projects) aspects. We identified key study sites in the Dry Zone, in order to assess and study the interplays, dependencies and feedbacks within the human-water system. First results based on meteorological data sets and literature survey indicate, that the central Dry Zone is affected by increasing interannual rainfall variability. Additionally, human impacts in this region are increasing due to numerous pumping (both river and groundwater) activities which will possibly alter water availability, river ecology and hydraulic processes in the near future. At the current state, the main course of the Ayeyarwady River is still unregulated but several larger dam projects are in the planning phase in the central area which will also impact the rich river biodiversity as well as the society. Our research will contribute to understand human-water-climate interactions in Myanmar's central Dry Zone with possible transferability to other large river basins in Asia.

  16. Joint management of water and electricity in State Water Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between California's water and electrical power is important for improving the management and planning of these two vital resources to the state's economy development and people's well-being. It is often unclear for consumers, managers and decision-makers that water and electricity in California are inextricably connected. In the past, insufficient considerations of electricity production, consumption and cost in the State Water Project (SWP) - the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system-has led to significant water rate and electricity rate increase. An innovative concept of this proposed study is developing new technology capable of managing and planning water and power jointly in SWP to promote its operation efficiency, sustainability and resilience to potential water shortage caused by climate change and population increase. To achieve this goal, a nonlinear, two-fold network model describing water delivery in company with power consumption and generation will be constructed, and a multi-objective optimization scheme is to be used to resolve this complex nonlinear network problem.

  17. Investigation of the Hydantoin Monomer and its Interaction with Water Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Sébastien; Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    Hydantoin (Imidazolidine-2,4-dione, C_3H_4N_2O_2) is a five-membered heterocyclic compound of astrobiological interest. This molecule has been detected in carbonaceous chondrites [1], and its formation can rise from the presence of glycolic acid and urea, two prebiotic molecules [2]. The hydrolysis of hydantoin under acidic conditions can also produce glycine [3], an amino acid actively searched for in the interstellar medium. Spectroscopic data of hydantoin is very limited and mostly dedicated to the solid phase. The high resolution study in gas phase is restricted to the work recently published by Ozeki et al. reporting the pure rotational spectra of the ground state and two vibrational states of the molecule in the millimeter-wave region (90-370 GHz)[4]. Using chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy, we recorded the jet-cooled rotational spectra of hydantoin with water between 2 to 8 GHz. We observed the ground state of hydantoin monomer and several water complexes with one or two water molecules. All the observed species exhibit a hyperfine structure due to the two nitrogen atoms present in the molecule, which were fully resolved and analyzed. Additional experiments with a ^{18}O enriched water sample were realized to determine the oxygen-atom positions of the water monomers. These experiments yielded accurate structural information on the preferred water binding sites. The observed complexes and the interactions that hold them together, mainly strong directional hydrogen bonds, will be presented and discussed. [1] Shimoyama, A. and Ogasawara, R., Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 32, 165-179, 2002. DOI:10.1023/A:1016015319112. [2] Menor-Salván, C. and Marín-Yaseli, M.R., Chem. Soc. Rev., 41(16), 5404-5415, 2012. DOI:10.1039/c2cs35060b. [3] De Marcellus P., Bertrand M., Nuevo M., Westall F. and Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt L., Astrobiology. 11(9), 847-854, 2011. DOI:10.1089/ast.2011.0677. [4] Ozeki, H., Miyahara R., Ihara H., Todaka S., Kobayashi

  18. 2H Solid-State NMR Analysis of the Dynamics and Organization of Water in Hydrated Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenfen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding water–biopolymer interactions, which strongly affect the function and properties of biopolymer-based tissue engineering and drug delivery materials, remains a challenge. Chitosan, which is an important biopolymer for the construction of artificial tissue grafts and for drug delivery, has attracted extensive attention in recent decades, where neutralization with an alkali solution can substantially enhance the final properties of chitosan films cast from an acidic solution. In this work, to elucidate the effect of water on the properties of chitosan films, we investigated the dynamics and different states of water in non-neutralized (CTS-A and neutralized (CTS-N hydrated chitosan by mobility selective variable-temperature (VT 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Four distinct types of water exist in all of the samples with regards to dynamic behavior. First, non-freezable, rigid and strongly bound water was found in the crystalline domain at low temperatures. The second component consists of weakly bound water, which is highly mobile and exhibits isotropic motion, even below 260 K. Another type of water undergoes well-defined 180° flips around their bisector axis. Moreover, free water is also present in the films. For the CTS-A sample in particular, another special water species were bounded to acetic acid molecules via strong hydrogen bonding. In the case of CTS-N, the onset of motions of the weakly bound water molecules at 260 K was revealed by 2H-NMR spectroscopy. This water is not crystalline, even below 260 K, which is also the major contribution to the flexibility of chitosan chains and thus toughness of materials. By contrast, such motion was not observed in CTS-A. On the basis of the 2H solid-state NMR results, it is concluded that the unique toughness of CTS-N mainly originates from the weakly bound water as well as the interactions between water and the chitosan chains.

  19. Modeling decadal timescale interactions between surface water and ground water in the central Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2006-04-01

    Surface-water and ground-water flow are coupled in the central Everglades, although the remoteness of this system has hindered many previous attempts to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water. We modeled flow through a 43,000 ha basin in the central Everglades called Water Conservation Area 2A. The purpose of the model was to quantify recharge and discharge in the basin's vast interior areas. The presence and distribution of tritium in ground water was the principal constraint on the modeling, based on measurements in 25 research wells ranging in depth from 2 to 37 m. In addition to average characteristics of surface-water flow, the model parameters included depth of the layer of 'interactive' ground water that is actively exchanged with surface water, average residence time of interactive ground water, and the associated recharge and discharge fluxes across the wetland ground surface. Results indicated that only a relatively thin (8 m) layer of the 60 m deep surfical aquifer actively exchanges surface water and ground water on a decadal timescale. The calculated storage depth of interactive ground water was 3.1 m after adjustment for the porosity of peat and sandy limestone. Modeling of the tritium data yielded an average residence time of 90 years in interactive ground water, with associated recharge and discharge fluxes equal to 0.01 cm d -1. 3H/ 3He isotopic ratio measurements (which correct for effects of vertical mixing in the aquifer with deeper, tritium-dead water) were available from several wells, and these indicated an average residence time of 25 years, suggesting that residence time was overestimated using tritium measurements alone. Indeed, both residence time and storage depth would be expected to be overestimated due to vertical mixing. The estimate of recharge and discharge (0.01 cm d -1) that resulted from tritium modeling therefore is still considered reliable, because the ratio of residence time and storage depth (used to

  20. Interaction enthalpies of solid human serum albumin with water-dioxane mixtures: comparison with water and organic solvent vapor sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A.; Faizullin, Djihanguir A.

    2004-01-01

    Enthalpy changes (ΔH tot ) on the immersion of dehydrated human serum albumin (HSA) into water-dioxane mixtures have been measured using a Setaram BT-2.15 calorimeter at 298 K. Thermodynamic activity of water was varied from 0 to 1. Calorimetric results are discussed together with the FTIR-spectroscopic data on water and organic solvent vapor adsorption/desorption isotherms on solid HSA. Dioxane sorption exhibits a pronounced hysteresis. Calorimetric and dioxane desorption dependencies consist of two parts. No dioxane sorption was observed in low water activity region (a w tot values are close to zero. At water activity about 0.5 the sharp exothermic drop of the interaction enthalpy values was observed. This exothermic drop is accompanied by the sharp increase in the amount of sorbed dioxane and additional water sorption (compared with that for pure water). Dioxane adsorption branch resembles a smooth curve. In this case, solid HSA binds more than 300 mol dioxane/mol HSA at low water activities. By using a water activity-based comparison we distinguished between dioxane-assisted and dioxane-competitive effect on water sorption. The obtained results demonstrate that the hydration 'history' of solid protein is an important factor that controls as the state of protein macromolecule as well as the sorption of low-molecular organic molecules

  1. Initial-state interactions, factorization, and the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-12-01

    It is shown that initial state interactions violate the factorization conjecture for the Drell-Yan process order by order in perturbation theory. Also, the effects of elastic and inelastic initial state interactions on the observed cross sections are discussed

  2. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.36 Navigable waters...

  3. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  4. Core-concrete interactions with overlying water pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blose, R.E.; Powers, D.A.; Copus, E.R.; Brockmann, J.E.; Simpson, R.B.; Lucero, D.A.

    1993-11-01

    The WETCOR-1 test of simultaneous interactions of a high-temperature melt with water and a limestone/common-sand concrete is described. The test used a 34.1-kg melt of 76.8 w/o Al 2 O 3 , 16.9 w/o CaO, and 4.0 w/o SiO 2 heated by induction using tungsten susceptors. Once quasi-steady attack on concrete by the melt was established, an attempt was made to quench the melt at 1850 K with 295 K water flowing at 57 liters per minute. Net power into the melt at the time of water addition was 0.61 ± 0.19 W/cm 3 . The test configuration used in the WETCOR-1 test was designed to delay melt freezing to the walls of the test fixture. This was done to test hypotheses concerning the inherent stability of crust formation when high-temperature melts are exposed to water. No instability in crust formation was observed. The flux of heat through the crust to the water pool maintained over the melt in the test was found to be 0.52 ± 0.13 MW/m 2 . Solidified crusts were found to attenuate aerosol emissions during the melt concrete interactions by factors of 1.3 to 3.5. The combination of a solidified crust and a 30-cm deep subcooled water pool was found to attenuate aerosol emissions by factors of 3 to 15

  5. State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch State-wide Water Quality Sampling Dataset 1999-2006 (NODC Accession 0013723)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monitoring Section of the State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch collects water quality data at over 300 coastal locations state-wide using...

  6. State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch State-wide Water Quality Sampling Dataset 1973-1998 (NODC Accession 0013724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monitoring Section of the State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch collects water quality data at over 300 coastal locations state-wide using...

  7. Coulomb Final State Interactions for Gaussian Wave Packets

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Heinz, Ulrich W

    1999-01-01

    Two-particle like-sign and unlike-sign correlations including Coulomb final state interactions are calculated for Gaussian wave packets emitted from a Gaussian source. We show that the width of the wave packets can be fully absorbed into the spatial and momentum space widths of an effective emission function for plane wave states, and that Coulomb final state interaction effects are sensitive only to the latter, but not to the wave packet width itself. Results from analytical and numerical calculations are compared with recently published work by other authors.

  8. A first principles study of the acetylene-water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeli, Demeter [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrain University of Athens, P.O. Box 64 004, 157 10 Zografou, Athens, (Greece); Mavridis, Aristides [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrain University of Athens, P.O. Box 64 004, 157 10 Zografou, Athens, (Greece); Xantheas, Sotiris S. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 906 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, MS K8-91, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2000-04-08

    We present an extensive study of the stationary points on the acetylene-water (AW) ground-state potential energy surface (PES) aimed in establishing accurate energetics for the two different bonding scenarios that are considered. Those include arrangements in which water acts either as a proton acceptor from one of the acetylene hydrogen atoms or a proton donor to the triple bond. We used a hierarchy of theoretical methods to account for electron correlation [MP2 (second-order Moller-Plesset), MP4 (fourth-order Moller-Plesset), and CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster single double triple)] coupled with a series of increasing size augmented correlation consistent basis sets (aug-cc-pVnZ, n=2,3,4). We furthermore examined the effect of corrections due to basis set superposition error (BSSE). We found that those have a large effect in altering the qualitative features of the PES of the complex. They are responsible for producing a structure of higher (C{sub 2v}) symmetry for the global minimum. Zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections were found to increase the stability of the C{sub 2v} arrangement. For the global (water acceptor) minimum of C{sub 2v} symmetry our best estimates are {delta}E{sub e}=-2.87 kcal/mol ({delta}E{sub 0}=-2.04 kcal/mol) and a van der Waals distance of R{sub e}=2.190 Aa. The water donor arrangement lies 0.3 kcal/mol (0.5 kcal/mol including ZPE corrections) above the global minimum. The barrier for its isomerization to the global minimum is E{sub e}=0.18 kcal/mol; however, inclusion of BSSE- and ZPE-corrections destabilize the water donor arrangement suggesting that it can readily convert to the global minimum. We therefore conclude that there exists only one minimum on the PES in accordance with previous experimental observations. To this end, vibrational averaging and to a lesser extend proper description of intermolecular interactions (BSSE) were found to have a large effect in altering the qualitative features of the ground-state PES of the acetylene-water

  9. Final-state interaction in processes of deuteron breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome Filho, Z.D.

    1974-12-01

    Interaction between particles in the final state of reactions can strongly affect the experimental angular distributions, as in the scattering processes with the breaking of the deuteron target, where the final state interaction is responsible for the disappearance of the differential cross section in the front direction. It is then necessary to include the contribution of the final state interaction to small angles of incoherent processes particle-deuteron. In this work line, an analysis is made of the process πd → πpn for different values of the incident energy. The data obtained are compared with existing experimental data. The hypothesis is also considered of the nucleon which collides with the incident particle being outside the mass layer. An analytical extension of the resonant amplitude πN outwards the mass layer is also used

  10. Water absorption in PEEK and PEI matrices. Contribution to the understanding of water-polar group interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, E.; Bicaba, Y.; Colin, X.

    2016-05-01

    The water absorption in two aromatic linear polymers (PEEK and PEI) was studied between 10% and 90% RH at 30, 50 and 70°C. It was found that these polymers display classical Henry and Fick's behaviors. Moreover, they have very close values of equilibrium water concentration C∞ and water diffusivity D presumably because their respective polar groups establish molecular interactions of the same nature with water. This assumption was checked from a literature compilation of values of C∞ and D for a large variety of linear and tridimensional polymers containing a single type of polar group. It was then evidenced that almost all types of carbonyl group (in particular, those belonging to imides, amides and ketones) have the same molar contribution to water absorption, except those belonging to esters which are much less hydrophilic. Furthermore, hydroxyl and sulfone groups are much more hydrophilic than carbonyl groups so that their molar contribution is located on another master curve. On this basis, semi-empirical structure/water transport property relationships were proposed. It was found that C∞ increases exponentially with the concentration of polar groups (presumably because water is doubly bonded), but also with the intensity of their molecular interactions with water. In contrast, D is inversely proportional to C∞, which means that polar group-water interactions slow down the rate of water diffusion.

  11. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  12. Plant Water Stress Affects Interactions Between an Invasive and a Naturalized Aphid Species on Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, N E; Davis, T S; Crowder, D W; Bosque-Pérez, N A; Eigenbrode, S D

    2017-06-01

    In cereal cropping systems of the Pacific Northwestern United States (PNW), climate change is projected to increase the frequency of drought during summer months, which could increase water stress for crop plants. Yet, it remains uncertain how interactions between herbivore species are affected by drought stress. Here, interactions between two cereal aphids present in PNW cereal systems, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium (a newly invasive species) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (a naturalized species), were tested relative to wheat water stress. When aphids were confined in leaf cages on wheat, asymmetrical facilitation occurred; per capita fecundity of R. padi was increased by 46% when M. festucae cerealium was also present, compared to when only R. padi was present. Imposed water stress did not influence this interaction. When aphids were confined on whole wheat plants, asymmetrical competition occurred; cocolonization inhibited M. festucae cerealium population growth but did not affect R. padi population growth. Under conditions of plant water stress, however, the inhibitory effect of R. padi on M. festucae cerealium was not observed. We conclude that beneficial effects of cocolonization on R. padi are due to a localized plant response to M. festucae cerealium feeding, and that cocolonization of plants is likely to suppress M. festucae cerealium populations under ample water conditions, but not when plants are water stressed. This suggests that plant responses to water stress alter the outcome of competition between herbivore species, with implications for the structure of pest communities on wheat during periods of drought. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  13. Water-mediated ionic interactions in protein structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ISHWARYA( R SARANI( M KIRTI VAISHNAVI and K SEKAR. Supplementary table 1. List of complete water-mediated ionic interactions formed by different combinations of charged atoms and their corresponding occurrences. S. No. Type.

  14. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  15. Double scattering and final-state interaction in Xd ---> YNN

    CERN Document Server

    Alberi, G; Thomé, Z D

    1974-01-01

    A unified approach to double scattering, as well as the final-state interaction of the two nucleons at small and large momentum transfers are given. The closure sum rule for the final-state interaction at small momentum transfers is shown explicitly in a simple model for the deuteron wave function and nucleon interaction. An application for the process K/sup +/d to K/sup 0/pp is given, trying to explain discrepancies present in recent experiments. (35 refs).

  16. Solubility of Methane, Ethane, and Propane in Pure Water Using New Binary Interaction Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Behrouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solubility of hydrocarbons in water is important due to ecological concerns and new restrictions on the existence of organic pollutants in water streams. Also, the creation of a thermodynamic model has required an advanced study of the phase equilibrium between water (as a basis for the widest spread muds and amines and gas hydrocarbon phases in wide temperature and pressure ranges. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop semi-empirical correlations, charts, or thermodynamic models for estimating the solubility of hydrocarbons in liquid water. In this work, a thermodynamic model based on Mathias modification of Sova-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equation of state is suggested using classical mixing rules with new binary interaction parameters which were used for two-component systems of hydrocarbons and water. Finally, the model results and their deviations in comparison with the experimental data are presented; these deviations were equal to 5.27, 6.06, and 4.1% for methane, ethane, and propane respectively.

  17. Interaction of SO2 with the Surface of a Water Nanodroplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Lei; Richmond, Geraldine L; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2017-11-29

    We present a comprehensive computational study of interaction of a SO 2 with water molecules in the gas phase and with the surface of various sized water nanodroplets to investigate the solvation behavior of SO 2 in different atmospheric environments. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulation shows that, in the gas phase and at a temperature of 300 K, the dominant interaction between SO 2 and H 2 O is (SO 2 ) S···O (H 2 O) , consistent with previous density-functional theory (DFT) computation at 0 K. However, at the surface of a water nanodroplet, BOMD simulation shows that the hydrogen-bonding interaction of (SO 2 ) O···H (H 2 O) becomes increasingly important with the increase of droplet size, reflecting a marked effect of the water surface on the SO 2 solvation. This conclusion is in good accordance with spectroscopy evidence obtained previously (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 16806; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 3256). The prevailing interaction (SO 2 ) O···H (H 2 O) on a large droplet is mainly due to favorable exposure of H atoms of H 2 O at the air-water interface. Indeed, the conversion of the dominant interaction in the gas phase (SO 2 ) S···O (H 2 O) to the dominant interaction on the water nanodroplet (SO 2 ) O···H (H 2 O) may incur effects on the SO 2 chemistry in atmospheric aerosols because the solvation of SO 2 at the water surface can affect the reactive sites and electrophilicity of SO 2 . Hence, the solvation of SO 2 on the aerosol surface may have new implications when studying SO 2 chemistry in the aerosol-containing troposphere.

  18. Water interactions with varying molecular states of bovine casein: 2H NMR relaxation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumosinski, T.F.; Pessen, H.; Prestrelski, S.J.; Farrell, H.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The caseins occur in milk as spherical colloidal complexes of protein and salts with an average diameter of 1200 A, the casein micelles. Removal of Ca2+ is thought to result in their dissociation into smaller protein complexes stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and called submicelles. Whether these submicelles actually occur within the micelles as discrete particles interconnected by calcium phosphate salt bridges has been the subject of much controversy. A variety of physical measurements have shown that casein micelles contain an inordinately high amount of trapped water (2 to 7 g H 2 O/g protein). With this in mind it was of interest to determine if NMR relaxation measurements could detect the presence of this trapped water within the micelles, and to evaluate whether it is a continuum with picosecond correlation times or is associated in part with discrete submicellar structures with nanosecond motions. For this purpose the variations in 2 H NMR longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates of water with protein concentration were determined for bovine casein at various temperatures, under both submicellar and micellar conditions. D 2 O was used instead of H 2 O to eliminate cross-relaxation effects. From the protein concentration dependence of the relaxation rates, the second virial coefficient of the protein was obtained by nonlinear regression analysis. Using either an isotropic tumbling or an intermediate asymmetry model, degrees of hydration, v, and correlation times, tau c, were calculated for the caseins; from the latter parameter the Stokes radius, r, was obtained. Next, estimates of molecular weights were obtained from r and the partial specific volume. Values were in the range of those published from other methodologies for the submicelles

  19. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Water plays a central role affecting all aspects of the dynamics in aridland ecosystems. Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. The ecological studies in this project revolve around one fundamental premise: that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process. In contrast, hydrogen is not fractionated during water uptake through the root. Soil water availability in shallow, deep, and/or groundwater layers vary spatially; therefore hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap provide a direct measure of the water source currently used by a plant. The longer-term record of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios is recorded annually in xylem tissues (tree rings). The research in this project addresses variation in stable isotopic composition of aridland plants and its consequences for plant performance and community-level interactions.

  20. Study of the water-rock interactions of spring waters in the Northern Apennines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturelli, G.; Toscani, L.

    2000-01-01

    Forty three spring waters have been investigated in the Apennine area of Reggio Emilia province (Parco Regionale del Gigante, Italy). On the basis of the Langelier-Ludwig diagram, the (Na+K+Cl) vs (Ca+Mg) plot and the Cl content, the waters have been divided in five main groups. The chemical composition of the waters suggests that calcite is practically the only source of Ca and alkalinity for group D and E reflect ion exchange and calcite and minor silicate dissolution during a strong water-rock interaction at depth [it

  1. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2017-07-01

    Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. No human subjects. Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  2. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for...

  3. The State of U.S. Urban Water: Data and the Energy-Water Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Christopher M.; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2018-03-01

    Data on urban water resources are scarce, despite a majority of the U.S. population residing in urban environments. Further, information on the energy required to facilitate the treatment, distribution, and collection of urban water are even more limited. In this study, we evaluate the energy-for-water component of the energy-water nexus by providing and analyzing a unique primary database consisting of drinking water and wastewater utility flows and energy. These anthropogenic fluxes of water through the urban environment are used to assess the state of the U.S. urban energy-water nexus at over 160 utilities. The average daily per person water flux is estimated at 560 L of drinking water and 500 L of wastewater. Drinking water and wastewater utilities require 340 kWh/1,000 m3 and 430 kWh/1,000 m3 of energy, respectively, to treat these resources. The total national energy demand for water utilities accounts for 1.0% of the total annual electricity consumption of the United States. Additionally, the water and embedded energy loss associated with non-revenue water accounts for 9.1 × 109 m3 of water and 3,100 GWh, enough electricity to power 300,000 U.S. households annually. Finally, the water flux and embedded energy fluctuated monthly in many cities. As the nation's water resources become increasingly scarce and unpredictable, it is essential to have a set of empirical data for continuous evaluation and updates on the state of the U.S. urban energy-water nexus.

  4. Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources—Global Stages of Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay S. Kaushal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, and highlight those in this special issue. We identify stages that characterize increasing interaction between land use and climate change. During the first stage, hydrologic modifications and the built environment amplify overland flow via processes associated with runoff-dominated ecosystems (e.g., soil compaction, impervious surface cover, drainage, and channelization. During the second stage, changes in water storage impact the capacity of ecosystems to buffer extremes in water quantity and quality (e.g., either losses in snowpack, wetlands, and groundwater recharge or gains in water and nutrient storage behind dams in reservoirs. During the third stage, extremes in water quantity and quality contribute to losses in ecosystem services and water security (e.g., clean drinking water, flood mitigation, and habitat availability. During the final stage, management and restoration strategies attempt to regain lost ecosystem structure, function, and services but need to adapt to climate change. By anticipating the increasing interaction between land use and climate change, intervention points can be identified, and management strategies can be adjusted to improve outcomes for realistic expectations. Overall, global water security cannot be adequately restored without considering an increasing interaction between land use and climate change across progressive stages and our ever-increasing human domination of the water cycle from degradation to ecosystem restoration.

  5. Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources-Global Stages of Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Gold, Arthur J; Mayer, Paul M

    2017-10-24

    Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, and highlight those in this special issue. We identify stages that characterize increasing interaction between land use and climate change. During the first stage, hydrologic modifications and the built environment amplify overland flow via processes associated with runoff-dominated ecosystems (e.g., soil compaction, impervious surface cover, drainage, and channelization). During the second stage, changes in water storage impact the capacity of ecosystems to buffer extremes in water quantity and quality (e.g., either losses in snowpack, wetlands, and groundwater recharge or gains in water and nutrient storage behind dams in reservoirs). During the third stage, extremes in water quantity and quality contribute to losses in ecosystem services and water security (e.g., clean drinking water, flood mitigation, and habitat availability). During the final stage, management and restoration strategies attempt to regain lost ecosystem structure, function, and services but need to adapt to climate change. By anticipating the increasing interaction between land use and climate change, intervention points can be identified, and management strategies can be adjusted to improve outcomes for realistic expectations. Overall, global water security cannot be adequately restored without considering an increasing interaction between land use and climate change across progressive stages and our ever-increasing human domination of the water cycle from degradation to ecosystem restoration.

  6. Dielectric Response at THz Frequencies of Mg Water Complexes Interacting with O3 Calculated by Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    of the atoms in a chemical system , at the maximal peak of the energy surface separating reactants from products . In the transition state every normal...Hada, M. Ehara, K. Toyota , R. Fukuda, J. Hasegawa, M. Ishida, T. Nakajima, Y. Honda , O. Kitao, H. Nakai, T. Vreven, J. A. Montgomery, Jr., J. E...calculations of ground state resonance structure associated with water complexes of Mg and the interaction of these complexes with Ozone using DFT. The

  7. Linear response theory for long-range interacting systems in quasistationary states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelli, Aurelio; Gupta, Shamik; Nardini, Cesare; Ruffo, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Long-range interacting systems, while relaxing to equilibrium, often get trapped in long-lived quasistationary states which have lifetimes that diverge with the system size. In this work, we address the question of how a long-range system in a quasistationary state (QSS) responds to an external perturbation. We consider a long-range system that evolves under deterministic Hamilton dynamics. The perturbation is taken to couple to the canonical coordinates of the individual constituents. Our study is based on analyzing the Vlasov equation for the single-particle phase-space distribution. The QSS represents a stable stationary solution of the Vlasov equation in the absence of the external perturbation. In the presence of small perturbation, we linearize the perturbed Vlasov equation about the QSS to obtain a formal expression for the response observed in a single-particle dynamical quantity. For a QSS that is homogeneous in the coordinate, we obtain an explicit formula for the response. We apply our analysis to a paradigmatic model, the Hamiltonian mean-field model, which involves particles moving on a circle under Hamiltonian dynamics. Our prediction for the response of three representative QSSs in this model (the water-bag QSS, the Fermi-Dirac QSS, and the Gaussian QSS) is found to be in good agreement with N-particle simulations for large N. We also show the long-time relaxation of the water-bag QSS to the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium state. © 2012 American Physical Society

  8. Hadronic molecular states from the K anti K* interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Pei-Liang; He, Jun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Institute of Modern Physics of CAS and Lanzhou University, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, the K anti K* interaction is studied in a quasipotential Bethe-Salpeter equation approach combined with the one-boson-exchange model. With the help of the hidden-gauge Lagrangian, the exchanges of pseudoscalar mesons (π and η) and vector mesons (ρ, ω and φ) are considered to describe the K anti K* interaction. Besides the direct vector-meson exchange which can be related to the Weinberg-Tomozawa term, pseudoscalar-meson exchanges also play important roles in the mechanism of the K anti K* interaction. The poles of scattering amplitude are searched to find the molecular states produced from the K anti K* interaction. In the case of quantum number I{sup G}(J{sup PC}) = 0{sup +}(1{sup ++}), a pole is found with a reasonable cutoff, which can be related to the f{sub 1}(1285) in experiment. Another bound state with 0{sup -}(1{sup +-}) is also produced from the K anti K* interaction, which can be related to the h{sub 1}(1380). In the isovector sector, the interaction is much weaker and a bound state with 1{sup +}(1{sup +}) relevant to the b{sub 1}(1235) is produced but at a larger cutoff. Our results suggest that in the hadronic molecular state picture the f{sub 1}(1285) and b{sub 1}(1235) are the strange partners of the X(3872) and Z{sub c}(3900), respectively. (orig.)

  9. Transferability of polarizable models for ion-water electrostatic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masia, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Studies of ion-water systems at condensed phase and at interfaces have pointed out that molecular and ionic polarization plays an important role for many phenomena ranging from hydrogen bond dynamics to water interfaces' structure. Classical and ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations reveal that induced dipole moments at interfaces (e.g. air-water and water-protein) are usually high, hinting that polarizable models to be implemented in classical force fields should be very accurate in reproducing the electrostatic properties of the system. In this paper the electrostatic properties of three classical polarizable models for ion-water interaction are compared with ab initio results both at gas and condensed phase. For Li + - water and Cl - -water dimers the reproducibility of total dipole moments obtained with high level quantum chemical calculations is studied; for the same ions in liquid water, Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to compute the time evolution of ionic and molecular dipole moments, which are compared with the classical models. The PD2-H2O model developed by the author and coworkers [Masia et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 7362] together with the gaussian intermolecular damping for ion-water interaction [Masia et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 123, 164505] showed to be the fittest in reproducing the ab initio results from gas to condensed phase, allowing for force field transferability.

  10. Management of Reclaimed Produced Water in the Rocky Mountain States Enhanced with the Expanded U.S. Geological Survey Produced Waters Geochemical Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, K. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Reidy, M. E.; Conaway, C. H.; Thordsen, J. J.; Rowan, E. L.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Engle, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain states; Wyoming, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico and Utah produce annually approximately 470,000 acre-feet (3.66 billion barrels) of produced water - water that coexists with oil and gas and is brought to the surface with the pumping of oil and gas wells. Concerns about severe drought, groundwater depletion, and contamination have prompted petroleum operators and water districts to examine the recycling of produced water. Knowledge of the geochemistry of produced waters is valuable in determining the feasibility of produced water reuse. Water with low salinity can be reclaimed for use inside and outside of the petroleum industry. Since a great proportion of petroleum wells in the Rocky Mountain states, especially coal-bed methane wells, have produced water with relatively low salinity (generally oil recovery, and even for municipal uses, such as drinking water. The USGS Produced Waters Geochemical Database, available at http://eerscmap.usgs.gov/pwapp, has 60,000 data points in this region (this includes 35,000 new data points added to the 2002 database) and will facilitate studies on the management of produced water for reclamation in the Rocky Mountain region. Expanding on the USGS 2002 database, which contains geochemical analyses of major ions and total dissolved solids, the new data also include geochemical analyses of minor ions and stable isotopes. We have added an interactive web map application which allows the user to filter data on chosen fields (e.g. TDS data set can provide critical insight for better management of produced waters in water-constrained regions of the Rocky Mountains.

  11. New Module to Simulate Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Small-Scale Alluvial Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, L.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow depletion can occur when groundwater pumping wells lower water table elevations adjacent to a nearby stream. Being able to accurately model the severity of this process is of critical importance in semi-arid regions where groundwater-surface water interactions affect water rights and the sustainability of water resource practices. The finite-difference flow model MODFLOW is currently the standard for estimating groundwater-surface water interactions in many regions in the western United States. However, certain limitations of the model persist when highly-resolved spatial scales are used to represent the stream-aquifer system, e.g. when the size of computational grid cells is much less than the river width. In this study, an external module is developed and linked with MODFLOW that (1) allows for multiple computational grid cells over the width of the river; (2) computes streamflow and stream stage along the length of the river using the one-dimensional (1D) steady (over a stress period) shallow water equations, which allows for more accurate stream stages when normal flow cannot be assumed or a rating curve is not available; and (3) incorporates a process for computing streamflow loss when an unsaturated zone develops under the streambed. Use of the module not only provides highly-resolved estimates of streamflow depletion, but also of streambed hydraulic conductivity. The new module is applied to the stream-aquifer alluvial system along the South Platte River south of Denver, Colorado, with results tested against field-measured groundwater levels, streamflow, and streamflow depletion.

  12. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tan

    Full Text Available A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective.

  13. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Ouyang, Fang-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective.

  14. Non-covalent interactions between thio-caffeine derivatives and water-soluble porphyrin in ethanol-water environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Agnieszka; Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Sierakowska, Arleta; Jasiewicz, Beata

    2018-03-01

    To determine the binding interactions and ability to form the non-covalent systems, the association process between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H2TTMePP) and a series of five structurally diverse thio-caffeine analogues has been studied in ethanol and ethanol-water solutions, analyzing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The porphyrin fluorescence lifetimes in the systems studied were established as well. During the titration with thio-caffeine compounds the slight bathochromic effect and considerable hypochromicity of the porphyrin Soret band maximum can be noted. The fluorescence quenching effect observed for interactions in H2TTMePP - thio-caffeine derivative systems, as well as the order of binding and fluorescence quenching constants (of 105-103 mol- 1) suggest the existence of the mechanism of static quenching due to the formation of non-covalent and non-fluorescent stacking complexes. In all the systems studied the phenomenon of the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher was observed as well. Additionally, the specific binding interactions, due to the changes in reaction environment polarity, can be observed. It was found that thio-caffeine compounds can quench the porphyrin fluorescence according to the structure of thio-substituent in caffeine molecule. The obtained results can be potentially useful from scientific, therapeutic or environmental points of view.

  15. Hot Water after the Cold War – Water Policy Dynamics in (Semi-Authoritarian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article of the special section introduces the central question that the section addresses: do water policy dynamics in (semi-authoritarian states have specific features as compared to other state forms? The article situates the question in the post-Cold War global water governance dynamics, argues that the state is a useful and required entry point for water policy analysis, explores the meaning of (semi-authoritarian as a category, and finally introduces the three papers, which are on China, South Africa and Vietnam.

  16. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of modified cellulose fiber-based materials and related interactions with water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedane, Alemayehu H., E-mail: Alemayehu.Bedane@unb.ca; Xiao, Huining, E-mail: hxiao@unb.ca; Eić, Mladen, E-mail: meic@unb.ca; Farmahini-Farahani, Madjid, E-mail: Madjid.Farahani@unb.ca

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Coating on paper increases the specific surface area but decreases the pore diameter. • Pore size reduction and decrease of hydrophilic property caused reduction in WVTRs. • The low monolayer moisture content of the sample is generally related to the low WVTR. • The net isosteric heats of adsorption decreased with increased sample moisture content. • FT-IR results reveal the formation of water clusters at higher relative humidities. - Abstract: In this study, the surface characteristics, water vapor interactions, and state of water adsorbed on unmodified and coated paper samples were investigated in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental principles related to thermodynamics of this process, as well as to provide essential insight that could be used for further improvement of the papers’ barrier properties. Based on the BET measurement, the coated paper samples showed higher specific surface areas than unmodified paper; however, their mean pore diameters are smaller. The BJH method was used for pore size distribution analysis. Hydrophobic properties of the paper samples were determined from experimental isotherms, e.g., monolayer moisture content, and these results have been related to the water vapor transfer rates (WVTRs) showing a complex nature of these relations. The highest peak corresponding to the modified samples with smaller pore sizes was found to be in the range of 1–30 nm, while it was in the 30–100 nm pore size range for unmodified paper. The net isosteric heats of sorption for different unmodified and modified paper samples were determined from water vapor adsorption isotherms measured at 15, 25, and 35 °C. The net isosteric heats of sorption decreased with an increase of moisture content after reaching the maximum values at 12.53, 15.25, 14.71, 23.2, and 22.77 kJ/mol for unmodified, zein grafted, calendered coated, PLA, and PHBV coated papers, respectively. The state of adsorbed water and water

  17. Guidelines for preparation of State water-use estimates for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has estimated the use of water in the United States at 5-year intervals since 1950. This report describes the water-use categories and data elements used for the national water-use compilation conducted as part of the USGS National Water-Use Science Project. The report identifies sources of water-use information, provides standard methods and techniques for estimating water use at the county level, and outlines steps for preparing documentation for the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.As part of this USGS program to document water use on a national scale, estimates of water withdrawals for the categories of public supply, self-supplied domestic, industrial, irrigation, and thermoelectric power are prepared for each county in each State, District, or territory by using the guidelines in this report. County estimates of water withdrawals for aquaculture, livestock, and mining are prepared for each State by using a county-based national model, although water-use programs in each State or Water Science Center have the option of producing independent county estimates of water withdrawals for these categories. Estimates of water withdrawals and consumptive use for thermoelectric power will be aggregated to the county level for each State by the national project; additionally, irrigation consumptive use at the county level will also be provided, although study chiefs in each State have the option of producing independent county estimates of water withdrawals and consumptive use for these categories.Estimates of deliveries of water from public supplies for domestic use by county also will be prepared for each State. As a result, total domestic water use can be determined for each State by combining self-supplied domestic withdrawals and public-supplied domestic deliveries. Fresh groundwater and surface-water estimates will be prepared for all categories of use, and saline groundwater and

  18. A review of the persistence of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment - sediment/water interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    There is a considerable international concern regarding the advisability and safety of the disposal or dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans. The assimilation capacity of the ocean for long-lived radionuclides will depend largely on the maximum concentrations that can be safely or agreeably contained within it. Since the mechanisms for removal or control are radioactive decay or association with particles and burial in the sediments, an understanding of the processes involved, in sediment-particle/water interactions, at the sediment/water interface, and within the sediment is extremely important. During the last 35 years there have been considerable inputs of long-lived radionuclides into the oceans as a result of weapons testing, routine releases from fuels reprocessing plants and operating nuclear reactors, and accidental releases from a variety of sources; this provides an excellent opportunity to study their behaviour in the oceans. Thus, the purpose here is to synthesize the present state of our knowledge of sediment/water interactions from studies, mainly of plutonium and americium, conducted in a wide range of environments from the Arctic to the tropics. (author)

  19. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to...

  20. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Surface- and Ground-Water Interactions in the Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Sacks, L.A.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the Hillsborough River watershed was conducted between October 1999 through September 2003 to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and interaction between the surface and ground water in the highly karstic uppermost part of the watershed. Information such as locations of ground-water recharge and discharge, depth of the flow system interacting with the stream, and water quality in the watershed can aid in prudent water-management decisions. The upper Hillsborough River watershed covers a 220-square-mile area upstream from Hillsborough River State Park where the watershed is relatively undeveloped. The watershed contains a second order magnitude spring, many karst features, poorly drained swamps, marshes, upland flatwoods, and ridge areas. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is subdivided into two major subbasins, namely, the upper Hillsborough River subbasin, and the Blackwater Creek subbasin. The Blackwater Creek subbasin includes the Itchepackesassa Creek subbasin, which in turn includes the East Canal subbasin. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the highly variable degree of confinement between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers throughout the watershed. Potentiometric-surface maps indicate good hydraulic connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Hillsborough River, and a poorer connection with Blackwater and Itchepackesassa Creeks. Similar water level elevations and fluctuations in the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers at paired wells also indicate good hydraulic connection. Calcium was the dominant ion in ground water from all wells sampled in the watershed. Nitrate concentrations were near or below the detection limit in all except two wells that may have been affected by

  1. Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J.F.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.; McLaughlin, K.

    2014-01-01

    By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and

  2. An integrated assessment of energy-water nexus at the state level in the United States: Projections and analyses under different scenarios through 2095

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Patel, P. L.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water withdrawals for thermoelectric power plants account for approximately half of the total water use in the United States. With growing electricity demands in the future and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states in the U.S., grasping the trade-off between energy and water requires an integrated modeling approach that can capture the interactions among energy, water availability, climate, technology, and economic factors at various scales. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, with 14 geopolitical regions that are further dissaggregated into up to 18 agro-ecological zones, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. More specifically, GCAM was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and demands, and the associated water withdrawals and consumptions under a set of six scenarios with extensive levels of details on generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and water use intensities. The state-level estimates were compared against available inventories where good agreement was achieved on national and regional levels. We then explored the electric-sector water use up to 2095, focusing on implications from: 1) socioeconomics and growing demands, 2) the adoption of climate mitigation policy (e.g., RCP4.5 W/m2 vs. a reference scenario), 3) the transition of cooling systems, 4) constraints on electricity trading across states (full trading vs. limited trading), and 5) the adoption of water saving technologies. Overall, the fast retirement of once-through cooling, together with the gradual transition from fossil fuels dominant to a mixture of different fuels, accelerate the decline of water withdrawals and correspondingly compensate consumptive water use. Results reveal that U.S. electricity generation expands significantly as population grows

  3. Monitoring methods and prediction of ground waters quality changes in the interaction region of Mine and Power Plant 'Belchatow'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltyk, W.; Owczarczyk, A.; Walendziak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Polish law regulations regarding the environmental waters (surface and ground) monitoring have been cited in the report. Also basic analytical methods for water quality control, commonly used in hydrogeology, and environment protection, have been described. All the presented methods have been used for investigations of the influence of Lignite Strip Mine 'Belchatow' on river water quality in the upper Warta basin, which are the main receivers of waters from the strip drainage system. The main physico-chemical features as well as micro and macro components and environmental isotope concentrations were measured in the surface and ground waters in the hypothetical strip interaction region. It has been found that the outfall of mine pumped waters to the Widawka river do not spoil water quality, which preserves the first class of purity in the course between Ruszczyn up to the Warta river. The forecast of the salinity increase for ground waters pumped by the protection barrier of salt deposit Debina have been worked out for water table altitude +50.0 m below the sea level (state in December 2000). The range of the wet ash deposit interaction on water quality pumped by the 'Belchatow' Mine drainage system have been determined and evaluated. (author)

  4. Interacting effects of pollination, water and nutrients on fruit tree performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A-M; Hendrix, S D; Clough, Y; Scofield, A; Kremen, C

    2015-01-01

    Pollination is critical to fruit production, but the interactions of pollination with plant resources on a plant's reproductive and vegetative features are largely overlooked. We examined the influences of pollination, irrigation and fertilisation on the performance of almond, Prunus dulcis, in northern California. We used a full-factorial design to test for the effects of pollination limitation on fruit production and foliage variables of whole trees experiencing four resource treatments: (i) normal water and nutrients, (ii) reduced water, (iii) no nutrients, and (iv) reduced water and no nutrients. In each of these combinations, we applied three pollination treatments: hand-cross pollination, open-pollination and pollinator exclusion. Pollination strongly affected yield even under reduced water and no nutrient applications. Hand-cross pollination resulted in over 50% fruit set with small kernels, while open-pollinated flowers showed over 30% fruit set with moderate-sized kernels. Pollinator-excluded flowers had a maximum fruit set of 5%, with big and heavy kernels. Reduced water interacted with the open- and hand-cross pollination treatments, reducing yield more than in the pollinator exclusion treatment. The number of kernels negatively influenced the number of leaves, and reduced water and no nutrient applications interacted with the pollination treatments. Overall, our results indicate that the influences of pollination on fruit tree yield interact with the plant availability of nutrients and water and that excess pollination can reduce fruit quality and the production of leaves for photosynthesis. Such information is critical to understand how pollination influences fruit tree performance. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  6. Robustness of Greenbergerendash Horneendash Zeilinger and W states against Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kapil K.; Pandey, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the robustness of tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W states is investigated against Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (i.e. DM) interaction. We consider a closed system of three qubits and an environmental qubit. The environmental qubit interacts with any one of the three qubits through DM interaction. The tripartite system is initially prepared in GHZ and W states, respectively. The composite four qubits system evolve with unitary dynamics. We detach the environmental qubit by tracing out from four qubits, and profound impact of DM interaction is studied on the initial entanglement of the system. As a result, we find that the bipartite partitions of W states suffer from entanglement sudden death (i.e. ESD), while tripartite entanglement does not. On the other hand, bipartite partitions and tripartite entanglement in GHZ states do not feel any influence of DM interaction. So, we find that GHZ states have robust character than W states. In this work, we consider generalised GHZ and W states, and three π is used as an entanglement measure. This study can be useful in quantum information processing where unwanted DM interaction takes place.

  7. Thermal interaction of molten copper with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyszkowski, W.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental work was performed to study the thermal interaction between molten copper particles (in the range of temperature from the copper melting point to about 1800 0 C) and water from about 15-80 0 C. The transient temperatures of the copper particles and water before and during their thermal interaction were measured. The history of the phenomena was filmed by means of a high speed FASTAX camera (to 8000 f/s). Classification of the observed phenomena and description of the heat-transfer modes were derived. One among the phenomena was the thermal explosion. The necessary conditions for the thermal explosion are discussed and their physical interpretation is given. According to the hypothesis proposed, the thermal explosion occurs when the molten metal has the temperature of its solidification and the heat transfer on its surface is sufficiently intensive. The 'sharp-change' of the crystalline structure during the solidification of the molten metal is the cause of the explosion fragmentation. (author)

  8. Dilution of 210Pb by organic sedimentation in lakes of different trophic states, and application to studies of sediment-water interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binford, M.W.; Brenner, M.

    1986-01-01

    Lake sediments reflect conditions in the water column and can be used for rapid, integrative measurements of limnological variables. Examination of 210 Pb-dated cores from 12 Florida lakes of widely differing trophic state (expressed as Carlson's trophic state index: TSI) shows that net accumulation rate of organic matter is related to primary productivity in the water column. In 26 other lakes the activity of unsupported 210 Pb g -1 organic matter in surficial sediments is inversely related to trophic state and, therefore, to organic accumulation rate. From this observation, the authors develop a new method that uses fallout 210 Pb as a dilution tracer to calculate net sedimentary accumulation rates of any material in surface mud. They demonstrate strong relationships between net loss rate of biologically important materials (C, N, P, and pigments) and their respective water concentrations (expressed as TSI). Multiple regression models incorporating net sediment accumulation rates of all four variables explain up to 70% of the lake-to-lake variation of TSI. The 210 Pb-dilution method has application for studies for material cycling, paleolimnology, and sediment accumulation processes

  9. Exchange interactions in two-state systems: rare earth pyrochlores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, S. H.

    2018-06-01

    The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for rare earth pyrochlores is derived based on symmetry. Generally, the rare earth angular momentum degeneracy is lifted by the crystal electric field (CEF) into singlets and doublets. When the CEF ground state is a doublet that is well-separated from the first excited state the CEF ground state doublet can be treated as a pseudo-spin of some kind. The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for pseudo-spins on the pyrochlore lattice is derived for three different types of pseudo-spins. The methodology presented in this paper can be applied to other two-state spin systems with a high space group symmetry.

  10. The stationary states of interacting fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frazer, W.R.; Hove, Léon van

    1958-01-01

    As an application of a time-independent perturbation formalism developed earlier for systems with many degrees of freedom, we give in terms of diagrams the general perturbation expressions for the exact stationary states of interacting fields. The physical vacuum is obtained by applying to the bare

  11. INTERACTIVE WORKSHOP ON ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2005, EPA's Office of Water and Office of Research and Development collaborated to present eleven arsenic training events. The workshops provided in-depth treatment technology training to help those affected; state drinking water staff, design engineers, system owners and cert...

  12. An experimental study of the molten glass/water thermal interaction. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1977-06-01

    Molten glass interacts explosively with water under certain contact mode conditions. The contact mode found explosive is as follows: molten glass enters the water bath in the film boiling regime (as predicted by Henry's correlation) and soon after entry, the vapor film is perturbed sufficiently by an external pressure pulse. The ensuing reaction proceeds basically along the same lines as energetic tin/water interactions observed by several investigators. In the absence of this pressure pulse, the event is non-energetic. The reported findings are for a combination in which the hot material has a very low thermal diffusivity and the calculated interface temperature is significantly (175C) below its melting temperature. This is similar to the characteristics of the UO2/sodium combination. The observed explosive glass/water interactions show growth times of the order of a few milliseconds. The particulate size distribution from the present tests was coarser than the particulate size distribution from some in-pile and out-of-pile UO2/sodium interaction tests

  13. The interaction of water and hydrogen with nickel surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Junjun

    2009-01-01

    As nickel and platinum are in the same group of the periodic table, the Ni(111) and Pt(111) surfaces may be expected to show similar interaction with water and hydrogen. However in this thesis, we show these interactions for Ni(111) are quite different from those of Pt(111). Moreover, our results

  14. Determination of neutron interaction effect and subcriticality for light water moderated UO2 lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Suzaki, T.; Kobayashi, I.

    1984-01-01

    From the view point of nuclear criticality safety for fuel storage, transport and processing, a series of critical experiments have been performed using a Tank-type Critical Assembly (TCA) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first series of experiments are concerned with the neutron interaction effects between two cores composed of BWR-type fuel rods in water. The reactivity contribution from one core to another have been measured by the water level worth method and a pulsed neutron source method. Two symmetrical rectangular cores were composed in TCA and the water gap between two cores were parametrically changed. The volume ratios of water to fuel are 1.83 and 2.48 of which lattice pitches are 1.96 cm and 2.15 cm respectively. As for the pulsed neutron experiment, Gozani's area ratio method is theoretically extended to a coupled-core system, and the applicability of this method has been studied for determination of the reactivity at a subcritical state and the coupling coefficient that represents reactivity contribution from one core to another. The object of the second series of experiment is development of the technique which determine the reactivity at a high sub-critical state. The CF-252 source driven neutron noise analysis method proposed by Mihalczo has been tested in order to examine whether it could be available for measuring the subcriticality for the light water moderated system. The tested core was water reflected annular type which consisted of 308 UO 2 fuel rods and had a void region at the core center

  15. 75 FR 4173 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of...-HQ-OW-2009-0596; FRL-9105-1] RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to protect aquatic...

  16. Water-mediated interactions between trimethylamine-N-oxide and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Ottosson, Niklas; Mazur, Kamila; Bonn, Mischa; Bakker, Huib J

    2015-01-07

    The amphiphilic osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is commonly found in natural organisms, where it counteracts biochemical stress associated with urea in aqueous environments. Despite the important role of TMAO as osmoprotectant, the mechanism behind TMAO's action has remained elusive. Here, we study the interaction between urea, TMAO, and water in solution using broadband (100 MHz-1.6 THz) dielectric spectroscopy. We find that the previously reported tight hydrogen bonds between 3 water molecules and the hydrophilic amine oxide group of TMAO, remain intact at all investigated concentrations of urea, showing that no significant hydrogen bonding occurs between the two co-solutes. Despite the absence of direct TMAO-urea interactions, the solute reorientation times of urea and TMAO show an anomalous nonlinear increase with concentration, for ternary mixtures containing equal amounts of TMAO and urea. The nonlinear increase of the reorientation correlates with changes in the viscosity, showing that the combination of TMAO and urea cooperatively enhances the hydrogen-bond structure of the ternary solutions. This nonlinear increase is indicative of water mediated interaction between the two solutes and is not observed if urea is combined with other amphiphilic solutes.

  17. Panta Rhei-Everything flows: Global Hotspots of Human-Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Tian, F.; Mohamed, Y.; Krueger, T.; Kreibich, H.; Liu, J.; Troy, T. J.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Panta Rhei-Everything Flows is the scientific decade (2013-2022) of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). This initiative aims to reach an improved interpretation of the processes governing the water cycle by focusing on their changing dynamics in connection with rapidly changing human systems (Montanari et al., 2013; McMillan et al., 2016). More than 400 water scientists have been involved in Panta Rhei so far, and several working groups have produced significant outcomes. In this presentation, we first summarize some key achievements of this initiative by showing how they have advanced our understanding of the way in which humans impact on, and respond to, hydrological change. Then, we suggest simple indicators to characterize interactions between water and human systems. These indicators aim to capture the relevance of human-water interactions and their potential to generate negative effects, such as water crises or unintended consequences. Finally, we show an application of these indicators to global hotspots, i.e. contrasting case studies from around the world. Our goal is to facilitate a community-wide effort in collecting and sharing essential data to map the role of human-water interactions across social and hydrological conditions. ReferencesMontanari et al. (2013) Panta Rhei—Everything Flows: Change in hydrology and society—The IAHS Scientific Decade 2013-2022, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 58(6), 1256-1275. McMillan et al. (2016) Panta Rhei 2013-2015: Global perspectives on hydrology, society and change. Hydrological sciences journal 61(7), 1174-1191.

  18. Cold leg condensation tests. Task C. Steam--water interaction tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Loiselle, V.

    1974-03-01

    A report is presented of tests to determine the condensation efficiency of ECC water injected into a quality fluid mixture flowing through the cold leg. In particular, a specific objective was to determine if the mixture of ECC water and quality fluid reached thermodynamic equilibrium before exiting the cold leg. Further, the stability of the ECC water/quality fluid interaction would be assessed by interpretation of thermocouple records and utilization of a section of cold leg piping with view ports to film the interaction whenever possible. The cold leg condensation tests showed complete condensation of the 5 lbm/sec steam quality mixtures in the cold leg by the ECC water flows of the test matrix. The cold leg exit fluid temperature remained below the saturation temperature and had good agreement with the predicted cold leg outlet temperature, calculated assuming total condensation. (U.S.)

  19. State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, D.; Moilleron, R.; Lorgeoux, C.; El Samarani, A.; Chebbo, Gh.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

  20. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10-1 mbar methane or 10-5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10-5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  1. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  2. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, C J

    1986-04-01

    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  3. Water-rock interaction during diagenesis and thermal recovery, Cold Lake, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, H.J.

    1988-12-01

    Fluid and rocks interact at high temperatures during diagenesis and steam assisted thermal recovery of bitumen from the Clearwater Formation at Cold Lake, Alberta. A study was carried out to assess the effects of natural diagenesis in rocks of the formation, and using these data, to relate the chemical and isotopic compositions of fluids produced during thermal recovery to water-rock interactions occurring in the reservoir. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on core from Leming and Marguerite Lake document a variety of diagenetic clays including mixed layer minerals smectite-illite and chlorite-smectite, chlorite, illite, berthierine and kaolinite. A method for internally generating factors to convert clay mineral XRD peak heights to relative weight percents was used. Semi-quantitative results show that smectite-illite is ubiquitous and the most abundant clay present. Details are provided of the diagenetic sequence illustrating water-rock interaction over a prolonged period. Three types of water were found to be produced from the wells: injected water, formation water associated with bitumen, and bottom water from the underlying McMurray Formation. Produced water compositions were used to estimate in-situ temperatures of fluids produced from reservoirs. It is concluded that equilibrium closed-system models can be applied to natural diagenesis and artificial diagenesis induced during thermal recovery. 132 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Multi-branes boundary states with open string interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesando, Igor

    2008-01-01

    We derive boundary states which describe configurations of multiple parallel branes with arbitrary open string states interactions in bosonic string theory. This is obtained by a careful discussion of the factorization of open/closed string states amplitudes taking care of cycles needed by ensuring vertices commutativity: in particular the discussion reveals that already at the tree level open string knows of the existence of closed string

  5. Strong CH/O interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and water: Influence of aromatic system size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljković, Dušan Ž

    2018-03-01

    Energies of CH/O interactions between water molecule and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a different number of aromatic rings were calculated using ab initio calculations at MP2/cc-PVTZ level. Results show that an additional aromatic ring in structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons significantly strengthens CH/O interactions. Calculated interaction energies in optimized structures of the most stable tetracene/water complex is -2.27 kcal/mol, anthracene/water is -2.13 kcal/mol and naphthalene/water is -1.97 kcal/mol. These interactions are stronger than CH/O contacts in benzene/water complex (-1.44 kcal/mol) while CH/O contacts in tetracene/water complex are even stronger than CH/O contacts in pyridine/water complexes (-2.21 kcal/mol). Electrostatic potential maps for different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were calculated and used to explain trends in the energies of interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Hydrophobic Interactions of Polymers with Water and Phospholipid Membranes Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenscko, Mihaela

    Polymers and lipid membranes are both essential soft materials. The structure and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of polymers, as well as the solvent they are embedded in, ultimately determines their size and shape. Understating the variation of shape of the polymer as well as its interactions with model biological membranes can assist in understanding the biocompatibility of the polymer itself. Computer simulations, in particular molecular dynamics, can aid in characterization of the interaction of polymers with solvent, as well as polymers with model membranes. In this thesis, molecular dynamics serve to describe polymer interactions with a solvent (water) and with a lipid membrane. To begin with, we characterize the hydrophobic collapse of single polystyrene chains in water using molecular dynamics simulations. Specifically, we calculate the potential of mean force for the collapse of a single polystyrene chain in water using metadynamics, comparing the results between all atomistic with coarse-grained molecular simulation. We next explore the scaling behavior of the collapsed globular shape at the minimum energy configuration, characterized by the radius of gyration, as a function of chain length. The exponent is close to one third, consistent with that predicted for a polymer chain in bad solvent. We also explore the scaling behavior of the Solvent Accessible Surface Area (SASA) as a function of chain length, finding a similar exponent for both all-atomistic and coarse-grained simulations. Furthermore, calculation of the local water density as a function of chain length near the minimum energy configuration suggests that intermediate chain lengths are more likely to form dewetted states, as compared to shorter or longer chain lengths. Next, in order to investigate the molecular interactions between single hydrophobic polymer chains and lipids in biological membranes and at lipid membrane/solvent interface, we perform a series of molecular dynamics simulations of

  7. 40 CFR 131.20 - State review and revision of water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Procedures for Review and Revision of Water Quality Standards § 131.20 State review and revision of water quality standards. (a) State review. The State shall... reviewing applicable water quality standards and, as appropriate, modifying and adopting standards. Any...

  8. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  9. Interaction of Caffeine Molecular Associates with Water: Theory and Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Shestopalova, Anna V.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the association process of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxipurine) in water are presented. Simulation was performed in a cluster approximation ; the system contained 200 water molecules. The nature of the stabilization of caffeine stacking associates in water was considered. Hydrophobic behaviour of methyl group s during association of caffeine molecules in water is shown. The peculiarity of interaction of caffeine associates with wa...

  10. Modeling liquid-vapor equilibria with an equation of state taking into account dipolar interactions and association by hydrogen bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfetti, E.

    2006-11-01

    Modelling fluid-rock interactions as well as mixing and unmixing phenomena in geological processes requires robust equations of state (EOS) which must be applicable to systems containing water, gases over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. Cubic equations of state based on the Van der Waals theory (e. g. Soave-Redlich-Kwong or Peng-Robinson) allow simple modelling from the critical parameters of the studied fluid components. However, the accuracy of such equations becomes poor when water is a major component of the fluid since neither association trough hydrogen bonding nor dipolar interactions are accounted for. The Helmholtz energy of a fluid may be written as the sum of different energetic contributions by factorization of partition function. The model developed in this thesis for the pure H 2 O and H 2 S considers three contributions. The first contribution represents the reference Van der Waals fluid which is modelled by the SRK cubic EOS. The second contribution accounts for association through hydrogen bonding and is modelled by a term derived from Cubic Plus Association (CPA) theory. The third contribution corresponds to the dipolar interactions and is modelled by the Mean Spherical Approximation (MSA) theory. The resulting CPAMSA equation has six adjustable parameters, which three represent physical terms whose values are close to their experimental counterpart. This equation results in a better reproduction of the thermodynamic properties of pure water than obtained using the classical CPA equation along the vapour-liquid equilibrium. In addition, extrapolation to higher temperatures and pressure is satisfactory. Similarly, taking into account dipolar interactions together with the SRK cubic equation of state for calculating molar volume of H 2 S as a function of pressure and temperature results in a significant improvement compared to the SRK equation alone. Simple mixing rules between dipolar molecules are proposed to model the H 2 O-H 2 S

  11. Results of measurements of thermal interaction between molten metal and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyszkowski, W.

    1975-10-01

    The report describes results of an experimental investigation into thermal interaction of molten metals with water. The experiments were performed in two stages: the aim of the first stage was to study the general character of thermal interaction between molten metal and water and to measure the Leidenfrost temperature of the inverse Leidenfrost phenomenon. The second stage was directed to the experimental study of the triggering mechanism of thermal explosion. The experimental material gathered in this study includes: 1) transient temperature measurements in the hot material and in water, 2) measurements of pressure and reactive force combined with thermal explosion, 3) high-speed films of thermal interaction, 4) investigation results of thermal explosion debris (microscopic, mechanical, metallographical and chemical). The most significant observation is, that small jets from the main particle mass occuring 1 to 10 msec before, precede thermal explosion. (orig.) [de

  12. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    continuous tide on the coastal side. The integrated surface water-groundwater numerical model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009, Spanoudaki, 2010) was also used in the study, with the numerical model predictions being compared with experimental results, which provide a valuable database for model calibration and validation. IRENE couples the 3D, non-steady state Navier-Stokes equations, after Reynolds averaging and with the assumption of hydrostatic pressure distribution, to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. The model uses the finite volume method with a cell-centered structured grid providing thus flexibility and accuracy in simulating irregular boundary geometries. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection-diffusion equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants introduced in a 3D turbulent flow field to the partial differential equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants in 3D transient groundwater flow systems. References Ebrahimi, K., Falconer, R.A. and Lin B. (2007). Flow and solute fluxes in integrated wetland and coastal systems. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22 (9), 1337-1348. Hughes, S.A. (1995). Physical Modelling and Laboratory Techniques in Coastal Engineering. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore. Kuan, W.K., Jin, G., Xin, P., Robinson, C. Gibbes, B. and Li. L. (2012). Tidal influence on seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. Water Resources Research, 48 (2), doi:10.1029/2011WR010678. Spanoudaki, K., Stamou, A.I. and Nanou-Giannarou, A. (2009). Development and verification of a 3-D integrated surface water-groundwater model. Journal of Hydrology, 375 (3-4), 410-427. Spanoudaki, K. (2010). Integrated numerical modelling of surface water groundwater systems (in Greek

  13. Global Operational Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration System for Water Resources Management: Case Study for the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, G. H.; Fisher, J.; Magnuson, M.; John, L.

    2017-12-01

    An operational system to produce and disseminate remotely sensed evapotranspiration using the PT-JPL model and support its analysis and use in water resources decision making is being integrated into the New Mexico state government. A partnership between the NASA Western Water Applications Office (WWAO), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE) has enabled collaboration with a variety of state agencies to inform decision making processes for agriculture, rangeland, and forest management. This system improves drought understanding and mobilization, litigation support, and economic, municipal, and ground-water planning through interactive mapping of daily rates of evapotranspiration at 1 km spatial resolution with near real-time latency. This is facilitated by daily remote sensing acquisitions of land-surface temperature and near-surface air temperature and humidity from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on the Terra satellite as well as the short-term composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and albedo provided by MODIS. Incorporating evapotranspiration data into agricultural water management better characterizes imbalances between water requirements and supplies. Monitoring evapotranspiration over rangeland areas improves remediation and prevention of aridification. Monitoring forest evapotranspiration improves wildlife management and response to wildfire risk. Continued implementation of this decision support system should enhance water and food security.

  14. Ionic interactions in the water zone at oil well-sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleven, R.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this doctoral thesis has been to obtain a better understanding of ionic behaviour in a water zone of sedimentary rock exposed to sea-water based drilling fluid and completion fluid. Interaction processes addressed have been ion exchange on the surface of the reservoir rocks and precipitation of divalent cations with sulphate ions from the sea water. Clay minerals are focused on because of their ability to conduct electricity through ion-exchange reactions. The most important parameters that the distribution of ions around a borehole depends upon are suggested to be (1) the ability of the sedimentary rocks to sorb/desorb ions, (2) the effect of added solutions on the sorption/desorption processes, (3) the mobility of ions. The first of four enclosed papers studies ionic interaction, mainly on homo-ionic clay mineral - salt solution, in batch experiments under pH, ionic strength and temperature conditions likely to occur in the field. Paper II investigates the use of tritiated water as a reference tracer in miscible displacement processes in porous sandstone cores. Ionic interaction processes during drilling of oil wells with conventional KCl bentonite mud tagged with HTO were studied by means of measured ionic and HTO concentration of water sampled in the near well-bore region. A tracer method was developed and ``tracer diagrams`` illustrate sorption/desorption processes. The water analyses, sampling procedure, and tracer techniques are presented in the third paper. Paper IV compares the interpretation of laboratory data and field data. 173 refs., 47 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Sustainable water services and interaction with water resources in Europe and in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Britto, A. L.

    2007-09-01

    The increasing interaction between large cities and nature makes "urban water" an issue: water resources and water services - including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and in large cities, storm water control -, which had become separate issues thanks to the process of water transport and treatment technologies, are now increasingly interfering with each other. We cannot take nature for granted anymore, and we need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water industry technologies in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, in their socio-economic and political context, tracing it through three "ages" of water technology and services which developed under civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering perspectives: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm was developed on the assumption that water should be drawn from natural environments far from the cities; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitation engineering paradigm, water treatment was invented and allowed cities to take water from rivers closer to them and treat it, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; finally, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  16. Fluorescence quenching behaviour of uric acid interacting with water-soluble cationic porphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Borowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The process of association between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H 2 TTMePP) and uric acid as well as its sodium salt has been studied in aqueous NaOH solution analysing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions porphyrin-uric acid compounds points at the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 10 5 mol −1 . The fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum yields of the porphyrin anionic form were established. The results demonstrate that uric acid and its sodium salt can interact with H 2 TTMePP at basic pH and through formation of stacking complexes are able to quench its ability to emission. - Highlights: • Association study of water soluble cationic porphyrin with uric acid. • Porphyrin absorption spectra undergo the bathochromic and hypochromic effects. • Uric acid interacts with porphyrin in inhibiting manner, quenching its emission. • Fluorescence quenching effect testifies for the partial inactivation of a porphyrin. • The association and fluorescence quenching constants were calculated

  17. Fluorescence quenching behaviour of uric acid interacting with water-soluble cationic porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena, E-mail: makarska@hektor.umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Borowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    The process of association between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H{sub 2}TTMePP) and uric acid as well as its sodium salt has been studied in aqueous NaOH solution analysing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions porphyrin-uric acid compounds points at the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 10{sup 5} mol{sup −1}. The fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum yields of the porphyrin anionic form were established. The results demonstrate that uric acid and its sodium salt can interact with H{sub 2}TTMePP at basic pH and through formation of stacking complexes are able to quench its ability to emission. - Highlights: • Association study of water soluble cationic porphyrin with uric acid. • Porphyrin absorption spectra undergo the bathochromic and hypochromic effects. • Uric acid interacts with porphyrin in inhibiting manner, quenching its emission. • Fluorescence quenching effect testifies for the partial inactivation of a porphyrin. • The association and fluorescence quenching constants were calculated.

  18. Interventions and Interactions: Understanding Coupled Human-Water Dynamics for Improved Water Resources Management in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crootof, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding coupled human-water dynamics offers valuable insights to address fundamental water resources challenges posed by environmental change. With hydropower reshaping human-water interactions in mountain river basins, there is a need for a socio-hydrology framework—which examines two-way feedback loops between human and water systems—to more effectively manage water resources. This paper explores the cross-scalar interactions and feedback loops between human and water systems in river basins affected by run-of-the-river hydropower and highlights the utility of a socio-hydrology perspectives to enhance water management in the face of environmental change. In the Himalayas, the rapid expansion of run-of-the-river hydropower—which diverts streamflow for energy generation—is reconfiguring the availability, location, and timing of water resources. This technological intervention in the river basin not only alters hydrologic dyanmics but also shapes social outcomes. Using hydropower development in the highlands of Uttarakhand, India as a case study, I first illustrate how run-of-the-river projects transform human-water dynamics by reshaping the social and physical landscape of a river basin. Second, I emphasize how examining cross-scalar feedbacks among structural dynamics, social outcomes, and values and norms in this coupled human-water system can inform water management. Third, I present hydrological and social literature, raised separately, to indicate collaborative research needs and knowledge gaps for coupled human-water systems affected by run-of-the-river hydropower. The results underscore the need to understand coupled human-water dynamics to improve water resources management in the face of environmental change.

  19. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  20. The chimera state in colloidal phase oscillators with hydrodynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Evelyn; Bruot, Nicolas; Cicuta, Pietro

    2017-12-01

    The chimera state is the incongruous situation where coherent and incoherent populations coexist in sets of identical oscillators. Using driven non-linear oscillators interacting purely through hydrodynamic forces at low Reynolds number, previously studied as a simple model of motile cilia supporting waves, we find concurrent incoherent and synchronised subsets in small arrays. The chimeras seen in simulation display a "breathing" aspect, reminiscent of uniformly interacting phase oscillators. In contrast to other systems where chimera has been observed, this system has a well-defined interaction metric, and we know that the emergent dynamics inherit the symmetry of the underlying Oseen tensor eigenmodes. The chimera state can thus be connected to a superposition of eigenstates, whilst considering the mean interaction strength within and across subsystems allows us to make a connection to more generic (and abstract) chimeras in populations of Kuramoto phase oscillators. From this work, we expect the chimera state to emerge in experimental observations of oscillators coupled through hydrodynamic forces.

  1. Influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone on the interaction between water and methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guettari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to determine the influence of a dissolved polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone, on the interaction between water and methanol. First, the dynamic viscosities were measured for polymer solutions by a rotational concentric cylinder at 25 ºC and for the polymer concentration range from 0.1 to 0.6 g/dl. The results show a polynomial dependence of the viscosity on polymer concentration. On the hypothesis of a quasi-binary system, a pseudo Grumberg-Nissan constant, d'p, was introduced to quantify the interaction between unlike molecules in the presence of polymer. The interaction between unlike molecules due to the presence of the polymer was quantified by the deviation of the Grumberg-Nissan constant, δd'p= d p. Generally, this constant is negative which means that the interactions between water and methanol decrease in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone at 25 ºC. The presence of the polymer induces a perturbation of the dynamic equilibrium between free and complexed molecules

  2. Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Frankel Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic growth, changes in diet, and reliance on first-generation biofuels are increasing the human demand for agricultural products, thereby enhancing the human pressure on global freshwater resources. Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise. Here we investigate the extent to which water in the United States could be saved while improving yields simply by replacing the existing crops with more suitable ones. We propose crop replacement criteria that achieve this goal while preserving crop diversity, economic value, nitrogen fixation, and food protein production. We find that in the United States, these criteria would greatly improve calorie (+46% and protein (+34% production and economic value (+208%, with 5% water savings with respect to the present crop distribution. Interestingly, greater water savings could be achieved in water-stressed agricultural regions of the US such as California (56% water savings, and other western states.

  3. The Role of Water Distribution Controlled by Transmembrane Potentials in the Cytochrome c-Cardiolipin Interaction: Revealing from Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Wu, Lie; Liu, Li; Jiang, Xiue

    2017-11-02

    The interaction of cytochrome c (cyt c) with cardiolipin (CL) plays a crucial role in apoptotic functions, however, the changes of the transmembrane potential in governing the protein behavior at the membrane-water interface have not been studied due to the difficulties in simultaneously monitoring the interaction and regulating the electric field. Herein, surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroelectrochemistry is employed to study the mechanism of how the transmembrane potentials control the interaction of cyt c with CL membranes by regulating the electrode potentials of an Au film. When the transmembrane potential decreases, the water content at the interface of the membranes can be increased to slow down protein adsorption through decreasing the hydrogen-bond and hydrophobic interactions, but regulates the redox behavior of CL-bound cyt c through a possible water-facilitated proton-coupled electron transfer process. Our results suggest that the potential drop-induced restructure of the CL conformation and the hydration state could modify the structure and function of CL-bound cyt c on the lipid membrane. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Dynamics of relaxation to a stationary state for interacting molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luiza V. F.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2018-01-01

    Motor proteins are active enzymatic molecules that drive a variety of biological processes, including transfer of genetic information, cellular transport, cell motility and muscle contraction. It is known that these biological molecular motors usually perform their cellular tasks by acting collectively, and there are interactions between individual motors that specify the overall collective behavior. One of the fundamental issues related to the collective dynamics of motor proteins is the question if they function at stationary-state conditions. To investigate this problem, we analyze a relaxation to the stationary state for the system of interacting molecular motors. Our approach utilizes a recently developed theoretical framework, which views the collective dynamics of motor proteins as a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process of interacting particles, where interactions are taken into account via a thermodynamically consistent approach. The dynamics of relaxation to the stationary state is analyzed using a domain-wall method that relies on a mean-field description, which takes into account some correlations. It is found that the system quickly relaxes for repulsive interactions, while attractive interactions always slow down reaching the stationary state. It is also predicted that for some range of parameters the fastest relaxation might be achieved for a weak repulsive interaction. Our theoretical predictions are tested with Monte Carlo computer simulations. The implications of our findings for biological systems are briefly discussed.

  5. An illustrative recovery approach for stateful interaction failures of orchestrated processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lei; Wombacher, Andreas; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Chi, Chihung; Chi, CH.; Grossmann, G.

    During a stateful interaction, a partner service may become unavailable because of a server crash or a temporary network failure. Once the failed service becomes available again, the interaction partners do not have any knowledge about each other’s state, possibly resulting in errors or deadlocks.

  6. Modeling Bacteria-Water Interactions in Soil: EPS Dynamics Under Evaporative Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, J.; Hinestroza, H. F.; Guo, Y. S.; Gage, D. J.; Cho, Y. K.; Shor, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    The soil habitat represents a major linkage between the water and carbon cycles: the ability of soils to sequester or release carbon is determined primarily by soil moisture. Water retention and distribution in soils controls the abundance and activity of soil microbes. Microbes in turn impact water retention by creating biofilms, composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). We model the effects of bacterial EPS on water retention at the pore scale. We use the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), a well-established fluid dynamics modeling platform, and modify it to include the effects of water uptake and release by the swelling/shrinking EPS phase. The LB model is implemented in 2-D, with a non-ideal gas equation of state that allows condensation and evaporation of fluid in pore spaces. Soil particles are modeled according to experimentally determined particle size distributions and include realistic pore geometries, in contrast to many soil models which use spherical soil particles for simplicity. Model results are compared with evaporation experiments in soil micromodels and other simpler experimental systems, and model parameters are tuned to match experimental results. Drying behavior and solid-gel contact angle of EPS produced by the soil bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti has been characterized and compared to the behavior of deionized water under the same conditions. The difference in behavior between the fluids is used to parameterize the model. The model shows excellent qualitative agreement for soil micromodels with both aggregated and non-aggregated particle arrangements under no-EPS conditions, and reproduces realistic drying behavior for EPS. This work represents a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding microbe-soil interactions at the pore scale.

  7. Ab initio study of neutral (TiO2)n clusters and their interactions with water and transition metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakır, D; Gülseren, O

    2012-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the growth behavior and stability of small stoichiometric (TiO 2 ) n (n = 1-10) clusters as well as their structural, electronic and magnetic properties by using the first-principles plane wave pseudopotential method within density functional theory. In order to find out the ground state geometries, a large number of initial cluster structures for each n has been searched via total energy calculations. Generally, the ground state structures for the case of n = 1-9 clusters have at least one monovalent O atom, which only binds to a single Ti atom. However, the most stable structure of the n = 10 cluster does not have any monovalent O atom. On the other hand, Ti atoms are at least fourfold coordinated for the ground state structures for n ≥ 4 clusters. Our calculations have revealed that clusters prefer to form three-dimensional structures. Furthermore, all these stoichiometric clusters have nonmagnetic ground state. The formation energy and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap for the most stable structure of (TiO 2 ) n clusters for each n have also been calculated. The formation energy and hence the stability increases as the cluster size grows. In addition, the interactions between the ground state structure of the (TiO 2 ) n cluster and a single water molecule have been studied. The binding energy (E b ) of the H 2 O molecule exhibits an oscillatory behavior with the size of the clusters. A single water molecule preferably binds to the cluster Ti atom through its oxygen atom, resulting an average binding energy of 1.1 eV. We have also reported the interaction of the selected clusters (n = 3, 4, 10) with multiple water molecules. We have found that additional water molecules lead to a decrease in the binding energy of these molecules to the (TiO 2 ) n clusters. Finally, the adsorption of transition metal (TM) atoms (V, Co and Pt) on the n = 10 cluster has been

  8. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  9. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

    2012-01-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  10. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L; González, Angélica L; Hagen, Elizabeth M; Nathaniel Holland, J; Kotler, Burt P; Maestre, Fernando T; Smith, Stanley D; Wolf, Blair O

    2012-08-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  11. Trend-outflow method for understanding interactions of surface water with groundwater and atmospheric water for eight reaches of the Upper Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sheng, Zhuping

    2011-11-01

    SummaryAtmospheric water, surface water, and groundwater interact very actively through hydrologic processes such as precipitation, infiltration, seepage, irrigation, drainage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration in the Upper Rio Grande Basin. A trend-outflow method has been developed in this paper to gain a better understanding of the interactions based on cumulated inflow and outflow data for any river reaches of interest. A general trend-outflow equation was derived by associating the net interaction of surface water with atmospheric water as a polynomial of inflow and the net interaction of surface water with groundwater as a constant based on surface water budget. Linear and quadratic relations are probably two common trend-outflow types in the real world. It was found that trend-outflows of the Upper Rio Grande reaches, Española, Albuquerque, Socorro-Engle, Palomas, and Rincon are linear with inflow, while those of reaches, Belen, Mesilla and Hueco are quadratic. Reaches Belen, Mesilla and Hueco are found as water deficit reaches mainly for irrigated agriculture in extreme drought years.

  12. Quantifying Water-Rock Interactions during Hydraulic Fracturing from the Analysis of Flowback Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselin, F.; Nightingale, M.; Kloppmann, W.; Gaucher, E.; Clarkson, C.; Mayer, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies have facilitated the rapid development of shale gas and other unconventional resources throughout the world. In order to get sufficient access to the trapped hydrocarbon, it is necessary to fracture the bedrock and increase its permeability. Fracturing fluids are usually composed of tens of thousand of cubic meters of low salinity water with numerous additives, such as viscosity agent or breakers. The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the water-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing. This study was based on repeated sampling of flowback water from a hydraulically fractured well in Alberta, Canada. The flowback water was sampled 24 times during the first week and one last time after one, and analyzed for major ions and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes of sulfate and water among others. Results showed that salinity rapidly increases up to 100 000 mg/L at the end of the first week. We demonstrate that conservative species such as Na and Cl follow a clear two end-members mixing line, while some species including sulfate had much higher concentrations (8 times higher than the expected value from the mixing line). This indicates that the rapid increase of salinity in flowback water is caused by both mixing with formation water initially present in the shale formation, and from water-rock interactions triggered by the fracturing fluid and in some cases by the additives. Stable isotope data suggest that additional sulfate is mobilized as a consequence of pyrite oxidation, releasing sulfate, iron and potentially other heavy metals into the flowback water. This release of excess sulfate can be detrimental because it has the potential to promote scaling of sulfate minerals. Moreover, pyrite oxidation is a highly acidifying reaction and this may decrease the effectiveness of other additives, and promote carbonate minerals dissolution enhancing further scaling. We propose that a better control of the

  13. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  14. Verification of IVA5 computer code for melt-water interaction analysis. Pt. 2. Three-phase flows with melt fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    1999-01-01

    In order to qualify IVA5 for applications in the field of the melt-water interactions in nuclear reactor safety, we analyzed the achievable accuracy by predicting phenomena that are within this class. Comparison with FARO and PREMIX experiments characterized with dynamic fragmentation of the participating materials together With the comparison with the variety of experiments documented in part 1 of this work qualified IVA5 as a code representing the state-of-the-art in the field of the multiphase flows. The code is capable of predicting multi-phase flow behavior in complicated 3D geometries and industrial networks. The code is able to predict melt-water interaction in well quantified uncertainty region. Reducing the uncertainty band needs future sophistication in the directions specified in this work. (author)

  15. Interaction of water with (silico)aluminophosphate zeotypes: a comparative investigation using dispersion-corrected DFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael

    2016-06-21

    Porous aluminophosphates (AlPOs) and silicoaluminophosphates (SAPOs) with zeolite-like structures have received considerable attention as potential adsorbents for heat transformation applications using water adsorption/desorption cycles. Since a detailed experimental characterisation of the water adsorption properties has only been performed for some of these materials, such as AlPO-18 (AEI topology) and SAPO-34 (CHA topology), more systematic insights regarding the influence of the pore topology and (for SAPOs) the arrangement of the framework protons on the affinity towards water are lacking. To study the relationships between structure and properties in more detail, the interaction of water with six structurally different AlPOs (with AEI, AFX, CHA, ERI, GIS, RHO topologies) and their SAPO analogues was investigated using dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. Different possible locations of silicon atoms and charge-balancing protons were considered for the SAPO systems. The calculations for SAPOs at low water loadings (one H2O molecule per framework proton) revealed that the interaction energies exhibit a considerable variation, ranging from -75 to -100 kJ mol(-1) (per water molecule). The differences in interaction energy were rationalised with the different structural environment of the framework protons at which the water molecules are adsorbed. At high water uptakes (near saturation), interaction energies in the range of -65 kJ mol(-1) were obtained for all AlPOs, and there was no evidence for a marked influence of pore size and/or topology on the interaction strength. The interaction of water with SAPOs was found to be approximately 5 kJ mol(-1) stronger than for AlPOs due to an increased contribution of electrostatic interactions. An analysis of the structural changes upon water adsorption revealed striking differences between the distinct topologies, with the materials with GIS and RHO topologies being distorted much more

  16. Fuel cladding interaction with water coolant in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Water coolant chemistry and corrosion processes are important factors in reliable operation of NPP's, as at elevated temperatures water is aggressive towards structural materials. Water regimes for commercial Pressurized Water Reactors and Boiling Water Reactors were developed and proved to be satisfactory. Nevertheless, studies of operation experience continue and an amount of new Research and Development work is being conducted for further improvements of technology and better understanding of the physicochemical nature of those processes. In this report information is presented on the IAEA programme on fuel element cladding interaction with water coolant. Some results of this survey and recommendations made by the group of consultants who participated in this work are given as well as recommendations for continuation of this study. Separate abstracts were prepared for 6 papers of this report

  17. Localized bound states of fermions interacting via massive vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, D.C.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.

    1988-11-01

    A model for composite consisting of fermions with internal degrees of freedom interacting via intermediate vector bosons (IVB) is constructed. We find highly localized, low-mass bound states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. We investigate the dependence of these states as function of the coupling constant and vector boson mass. In the limit of infinite vector boson mass the interaction is described by Fermi-type contact forces. (orig.)

  18. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  19. Solvation of positive ions in water: the dominant role of water-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krekeler, Christian; Site, Luigi Delle

    2007-01-01

    Local polarization effects, induced by monovalent and divalent positive ions in water, influence (and in turn are influenced by) the large-scale structural properties of the solvent. Experiments can only distinguish this process of interplay in a generic qualitative way. Instead, first-principles calculations can address the question at both the electronic and atomistic scale, accounting for electronic polarization as well as geometrical conformations. For this reason we study the extension of the scales' interconnection by means of first-principle Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics applied to systems of different size. In this way we identify the general aspects dominating the physics of the first solvation shell and their connection to the effects related to the formation of the outer shells and eventually the bulk. We show that while the influence of the ions is extended to the first shell only, the water-water interaction is instead playing a dominant role even within the first shell independently of the size or the charge of the ion. (fast track communication)

  20. Biogeochemical interactions between of coal mine water and gas well cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, D. M.; Gardiner, J. B.; Kutchko, B. G.; Hakala, A.; Spaulding, R.; Tkach, M. K.; Ross, D.

    2017-12-01

    Unconventional natural gas wells drilled in Northern Appalachia often pass through abandoned coal mines before reaching the Marcellus or Utica formations. Biogeochemical interactions between coal mine waters and gas well cements have the potential to alter the cement and compromise its sealing integrity. This study investigates the mineralogical, geochemical, and microbial changes of cement cores exposed to natural coal mine waters. Static reactors with Class H Portland cement cores and water samples from an abandoned bituminous Pittsburgh coal mine simulated the cement-fluid interactions at relevant temperature for time periods of 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Fluids were analyzed for cation and anion concentrations and extracted DNA was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun sequencing. Cement core material was evaluated via scanning electron microscope. Results suggest that the sampled coal mine water altered the permeability and matrix mineralogy of the cement cores. Scanning electron microscope images display an increase in mineral precipitates inside the cement matrix over the course of the experiment. Chemistry results from the reaction vessels' effluent waters display decreases in dissolved calcium, iron, silica, chloride, and sulfate. The microbial community decreased in diversity over the 6-week experiment, with Hydrogenophaga emerging as dominant. These results provide insight in the complex microbial-fluid-mineral interactions of these environments. This study begins to characterize the rarely documented biogeochemical impacts that coal waters may have on unconventional gas well integrity.

  1. Chimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators with biharmonic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongyan; Dai, Qionglin; Wu, Nianping; Feng, Yuee; Li, Haihong; Yang, Junzhong

    2018-03-01

    Chimera states, which consist of coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent parts, have been observed in a variety of systems. Most of previous works on chimera states have taken into account specific form of interaction between oscillators, for example, sinusoidal coupling or diffusive coupling. Here, we investigate chimera dynamics in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators with biharmonic interaction. We find novel chimera states with features such as that oscillators in the same coherent cluster may split into two groups with a phase difference around π/2 and that oscillators in adjacent coherent clusters may have a phase difference close to π/2. The different impacts of the coupling ranges in the first and the second harmonic interactions on chimera dynamics are investigated based on the synchronous dynamics in globally coupled phase oscillators. Our study suggests a new direction in the field of chimera dynamics.

  2. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of potable water to every nock and crannies of the state must be pursed vigorously. To achieve this task in Ekiti State, the problems militating against the supply of clean water need to be tackled effectively. For this reason, the rehabilitation of existing dams provision of funds, completion of the 132 KVA ...

  3. KETERKAITAN BERBAGAI KONSEP INTERAKSI AIR DALAM PRODUK PANGAN [Interrelation on Water Interaction Concepts in Foods]--Komunikasi Singkat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede R. Adawiyah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of water interaction with chemicals in the food dry matter or solid was inspired from gas interaction with surface active chemicals, almost a hundred years ago, such as association of gases with active carbon. However, until now the mechanisms and consequences of water molecule associated with chemicals in food solid is still in debate among the food scientists. The concept of water interaction or association with chemicals in the food solid or dry matter was initially introduced as water activity (aw, then in the terminology of “Bound Water”. Water activity concept was further developed by Labuza in 1960s. The concept or idea of glass transition temperature (Tg from Polymers Science discipline was applied to foods in decade of 1980 by Slade & Levine, who denied or negated the earlier concepts of bound water and water activity. In glass transition concept of food products, water functions as a plasticizer related to the textural properties and safety of the products. Knowledge of structure and behaviours of water molecule is required to understand how water interacts or associates with chemicals in food solid. The unique nature of water molecule is a tetrahedral structure with 4 polar angles, which behaves strongly binding or being bound by polar or ionic chemicals in food solid. A number of physicochemical forces act how water molecules interact in complex ways with chemicals in food solid, and the interaction among water molecules in foods. Both types of water interaction lead to the consept of three fractions of bound water as well as to the varities of food characteristics, including preservability and food qualities, either appraisable or unacceptable by consummers. Relationship analyses among various parameter data of associated water in foods such as aw, Me, Tg, and enriched by NMR data, specific weight and specific heat of bound water, indicated that among the different concepts of water interaction in foods were

  4. Outbreaks Associated with Treated Recreational Water - United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavsa, Michele C; Cikesh, Bryanna L; Roberts, Virginia A; Kahler, Amy M; Vigar, Marissa; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J; Roellig, Dawn M; Murphy, Jennifer L; Xiao, Lihua; Yates, Kirsten M; Kunz, Jasen M; Arduino, Matthew J; Reddy, Sujan C; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Cooley, Laura A; Beach, Michael J; Hill, Vincent R; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2018-05-18

    Outbreaks associated with exposure to treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in venues such as pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive water play venues (i.e., water playgrounds). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 46 states and Puerto Rico reported 493 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water. These outbreaks resulted in at least 27,219 cases and eight deaths. Among the 363 outbreaks with a confirmed infectious etiology, 212 (58%) were caused by Cryptosporidium (which causes predominantly gastrointestinal illness), 57 (16%) by Legionella (which causes Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness with flu-like symptoms), and 47 (13%) by Pseudomonas (which causes folliculitis ["hot tub rash"] and otitis externa ["swimmers' ear"]). Investigations of the 363 outbreaks identified 24,453 cases; 21,766 (89%) were caused by Cryptosporidium, 920 (4%) by Pseudomonas, and 624 (3%) by Legionella. At least six of the eight reported deaths occurred in persons affected by outbreaks caused by Legionella. Hotels were the leading setting, associated with 157 (32%) of the 493 outbreaks. Overall, the outbreaks had a bimodal temporal distribution: 275 (56%) outbreaks started during June-August and 46 (9%) in March. Assessment of trends in the annual counts of outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium, Legionella, or Pseudomonas indicate mixed progress in preventing transmission. Pathogens able to evade chlorine inactivation have become leading outbreak etiologies. The consequent outbreak and case counts and mortality underscore the utility of CDC's Model Aquatic Health Code (https://www.cdc.gov/mahc) to prevent outbreaks associated with treated recreational water.

  5. Quantum state detection and state preparation based on cavity-enhanced nonlinear interaction of atoms with single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahdi

    Our ability to engineer quantum states of light and matter has significantly advanced over the past two decades, resulting in the production of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian optical states. The resulting tailored quantum states enable quantum technologies such as quantum optical communication, quantum sensing as well as quantum photonic computation. The strong nonlinear light-atom interaction is the key to deterministic quantum state preparation and quantum photonic processing. One route to enhancing the usually weak nonlinear light-atom interactions is to approach the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) interaction by means of high finesse optical resonators. I present results from the MIT experiment of large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal photon, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. I also present a scheme to probabilistically change the amplitude and phase of a signal photon qubit to, in principle, arbitrary values by postselection on a control photon that has interacted with that state. Notably, small changes of the control photon polarization measurement basis by few degrees can substantially change the amplitude and phase of the signal state. Finally, I present our ongoing effort at Purdue to realize similar peculiar quantum phenomena at the single photon level on chip scale photonic systems.

  6. Analysis of water hammer-structure interaction in piping system for a loss of coolant accident in primary loop of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiwen; Yang Jinglong; He Feng; Wang Xuefang

    2000-01-01

    The conventional analysis of water hammer and dynamics response of structure in piping system is divided into two parts, and the interaction between them is neglected. The mechanism of fluid-structure interaction under the double-end break pipe in piping system is analyzed. Using the characteristics method, the numerical simulation of water hammer-structure interaction in piping system is completed based on 14 parameters and 14 partial differential equations of fluid-piping cell. The calculated results for a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in primary loop of pressurized water reactor show that the waveform and values of pressure and force with time in piping system are different from that of non-interaction between water hammer and structure in piping system, and the former is less than the later

  7. Probing membrane protein structure using water polarization transfer solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan K; Hong, Mei

    2014-10-01

    Water plays an essential role in the structure and function of proteins, lipid membranes and other biological macromolecules. Solid-state NMR heteronuclear-detected (1)H polarization transfer from water to biomolecules is a versatile approach for studying water-protein, water-membrane, and water-carbohydrate interactions in biology. We review radiofrequency pulse sequences for measuring water polarization transfer to biomolecules, the mechanisms of polarization transfer, and the application of this method to various biological systems. Three polarization transfer mechanisms, chemical exchange, spin diffusion and NOE, manifest themselves at different temperatures, magic-angle-spinning frequencies, and pulse irradiations. Chemical exchange is ubiquitous in all systems examined so far, and spin diffusion plays the key role in polarization transfer within the macromolecule. Tightly bound water molecules with long residence times are rare in proteins at ambient temperature. The water polarization-transfer technique has been used to study the hydration of microcrystalline proteins, lipid membranes, and plant cell wall polysaccharides, and to derive atomic-resolution details of the kinetics and mechanism of ion conduction in channels and pumps. Using this approach, we have measured the water polarization transfer to the transmembrane domain of the influenza M2 protein to obtain information on the structure of this tetrameric proton channel. At short mixing times, the polarization transfer rates are site-specific and depend on the pH, labile protons, sidechain conformation, as well as the radial position of the residues in this four-helix bundle. Despite the multiple dependences, the initial transfer rates reflect the periodic nature of the residue positions from the water-filled pore, thus this technique provides a way of gleaning secondary structure information, helix tilt angle, and the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Water-mineral interaction in hygromechanics of clays exposed to environmental loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueckel, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Water-mineral interaction in narrow interstices (<3 nm) in dense, saturated clays is discussed in view of recent experimental findings and molecular dynamics simulations. Consequences to the macroscopic behavior are considered. A mixture theory for two interacting constituents is developed. Effects of temperature and chemicals are discussed. A postulate of mass transfer of absorbed water from solid to fluid fraction caused by thermal or chemical load is then discussed. Theory of plasticity of clays affected by heat or chemicals is developed to deal with the effects of thermal and chemical consolidation

  9. Water-mediated variability in the structure of relaxed-state haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Prem Singh; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Vijayan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Partial dehydration of high-salt horse methaemoglobin crystals tends to shift the structure from the R state to the R2 state, in agreement with previous observations that movements in the molecule resulting from changes in water content mimic those involved in protein action. The crystal structure of high-salt horse methaemoglobin has been determined at environmental relative humidities (r.h.) of 88, 79, 75 and 66%. The molecule is in the R state in the native and the r.h. 88% crystals. At r.h. 79%, the water content of the crystal is reduced and the molecule appears to move towards the R2 state. The crystals undergo a water-mediated transformation involving a doubling of one of the unit-cell parameters and an increase in water content when the environmental humidity is further reduced to r.h. 75%. The water content is now similar to that in the native crystals and the molecules are in the R state. The crystal structure at r.h. 66% is similar, but not identical, to that at r.h. 75%, but the solvent content is substantially reduced and the molecules have a quaternary structure that is in between those corresponding to the R and R2 states. Thus, variation in hydration leads to variation in the quaternary structure. Furthermore, partial dehydration appears to shift the structure from the R state to the R2 state. This observation is in agreement with the earlier conclusion that the changes in protein structure that accompany partial dehydration are similar to those that occur during protein action

  10. The current state of water resources of Transcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout their existence, humans use the water of rivers, lakes and underground sources not only for water supply but also for dumping of polluted waters and wastes into it. Significant development of urbanization, concentration of urban industrial enterprises, transport, increase in mining, expansion of drainage and irrigation reclamation, plowing of the river channels, creating a large number of landfills resulted in significant, and in some regions critical, depletion and contamination of the surface and ground waters. Because of this disastrous situation, the society is getting more and more concerned about the state of the environment. The public became increasingly interested in the state of the soil cover, air, water resources, and biotic diversity. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is situated in the heart of Europe, bordered by four Central European countries (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania and two regions of Ukraine (Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is one of the richest regions of Ukraine in terms of water resources. The territory is permeated by the dense network of rivers. There are in total 9,429 rivers of 19,866 kmlength flowing in the region. Among them, the rivers Tysa, Borzhava, Latoryca, Uzh have the length of over 100 kmeach. 25 cities and urban settlements of the area are substantially provided with the centralized water intake of underground drinking water. The rural areas have virtually no centralized water supply; mainly, it is carried out due to domestic wells or water boreholes. Predicted resources of underground drinking waters in the region are equal to 1,109,300 m3/day. The use of fresh water in 2014 per capita amounted to 23,769 m3, 15% less than in 2009. The main pollutants of surface water bodies are the facilities of utility companies in the region. Analysis of studies of surface water quality in Transcarpathian region in 2014 shows that water quality meets the

  11. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  12. Experimental study of the molten glass/water thermal interaction under free and forced conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    Molten glass interacts explosively with water under certain contact mode conditions. The contact mode found explosive is as follows: Molten glass enters the water bath in the film boiling regime (as predicted by Dhir's correlation), and soon after entry the vapor film is perturbed sufficiently by an external pressure pulse. The ensuing reaction proceeds basically along the same lines as energetic tin/water interactions observed by several investigators. In the absence of this pressure pulse, the event is nonenergetic. The present findings are for a combination in which the hot material has a very low thermal diffusivity and the calculated interface temperature is significantly (approximately 180 K) below its melting temperature. This is similar to the characteristics of the UO 2 /sodium or UO 2 /water combinations. The observed explosive glass/water interactions show growth times on the order of a few milliseconds. The particulate size distribution from the present tests was coarser than the particulate size distribution from some in-pile and out-of-pile UO 2 /sodium interaction tests

  13. Interaction between ground water and surface water in Taylor Slough and vicinity, Everglades National Park, South Florida; study methods and appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Jackson, J.M.; Mooney, R.H.; Choi, Jungyill

    2000-01-01

    The data presented in this report are products of an investigation that quantified interactions between ground water and surface water in Taylor Slough in Everglades National Park. Determining the extent of hydrologic interactions between wetland surface water and ground water in Taylor Slough is important because the balance of freshwater flow in the lower part of the Slough is uncertain. Although freshwater flows through Taylor Slough are quite small in comparison to Shark Slough (the larger of the two major sloughs in Everglades National Park), flows through Taylor Slough are especially important to the ecology of estuarine mangrove embayments of northeastern Florida Bay. Also, wetland and ground- water interactions must be quantified if their role in affecting water quality is to be determined. In order to define basic hydrologic characteristics of the wetland, depth of wetland peat was mapped, and hydraulic conductivity and vertical hydraulic gradients in peat were determined. During specific time periods representing both wet and dry conditions in the area, the distribution of major ions, nutrients, and water stable isotopes throughout the slough were determined. The purpose of chemical measurements was to identify an environmental tracer could be used to quantify ground-water discharge.

  14. Interaction of spermine with DNA, vitamin C and bovine serum albumin in the unirradiated and gamma irradiated states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, S.N.; Lal, C.; Bhardwaj, R.; Chaturvedi, S.; Chaudhury, N.K.

    2006-01-01

    Structural deformability of spermine with radiation dose (maximum 10 Gy) has been proved. Complex formation of spermine with DNA, vitamin C and BSA took place. Calibration and radiation-induced absorption changes in spermine by ninhydrin reagent has been followed quantitatively. Interaction of vitamin C with DNA and their radiation-induced changes have been reported. Interaction of spermine with DNA in the unirradiated and gamma irradiated states in 10 -3 M phosphate buffer and water have been compared. Addition of spermine and vitamin C to DNA makes DNA structure more condensed. Bovine serum albumin also binds with spermine and protects it from radiation-induced degradation. (author)

  15. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  16. Penn State advanced light water reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, J.A.; Smith, K.A.; Edwards, R.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Schultz, M.A.; Klevans, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island heightened concerns over the safety of nuclear power. In response to these concerns, a research group at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) undertook the conceptual design of an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) under sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE). The design builds on the literally hundreds of years worth of experience with light water reactor technology. The concept is a reconfigured pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capability of being shut down to a safe condition simply by removing all ac power, both off-site and on-site. Using additional passively activated heat sinks and replacing the pressurizer with a pressurizing pump system, the concept essentially eliminates the concerns of core damage associated with a total station blackout. Evaluation of the Penn State ALWR concept has been conducted using the EPRI Modular Modeling System (MMS). Results show that a superior response to normal operating transients can be achieved in comparison to the response with a conventional PWR pressurizer. The DOE-sponsored Penn State ALWR concept has evolved into a significant reconfiguration of a PWR leading to enhanced safety characteristics. The reconfiguration has touched a number of areas in overall plant design including a shutdown turbine in the secondary system, additional passively activated heat sinks, a unique primary side pressurizing concept, a low pressure cleanup system, reactor building layout, and a low power density core design

  17. Final-state interactions and relativistic effects in the quasielastic (e,e') reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinn, C.R.; Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545); Picklesimer, A.; Van Orden, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse response functions for the inclusive quasielastic (e,e') reaction are analyzed in detail. A microscopic theoretical framework for the many-body reaction provides a clear conceptual (nonrelativistic) basis for treating final-state interactions and goes far beyond simple plane-wave or Hermitean potential models. The many-body physics of inelastic final-state channels as described by optical and multiple scattering theories is properly included by incorporating a full complex optical potential. Explicit nonrelativistic and relativistic momentum-space calculations quantitatively demonstrate the importance of such a treatment of final-state interactions for both the transverse and longitudinal response. Nonrelativistic calculations are performed using final-state interactions based on phenomenology, local density models, and microscopic multiple scattering theory. Relativistic calculations span a similar range of models and employ Dirac bound-state wave functions. The theoretical extension to relativistic dynamics is of course not clear, but is done in obvious parallel to elastic proton scattering. Extensive calculations are performed for 40 Ca at momentum transfers of 410, 550, and 700 MeV/c. A number of interesting physical effects are observed, including significant relativistic suppressions (especially for R L ), large off-shell and virtual pair effects, enhancement of the tails of the response by the final-state interactions, and large qualitative and even shape distinctions between the predictions of the various models of the final-state interactions. None of the models is found to be able to simultaneously predict the data for both response functions. This strongly suggests that additional physical mechanisms are of qualitative importance in inclusive quasielastic electron scattering

  18. Federal Disaster Funding Opportunities for Water and Wastewater Utilities through the Drinking Water and Clean Water State Revolving Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following provides a checklist that will help you take advantage of Drinking Water State Revolving Funds. For more detailed information on Drinking Water SRF, see DWSRF in Fed FUNDS. For more information on Clean Water SRF, see CWSRF in Fed FUNDS.

  19. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Devanshu; Karsai, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  20. Interaction of ethanol and water with the {1014} surface of calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Gray, R J; Sand, K K

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to model the interaction between ethanol, water, and the {1014} surface of calcite. Our results demonstrate that a single ethanol molecule is able to form two interactions with the mineral surface (both Ca-O and O-H), resulting in a highly ordered, st...

  1. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  2. Structural interactions between lipids, water and S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Gawrisch, Klaus; Swartz, Kenton J

    2012-11-02

    Membrane proteins serve crucial signaling and transport functions, yet relatively little is known about their structures in membrane environments or how lipids interact with these proteins. For voltage-activated ion channels, X-ray structures suggest that the mobile voltage-sensing S4 helix would be exposed to the membrane, and functional studies reveal that lipid modification can profoundly alter channel activity. Here, we use solid-state NMR to investigate structural interactions of lipids and water with S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains and to explore whether lipids influence the structure of the protein. Our results demonstrate that S1-S4 domains exhibit extensive interactions with lipids and that these domains are heavily hydrated when embedded in a membrane. We also find evidence for preferential interactions of anionic lipids with S1-S4 domains and that these interactions have lifetimes on the timescale of ≤ 10(-3)s. Arg residues within S1-S4 domains are well hydrated and are positioned in close proximity to lipids, exhibiting local interactions with both lipid headgroups and acyl chains. Comparative studies with a positively charged lipid lacking a phosphodiester group reveal that this lipid modification has only modest effects on the structure and hydration of S1-S4 domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Arg residues in S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains reside in close proximity to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane yet are well hydrated, a requirement for carrying charge and driving protein motions in response to changes in membrane voltage. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  4. Interactive effects of reactive nitrogen and climate change on US water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Chan, F.; Nolan, B. T.; Howarth, B.; Hall, E.; Boyer, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources and aquatic ecosystems are increasingly strained by withdrawals for agriculture and drinking water supply, nitrogen and other pollutant inputs, and climate change. We describe current and projected effects of the interactions of reactive nitrogen (N) and climate change on water resources of the United States. As perturbations to the N cycle intensify in a warmer less predictable climate, interactions will negatively affect the services we expect of our water resources. There are also feedbacks to the climate system itself through the production of greenhouse gases. We conclude: 1. Nitrogen concentrations will increase in the nation's waters from increased N loading and higher N mineralization rates. N export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exhibits a high sensitivity to climate variations. 2. Consequences range from eutrophication and acidification, which reduce natural biodiversity and harm economically valuable fisheries, to adverse impacts on human health. 3. Extreme flood events have the potential to transport N rapidly long distances downstream from its source. 4. A recent national assessment found 67% of streams derived more than 37% of their total nitrate load from base flow often derived from groundwater. Long residence times for groundwater nitrate below agricultural fields may cause benefits from proper N management practices to take decades to be realized under current and future climates. 5. Streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, estuaries and continental shelves are hotspots for denitrification. Maintenance of N removal capacity thus a critical component of eutrophication management under changing climate and land use conditions. 6. The amount of N inputs from fertilizer and manure use, human population, and deposition is tightly coupled with hydrology to influence the rates and proportion of N emitted to the atmosphere as N2O. About 20% of global N2O emissions come from groundwater, lakes, rivers, and estuaries; stream and wetland

  5. Interactions between simple radicals and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Suardiaz, Reynier; Montero, Luis A.; Sander, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    The interactions of the simple radicals CH 3 , NH 2 , OH, and F with water have been studied by DFT (UB3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) and ab initio (RHF-UCCSD(T)/6-311++G(2d,2p)) methods. In this order the number of lone pairs (from zero to three), the electronegativity, and the strength of the X-H bonds increase (X = C, N, and O). The various minima of the radical-water complexes were located using the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) approach which had previously been proven to be useful for closed-shell molecules. The role of the unpaired electron in hydrogen bonding was investigated using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. A considerable contribution of the unpaired electron to the complex stabilization was only found for the methyl radical and the fluorine atom, whereas in the aminyl and the hydroxyl radical the role of the unpaired electron is negligible

  6. Water laws in eleven midwestern states: summary tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, T.L.; Torpy, M.F.

    1979-06-01

    Basic information about the water laws of Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and West Virginia is summarized. References to state laws and court decisions that may be useful in assessing the legal availability of water for energy development are provided. (MCW)

  7. A method to assess how interactive water simulation tools influence transdisciplinary decision-making processes in water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskens, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    In modern water management, often transdisciplinary work sessions are organized in which various stakeholders participate to jointly define problems, choose measures and divide responsibilities to take actions. Involved stakeholders are for example policy analysts or decision-makers from municipalities, water boards or provinces, representatives of pressure groups and researchers from knowledge institutes. Parallel to this increasing attention for transdisciplinary work sessions, we see a growing availability of interactive IT-tools that can be applied during these sessions. For example, dynamic flood risk maps have become recently available that allow users during a work sessions to instantaneously assess the impact of storm surges or dam breaches, displayed on digital maps. Other examples are serious games, realistic visualizations and participatory simulations. However, the question is if and how these interactive IT-tools contribute to better decision-making. To assess this, we take the process of knowledge construction during a work session as a measure for the quality of decision-making. Knowledge construction can be defined as the process in which ideas, perspectives and opinions of different stakeholders, all having their own expertise and experience, are confronted with each other and new shared meanings towards water management issues are created. We present an assessment method to monitor the process of knowledge construction during work sessions in water management in which interactive IT tools are being used. The assessment method is based on a literature review, focusing on studies in which knowledge construction was monitored in other contexts that water management. To test the applicability of the assessment method, we applied it during a multi-stakeholder work session in Westland, located in the southwest of the Netherlands. The discussions during the work session were observed by camera. All statements, expressed by the various members of a

  8. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-01-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second...

  9. Analyzing the Dynamics of Inter-state water peace: A study of the Huitzilapan-Xalapa Water Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maganda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political conflict surrounding the interstate transfer of water in the Huitzilapan-Xalapa Aqueduct, from which about 60% of the water resources for the city of Xalapa, state capital of Veracruz, come. This interstate water transfer has eventually lead to political and social conflict based on misinformation about perceived water shortages to Xalapa. The article examines a case in which water officials from Xalapa have apparently complied with guidelines related to procedural, distributive, and ecological justice. Therefore, the article proposes a focus on «justice as responsible (and informed dialogue» as a central element of procedural justice. The analysis is based on a review of official documents, such as Mexican water laws and the water concession under which this water transfer has occurred, press reviews published in regional newspapers, a field visit and interviews with key stakeholders and researchers mostly in Veracruz state.

  10. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April-May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal...... the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has...... interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater...

  11. The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcock, Harry R.; Benesi, Alan; Macdonald, Digby D.

    2010-08-27

    The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 - May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

  12. Integrated Modeling of Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions in a Manmade Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobiao Huang Gour-Tsyh Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A manmade pilot wetland in south Florida, the Everglades Nutrient Removal (ENR project, was modeled with a physics-based integrated approach using WASH123D (Yeh et al. 2006. Storm water is routed into the treatment wetland for phosphorus removal by plant and sediment uptake. It overlies a highly permeable surficial groundwater aquifer. Strong surface water and groundwater interactions are a key component of the hydrologic processes. The site has extensive field measurement and monitoring tools that provide point scale and distributed data on surface water levels, groundwater levels, and the physical range of hydraulic parameters and hydrologic fluxes. Previous hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling studies have treated seepage losses empirically by some simple regression equations and, only surface water flows are modeled in detail. Several years of operational data are available and were used in model historical matching and validation. The validity of a diffusion wave approximation for two-dimensional overland flow (in the region with very flat topography was also tested. The uniqueness of this modeling study is notable for (1 the point scale and distributed comparison of model results with observed data; (2 model parameters based on available field test data; and (3 water flows in the study area include two-dimensional overland flow, hydraulic structures/levees, three-dimensional subsurface flow and one-dimensional canal flow and their interactions. This study demonstrates the need and the utility of a physics-based modeling approach for strong surface water and groundwater interactions.

  13. Water-rock interaction and chemistry of groundwaters from the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frape, S.K.; Fritz, P.; McNutt, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters in the crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield reflect different degrees of rock-water interactions. The chemistry of the shallow, geochemically immature ground waters and especially of the major cations is controlled by local rock compositions, whereby dissolution reactions dominate. Conservative constituents, such as chloride and bromide, however, are not entirely a result of such reactions but appear to be readily added from leachable salts during the initial stages of the geochemical evolution of these waters. Their concentration changes little as major cations increase, until concentrations of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) reach 3000 to 5000 mg l -1 . The isotopic composition of these shallow waters reflects local, present day precipitations. In contrast to the shallow groundwaters, the isotopic and chemical compositions of the deep, saline waters and brines are determined by extensive, low-temperature rock-water interactions. This is documented in major ion chemistries, 18 O contents and strontium isotopic compositions. These data indicate that the deep brines have been contained in hydrologically isolated pockets. The almost total loss of primary compositions make discussions on the origin of these brines very speculative. However, all brines from across the Canadian Shield have a very similar chemical composition, which probably reflects a common geochemical history. (author)

  14. Matrix isolation study of the interaction between water and the aromatic π-electron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, A.; Nelander, B.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of water (H 2 O, D 2 O, HDO) with toluene, the xylenes, pseudocumene, mesitylene, pentamethylbenzene, and hexamethylbenzene in argon matrices has been studied with infrared spectroscopy. Interaction energy estimates are given. The shapes of the observed absorption bands suggest that water executes a complicated motion relative to the ring plane of the aromatic hydrocarbon. The infrared spectrum of the benzene-water complex has been recorded as a function of temperature in argon, krypton, and nitrogen matrices

  15. Thermodynamics of water-solid interactions in crystalline and amorphous pharmaceutical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Pharmaceutical materials, crystalline and amorphous, sorb water from the atmosphere, which affects critical factors in the development of drugs, such as the selection of drug substance crystal form, compatibility with excipients, dosage form selection, packaging, and product shelf-life. It is common practice to quantify the amount of water that a material sorbs at a given relative humidity (RH), but the results alone provide minimal to no physicochemical insight into water-solid interactions, without which pharmaceutical scientists cannot develop an understanding of their materials, so as to anticipate and circumvent potential problems. This research was conducted to advance the science of pharmaceutical materials by examining the thermodynamics of solids with sorbed water. The compounds studied include nonhygroscopic drugs, a channel hydrate drug, a stoichiometric hydrate excipient, and an amorphous excipient. The water sorption isotherms were measured over a range of temperature to extract the partial molar enthalpy and entropy of sorbed water as well as the same quantities for some of the solids. It was found that water-solid interactions spanned a range of energy and entropy as a function of RH, which was unique to the solid, and which could be valuable in identifying batch-to-batch differences and effects of processing in material performance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Water state changes during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Huan-Lin; Hu, Li-Fang; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste were determined. Three experiments, R(55), R(60), and R(65), with different initial moisture contents, 55%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, were performed. Three water states, entrapped water (EW), capillary water (CW), and multiple-molecular-layer water (MMLW), were monitored during the experiments. Changes only occurred with the EW and CW during the composting process. The percentage of EW increased, and the percentage of CW decreased as the composting process progressed. The R(60) experiment performed better than the other experiments according to changes in the temperature and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N). The percentage of EW correlated well (P<0.05) with the dissolved organic carbon content (DOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N, and was affected by the hemicellulose and cellulose contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using hydraulic modeling to simulate human interactions with water resources in an Omani irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Themis; Ertsen, Maurits; Düring, Bleda; Kolen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    In the dry Southern Oman, more than a thousand years ago, a large water system that connected the mountain mass with the coastal region was constructed. Its length (up to 30 km) and the fact that the coastal region has a rich groundwater aquifer create confusion as to why the system was initially built. Nonetheless, it was abandoned a couple of centuries later only to be partially revived by small farming communities in the 17th to 18th century. The focus of our research is one of the irrigation systems that used the water conveyed from the large water system. Not much is known about these small irrigation systems functioning in the Wadi Al Jizzi of the greater Sohar region. There are no written records and we can only make guesses about the way the systems were managed based on ethnographical studies and the traditional Omani techniques. On the other hand, the good preservation state of the canals offers a great opportunity for hydraulic reconstruction of irrigation events. More than that, the material remains suggest and at the same time limit the ways in which humans interacted with the system and the water resources of the region. All irrigation activities and some daily activities had to be realized through the canal system and only if the canal system permits it these actions would have been feasible. We created a conceptual model of irrigation that includes the human agent and feedback mechanisms through hydraulics and then we simulated irrigation events using the Sobek software. Scenarios and sensibility analysis were used to address the unknown aspects of the system. Our research yielded insights about the way the farming community interacted with the larger water system, the levels of co-ordination and co-operation required for successful irrigation and the predisposition of conflict and power relations.

  18. Exchange interaction in scattering on the bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.A.; Savrin, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    In the framework of the one-time formulation of three-body problem in quantum field theory, the problem of scattering on the bound state is considered for the case when one of the incident particles is identical to one of the particles of the target. It is shown that due to the identical nature of these particles the exchange interaction takes place which can be connected with the mechanism of scattering on the bound state with the rearrangement

  19. Integrated modeling of groundwater–surface water interactions in a tile-drained agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemeijer, J.C.; Velde, van der Y.; McLaren, R.G.; Geer, van F.C.; Broers, H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of groundwater–surface water interaction is needed to evaluate and simulate water and solute transport in catchments. However, direct measurements of the contributions of different flow routes from specific surfaces within a catchment toward the surface water are rarely

  20. Potential Implications of Approaches to Climate Change on the Clean Water Rule Definition of "Waters of the United States".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Derek R; Moore, Matthew T; Emison, Gerald Andrews; Rush, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    The 1972 Clean Water Act was passed to protect chemical, physical, and biological integrity of United States' waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers codified a new "waters of the United States" rule on June 29, 2015, because several Supreme Court case decisions caused confusion with the existing rule. Climate change could affect this rule through connectivity between groundwater and surface waters; floodplain waters and the 100-year floodplain; changes in jurisdictional status; and sea level rise on coastal ecosystems. Four approaches are discussed for handling these implications: (1) "Wait and see"; (2) changes to the rule; (3) use guidance documents; (4) Congress statutorily defining "waters of the United States." The approach chosen should be legally defensible and achieved in a timely fashion to provide protection to "waters of the United States" in proactive consideration of scientifically documented effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Anomalous Ground State of the Electrons in Nano-confined Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Anomalous ground state of the electrons in nano -confined water G. F. Reiter1*, Aniruddha Deb2*, Y. Sakurai3, M. Itou3, V. G. Krishnan4, S. J...electronic ground state of nano -confined water must be responsible for these anomalies but has so far not been investigated. We show here for the first time...using x-ray Compton scattering and a computational model, that the ground state configuration of the valence electrons in a particular nano

  2. Methods for Estimating Water Withdrawals for Mining in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The mining water-use category includes groundwater and surface water that is withdrawn and used for nonfuels and fuels mining. Nonfuels mining includes the extraction of ores, stone, sand, and gravel. Fuels mining includes the extraction of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Water is used for mineral extraction, quarrying, milling, and other operations directly associated with mining activities. For petroleum and natural gas extraction, water often is injected for secondary oil or gas recovery. Estimates of water withdrawals for mining are needed for water planning and management. This report documents methods used to estimate withdrawals of fresh and saline groundwater and surface water for mining during 2005 for each county and county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Fresh and saline groundwater and surface-water withdrawals during 2005 for nonfuels- and coal-mining operations in each county or county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands were estimated. Fresh and saline groundwater withdrawals for oil and gas operations in counties of six states also were estimated. Water withdrawals for nonfuels and coal mining were estimated by using mine-production data and water-use coefficients. Production data for nonfuels mining included the mine location and weight (in metric tons) of crude ore, rock, or mineral produced at each mine in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands during 2004. Production data for coal mining included the weight, in metric tons, of coal produced in each county or county equivalent during 2004. Water-use coefficients for mined commodities were compiled from various sources including published reports and written communications from U.S. Geological Survey National Water-use Information Program (NWUIP) personnel in several states. Water withdrawals for oil and gas extraction were estimated for six States including California, Colorado, Louisiana, New

  3. Wind effect on water surface of water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary research of wind-water interactions was focused on coastal areas along the shores of world oceans and seas because a basic understanding of coastal meteorology is an important component in coastal and offshore design and planning. Over time the research showed the most important meteorological consideration relates to the dominant role of winds in wave generation. The rapid growth of building-up of dams in 20th century caused spreading of the water wave mechanics research to the inland water bodies. The attention was paid to the influence of waterwork on its vicinity, wave regime respectively, due to the shoreline deterioration, predominantly caused by wind waves. Consequently the similar principles of water wave mechanics are considered in conditions of water reservoirs. The paper deals with the fundamental factors associated with initial wind-water interactions resulting in the wave origination and growth. The aim of the paper is thepresentation of utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies with respect to actual state of the art. The authors compared foreign and national approach to the solved problems and worked out graphical interpretation and overview of related wind-water interaction factors.

  4. Experimental and theoretical study of plasma-water interaction in electrothermal guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arensburg, Alex.

    1993-05-01

    This thesis comprises an experimental and theoretical study of the plasma- jet-water interaction in electrothermal guns. In the present work the plasma jet was produced by high current pulsed discharge in a plasma injector consisting of polyethylene capillary, closed at one end by a metallic anode and supported at the other end with a hollow cathode. A thin aluminium fuse placed inside the capillary and connecting both electrodes, provided an initial conducting element. A pulse forming network delivering a high current pulse through the fuse, exploded it and produced an aluminium plasma. Subsequently, ablation of the capillary wall begun as a result of its exposure to radiation from the fuse plasma. The ablation products were heated by the pulse current until ionized, replacing the fuse plasma by a polyethylene plasma thus sustaining the ablation process. The experimental investigation reported here used x-ray shadowgraphy to observe the plasma-working fluid interaction process. The working fluid was an aqueous solution of 92% water and 8% lead acetate gelatinized with agar. The penetration of the plasma jet into the working fluid was exposed on films at successive time intervals by means of x-ray shadowgraphy. When the water interacts with the plasma it also ablated. This ablation rate was estimated from energy conservation considerations. Peak pressures up to 3.5*10 8 Pa were measured during the process. At such pressure water does not undergo phase transformation when heated. Thus the mass density at the plasma water interface should be regarded as a continuous function of temperature. The determination of the temperature profile at the interface between the capillary plasma and the water requires the solution of the heat transfer and radiative transfer equations under ablation conditions. This constituted the main theoretical part of the present work. 36 refs., 4 tabs., 29 figs

  5. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  6. Anisotropic surface-state-mediated RKKY interaction between adatoms on a hexagonal lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Paul N.; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by recent numerical studies of Ag on Pt(111), we derive an expression for the RKKY interaction mediated by surface states, considering the effect of anisotropy in the Fermi edge. Our analysis is based on a stationary phase approximation. The main contribution to the interaction comes from electrons whose Fermi velocity vF is parallel to the vector R connecting the interacting adatoms; we show that, in general, the corresponding Fermi wave vector kF is not parallel to R. The interaction is oscillatory; the amplitude and wavelength of oscillations have angular dependence arising from the anisotropy of the surface-state band structure. The wavelength, in particular, is determined by the projection of this kF (corresponding to vF) onto the direction of R. Our analysis is easily generalized to other systems. For Ag on Pt(111), our results indicate that the RKKY interaction between pairs of adatoms should be nearly isotropic and so cannot account for the anisotropy found in the studies motivating our work. However, for metals with surface-state dispersions similar to Be(101¯0), we show that the RKKY interaction should have considerable anisotropy.

  7. 77 FR 74923 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... proposing numeric water quality criteria to protect ecological systems, aquatic life, and human health from... III surface waters share water quality criteria established to protect fish consumption, recreation... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida Inland...

  8. Studies on melt-water-structure interaction during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Okkonen, T.J.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Andersson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Results of a series of studies, on melt-water-structure interactions which occur during the progression of a core melt-down accident, are described. The emphasis is on the in-vessel interactions and the studies are both experimental and analytical. Since, the studies performed resulted in papers published in proceedings of the technical meetings, and in journals, copies of a set of selected papers are attached to provide details. A summary of the results obtained is provided for the reader who does not, or cannot, venture into the perusal of the attached papers. (au)

  9. Studies on melt-water-structure interaction during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Okkonen, T.J.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Andersson, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Div. of Nucl. Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Results of a series of studies, on melt-water-structure interactions which occur during the progression of a core melt-down accident, are described. The emphasis is on the in-vessel interactions and the studies are both experimental and analytical. Since, the studies performed resulted in papers published in proceedings of the technical meetings, and in journals, copies of a set of selected papers are attached to provide details. A summary of the results obtained is provided for the reader who does not, or cannot, venture into the perusal of the attached papers. (au).

  10. Method for Estimating Water Withdrawals for Livestock in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Livestock water use includes ground water and surface water associated with livestock watering, feedlots, dairy operations, and other on-farm needs. The water may be used for drinking, cooling, sanitation, waste disposal, and other needs related to the animals. Estimates of water withdrawals for livestock are needed for water planning and management. This report documents a method used to estimate withdrawals of fresh ground water and surface water for livestock in 2005 for each county and county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Categories of livestock included dairy cattle, beef and other cattle, hogs and pigs, laying hens, broilers and other chickens, turkeys, sheep and lambs, all goats, and horses (including ponies, mules, burros, and donkeys). Use of the method described in this report could result in more consistent water-withdrawal estimates for livestock that can be used by water managers and planners to determine water needs and trends across the United States. Water withdrawals for livestock in 2005 were estimated by using water-use coefficients, in gallons per head per day for each animal type, and livestock-population data. Coefficients for various livestock for most States were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey water-use program personnel or U.S. Geological Survey water-use publications. When no coefficient was available for an animal type in a State, the median value of reported coefficients for that animal was used. Livestock-population data were provided by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. County estimates were further divided into ground-water and surface-water withdrawals for each county and county equivalent. County totals from 2005 were compared to county totals from 1995 and 2000. Large deviations from 1995 or 2000 livestock withdrawal estimates were investigated and generally were due to comparison with reported withdrawals, differences in estimation techniques, differences in livestock

  11. Stability of stationary states of non-local equations with singular interaction potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Fellner, Klemens

    2011-04-01

    We study the large-time behaviour of a non-local evolution equation for the density of particles or individuals subject to an external and an interaction potential. In particular, we consider interaction potentials which are singular in the sense that their first derivative is discontinuous at the origin.For locally attractive singular interaction potentials we prove under a linear stability condition local non-linear stability of stationary states consisting of a finite sum of Dirac masses. For singular repulsive interaction potentials we show the stability of stationary states of uniformly bounded solutions under a convexity condition.Finally, we present numerical simulations to illustrate our results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Thermally decarboxylated sodium bicarbonate: Interactions with water vapour, calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Volkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC was used to study interactions between water vapour and the surface of thermally converted sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. The decarboxylation degree of the samples was varied from 3% to 35% and the humidity range was 54–100%. The obtained enthalpy values were all exothermic and showed a positive linear correlation with decarboxylation degrees for each humidity studied. The critical humidity, 75% (RHo, was determined as the inflection point on a plot of the mean−ΔHkJ/mole Na2CO3 against RH. Humidities above the critical humidity lead to complete surface dissolution. The water uptake (m was determined after each calorimetric experiment, complementing the enthalpy data. A mechanism of water vapour interaction with decarboxylated samples, including the formation of trona and Wegscheider’s salt on the bicarbonate surface is proposed for humidities below RHo. Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate, Trona salt, Wegscheider’s salt, Enthalpy, Relative humidity, Pyrolytic decarboxylation

  13. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  14. Transboundary water interaction II: the influence of 'soft' power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Mirumachi, N.; Warner, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to broaden the analysis of transboundary water interaction, by examining and interpreting the influence of ‘soft’ power therein. The ‘soft’ power of persuasion is understood to be exercised through discursive and to a lesser extent ideational means, and is interpreted in terms of

  15. Groundwater sustainability and groundwater/surface-water interaction in arid Dunhuang Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingjing; Ma, Rui; Hu, Yalu; Sun, Ziyong; Wang, Yanxin; McCarter, Colin P. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Dunhuang Basin, a typical inland basin in northwestern China, suffers a net loss of groundwater and the occasional disappearance of the Crescent Lake. Within this region, the groundwater/surface-water interactions are important for the sustainability of the groundwater resources. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was established and calibrated using MODFLOW 2000, which was used to predict changes to these interactions once a water diversion project is completed. The simulated results indicate that introducing water from outside of the basin into the Shule and Danghe rivers could reverse the negative groundwater balance in the Basin. River-water/groundwater interactions control the groundwater hydrology, where river leakage to the groundwater in the Basin will increase from 3,114 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 11,875 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 17,039 × 104 m3/year in 2036. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the rivers will decrease from 3277 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 1857 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 510 × 104 m3/year by 2036; thus, the hydrology will switch from groundwater discharge to groundwater recharge after implementing the water diversion project. The simulation indicates that the increased net river infiltration due to the water diversion project will raise the water table and then effectively increasing the water level of the Crescent Lake, as the lake level is contiguous with the water table. However, the regional phreatic evaporation will be enhanced, which may intensify soil salinization in the Dunhuang Basin. These results can guide the water allocation scheme for the water diversion project to alleviate groundwater depletion and mitigate geo-environmental problem.

  16. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  17. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert; Babb, David G.; Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Rysgaard, Søren; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Barber, David G.

    2017-12-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April-May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature-salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean-glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different thermohaline structures indicating the different origin and pathways of the on-shore and off-shore branches of the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait.

  18. The effect of water level in a prey-predator interactions: A nonlinear analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiboub Fellah, N.; Bouguima, S.M.; Moussaoui, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new model describing the interaction between predator and prey in Parloup Lake. ► Existence of periodic solution is proved. ► Seasonal variation in water level is an important factor for persitence. - Abstract: Water level may influence local community dynamics. We examine how seasonal variations in water level affect the outcome of prey-predator interactions in Parloup Lake in the south of France. We propose a new model to describe the annual cycle of persistence by using continuation theorem of coincidence degree.

  19. 75 FR 45579 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice of Data...), proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life in lakes and flowing waters within... will consider the comments received before finalizing the proposed rule, ``Water Quality Standards for...

  20. Stimulated adiabatic passage in a dissipative ensemble of atoms with strong Rydberg-state interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, David; Molmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg exci...... for deterministic creation and, possibly, extraction of Rydberg atoms or ions one at a time. The sympathetic monitoring via decay of ancilla particles may find wider applications for state preparation and probing of interactions in dissipative many-body systems.......We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg...

  1. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between molten aluminum and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The possibility of rapid physical and chemical aluminum/water interactions during a core melt accident in a noncommercial reactor (e.g., HFIR, ATR) has resulted in extensive research to determine the mechanism by which these interactions occur and propagate on an explosive time scale. These events have been reported in nuclear testing facilities, i.e., during SPERT 1D experiment, and also in aluminum casting industries. Although rapid chemical reactions between molten aluminum and water have been subject of many studies, very few reliable measurements of the extent of the chemical reactions have thus far been made. We have modified an existing 1-D shock tube facility to perform experiments in order to determine the extent of the explosive thermal/chemical interactions between molton aluminum and water by measuring important physical quantities such as the maximum dynamic pressure and the amount of the generated hydrogen. Experimental results show that transient pressures greater than 69 MPa with a rise time of less than 125 {mu}sec can occur as the result of the chemical reaction of 4.2 grams of molton aluminum (approximately 15% of the total mass of the fuel of 28 grams) at 980 C with room temperature water.

  2. Experimentally measuring a quantum state by the Heisenberg exchange interaction in a single apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xinhua; Du Jiangfeng; Suter, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum information processing requires the effective measurement of quantum states. An important method, called quantum state tomography, needs measuring a complete set of observables on the measured system to determine its unknown quantum state ρ. The measurement involves certain noncommuting observables as a result of Bohr's complementarity. Very recently, Allahverdyan et al. proposed a new method in which the unknown quantum state r is determined by measuring a set of commuting observables in the price of a controlled interaction with an auxiliary system. If both systems S and A are spins, their z components (σ z ) can be chosen to measure after some specific Heisenberg exchange interaction. We study in detail a general Heisenberg XYZ model for a two-qubit system and present two classes of special Heisenberg interactions which can serve as the controlled interaction in Allahverdyan's scheme when the state of the auxiliary system A is initially completely disordered. Using the nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the measurement scheme in a single apparatus has been experimentally demonstrated by designing the quantum circuit to simulate the Heisenberg exchange interaction. (author)

  3. Effect of magnon-phonon interactions on magnon squeezed states in ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, I. F. I.; Ismail, I. M. M.; Ameen, M.

    2018-02-01

    The squeezed states of dressed magnons in ferromagnets have been investigated. No effective Debye cutoff frequency has been assumed unlike what has been done hitherto. Instead, the results have been expressed throughout in terms of the reduced temperature. The effect of dressed magnon-phonon interactions on the formulation of these states has been studied. It has been shown that the magnon-phonon interactions play a significant role in determining the squeeze factor and the variation of the dressed magnon effective mass with temperature.

  4. Processes of water rock interaction in the Turonian aquifer of Oum Er-Rabia Basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2005-12-01

    Possible water rock interaction processes, in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia, were discussed by a geochemical study of groundwater from the Turonian limestone aquifer, the most important water resource in the region. Different types of water according to the classification of Piper were defined. Waters have shown an evolution from dominant CHO3 Ca Mg type through mixed to SO4 Cl Ca Mg type. The use of geochemical diagrams and chemical speciation modeling method has shown that water rock interaction is mainly controlled by carbonate and anhydrite dissolution, ion exchange and reverse ion exchange processes. Water rock equilibrium conditions are favorable for the precipitation of calcite, dolomite, kaolinite and magnesian smectite.

  5. Evaluation of the state water-resources research institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, M.O.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources research institutes, as authorized by the Water Resources Research Act of 1984 (Public Law 98-242), are located in each state and in the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico , and the Virgin Islands. Public Law 98-242 mandated an onsite evaluation of each of these institutes to determine whether ' . . .the quality and relevance of its water resources research and its effectiveness as an institution for planning, conducting, and arranging for research warrant its continued support in the national interest. ' The results of these evaluations, which were conducted between September 1985 and June 1987, are summarized. The evaluation teams found that all 54 institutes are meeting the basic objectives of the authorizing legislation in that they: (1) use the grant funds to support research that addresses water problems of state and regional concern; (2) provide opportunities for training of water scientists through student involvement on research projects; and (3) promote the application of research results through preparation of technical reports and contributions to the technical literature. The differences among institutes relate primarily to degrees of effectiveness, and most often are determined by the financial, political, and geographical contexts in which the institutes function and by the quality of their leadership. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. Data compilation and assessment for water resources in Pennsylvania state forest and park lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (PaDCNR), available electronic data were compiled for Pennsylvania state lands (state forests and parks) to allow PaDCNR to initially determine if data exist to make an objective evaluation of water resources for specific basins. The data compiled included water-quantity and water-quality data and sample locations for benthic macroinvertebrates within state-owned lands (including a 100-meter buffer around each land parcel) in Pennsylvania. In addition, internet links or contacts for geographic information system coverages pertinent to water-resources studies also were compiled. Water-quantity and water-quality data primarily available through January 2007 were compiled and summarized for site types that included streams, lakes, ground-water wells, springs, and precipitation. Data were categorized relative to 35 watershed boundaries defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for resource-management purposes. The primary sources of continuous water-quantity data for Pennsylvania state lands were the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS). The USGS has streamflow data for 93 surface-water sites located in state lands; 38 of these sites have continuous-recording data available. As of January 2007, 22 of these 38 streamflow-gaging stations were active; the majority of active gaging stations have over 40 years of continuous record. The USGS database also contains continuous ground-water elevation data for 32 wells in Pennsylvania state lands, 18 of which were active as of January 2007. Sixty-eight active precipitation stations (primarily from the NWS network) are located in state lands. The four sources of available water-quality data for Pennsylvania state lands were the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), and

  7. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

    1997-12-01

    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  8. Assessing interactions of hydrophilic nanoscale TiO{sub 2} with soil water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priester, John H.; Ge, Yuan; Chang, Vivian [University of California, Santa Barbara, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management (United States); Stoimenov, Peter K. [University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Schimel, Joshua P. [University of California, Santa Barbara, Earth Research Institute (United States); Stucky, Galen D. [University of California, Santa Barbara, UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (United States); Holden, Patricia A., E-mail: holden@bren.ucsb.edu [University of California, Santa Barbara, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The implications of manufactured nanoscale materials (MNMs) in unsaturated soil are mostly unknown. Owing to its widespread use, nanoscale (n) TiO{sub 2} is expected to enter soils where its accumulation could impact soil processes. Yet fundamental information is lacking regarding nTiO{sub 2} in situ wettability, i.e., interactions with soil water that relate to nTiO{sub 2} exposure and bioavailability. To probe nTiO{sub 2} interactions with soil water, we amended a natural soil with 20 mg per g of P25 nTiO{sub 2}, a high-production, hydrophilic MNM that, based on its small size (25 nm nominal), provides ample specific surface area (SSA) for water sorption. We then measured nTiO{sub 2}-amended soil SSA, and conducted a dynamic water vapor conditioning experiment. Early time-course water sorption into soil, with and without nTiO{sub 2}, was clearly diffusional. Over 9 months, soil water content asymptotically equilibrated. However, despite amending with nTiO{sub 2} levels that increased the soil SSA by 16 %, measured water sorption rates and endpoint soil water contents were mostly unchanged by P25 nTiO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that as-manufactured hydrophilic P25 nTiO{sub 2} was hydrophobic in soil, a finding relevant to nTiO{sub 2} bioavailability and transport.

  9. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  10. Chiral helimagnetic state in a Kondo lattice model with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shun; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2018-05-01

    Monoaxial chiral magnets can form a noncollinear twisted spin structure called the chiral helimagnetic state. We study magnetic properties of such a chiral helimagnetic state, with emphasis on the effect of itinerant electrons. Modeling a monoaxial chiral helimagnet by a one-dimensional Kondo lattice model with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, we perform a variational calculation to elucidate the stable spin configuration in the ground state. We obtain a chiral helimagnetic state as a candidate for the ground state, whose helical pitch is modulated by the model parameters: the Kondo coupling, the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction, and electron filling.

  11. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier–ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dmitrenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The first-ever conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April–May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014–2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature–salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean–glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different thermohaline structures indicating the different origin and pathways of the on-shore and off-shore branches of the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait.

  12. Seasonal Influences on Ground-Surface Water Interactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L. A.; Magnone, D.; Van Dongen, B.; Bryant, C.; Boyce, A.; Ballentine, C. J.; Polya, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia consume drinking water daily which contains dangerous levels of arsenic exceeding health-based recommendations [1]. A key control on arsenic mobilization in aquifers in these areas has been controversially identified as the interaction of 'labile' organic matter contained in surface waters with groundwaters and sediments at depth [2-4], which may trigger the release of arsenic from the solid- to aqueous-phase via reductive dissolution of iron-(hyr)oxide minerals [5]. In a field site in Kandal Province, Cambodia, which is an arsenic-affected area typical to others in the region, there are strong seasonal patterns in groundwater flow direction, which are closely related to monsoonal rains [6] and may contribute to arsenic release in this aquifer. The aim of this study is to explore the implications of the high susceptibility of this aquifer system to seasonal changes on potential ground-surface water interactions. The main objectives are to (i) identify key zones where there are likely ground-surface water interactions, (ii) assess the seasonal impact of such interactions and (iii) quantify the influence of interactions using geochemical parameters (such as As, Fe, NO3, NH4, 14C, 3T/3He, δ18O, δ2H). Identifying the zones, magnitude and seasonal influence of ground-surface water interactions elucidates new information regarding potential locations/pathways of arsenic mobilization and/or transport in affected aquifers and may be important for water management strategies in affected areas. This research is supported by NERC (NE/J023833/1) to DP, BvD and CJB and a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L501591/1) to DM. References: [1] World Health Organization, 2008. [2] Charlet & Polya (2006), Elements, 2, 91-96. [3] Harvey et al. (2002), Science, 298, 1602-1606. [4] Lawson et al. (2013), Env. Sci. Technol. 47, 7085 - 7094. [5] Islam et al. (2004), Nature, 430, 68-71. [6] Benner et al. (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23(11), 3072 - 3087.

  13. Molecular water oxidation mechanisms followed by transition metals: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Xavier; Maji, Somnath; Bofill, Roger; García-Antón, Jordi; Escriche, Lluís; Llobet, Antoni

    2014-02-18

    One clean alternative to fossil fuels would be to split water using sunlight. However, to achieve this goal, researchers still need to fully understand and control several key chemical reactions. One of them is the catalytic oxidation of water to molecular oxygen, which also occurs at the oxygen evolving center of photosystem II in green plants and algae. Despite its importance for biology and renewable energy, the mechanism of this reaction is not fully understood. Transition metal water oxidation catalysts in homogeneous media offer a superb platform for researchers to investigate and extract the crucial information to describe the different steps involved in this complex reaction accurately. The mechanistic information extracted at a molecular level allows researchers to understand both the factors that govern this reaction and the ones that derail the system to cause decomposition. As a result, rugged and efficient water oxidation catalysts with potential technological applications can be developed. In this Account, we discuss the current mechanistic understanding of the water oxidation reaction catalyzed by transition metals in the homogeneous phase, based on work developed in our laboratories and complemented by research from other groups. Rather than reviewing all of the catalysts described to date, we focus systematically on the several key elements and their rationale from molecules studied in homogeneous media. We organize these catalysts based on how the crucial oxygen-oxygen bond step takes place, whether via a water nucleophilic attack or via the interaction of two M-O units, rather than based on the nuclearity of the water oxidation catalysts. Furthermore we have used DFT methodology to characterize key intermediates and transition states. The combination of both theory and experiments has allowed us to get a complete view of the water oxidation cycle for the different catalysts studied. Finally, we also describe the various deactivation pathways for

  14. High-Resolution Water Footprints of Production of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Landon; Ao, Yufei; Konar, Megan; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-03-01

    The United States is the largest producer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, spatially detailed database of water use by sector would provide insight into U.S. utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the United States. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the U.S. economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking. In fact, we find that 94% of U.S. industries could reduce their total water footprint more by sourcing from more water-efficient suppliers in their supply chain than they could by converting their own operations to be more water-efficient.

  15. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  16. Silicon Isotope Fractionation During Acid Water-Igneous Rock Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boorn, S. H.; van Bergen, M. J.; Vroon, P. Z.

    2007-12-01

    Silica enrichment by metasomatic/hydrothermal alteration is a widespread phenomenon in crustal environments where acid fluids interact with silicate rocks. High-sulfidation epithermal ore deposits and acid-leached residues at hot-spring settings are among the best known examples. Acid alteration acting on basalts has also been invoked to explain the relatively high silica contents of the surface of Mars. We have analyzed basaltic-andesitic lavas from the Kawah Ijen volcanic complex (East Java, Indonesia) that were altered by interaction with highly acid (pH~1) sulfate-chloride water of its crater lake and seepage stream. Quantitative removal of major elements during this interaction has led to relative increase in SiO2 contents. Our silicon isotope data, obtained by HR-MC-ICPMS and reported relative to the NIST RM8546 (=NBS28) standard, show a systematic increase in &δ&&30Si from -0.2‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for unaltered andesites and basalts to +1.5‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for the most altered/silicified rocks. These results demonstrate that silicification induced by pervasive acid alteration is accompanied by significant Si isotope fractionation, so that alterered products become isotopically heavier than the precursor rocks. Despite the observed enrichment in SiO2, the rocks have experienced an overall net loss of silicon upon alteration, if Nb is considered as perfectly immobile. The observed &δ&&30Si values of the alteration products appeared to correlate well with the inferred amounts of silicon loss. These findings would suggest that &28Si is preferentially leached during water-rock interaction, implying that dissolved silica in the ambient lake and stream water is isotopically light. However, layered opaline lake sediments, that are believed to represent precipitates from the silica-saturated water show a conspicuous &30Si-enrichment (+1.2 ± 0.2‰). Because anorganic precipitation is known to discriminate against the heavy isotope (e.g. Basile- Doelsch et al., 2006

  17. Small scale lithium-lead/water-interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranert, O.; Kottowski, H.

    1991-01-01

    One current concept in fusion blanket design is to utilize water as the coolant and liquid lithium-lead as the breeding/neutron multiplier material. Considering the complex design of the blanket module, it is likely that a water leakage into the liquid alloy may occur due to a tube rupture provoking an intolerable pressure increase in the blanket module. The pressure increase is caused by the combined chemical and thermohydraulic reaction of lithium-lead with water. Experiments which simulate such a transient event are necessary to obtain information which is important for the blanket module design. The interaction has been investigated by conducting small-scale experiments at various injection pressures, alloy- and coolant temperatures. Besides using eutectic Li 17 Pb 83 , Li 7 Pb 2 , lithium and lead have been used. Among other results, the experiments indicate increasing chemical reaction with increasing lithium concentration. At the same time, the chemical reaction inhibits violent thermohydaulic reactions due to the attenuating effect of the hydrogen produced. The preliminary epxerimental results from Li 17 Pb 83 and Li 7 Pb 2 reveal that the pressure- and temperature transients caused by the chemical and thermohydraulic reactions lie within technically manageable limits. (orig.)

  18. Fluid-structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Hou, Q.; Ahmadi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has viscoelastic wall behaviour is studied. Appropriate governing equations are derived and numerically solved. In the numerical implementation of the hydraulic and structural equations, viscoelasticity is incorporated using

  19. Fluid-structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Hou, Q.; Ahmadi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has viscoelastic wall behaviour is studied. Appropriate governing equations are derived and numerically solved. In the numerical implementation of the hydraulic and structural equations, viscoelasticity is incorporated using

  20. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1999-08-01

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  1. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H

    1999-08-01

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  2. Application of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to model the fluid phase behaviour of binary mixtures of water and tetrahydrofuran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The complex fluid phase behaviour, of the binary system comprised of water and tetrahydrofuran (THF) is modelled by use of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state. A total of seven modelling approaches are analysed, differing only in their way of describing THF and its interactions...

  3. Detachment of particulate iron sulfide during shale-water interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Kreisserman, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing, a commonly used technique to extract oil and gas from shales, is controversial in part because of the threat it poses to water resources. The technique involves the injection into the subsurface of large amounts of fluid, which can become contaminated by fluid-rock interaction. The dissolution of pyrite is thought to be a primary pathway for the contamination of fracturing fluids with toxic elements, such as arsenic and lead. In this study, we use direct observations with atomic force microscopy to show that the dissolution of carbonate minerals in Eagle Ford shale leads to the physical detachment of embedded pyrite grains. To simulate the way fluid interacts with a fractured shale surface, we also reacted rock samples in a flow-through cell, and used environmental scanning electron microscopy to compare the surfaces before and after interaction with water. Crucially, our results show that the flux of particulate iron sulfide into the fluid may be orders of magnitude higher than the flux of pyrite from chemical dissolution. This result suggests that mechanical detachment of pyrite grains could be the dominant mode by which arsenic and other inorganic elements are mobilized in the subsurface. Thus, during hydraulic fracturing operations and in groundwater systems containing pyrite, the transport of many toxic species may be controlled by the transport of colloidal iron sulfide particles.

  4. Protein crowding in solution, frozen and freeze-dried states: small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering study of lysozyme/sorbitol/water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Susan; Khodadadi, Sheila; Clark, Nicholas; McAuley, Arnold; Cristiglio, Viviana; Theyencheri, Narayanan; Curtis, Joseph; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2015-03-01

    For effective preservation, proteins are often stored as frozen solutions or in glassy states using a freeze-drying process. However, aggregation is often observed after freeze-thaw or reconstitution of freeze-dried powder and the stability of the protein is no longer assured. In this study, small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) have been used to investigate changes in protein-protein interaction distances of a model protein/cryoprotectant system of lysozyme/sorbitol/water, under representative pharmaceutical processing conditions. The results demonstrate the utility of SAXS and SANS methods to monitor protein crowding at different stages of freezing and drying. The SANS measurements of solution samples showed at least one protein interaction peak corresponding to an interaction distance of ~ 90 Å. In the frozen state, two protein interaction peaks were observed by SANS with corresponding interaction distances at 40 Å as well as 90 Å. On the other hand, both SAXS and SANS data for freeze-dried samples showed three peaks, suggesting interaction distances ranging from ~ 15 Å to 170 Å. Possible interpretations of these interaction peaks will be discussed, as well as the role of sorbitol as a cryoprotectant during the freezing and drying process.

  5. Modeling UTLS water vapor: Transport/Chemistry interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulstad, Line

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was initially meant to be a study on the impact on chemistry and climate from UTLS water vapor. However, the complexity of the UTLS water vapor and its recent changes turned out to be a challenge by it self. In the light of this, the overall motivation for the thesis became to study the processes controlling UTLS water vapor and its changes. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, involved in important climate feedback loops. Thus, a good understanding of the chemical and dynamical behavior of water vapor in the atmosphere is crucial for understanding the climate changes in the last century. Additionally, parts of the work was motivated by the development of a coupled climate chemistry model based on the CAM3 model coupled with the Chemical Transport Model Oslo CTM2. The future work will be concentrated on the UTLS water vapor impact on chemistry and climate. We are currently studying long term trends in UTLS water vapor, focusing on identification of the different processes involved in the determination of such trends. The study is based on natural as well as anthropogenic climate forcings. The ongoing work on the development of a coupled climate chemistry model will continue within our group, in collaboration with Prof. Wei-Chyung Wang at the State University of New York, Albany. Valuable contacts with observational groups are established during the work on this thesis. These collaborations will be continued focusing on continuous model validation, as well as identification of trends and new features in UTLS water vapor, and other tracers in this region. (Author)

  6. Correlation of phase equilibria for water + hydrocarbon systems at high temperatures and pressures by cubic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruki, Masashi; Yahiro, Yukihito; Higashi, Hidenori; Iwai, Yoshio; Arai, Yasuhiko [Kyushu University, FUkuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1999-08-01

    A modified-Soave-Redlich-Kwong (MSRK) equation of state with an exponent-type mixing rule for the energy parameter and a conventional rule for the size parameter is applied to correlate the phase equilibria for four binary mixtures of water + hydrocarbon (benzene, hexane, decane, and dodecane) systems at high temperatures and pressures. It is noted that good correlation results are obtained by using the mixing rules with interaction parameters between unlike molecules. (author)

  7. Core-concrete interactions with overlying water pools. The WETCOR-1 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blose, R.E. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Powers, D.A.; Copus, E.R.; Brockmann, J.E.; Simpson, R.B.; Lucero, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The WETCOR-1 test of simultaneous interactions of a high-temperature melt with water and a limestone/common-sand concrete is described. The test used a 34.1-kg melt of 76.8 w/o Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 16.9 w/o CaO, and 4.0 w/o SiO{sub 2} heated by induction using tungsten susceptors. Once quasi-steady attack on concrete by the melt was established, an attempt was made to quench the melt at 1850 K with 295 K water flowing at 57 liters per minute. Net power into the melt at the time of water addition was 0.61 {plus_minus} 0.19 W/cm{sup 3}. The test configuration used in the WETCOR-1 test was designed to delay melt freezing to the walls of the test fixture. This was done to test hypotheses concerning the inherent stability of crust formation when high-temperature melts are exposed to water. No instability in crust formation was observed. The flux of heat through the crust to the water pool maintained over the melt in the test was found to be 0.52 {plus_minus} 0.13 MW/m{sup 2}. Solidified crusts were found to attenuate aerosol emissions during the melt concrete interactions by factors of 1.3 to 3.5. The combination of a solidified crust and a 30-cm deep subcooled water pool was found to attenuate aerosol emissions by factors of 3 to 15.

  8. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  9. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-07-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  10. Mid-crust fluid and water-rock interaction kinetic experiments and their geophysical significance: 1. Basalt and pyroxene in water at high temperatures up to 450°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Hu, S.

    2013-12-01

    The water-basaltic rock interaction (or pyroxene-water ) kinetic experiments are carried out using flow through a packed bed reactor (PBR) and a mixed flow reactor(MFR) in the temperature range(T) from 20 to 450°C and at 23-34MPa. The experimental apparatus consisted of a titanium vessel, a liquid pump, a backpressure regulator, an electrical conductivity detector and a computer for data acquisition and monitoring. The basaltic rock and pyroxene were collected from natural volcanic area, Anhui Province, China. Rock or mineral sample was crushed and sieved to 20-40 mesh and cleaned. The surface area of representative basalt samples is 9.978 m2/g, for pyroxene it is 1.987 m2 /g (BET method). As using PBR system, rock samples (10. 2526g) were placed in the vessel. De-ionized and degassed (DDW) water was passed through the rock, or mineral grains at flow rates of 0.5-8 ml/min. As using MFR system mineral and rock sample of 5 grams was put in the vessel. Here, the measured release rates for each metal of the rock are the sum of release rates of the metal in various minerals of the rock. Steady-state kinetics is defined as conditions where dissolution rates are time independent. For water-basalt interaction, the dissolution rates (dis.r.) of Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Na, K and Si vary with T from 25 to 435°C(or to 550°C). The dis.r. of Si, rSi increase with T from 25°C to 300°C, and then decrease from 300°C to 435°C (to 550°C). Maximum dis.r. for Si, rSi, Mx is reached at 300°C(or 300 to 400°C, using MFR). The maximum dis.r. for various metals occurred at different T, e.g. rAl, Mx and rNa, Mx are nearly at 350°C, rK, Mx is at 300°C, rCa, Mx is at 100°C and rMg, Mx is at 20°C. As T increase above 400°C, dis.r. of Ca, Mg and Fe decrease to very small. The experiments for pyroxene (diopside, hedenbergite)in water indicated that the dis.r. of Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, K and Si also vary with T. The rSi increase with T from 25 to 300°C, and then decrease with T from 300 to 400

  11. Behavior of uranium under conditions of interaction of rocks and ores with subsurface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.

    2007-10-01

    The behavior of uranium during interaction of subsurface water with crystalline rocks and uranium ores is considered in connection with the problem of safe underground insulation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Since subsurface water interacts with crystalline rocks formed at a high temperature, the mineral composition of these rocks and uranium species therein are thermodynamically unstable. Therefore, reactions directed toward the establishment of equilibrium proceed in the water-rock system. At great depths that are characterized by hindered water exchange, where subsurface water acquires near-neutral and reducing properties, the interaction is extremely sluggish and is expressed in the formation of micro- and nanoparticles of secondary minerals. Under such conditions, the slow diffusion redistribution of uranium with enrichment in absorbed forms relative to all other uranium species is realized as well. The products of secondary alteration of Fe- and Ti-bearing minerals serve as the main sorbents of uranium. The rate of alteration of minerals and conversion of uranium species into absorbed forms is slow, and the results of these processes are insignificant, so that the rocks and uranium species therein may be regarded as unaltered. Under reducing conditions, subsurface water is always saturated with uranium. Whether water interacts with rock or uranium ore, the equilibrium uranium concentration in water is only ≤10-8 mol/l. Uraninite ore under such conditions always remains stable irrespective of its age. The stability conditions of uranium ore are quite suitable for safe insulation of SNF, which consists of 95% uraninite (UO2) and is a confinement matrix for all other radionuclides. The disposal of SNF in massifs of crystalline rocks at depths below 500 m, where reducing conditions are predominant, is a reliable guarantee of high SNF stability. Under oxidizing conditions of the upper hydrodynamic zone, the rate of interaction of rocks with subsurface water

  12. Assessing the impact of model spin-up on surface water-groundwater interactions using an integrated hydrologic model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori

    2014-03-01

    Integrated land surface-groundwater models are valuable tools in simulating the terrestrial hydrologic cycle as a continuous system and exploring the extent of land surface-subsurface interactions from catchment to regional scales. However, the fidelity of model simulations is impacted not only by the vegetation and subsurface parameterizations, but also by the antecedent condition of model state variables, such as the initial soil moisture, depth to groundwater, and ground temperature. In land surface modeling, a given model is often run repeatedly over a single year of forcing data until it reaches an equilibrium state: the point at which there is minimal artificial drift in the model state or prognostic variables (most often the soil moisture). For more complex coupled and integrated systems, where there is an increased computational cost of simulation and the number of variables sensitive to initialization is greater than in traditional uncoupled land surface modeling schemes, the challenge is to minimize the impact of initialization while using the smallest spin-up time possible. In this study, multicriteria analysis was performed to assess the spin-up behavior of the ParFlow.CLM integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model over a 208 km2 subcatchment of the Ringkobing Fjord catchment in Denmark. Various measures of spin-up performance were computed for model state variables such as the soil moisture and groundwater storage, as well as for diagnostic variables such as the latent and sensible heat fluxes. The impacts of initial conditions on surface water-groundwater interactions were then explored. Our analysis illustrates that the determination of an equilibrium state depends strongly on the variable and performance measure used. Choosing an improper initialization of the model can generate simulations that lead to a misinterpretation of land surface-subsurface feedback processes and result in large biases in simulated discharge. Estimated spin

  13. An oil spill-food chain interaction model for coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yew Hoong Gin, K.; Huda, Md. K.; Tkalich, P.

    2001-01-01

    An oil spill-food chain interaction model, composed of a multiphase oil spill model (MOSM) and a food chain model, has been developed to assess the probable impacts of oil spills on several key marine organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, small fish, large fish and benthic invertebrates). The MOSM predicts oil slick thickness on the water surface; dissolved, emulsified and particulate oil concentrations in the water column; and dissolved and particulate oil concentrations in bed sediments. This model is used to predict the fate of oil spills and transport with respect to specific organic compounds, while the food chain model addresses the uptake of toxicant by marine organisms. The oil spill-food chain interaction model can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil spills in marine ecosystems. The model is applied to the recent Evoikos-Orapin Global oil spill that occurred in the Singapore Strait. (author)

  14. Interaction between emotional state and learning underlies mood instability

    OpenAIRE

    Eldar, Eran; Niv, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Intuitively, good and bad outcomes affect our emotional state, but whether the emotional state feeds back onto the perception of outcomes remains unknown. Here, we use behaviour and functional neuroimaging of human participants to investigate this bidirectional interaction, by comparing the evaluation of slot machines played before and after an emotion-impacting wheel-of-fortune draw. Results indicate that self-reported mood instability is associated with a positive-feedback effect of emotion...

  15. Negotiating water across levels: A peace and conflict "Toolbox" for water diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech-Madin, Charlotte; Döring, Stefan; Kim, Kyungmee; Swain, Ashok

    2018-04-01

    As a key policy tool, water diplomacy offers greater political engagement in the cooperative management of shared water. A range of initiatives has been dedicated to this end, almost invariably oriented around the interactions of nation states. Crucially, however, practitioners of water diplomacy also need to address water governance at sub-state levels. As a political, multi-level, and normative field, peace and conflict research offers a pluralism of approaches designed to bring actors together at all levels. Drawing upon this research, this paper offers new focal points for water diplomacy that can enhance its policy effectiveness and enrich its underlying academic current. More specifically, it presents three hitherto undervalued tools for water diplomacy: at the interstate level, to uncover the rich body of political norms that bind states to shared understandings of acceptable practice around water. At the intrastate level, to incorporate ethnography of water users and civil society groups' responses to state-led waterworks projects, and at the communal level to employ disaggregated georeferenced data on water resources in conflict-prone areas. Taken together, these analytical tools provide a multi-faceted political gauge of the dynamics of water diplomacy, and add vital impetus to develop water diplomacy across multiple levels of policy engagement.

  16. Equations of state for light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, G.A.; Granziera, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The equations of state for light water were developed, based on the tables of Keenan and Keyes. Equations are presented, describing the specific volume, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of saturated steam, superheated vapor and subcooled liquid as a function of pressure and temperature. For each property, several equations are shown, with different precisions and different degress of complexity. (Author) [pt

  17. Circuit QED: generation of two-transmon-qutrit entangled states via resonant interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xi-Mei; Zheng, Zhen-Fei; Lu, Dao-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2018-04-01

    We present a way to create entangled states of two superconducting transmon qutrits based on circuit QED. Here, a qutrit refers to a three-level quantum system. Since only resonant interaction is employed, the entanglement creation can be completed within a short time. The degree of entanglement for the prepared entangled state can be controlled by varying the weight factors of the initial state of one qutrit, which allows the prepared entangled state to change from a partially entangled state to a maximally entangled state. Because a single cavity is used, only resonant interaction is employed, and none of identical qutrit-cavity coupling constant, measurement, and auxiliary qutrit is needed, this proposal is easy to implement in experiments. The proposal is quite general and can be applied to prepare a two-qutrit partially or maximally entangled state with two natural or artificial atoms of a ladder-type level structure, coupled to an optical or microwave cavity.

  18. Water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in thick-walled pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsseling, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model is presented which describes the acoustic behaviour of thick-walled liquid-filled pipes. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is taken into account. The equations governing straight pipes are derived

  19. Topological helical edge states in water waves over a topographical bottom

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shi qiao

    2017-11-27

    We present the discovery of topologically protected helical edge states in water wave systems, which are realized in water wave propagating over a topographical bottom whose height is modulated periodically in a two-dimensional triangular pattern. We develop an effective Hamiltonian to characterize the dispersion relation and use spin Chern numbers to classify the topology. Through full wave simulations we unambiguously demonstrate the robustness of the helical edge states which are immune to defects and disorders so that the backscattering loss is significantly reduced. A spin splitter is designed for water wave systems, where helical edge states with different spin orientations are spatially separated with each other, and potential applications are discussed.

  20. Topological helical edge states in water waves over a topographical bottom

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shi qiao; Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    We present the discovery of topologically protected helical edge states in water wave systems, which are realized in water wave propagating over a topographical bottom whose height is modulated periodically in a two-dimensional triangular pattern. We develop an effective Hamiltonian to characterize the dispersion relation and use spin Chern numbers to classify the topology. Through full wave simulations we unambiguously demonstrate the robustness of the helical edge states which are immune to defects and disorders so that the backscattering loss is significantly reduced. A spin splitter is designed for water wave systems, where helical edge states with different spin orientations are spatially separated with each other, and potential applications are discussed.

  1. Classification of matrix-product ground states corresponding to one-dimensional chains of two-state sites of nearest neighbor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatollahi, Amir H.; Khorrami, Mohammad; Shariati, Ahmad; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    A complete classification is given for one-dimensional chains with nearest-neighbor interactions having two states in each site, for which a matrix product ground state exists. The Hamiltonians and their corresponding matrix product ground states are explicitly obtained.

  2. Sodium fast reactors energy conversion systems. Na-CO2 interaction. Comparison with Na-water interaction of conventional water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latge, Christian; Simon, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The Sodium Fast Reactor is a very promising candidate for the development of Fast Neutron Reactors. It is well known owing to its wide development since the 1950's, throughout all countries involved in the development of nuclear power plants. The development of Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors is possible due to its very attractive sodium, nuclear, physical and even some of its chemical properties. Nevertheless, the operational feedback has shown that the concept has several drawbacks: difficulties for In-Service Inspection and Repair operations due to the sodium opacity and possible detrimental effects of its reactivity with air and water when the heat conversion is performed with a conventional Rankine cycle. Moreover, the various design projects have shown some difficulties in enhancing its competitiveness with regards to existing NPPs without any new innovative options, i.e. the possibility of suppressing the intermediate circuits and/or the development of an optimized energy conversion system. The Supercritical CO 2 Brayton Cycle option for the energy conversion has been widely suggested because of its high thermodynamic efficiency (over 40%), its potential compactness of the Balance Of Plant equipment due to the small-sized turbo machinery system, and for its applicability to both Direct or Indirect Cycle (Na, PbBi, He) assuming the hypothesis that the Supercritical CO 2 -Na interaction has less serious potential consequences than sodium-water consequences in the conventional Rankine cycle. Within the framework of the SMFR (Small Modular Fast Reactor) project, developed jointly by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-USA), the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA, formerly Japan Nuclear Cycle development), this option has been selected and investigated. This paper deals with the study of the interaction between Na and CO 2 , based on a literature review: the result of this study will allow the definition of R and D

  3. Multi-State Vibronic Interactions in Fluorinated Benzene Radical Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, S.; Köppel, H.

    2009-06-01

    Conical intersections of potential energy surfaces have emerged as paradigms for signalling strong nonadiabatic coupling effects. An important class of systems where some of these effects have been analyzed in the literature, are the benzene and benzenoid cations, where the electronic structure, spectroscopy, and dynamics have received great attention in the literature. In the present work a brief overview is given over our theoretical treatments of multi-mode and multi-state vibronic interactions in the benzene radical cation and some of its fluorinated derivatives. The fluorobenzene derivatives are of systematic interest for at least two different reasons. (1) The reduction of symmetry by incomplete fluorination leads to a disappearance of the Jahn-Teller effect present in the parent cation. (2) A specific, more chemical effect of fluorination consists in the energetic increase of the lowest σ-type electronic states of the radical cations. The multi-mode multi-state vibronic interactions between the five lowest electronic states of the fluorobenzene radical cations are investigated theoretically, based on ab initio electronic structure data, and employing the well-established linear vibronic coupling model, augmented by quadratic coupling terms for the totally symmetric vibrational modes. Low-energy conical intersections, and strong vibronic couplings are found to prevail within the set of tilde{X}-tilde{A} and tilde{B}-tilde{C}-tilde{D} cationic states, while the interactions between these two sets of states are found to be weaker and depend on the particular isomer. This is attributed to the different location of the minima of the various conical intersections occurring in these systems. Wave-packet dynamical simulations for these coupled potential energy surfaces, utilizing the powerful multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method are performed. Ultrafast internal conversion processes and the analysis of the MATI and photo-electron spectra shed new light

  4. Surface-Water Conditions in Georgia, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jaime A.; Landers, Mark N.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center-in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies-collected surface-water streamflow, water-quality, and ecological data during the 2005 Water Year (October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005). These data were compiled into layers of an interactive ArcReaderTM published map document (pmf). ArcReaderTM is a product of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc (ESRI?). Datasets represented on the interactive map are * continuous daily mean streamflow * continuous daily mean water levels * continuous daily total precipitation * continuous daily water quality (water temperature, specific conductance dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) * noncontinuous peak streamflow * miscellaneous streamflow measurements * lake or reservoir elevation * periodic surface-water quality * periodic ecological data * historical continuous daily mean streamflow discontinued prior to the 2005 water year The map interface provides the ability to identify a station in spatial reference to the political boundaries of the State of Georgia and other features-such as major streams, major roads, and other collection stations. Each station is hyperlinked to a station summary showing seasonal and annual stream characteristics for the current year and for the period of record. For continuous discharge stations, the station summary includes a one page graphical summary page containing five graphs, a station map, and a photograph of the station. The graphs provide a quick overview of the current and period-of-record hydrologic conditions of the station by providing a daily mean discharge graph for the water year, monthly statistics graph for the water year and period of record, an annual mean streamflow graph for the period of record, an annual minimum 7-day average streamflow graph for the period of record, and an annual peak streamflow graph for the period of record. Additionally, data can be accessed through the layer's link

  5. Root water uptake and lateral interactions among root systems in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, E.; He, L.; Bisht, G.; Gough, C. M.; Couvreur, V.; Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of root architecture and hydraulic properties to the maintenance of the transpiration stream under water limitation and drought. Detailed studies of single plant systems have shown the ability of root systems to adjust zones of uptake due to the redistribution of local water potential gradients, thereby delaying the onset of stress under drying conditions. An open question is how lateral interactions and competition among neighboring plants impact individual and community resilience to water stress. While computational complexity has previously hindered the implementation of microscopic root system structure and function in larger scale hydrological models, newer hybrid approaches allow for the resolution of these properties at the plot scale. Using a modified version of the PFLOTRAN model, which represents the 3-D physics of variably saturated soil, we model root water uptake in a one-hectare temperate forest plot under natural and synthetic forcings. Two characteristic hydraulic architectures, tap roots and laterally sprawling roots, are implemented in an ensemble of simulations. Variations of root architecture, their hydraulic properties, and degree of system interactions produce variable local response to water limitation and provide insights on individual and community response to changing meteorological conditions. Results demonstrate the ability of interacting systems to shift areas of active uptake based on local gradients, allowing individuals to meet water demands despite competition from their peers. These results further illustrate how inter- and intra-species variations in root properties may influence not only individual response to water stress, but also help quantify the margins of resilience for forest ecosystems under changing climate.

  6. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  7. Fluorescent Water Soluble Polymers for Isozyme-Selective Interactions with Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rinku; Scott, Michael D.; Haldar, Manas K.; Ganguly, Bratati; Srivastava, D. K.; Friesner, Daniel L.; Mallik, Sanku

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in various pathological conditions, including various cancers. Although these isozymes have similar active sites, the patterns of exposed amino acids on their surfaces are different. Herein, we report the synthesis and molecular interactions of two water-soluble, fluorescent polymers which demonstrate selective interactions with MMP-9 compared to MMP-7 and -10. PMID:21367603

  8. Intrinsic states in the sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, N.

    1986-08-04

    We give the intrinsic states explicitly in the boson representation in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model. Although they are only valid in the large-N limit, they are useful to estimate various physical quantities in well deformed nuclei. One can compare these results with those predicted in the IBM1 or in the IBM2.

  9. Intrinsic states in the sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, N.

    1986-01-01

    We give the intrinsic states explicitly in the boson representation in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model. Although they are only valid in the large-N limit, they are useful to estimate various physical quantities in well deformed nuclei. One can compare these results with those predicted in the IBM1 or in the IBM2. (orig.)

  10. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund National Information Management System Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for the program at both the State and National level.

  11. Appropriation System: water rights in the western United States; water pollution problems peculiar to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The legal framework surrounding water rights acquisition and usage in the western United States and the steps which should be taken in analyzing potential sources of water are dealt with. Some of the applicable water pollution control laws and regulations are discussed briefly

  12. Hydrogen bonding interactions between ethylene glycol and water: density, excess molar volume, and spectral study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JianBin; ZHANG PengYan; MA Kai; HAN Fang; CHEN GuoHua; WEI XiongHui

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the density and the excess molar volume of ethylene glycol (EG)-water mixtures were carried out to illustrate the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water at different temperatures, The re-sults suggest that a likely complex of 3 ethylene glycol molecules bonding with 4 water molecules in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (EGW) is formed at the maximal excess molar volume, which displays stronger absorption capabilities for SO2 when the concentration of SO2 reaches 400×106 (volume ratio) in the gas phase. Meanwhile, FTIR and UV spectra of EGWs were recorded at various EG concentra-tions to display the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water. The FTIR spectra show that the stretching vibrational band of hydroxyl in the EGWs shifts to a lower frequency and the bending vibra-tional band of water shifts to a higher frequency with increasing the EG concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the UV spectra show that the electron transferring band of the hydroxyl oxygen in EG shows red shift with increasing the EG concentration. The frequency shifts in FTIR spectra and the shifts of absorption bands in UV absorption spectra of EGWs are interpreted as the strong hydrogen bonding interactions of the hydrogen atoms in water with the hydroxyl oxygen atoms of EG.

  13. Hydrogen bonding interactions between ethylene glycol and water:density,excess molar volume,and spectral study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the density and the excess molar volume of ethylene glycol (EG)-water mixtures were carried out to illustrate the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water at different temperatures. The re-sults suggest that a likely complex of 3 ethylene glycol molecules bonding with 4 water molecules in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (EGW) is formed at the maximal excess molar volume,which displays stronger absorption capabilities for SO2 when the concentration of SO2 reaches 400×10?6 (volume ratio) in the gas phase. Meanwhile,FTIR and UV spectra of EGWs were recorded at various EG concentra-tions to display the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water. The FTIR spectra show that the stretching vibrational band of hydroxyl in the EGWs shifts to a lower frequency and the bending vibra-tional band of water shifts to a higher frequency with increasing the EG concentration,respectively. Furthermore,the UV spectra show that the electron transferring band of the hydroxyl oxygen in EG shows red shift with increasing the EG concentration. The frequency shifts in FTIR spectra and the shifts of absorption bands in UV absorption spectra of EGWs are interpreted as the strong hydrogen bonding interactions of the hydrogen atoms in water with the hydroxyl oxygen atoms of EG.

  14. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Sovacool, Kelly E.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs.

  15. Steady-State Diffusion of Water through Soft-Contact LensMaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Krull, Florian; Radke, Clayton J.; Prausnitz, JohnM.

    2005-01-31

    Water transport through soft contact lenses (SCL) is important for acceptable performance on the human eye. Chemical-potential gradient-driven diffusion rates of water through soft-contact-lens materials are measured with an evaporation-cell technique. Water is evaporated from the bottom surface of a lens membrane by impinging air at controlled flow rate and humidity. The resulting weight loss of a water reservoir covering the top surface of the contact-lens material is recorded as a function of time. New results are reported for a conventional hydrogel material (SofLens{trademark} One Day, hilafilcon A, water content at saturation W{sub 10} = 70 weight %) and a silicone hydrogel material (PureVision{trademark}, balafilcon A, W{sub 10} = 36 %), with and without surface oxygen plasma treatment. Also, previously reported data for a conventional HEMA-SCL (W{sub 10} = 38 %) hydrogel are reexamined and compared with those for SofLens{trademark} One Day and PureVision{trademark} hydrogels. Measured steady-state water fluxes are largest for SofLens{trademark} One Day, followed by PureVision{trademark} and HEMA. In some cases, the measured steady-state water fluxes increase with rising relative air humidity. This increase, due to an apparent mass-transfer resistance at the surface (trapping skinning), is associated with formation of a glassy skin at the air/membrane interface when the relative humidity is below 55-75%. Steady-state water-fluxes are interpreted through an extended Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model for a mixture of species starkly different in size. Thermodynamic nonideality is considered through Flory-Rehner polymer-solution theory. Shrinking/swelling is self-consistently modeled by conservation of the total polymer mass. Fitted Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities increase significantly with water concentration in the contact lens.

  16. Anisotropic Surface State Mediated RKKY Interaction Between Adatoms on a Hexagonal Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Theodore; Patrone, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent numerical studies of Ag on Pt(111), we derive a far-field expression for the RKKY interaction mediated by surface states on a (111) FCC surface, considering the effect of anisotropy in the Fermi edge. The main contribution to the interaction comes from electrons whose Fermi velocity vF is parallel to the vector R connecting the interacting adatoms; we show that in general, the corresponding Fermi wave-vector kF is not parallel to R. The interaction is oscillatory; the amplitude and wavelength of oscillations have angular dependence arising from the anisotropy of the surface state band structure. The wavelength, in particular, is determined by the component of the aforementioned kF that is parallel to R. Our analysis is easily generalized to other systems. For Ag on Pt(111), our results indicate that the RKKY interaction between pairs of adatoms should be nearly isotropic and so cannot account for the anisotropy found in the studies motivating our work.

  17. Approximate and Conditional Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State Without Bell-State Measurement with Two-Photon Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-Yong

    2006-01-01

    A scheme for approximately and conditionally teleporting an unknown atomic state via two-photon interaction in cavity QED is proposed. It is the extension of the scheme of Ref. [11] [Phys. Rev. A 69 (2004) 064302], which is based on Jaynes-Cummings model in QED and where only a time point of system evolution and the corresponding fidelity implementing the teleportation are given. In our scheme, the two-photon interaction Jaynes-Cummings model is used to realize the approximate and conditional teleportation. Our scheme does not involve the Bell-state measurement and an additional atom, only requiring two atoms and one single-mode cavity. The fidelity of the scheme is higher than that of Ref. [11]. The scheme may be generalized to not only the teleportation of the state of a cavity mode to another mode by means of a single atom but also the teleportation of the state of a trapped ion.

  18. Effective dark energy equation of state in interacting dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P.P.; Silva, H.M.R. da

    2012-01-01

    In models where dark matter and dark energy interact non-minimally, the total amount of matter in a fixed comoving volume may vary from the time of recombination to the present time due to energy transfer between the two components. This implies that, in interacting dark energy models, the fractional matter density estimated using the cosmic microwave background assuming no interaction between dark matter and dark energy will in general be shifted with respect to its true value. This may result in an incorrect determination of the equation of state of dark energy if the interaction between dark matter and dark energy is not properly accounted for, even if the evolution of the Hubble parameter as a function of redshift is known with arbitrary precision. In this Letter we find an exact expression, as well as a simple analytical approximation, for the evolution of the effective equation of state of dark energy, assuming that the energy transfer rate between dark matter and dark energy is described by a simple two-parameter model. We also provide analytical examples where non-phantom interacting dark energy models mimic the background evolution and primary cosmic microwave background anisotropies of phantom dark energy models.

  19. Effective dark energy equation of state in interacting dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, P.P., E-mail: ppavelin@fc.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Silva, H.M.R. da, E-mail: hilberto.silva@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-07-24

    In models where dark matter and dark energy interact non-minimally, the total amount of matter in a fixed comoving volume may vary from the time of recombination to the present time due to energy transfer between the two components. This implies that, in interacting dark energy models, the fractional matter density estimated using the cosmic microwave background assuming no interaction between dark matter and dark energy will in general be shifted with respect to its true value. This may result in an incorrect determination of the equation of state of dark energy if the interaction between dark matter and dark energy is not properly accounted for, even if the evolution of the Hubble parameter as a function of redshift is known with arbitrary precision. In this Letter we find an exact expression, as well as a simple analytical approximation, for the evolution of the effective equation of state of dark energy, assuming that the energy transfer rate between dark matter and dark energy is described by a simple two-parameter model. We also provide analytical examples where non-phantom interacting dark energy models mimic the background evolution and primary cosmic microwave background anisotropies of phantom dark energy models.

  20. Interaction of the Helium, Hydrogen, Air, Argon, and Nitrogen Bubbles with Graphite Surface in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Ruben; Otyepka, Michal; Pykal, Martin; Lazar, Petr; Micheli, Victor; Gottardi, Gloria; Laidani, Nadhira

    2017-05-24

    The interaction of the confined gas with solid surface immersed in water is a common theme of many important fields such as self-cleaning surface, gas storage, and sensing. For that reason, we investigated the gas-graphite interaction in the water medium. The graphite surface was prepared by mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The surface chemistry and morphology were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy. The surface energy of HOPG was estimated by contact angle measurements using the Owens-Wendt method. The interaction of gases (Ar, He, H 2 , N 2 , and air) with graphite was studied by a captive bubble method, in which the gas bubble was in contact with the exfoliated graphite surface in water media. The experimental data were corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations. The surface energy of HOPG equaled to 52.8 mJ/m 2 and more of 95% of the surface energy was attributed to dispersion interactions. The results on gas-surface interaction indicated that HOPG surface had gasphilic behavior for helium and hydrogen, while gasphobic behavior for argon and nitrogen. The results showed that the variation of the gas contact angle was related to the balance between the gas-surface and gas-gas interaction potentials. For helium and hydrogen the gas-surface interaction was particularly high compared to gas-gas interaction and this promoted the favorable interaction with graphite surface.

  1. Public supply and domestic water use in the United States, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Use Science Project (NWUSP), part of the USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP), has estimated water use in the United States every 5 years since 1950. This report provides an overview of total population, public-supply use, including the population that is served by public-supply systems and the domestic deliveries to those users, and self-supplied domestic water use in the United States for 2015, continuing the task of estimating water use in the United States every 5 years. In this report, estimates for the United States include the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (hereafter referred to as “states” for brevity).County-level data for total population, public-supply withdrawals and the population served by public-supply systems, and domestic withdrawals for 2015 were published in a data release in an effort to provide data to the public in a timely manner. Data in the current version (1.0) of Dieter and others (2017) contains county-level total withdrawals from groundwater and surface-water sources (both fresh and saline) for public-water supply, the deliveries from those suppliers to domestic users, and the quantities of water from groundwater and surface-water sources for self-supplied domestic users, and total population. Methods used to estimate the various data elements for the public-supply and domestic use categories at the county level are described by Bradley (2017).This Open-File Report is an interim report summarizing the data published in Dieter and others (2017) at the state and national level. This report includes discussions on the total population, totals for public-supply withdrawals and population served, total domestic withdrawals, and provides comparisons of the 2015 estimates to 2010 estimates (Maupin and others, 2014). Total domestic water use, as described in this report, represents the summation of deliveries from

  2. Reactor water chemistry relevant to coolant-cladding interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The report is a summary of the work performed in a frame of a Coordinated Research Program organized by the IAEA and carried out from 1981 till 1986. It consists of a survey on our knowledge on coolant-cladding interaction: the basic phenomena, the relevant parameters, their control and the modelling techniques implemented for their assessment. Based upon the results of this Coordinated Research Program, the following topics are reviewed on the report: role of water chemistry in reliable operation of nuclear power plants; water chemistry specifications and their control; behaviour of fuel cladding materials; corrosion product behaviour and crud build-up in reactor circuits; modelling of corrosion product behaviour. This report should be of interest to water chemistry supervisors at the power plants, to experts in utility engineering departments, to fuel designers, to R and D institutes active in the field and to the consultants of these organizations. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 3 papers included in the Annex of this document. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Geochemical study of water-rock interaction processes on geothermal systems of alkaline water in granitic massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buil gutierrez, B.; Garcia Sanz, S.; Lago San Jose, M.; Arranz Yague, E.; Auque Sanz, L.

    2002-01-01

    The study of geothermal systems developed within granitic massifs (with alkaline waters and reducing ORP values) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. These systems are a perfect natural laboratory for studying the water-rock interaction processes as they are defined by three main features: 1) long residence time of water within the system, 2) temperature in the reservoir high enough to favour reaction kinetics and finally, 3) the comparison of the chemistry of the incoming and outgoing waters of the system allows for the evaluation of the processes that have modified the water chemistry and its signature, The four geothermal systems considered in this paper are developed within granitic massifs of the Spanish Central Pyrenes; these systems were studied from a geochemical point of view, defining the major, trace and REE chemistry of both waters and host rocks and then characterizing the composition and geochemical evolution of the different waters. Bicarbonate-chloride-sodic and bicarbonate-sodic compositions are the most representative of the water chemistry in the deep geothermal system, as they are not affected by secondary processes (mixing, conductive cooling, etc). (Author)

  4. Structural and interaction parameters of thermosensitive native α-elastin biohybrid microgel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaceanu, Andreea; Singh, Smriti; Demco, Dan E.; Möller, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The structural and water interaction parameters for native, α-elastin biohybrid microgel crosslinked with hydrophilic and hydrophobic crosslinkers are obtained from the volume phase transition temperature behaviour, 1H high-resolution magic-angle sample spinning transverse magnetization relaxation NMR, and modified Flory-Rehner swelling theory. Firstly, considering a homogeneous morphology the number of subchains in the biohybrid microgel, the residual water in deswollen state as a function of crosslink density and the temperature dependence of the Flory biopolymer-water interaction parameters are reported for the biohybrid microgels prepared with hydrophilic (PEG-DGE) and hydrophobic (BS3) crosslinkers. The Flory-Rehner classical approach is subsequently modified taking into account the heterogeneities observed by NMR transverse relaxation measurements. Two differently mobile regions are determined, a hydrophobic domain and a crosslinking domain with relative reduced mobility. For the first time, the influence of chain mobility on the Flory interaction parameter is investigated through a modified Flory state equation. The contributions of amino-acids located in the hydrophobic and crosslinking domains in the polypeptide sequence are separated while analyzing the biopolymer-water interaction.

  5. A spatially detailed blue water footprint of the United States economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Richard R.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.

    2018-05-01

    This paper quantifies and maps a spatially detailed and economically complete blue water footprint for the United States, utilizing the National Water Economy Database version 1.1 (NWED). NWED utilizes multiple mesoscale (county-level) federal data resources from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Transportation (USDOT), the US Department of Energy (USDOE), and the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to quantify water use, economic trade, and commodity flows to construct this water footprint. Results corroborate previous studies in both the magnitude of the US water footprint (F) and in the observed pattern of virtual water flows. Four virtual water accounting scenarios were developed with minimum (Min), median (Med), and maximum (Max) consumptive use scenarios and a withdrawal-based scenario. The median water footprint (FCUMed) of the US is 181 966 Mm3 (FWithdrawal: 400 844 Mm3; FCUMax: 222 144 Mm3; FCUMin: 61 117 Mm3) and the median per capita water footprint (F'CUMed) of the US is 589 m3 per capita (F'Withdrawal: 1298 m3 per capita; F'CUMax: 720 m3 per capita; F'CUMin: 198 m3 per capita). The US hydroeconomic network is centered on cities. Approximately 58 % of US water consumption is for direct and indirect use by cities. Further, the water footprint of agriculture and livestock is 93 % of the total US blue water footprint, and is dominated by irrigated agriculture in the western US. The water footprint of the industrial, domestic, and power economic sectors is centered on population centers, while the water footprint of the mining sector is highly dependent on the location of mineral resources. Owing to uncertainty in consumptive use coefficients alone, the mesoscale blue water footprint uncertainty ranges from 63 to over 99 % depending on location. Harmonized region-specific, economic-sector-specific consumption coefficients are

  6. Monitoring water for radioactive releases in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.; Broadway, J.A.; Kahn, B.

    1990-01-01

    The major radiological environmental monitoring programs for water in the United States are described. The applications of these programs for monitoring radioactive fallout, routine discharges from nuclear facilities, and releases due to accidents at such facilities are discussed, and some examples of measurements are presented. The programs monitor rainfall, surface water, and water supplies. Samples are usually collected and analyzed on a monthly or quarterly schedule, but the frequency is increased in response to emergencies. (author)

  7. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  8. Studies of final state interactions via femtoscopy in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Femtoscopy is a technique enabling measurements of the space-time characteristics of particle-emitting sources. However, the femtoscopic analysis is also sensitive to the interaction cross-section. In this paper we show the first preliminary measurements of $\\rm K^0_SK^{\\pm}$ correlation functions in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV. These correlations originate from the final-state interactions which proceed through the $a_0(980)$ resonance only and can be employed to constrain its parameters. A similar approach can be applied to baryon pairs to extract the unknown interaction cross-sections for some (anti-)baryon-(anti-)baryon pairs. We show baryon--baryon and baryon--anti-baryon correlation functions of protons and lambdas, as well as discuss shortly the fitting method.

  9. Interactive Effect of Air-Water Ratio and Temperature on the Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    KEYWORDS: Interactive effect, air-water ratio, temperature, volatile organic compounds, removal efficiency. [Received ... The rate of mass transfer of a VOC from wastewater to the ... where ΔHo is heat of evaporation of 1 mole of component.

  10. Plant interactions with changes in coverage of biological soil crusts and water regime in Mu Us Sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuqin; Pan, Xu; Cui, Qingguo; Hu, Yukun; Ye, Xuehua; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Plant interactions greatly affect plant community structure. Dryland ecosystems are characterized by low amounts of unpredictable precipitation as well as by often having biological soil crusts (BSCs) on the soil surface. In dryland plant communities, plants interact mostly as they compete for water resources, and the direction and intensity of plant interaction varies as a function of the temporal fluctuation in water availability. Since BSCs influence water redistribution to some extent, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the intensity and direction of plant interactions in a dryland plant community can be modified by BSCs. In the experiment, 14 combinations of four plant species (Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Chloris virgata and Setaria viridis) were subjected to three levels of coverage of BSCs and three levels of water supply. The results show that: 1) BSCs affected plant interaction intensity for the four plant species: a 100% coverage of BSCs significantly reduced the intensity of competition between neighboring plants, while it was highest with a 50% coverage of BSCs in combination with the target species of A. sphaerocephala and C. virgata; 2) effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant interactions were modified by water regime when the target species were C. virgata and S. viridis; 3) plant interactions were species-specific. In conclusion, the percent coverage of BSCs affected plant interactions, and the effects were species-specific and could be modified by water regimes. Further studies should focus on effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant-soil hydrological processes.

  11. Plant interactions with changes in coverage of biological soil crusts and water regime in Mu Us Sandland, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Gao

    Full Text Available Plant interactions greatly affect plant community structure. Dryland ecosystems are characterized by low amounts of unpredictable precipitation as well as by often having biological soil crusts (BSCs on the soil surface. In dryland plant communities, plants interact mostly as they compete for water resources, and the direction and intensity of plant interaction varies as a function of the temporal fluctuation in water availability. Since BSCs influence water redistribution to some extent, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the intensity and direction of plant interactions in a dryland plant community can be modified by BSCs. In the experiment, 14 combinations of four plant species (Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Chloris virgata and Setaria viridis were subjected to three levels of coverage of BSCs and three levels of water supply. The results show that: 1 BSCs affected plant interaction intensity for the four plant species: a 100% coverage of BSCs significantly reduced the intensity of competition between neighboring plants, while it was highest with a 50% coverage of BSCs in combination with the target species of A. sphaerocephala and C. virgata; 2 effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant interactions were modified by water regime when the target species were C. virgata and S. viridis; 3 plant interactions were species-specific. In conclusion, the percent coverage of BSCs affected plant interactions, and the effects were species-specific and could be modified by water regimes. Further studies should focus on effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant-soil hydrological processes.

  12. Fiscal Year 1990 program report: New York State Water Resources Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, K.S.

    1991-08-01

    New York has made major strides in reducing or eliminating point sources of water pollutants. Nonpoint sources have become the primary focus of many State water pollution control programs. Among the most critical remaining water pollutant sources in New York are toxics-contaminated sediments in surface water bodies and leaks and spills of toxic and hazardous materials. Contaminated sediments are implicated as a major origin of certain persistent synthetic organics accumulated by higher aquatic organisms, as well as representing an uncertain but large reservoir of contaminants which may be re-released during high flows. Spills and leaks represent threats to both surface and ground water. The State now responds to over 10,000 of these cases each year. A growing number of cases are leaking underground petroleum storage tanks, requiring long and expensive cleanup activities

  13. 77 FR 74449 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Proposed Rule; Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Proposed Rule; Stay AGENCY... Protection Agency (EPA) proposes to temporarily stay our regulation the ``Water Quality Standards for the... Information Does this action apply to me? Citizens concerned with water quality in Florida may be interested...

  14. Forming chemical composition of surface waters in the Arctic as "water - rock" interaction. Case study of lake Inari and river Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Sandimirov, Sergey; Pozhilenko, Vladimir; Ivanov, Stanislav; Maksimova, Viktoriia

    2017-04-01

    Due to the depletion of fresh water supplies and the deterioration of their quality as a result of anthropogenic impact on the Arctic ecosystems, the research questions of forming surface and ground waters, their interactions with the rocks, development of the foundations for their rational use and protection are of great fundamental and practical importance. The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition of rocks of the northern part of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) shield on forming surface waters chemical composition (Lake Inari, river Paz) using physical-chemical modeling (Chudnenko, 2010, Selector software package). River Paz (Paatsjoki) is the largest river in North Fennoscandia and flows through the territory of three countries - Finland, Russia and Norway. It originates from Lake Inari, which a large number of streams and rivers flow into, coming from the mountain range of the northern Finland (Maanselkä hill). Within the catchment of inflows feeding the lake Inari and river Paz in its upper flow there are mainly diverse early Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive rocks of the Lapland granulite belt and its framing, and to a lesser extent - various gneisses and migmatites with relicts of amphibolites, granitic gneisses, plagioclase and plagio- and plagiomicrocline granites, and quartz diorites of Inari terrane (Meriläinen, 1976, fig 1; Hörmann et al, 1980, fig 1; Geologicalmap, 2001). Basing on the techniques developed earlier (Mazukhina, 2012), and the data of monitoring of the chemical composition of surface waters and investigation of the chemical composition of the rocks, physical-chemical modeling (FCM) (Selector software package) was carried out. FCM includes 34 independent components (Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-Fe-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-Ni-Pb-V-Ba-Co-Cr-Hg-As-Cd-H-O-e), 996 dependent components, of them 369 in aqueous solution, 76 in the gas phase, 111 liquid hydrocarbons, and 440 solid phases, organic and mineral

  15. Molecular interactions in a surfactant-water-polyacrylamide system, according to densimetry, viscometry, conductometry, and spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, R. S.

    2013-08-01

    Molecular interactions in a surfactant-polyacrylamide-water system are investigated. It is established that the interactions affect such physicochemical parameters of the system as viscosity, density, surface tension, conductivity, and critical micelle concentration. It is shown that in a polyacrylamide-water system, raising the polyacrylamide concentration to 0.02% causes conformational changes in its macromolecule.

  16. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent-Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Sierra-García, Purificación; Pons-Salvador, Gemma; Trenado, Rosa M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant's gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent's gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more "active" than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving 'in-out' of 'Child Social Approach neutral - Sensitive Approach neutral' state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state 'Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral' distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers) based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26) of the father-infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26) of the mother-infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and quantifies the actual moment-to-moment flow

  17. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles Cerezo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent’s gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more “active” than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving ‘in–out’ of ‘Child Social Approach neutral – Sensitive Approach neutral’ state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state ‘Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral’ distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26 of the father–infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26 of the mother–infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and

  18. Anomalous water dynamics at surfaces and interfaces: synergistic effects of confinement and surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2018-01-01

    In nature, water is often found in contact with surfaces that are extended on the scale of molecule size but small on a macroscopic scale. Examples include lipid bilayers and reverse micelles as well as biomolecules like proteins, DNA and zeolites, to name a few. While the presence of surfaces and interfaces interrupts the continuous hydrogen bond network of liquid water, confinement on a mesoscopic scale introduces new features. Even when extended on a molecular scale, natural and biological surfaces often have features (like charge, hydrophobicity) that vary on the scale of the molecular diameter of water. As a result, many new and exotic features, which are not seen in the bulk, appear in the dynamics of water close to the surface. These different behaviors bear the signature of both water-surface interactions and of confinement. In other words, the altered properties are the result of the synergistic effects of surface-water interactions and confinement. Ultrafast spectroscopy, theoretical modeling and computer simulations together form powerful synergistic approaches towards an understanding of the properties of confined water in such systems as nanocavities, reverse micelles (RMs), water inside and outside biomolecules like proteins and DNA, and also between two hydrophobic walls. We shall review the experimental results and place them in the context of theory and simulations. For water confined within RMs, we discuss the possible interference effects propagating from opposite surfaces. Similar interference is found to give rise to an effective attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed and kept fixed at a separation of d, with the force showing an exponential dependence on this distance. For protein and DNA hydration, we shall examine a multitude of timescales that arise from frustration effects due to the inherent heterogeneity of these surfaces. We pay particular attention to the role of orientational correlations and modification of the

  19. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sovacool, Kelly E. [Department of Geography, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs. (author)

  20. D-state Rydberg electrons interacting with ultracold atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupp, Alexander Thorsten

    2014-10-02

    This thesis was established in the field of ultracold atoms where the interaction of highly excited D-state electrons with rubidium atoms was examined. This work is divided into two main parts: In the first part we study D-state Rydberg molecules resulting from the binding of a D-state Rydberg electron to a ground state rubidium atom. We show that we can address specific rovibrational molecular states by changing our laser detuning and thus create perfectly aligned axial or antialigned toroidal molecules, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Furthermore the influence of the electric field on the Rydberg molecules was investigated, creating novel states which show a different angular dependence and alignment. In the second part of this thesis we excite single D-state Rydberg electrons in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We study the lifetime of these Rydberg electrons, the change of the shape of our condensate and the atom losses in the condensate due to this process. Moreover, we observe quadrupolar shape oscillations of the whole condensate created by the consecutive excitation of Rydberg atoms and compare all results to previous S-state measurements. In the outlook we propose a wide range of further experiments including the proposal of imaging a single electron wavefunction by the imprint of its orbit into the Bose-Einstein condensate.

  1. Intermolecular interaction studies of glyphosate with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manon, Priti; Juglan, K. C.; Kaur, Kirandeep; Sethi, Nidhi; Kaur, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (U) of glyphosate with water have been measured on different ultrasonic frequency ranges from 1MHz, 2MHz, 3MHz & 5MHz by varying concentrations (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, & 0.40%) at 30°C. The specific gravity bottle, Ostwald's viscometer and quartz crystal interferometer were used to determine density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (U). These three factors contribute in evaluating the other parameters as acoustic impedance (Z), adiabatic compressibility (β), relaxation time (τ), intermolecular free length (Lf), free volume (Vf), ultrasonic attenuation (α/f2), Rao's constant (R), Wada's constant (W) and relative strength (R). Solute-solvent interaction is confirmed by ultrasonic velocity and viscosity values, which increases with increase in concentration indicates stronger association between solute and solvent molecules. With rise in ultrasonic frequency the interaction between the solute and solvent particles decreases. The linear variations in Rao's constant and Wada's constant suggest the absence of complex formation.

  2. A detailed aerosol mixing state model for investigating interactions between mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lu; F. M. Bowman

    2010-01-01

    A new method for describing externally mixed particles, the Detailed Aerosol Mixing State (DAMS) representation, is presented in this study. This novel method classifies aerosols by both composition and size, using a user-specified mixing criterion to define boundaries between compositional populations. Interactions between aerosol mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation are investigated with a Lagrangian box model that incorporates the DAMS approach. Model results predict th...

  3. Information Management System for the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, T. C.; Redmann, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made to establish the requirements for an integrated state-wide information management system for water quality control and water quality rights for the State of California. The data sources and end requirements were analyzed for the data collected and used by the numerous agencies, both State and Federal, as well as the nine Regional Boards under the jurisdiction of the State Board. The report details the data interfaces and outlines the system design. A program plan and statement of work for implementation of the project is included.

  4. Implications of water constraints for electricity capacity expansion in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Hejazi, M. I.; Iyer, G.; Forman, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    U.S. electricity generation is vulnerable to water supply since water is required for cooling. Constraints on the availability of water will therefore necessitate adaptive planning by the power generation sector. Hence, it is important to integrate restrictions in water availability in electricity capacity planning in order to better understand the economic viability of alternative capacity planning options. The study of the implications of water constraints for the U.S. power generation system is limited in terms of scale and robustness. We extend previous studies by including physical water constraints in a state-level model of the U.S. energy system embedded within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM-USA). We focus on the implications of such constraints for the U.S. electricity capacity expansion, integrating both supply and demand effects under a consistent framework. Constraints on the availability of water have two general effects across the U.S. First, water availability constraints increase the cost of electricity generation, resulting in reduced electrification of end-use sectors. Second, water availability constraints result in forced retirements of water-intensive technologies such as thermoelectric coal- and gas- fired technologies before the end of their natural lifetimes. The demand for electricity is then met by an increase in investments in less water-dependent technologies such as wind and solar photovoltaic. Our results show that the regional patterns of the above effects are heterogeneous across the U.S. In general, the impacts of water constraints on electricity capacity expansion are more pronounced in the West than in the East. This is largely because of lower water availability in the West compared to the East due to lower precipitation in the Western states. Constraints on the availability of water might also have important implications for U.S. electricity trade. For example, under severe constraints on the availability of water

  5. 33 CFR 328.5 - Changes in limits of waters of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DEFINITION OF WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES § 328.5 Changes in... drainage may remove an area from waters of the United States. Man-made changes may affect the limits of...

  6. Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed

  7. High resolution production water footprints of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, L.; Yufei, A.; Konar, M.; Mekonnen, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The United States is the largest producer and consumer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to this economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, high-resolution database of water use by sector would provide insight into US utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the US. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the US economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking.

  8. Osmolyte Effects on Monoclonal Antibody Stability and Concentration-Dependent Protein Interactions with Water and Common Osmolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory V; Razinkov, Vladimir I; Kerwin, Bruce A; Blake, Steven; Qi, Wei; Curtis, Robin A; Roberts, Christopher J

    2016-04-07

    Preferential interactions of proteins with water and osmolytes play a major role in controlling the thermodynamics of protein solutions. While changes in protein stability and shifts in phase behavior are often reported with the addition of osmolytes, the underlying protein interactions with water and/or osmolytes are typically inferred rather than measured directly. In this work, Kirkwood-Buff integrals for protein-water interactions (G12) and protein-osmolyte interactions (G23) were determined as a function of osmolyte concentration from density measurements of antistreptavidin immunoglobulin gamma-1 (AS-IgG1) in ternary aqueous solutions for a set of common neutral osmolytes: sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). For sucrose and PEG solutions, both protein-water and protein-osmolyte interactions depend strongly on osmolyte concentrations (c3). Strikingly, both osmolytes change from being preferentially excluded to preferentially accumulated with increasing c3. In contrast, sorbitol and trehalose solutions do not show large enough preferential interactions to be detected by densimetry. G12 and G23 values are used to estimate the transfer free energy for native AS-IgG1 (Δμ2N) and compared with existing models. AS-IgG1 unfolding via calorimetry shows a linear increase in midpoint temperatures as a function of trehalose, sucrose, and sorbitol concentrations, but the opposite behavior for PEG. Together, the results highlight limitations of existing models and common assumptions regarding the mechanisms of protein stabilization by osmolytes. Finally, PEG preferential interactions destabilize the Fab regions of AS-IgG1 more so than the CH2 or CH3 domains, illustrating preferential interactions can be specific to different protein domains.

  9. Chemically durable polymer electrolytes for solid-state alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Joo; Capuano, Christopher B.; Ayers, Katherine E.; Bae, Chulsung

    2018-01-01

    Generation of high purity hydrogen using electrochemical splitting of water is one of the most promising methods for sustainable fuel production. The materials to be used as solid-state electrolytes for alkaline water electrolyzer require high thermochemical stability against hydroxide ion attack in alkaline environment during the operation of electrolysis. In this study, two quaternary ammonium-tethered aromatic polymers were synthesized and investigated for anion exchange membrane (AEM)-based alkaline water electrolyzer. The membranes properties including ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling degree, and anion conductivity were studied. The membranes composed of all C-C bond polymer backbones and flexible side chain terminated by cation head groups exhibited remarkably good chemical stability by maintaining structural integrity in 1 M NaOH solution at 95 °C for 60 days. Initial electrochemical performance and steady-state operation performance were evaluated, and both membranes showed a good stabilization of the cell voltage during the steady-state operation at the constant current density at 200 mA/cm2. Although both membranes in current form require improvement in mechanical stability to afford better durability in electrolysis operation, the next generation AEMs based on this report could lead to potentially viable AEM candidates which can provide high electrolysis performance under alkaline operating condition.

  10. 24 CFR 58.14 - Interaction with State, Federal and non-Federal entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interaction with State, Federal and non-Federal entities. 58.14 Section 58.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Responsibilities of Responsible Entities § 58.14 Interaction with...

  11. Chemical interaction of fresh and saline waters with compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.; Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main interests of the study were the chemical changes in the experimental solution, bentonite porewater and bentonite together with the microstructural properties of bentonite. The major processes with fresh water were the diffusion of sodium, potassium, sulphate, bicarbonate and chloride from bentonite to the solution, and the diffusion of calcium and magnesium from the solution into bentonite. The major processes in the experiments with saline water were the diffusion of the sodium, magnesium, sulphate and bicarbonate from bentonite into the solution, and the diffusion of calcium from the solution into bentonite

  12. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  13. How the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DWSRF was established by the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) as a financial assistance program for systems and states to achieve the health protection objectives of the law, 42 U.S.C. §300j-12

  14. External cooling: The SWR 1000 severe accident management strategy. Part 1: motivation, strategy, analysis: melt phase, vessel integrity during melt-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides the description of the basics behind design features for the severe accident management strategy of the SWR 1000. The hydrogen detonation/deflagration problem is avoided by containment inertization. In-vessel retention of molten core debris via water cooling of the external surface of the reactor vessel is the severe accident management concept of the SWR 1000 passive plant. During postulated bounding severe accidents, the accident management strategy is to flood the reactor cavity with Core Flooding Pool water and to submerge the reactor vessel, thus preventing vessel failure in the SWR 1000. Considerable safety margins have determined by using state of the art experiment and analysis: regarding (a) strength of the vessel during the melt relocation and its interaction with water; (b) the heat flux at the external vessel wall; (c) the structural resistance of the hot structures during the long term period. Ex-vessel events are prevented by preserving the integrity of the vessel and its penetrations and by assuring positive external pressure at the predominant part of the external vessel in the region of the molten corium pool. Part 1 describes the motivation for selecting this strategy, the general description of the strategy and the part of the analysis associated with the vessel integrity during the melt-water interaction. (author)

  15. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and...

  16. Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-10-01

    In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

  17. An interactive water indicator assessment tool to support land use planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Jansen, H.C.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive web-based rapid assessment tool that generates key water related indicators to support decision making by stakeholders in land use planning. The tool is built on a consistent science based method that combines remote sensing with hydrological and socioeconomic

  18. Ground state analytical ab initio intermolecular potential for the Cl2-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormain, Laureline; Monnerville, Maurice; Toubin, Céline; Duflot, Denis; Pouilly, Brigitte; Briquez, Stéphane; Bernal-Uruchurtu, Margarita I.; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The chlorine/water interface is of crucial importance in the context of atmospheric chemistry. Modeling the structure and dynamics at this interface requires an accurate description of the interaction potential energy surfaces. We propose here an analytical intermolecular potential that reproduces the interaction between the Cl 2 molecule and a water molecule. Our functional form is fitted to a set of high level ab initio data using the coupled-cluster single double (triple)/aug-cc-p-VTZ level of electronic structure theory for the Cl 2 − H 2 O complex. The potential fitted to reproduce the three minima structures of 1:1 complex is validated by the comparison of ab initio results of Cl 2 interacting with an increasing number of water molecules. Finally, the model potential is used to study the physisorption of Cl 2 on a perfectly ordered hexagonal ice slab. The calculated adsorption energy, in the range 0.27 eV, shows a good agreement with previous experimental results

  19. A 2H nuclear magnetic resonance study of the state of water in neat silica and zwitterionic stationary phases and its influence on the chromatographic retention characteristics in hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikberg, Erika; Sparrman, Tobias; Viklund, Camilla; Jonsson, Tobias; Irgum, Knut

    2011-09-23

    2H NMR has been used as a tool for probing the state of water in hydrophilic stationary phases for liquid chromatography at temperatures between -80 and +4 °C. The fraction of water that remained unfrozen in four different neat silicas with nominal pore sizes between 60 and 300 Å, and in silicas with polymeric sulfobetaine zwitterionic functionalities prepared in different ways, could be determined by measurements of the line widths and temperature-corrected integrals of the 2H signals. The phase transitions detected during thawing made it possible to estimate the amount of non-freezable water in each phase. A distinct difference was seen between the neat and modified silicas tested. For the neat silicas, the relationship between the freezing point depression and their pore size followed the expected Gibbs-Thomson relationship. The polymeric stationary phases were found to contain considerably higher amounts of non-freezable water compared to the neat silica, which is attributed to the structural effect that the sulfobetaine polymers have on the water layer close to the stationary phase surface. The sulfobetaine stationary phases were used alongside the 100 Å silica to separate a number of polar compounds in hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mode, and the retention characteristics could be explained in terms of the surface water structure, as well as by the porous properties of the stationary phases. This provides solid evidence supporting a partitioning mechanism, or at least of the existence of an immobilized layer of water into which partitioning could be occurring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-05-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  1. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  2. Thermal interaction for molten tin dropped into water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Plesset, M.S.

    1978-03-01

    Multiflash photography with extremely short duration exposure times per flash was used to observe the interaction of molten tin dropped into a water bath. Detailed photographic evidence is presented which demonstrates that transition, or nucleate boiling, is a possible triggering mechanism for vapor explosions. It was also found that the thermal constraints required to produce vapor explosions could be relaxed by introducing a stable thermal stratification within the coolant. In the present work, the threshold value of the initial tin temperature required for vapor explosion was reduced from about 500 to 343/sup 0/C.

  3. Groundwater and surface-water interactions and impacts of human activities in the Hailiutu catchment, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wenninger, Jochen; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Wang, Xusheng; Wan, Li

    2017-08-01

    The interactions between groundwater and surface water have been significantly affected by human activities in the semi-arid Hailiutu catchment, northwest China. Several methods were used to investigate the spatial and temporal interactions between groundwater and surface water. Isotopic and chemical analyses of water samples determined that groundwater discharges to the Hailiutu River, and mass balance equations were employed to estimate groundwater seepage rates along the river using chemical profiles. The hydrograph separation method was used to estimate temporal variations of groundwater discharges to the river. A numerical groundwater model was constructed to simulate groundwater discharges along the river and to analyze effects of water use in the catchment. The simulated seepage rates along the river compare reasonably well with the seepage estimates derived from a chemical profile in 2012. The impacts of human activities (river-water diversion and groundwater abstraction) on the river discharge were analyzed by calculating the differences between the simulated natural groundwater discharge and the measured river discharge. Water use associated with the Hailiutu River increased from 1986 to 1991, reached its highest level from 1992 to 2000, and decreased from 2001 onwards. The reduction of river discharge might have negative impacts on the riparian ecosystem and the water availability for downstream users. The interactions between groundwater and surface water as well as the consequences of human activities should be taken into account when implementing sustainable water resources management in the Hailiutu catchment.

  4. Bridging the Gap: Ideas for water sustainability in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Passell, H. D.; Roach, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Incremental improvements in water sustainability in the western U.S. may not be able to close the growing gap between increasing freshwater demand, climate driven variability in freshwater supply, and growing environmental consciousness. Incremental improvements include municipal conservation, improvements to irrigation technologies, desalination, water leasing, and others. These measures, as manifest today in the western U.S., are successful in themselves but limited in their ability to solve long term water scarcity issues. Examples are plainly evident and range from the steady and long term decline of important aquifers and their projected inability to provide water for future agricultural irrigation, projected declines in states' abilities to meet legal water delivery obligations between states, projected shortages of water for energy production, and others. In many cases, measures that can close the water scarcity gap have been identified, but often these solutions simply shift the gap from water to some other sector, e.g., economics. Saline, brackish or produced water purification, for example, could help solve western water shortages in some areas, but will be extremely expensive, and so shift the gap from water to economics. Transfers of water out of agriculture could help close the water scarcity gap in other areas; however, loss of agriculture will shift the gap to regional food security. All these gaps, whether in water, economics, food security, or other sectors, will have a negative impact on the western states. Narrowing these future gaps requires both technical and policy solutions as well as tools to understand the tradeoffs. Here we discuss several examples from across the western U.S. that span differing scales and decision spaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear

  5. Improving regulatory effectiveness in federal/state siting actions: water supplies and the nuclear licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, F.S.

    1977-07-01

    The Interstate Conference on Water Problems (ICWP) is a national association of State, intrastate, and interstate officials concerned with water resources administration and related matters. The Conference was established in 1959 as an outgrowth of regional conferences on water problems as recognized in the same year by action of the General Assembly of the States. This report was produced by the Interstate Conference on Water Problems in an effort to provide a compilation and summary of the views of selected States regarding relationships of water supplies to the nuclear power plant licensing process. This publication does not represent the official position of the U.S Water Resources Council, or the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor does it represent the position of any single state or the ICWP

  6. Ab initio calculation atomics ground state wave function for interactions Ion- Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaee, F.; Bolori zadeh, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Ab initio calculation atomics ground state wave function for interactions Ion- Atom Atomic wave function expressed in a Slater - type basis obtained within Roothaan- Hartree - Fock for the ground state of the atoms He through B. The total energy is given for each atom.

  7. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program AGENCY: National.... Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq.) was enacted... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal Financial...

  8. Final-state interaction in semi-inclusive DIS off nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ciofi degli Atti, C

    2003-01-01

    The Final-State Interaction (FSI) in Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of leptons off a nucleus A, due to the propagation of the struck nucleon debris and its hadronization in the nuclear environment is considered. The effective cross-section of such a partonic system with the nucleons of the medium and its time dependence are estimated, for different values of the Bjorken scaling variable, on the basis of a model which takes into account both the production of hadrons due to the breaking of the color string, which is formed after a quark is knocked out off a bound nucleon, as well as the production of hadrons originating from gluon radiation. It is shown that the interaction, the evolution and the hadronization of the partonic system in the nuclear environment can be thoroughly investigated by a new type of semi-inclusive process, denoted A(e,e'(A-1))X, in which the scattered lepton is detected in coincidence with a heavy nuclear fragment, namely a nucleus (A-1) in low energy and momentum states. As a matter o...

  9. LANDSAT-1 data as it has been applied for land use and water quality data by the Virginia State Water Control Board. 1: The state project. 2: Monitoring water quality from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, P. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT-1 imagery has been used for water quality and land use monitoring in and around the Swift Creek and Lake Chesdin Reservoirs in Virginia. This has proved useful by (1) helping determine valid reservoir sampling stations, (2) monitoring areas not accessible by land or water, (3) giving the State a viable means of measuring Secchi depth readings in these inaccessible areas, (4) giving an overview of trends in changing sedimentation loadings over a given time period and classifying these waters into various categories, (5) enabling the State to inventory all major lakes and reservoirs and computing their acreage, (6) monitoring land use changes in any specific area, (7) evaluating possible long-term environmental effects of nearby developments, and (8) monitoring and predicting population shifts with possible impact on water quality problems. The main problems in the long-term use of such imagery appear to be cost and lack of consistency due to cloud cover limitations.

  10. Nonequilibrium steady states and resonant tunneling in time-periodically driven systems with interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Hofstetter, Walter

    2018-03-01

    Time-periodically driven systems are a versatile toolbox for realizing interesting effective Hamiltonians. Heating, caused by excitations to high-energy states, is a challenge for experiments. While most setups so far address the relatively weakly interacting regime, it is of general interest to study heating in strongly correlated systems. Using Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, we study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) in the Falicov-Kimball model, with time-periodically driven kinetic energy or interaction. We systematically investigate the nonequilibrium properties of the NESS. For a driven kinetic energy, we show that resonant tunneling, where the interaction is an integer multiple of the driving frequency, plays an important role in the heating. In the strongly correlated regime, we show that this can be well understood using Fermi's golden rule and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for a time-periodically driven system. We furthermore demonstrate that resonant tunneling can be used to control the population of Floquet states to achieve "photodoping." For driven interactions introduced by an oscillating magnetic field near a widely adopted Feshbach resonance, we find that the double occupancy is strongly modulated. Our calculations apply to shaken ultracold-atom systems and to solid-state systems in a spatially uniform but time-dependent electric field. They are also closely related to lattice modulation spectroscopy. Our calculations are helpful to understand the latest experiments on strongly correlated Floquet systems.

  11. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Saykally, Richard J., E-mail: saykally@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility.

  12. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility.

  13. Teleportation of N-qubit W State without Bell-State Measurement via Selective Resonant Interaction in Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Wenxue; Geng Jun; Cheng Guangling; Chen Aixi

    2010-01-01

    We present a scheme in which the N-atom W state is teleported by employing the selective interaction of a cavity field with a driven three-level atom in the A configuration and detecting a single atom in one of the ground states. The long-lived W state is teleported from atom A to atom B when the atoms B and A are sent through a cavity successively and atom A is then detected. The advantage is that the present one does not involve the Bell-state measurement and is robust against the atomic spontaneous emission. (general)

  14. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  15. The interaction between nitrobenzene and Microcystis aeruginosa and its potential to impact water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiquan; Cui, Fuyi; Ma, Hua; Fan, Zhenqiang; Zhao, Zhiwei; Hou, Zhenling; Liu, Dongmei; Jia, Xuebin

    2013-08-01

    The potential water quality problems caused by the interaction between nitrobezene (NB) and Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated by studying the growth inhibition, the haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) and the secretion of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The results showed that NB can inhibit the growth of M. aeruginosa, and the value of EC50 increased with the increase of initial algal density. Although NB can hardly react with chlorine to form HAAs, the presence of NB can enhance the HAAFP productivity. The secretion of the intracellular MC-LR is constant under the steady experimental conditions. However, the presence of NB can reduce the MC-LR productivity of M. aeruginosa. Overall, the increased disinfection risk caused by the interaction has more important effect on the safety of drinking water quality than the benefit of the decreased MC-LR productivity, and should be serious considered when the water contained NB and M. aeruginosa is used as drinking water source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematics of ground state multiplets of atomic nuclei in the delta-interaction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imasheva, L. T.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Stepanov, M. E., E-mail: stepanov@depni.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Tretyakova, T. Yu. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Pairing forces between nucleons in an atomic nucleus strongly influence its structure. One of the manifestations of pair interaction is the ground state multiplet (GSM) formation in the spectrum of low-lying excited states of even–even nuclei. The value of GSM splitting is determined by the value of pair interaction of nucleons; for each isotope, it can be estimated on the basis of experimental nuclear masses. The quality of this estimate is characterized by the degree of reproduction of GSM levels in the nucleus. The GSM systematics in even–even nuclei with a pair of identical nucleons in addition to the filled nuclear core is considered on the basis of delta interaction.

  17. Method to study water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in spatial pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Zhide; Ma Jianzhong; Sun Lei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of coupling 4-function models and its solution approach are first introduced in this paper, and the method of CFD to calculate fluid-structure interaction is also introduced. Finally, the model in related reference is applied with this method to simulate the process of water hammer. By CFD calculation for the classical water hammer, the numerical scheme and grid are selected, and the results of CFD are compared with reference. The results show that the method in this paper can be used in more complex pipe system to simulate the water hammer effect. (authors)

  18. Neutron Scattering Studies of Nano-Scale Wood-Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza Rodriguez, Nayomi Z.

    Understanding and controlling water in wood is critical to both improving forest products moisture durability and developing new sustainable forest products-based technologies. While wood is known to be hygroscopic, there is still a lack of understanding on the nanoscale wood-water interactions necessary for increased moisture-durability and dimensional stability. My PhD thesis focuses on the development and implementation of neutron scattering methods that can provide insight on both the structural and dynamical changes associated with these interactions so that products with improved moisture durability can be developed efficiently. Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and a custom-built in situ relative humidity chamber I studied the anisotropic moisture-induced swelling of wood nanostructure. First, I studied the effects of sample preparation by comparing SANS patterns of wiley milled wood and intact latewood cell walls, and found that scattering from intact wood provide more information about the spatial arrangement of the wood nanostructures inside the cell wall. Comparisons between SANS patterns from earlywood and latewood, also showed that the higher cell wall density of latewood cell walls results in patterns with more pronounced anisotropic features. Then, by measuring latewood loblolly pine sections obtained from the same growth ring and prepared in each of the primary wood planes, I tracked the cellulose elementary fibril spacing as a function of humidity in both intact and partially cut cell walls. These studies showed that even though swelling at the elementary fibril spacing is responsible for the majority of the transverse swelling observed at the S2 level, it is not primary plane dependent. Additionally, there were no differences in the elementary fibril spacing between partially-cut and intact cell walls, except at high humidity where the spacing in partially-cut cells was higher. SANS was also used to study the effects of two chemical

  19. Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Apps, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions)

  20. Optimization of linear and branched alkane interactions with water to simulate hydrophobic hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.; Liu, Lixin; Surampudi, Lalitanand N.

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies of simple gas hydration have demonstrated that the accuracy of molecular simulations at capturing the thermodynamic signatures of hydrophobic hydration is linked both to the fidelity of the water model at replicating the experimental liquid density at ambient pressure and an accounting of polarization interactions between the solute and water. We extend those studies to examine alkane hydration using the transferable potentials for phase equilibria united-atom model for linear and branched alkanes, developed to reproduce alkane phase behavior, and the TIP4P/2005 model for water, which provides one of the best descriptions of liquid water for the available fixed-point charge models. Alkane site/water oxygen Lennard-Jones cross interactions were optimized to reproduce the experimental alkane hydration free energies over a range of temperatures. The optimized model reproduces the hydration free energies of the fitted alkanes with a root mean square difference between simulation and experiment of 0.06 kcal/mol over a wide temperature range, compared to 0.44 kcal/mol for the parent model. The optimized model accurately reproduces the temperature dependence of hydrophobic hydration, as characterized by the hydration enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities, as well as the pressure response, as characterized by partial molar volumes.

  1. Plant-microbe interaction in aquatic system and their role in the management of water quality: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jatin K.; Chandra, Harish; Kalra, Swinder J. S.; Mishra, Pratibha; Khan, Hena; Yadav, Poonam

    2017-06-01

    Microbial assemblage as biofilm around the aquatic plant forms a firm association that largely depends upon the mutual supplies of nutrients, e.g., microbes interact with plants in an aquatic system most likely for organic carbon and oxygen, whereas plants receive defensive immunity and mineral exchange. Apart from the mutual benefits, plant-microbe interactions also influence the water quality especially at rhizosphere providing inherent ability to the aquatic system for the mitigation of pollution from the water column. The review presents and in-depth information along with certain research advancements made in the field of ecological and bio/chemical aspects of plant-microbe interactions and the underlying potential to improve water quality.

  2. Interaction between the intrinsic edge state and the helical boundary state of topological insulator phase in bilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Xiaoling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Jiang, Liwei [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zheng, Yisong, E-mail: zhengys@jlu.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-04-22

    Graphene has intrinsic edge states localized at zigzag edge or lattice defect. Helical boundary states can also be established in such a two-dimensional carbon material at the boundary of topological insulator (TI) phase realized by the extrinsic Rashba spin–orbital coupling (SOC) in gated bilayer graphene. We theoretically investigate the interaction between these two kinds of edge (boundary) states when they coexist in a bilayer graphene. We find that this interaction gives rise to some very interesting results. In a zigzag edged nanoribbon of bilayer graphene, it is possible that the TI helical state does not localize at the TI phase boundary. Instead it moves to the nanoribbon edge even though the SOC is absent therein. In a bulk lattice of bilayer graphene embedded with two line defects, the numbers of helical state subbands at the two line defects are not equal to each other. In such a case, the backscattering lacking is still forbidden since the Kramers pairs are valley polarized. - Highlights: • The TI helical state moves to nanoribbon edge in a gated ZENR-BG. • The gapless modes of LD-BG at the two line defects are not equal to each other. • The Kramers pairs are still valley polarized in a gated LD-BG.

  3. Characterizing the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the karst aquifer of Fangshan, Beijing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haibo; Wei, Jiahua; Wang, Rong; Xin, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Correct understanding of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction in karst systems is of greatest importance for managing the water resources. A typical karst region, Fangshan in northern China, was selected as a case study. Groundwater levels and hydrochemistry analyses, together with isotope data based on hydrogeological field investigations, were used to assess the GW-SW interaction. Chemistry data reveal that water type and the concentration of cations in the groundwater are consistent with those of the surface water. Stable isotope ratios of all samples are close to the local meteoric water line, and the 3H concentrations of surface water and groundwater samples are close to that of rainfall, so isotopes also confirm that karst groundwater is recharged by rainfall. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that rainfall leads to a rise in groundwater level with a lag time of 2 months and groundwater exploitation leads to a fall within 1 month. Spectral analysis also reveals that groundwater level, groundwater exploitation and rainfall have significantly similar response periods, indicating their possible inter-relationship. Furthermore, a multiple nonlinear regression model indicates that groundwater level can be negatively correlated with groundwater exploitation, and positively correlated with rainfall. The overall results revealed that groundwater level has a close correlation with groundwater exploitation and rainfall, and they are indicative of a close hydraulic connection and interaction between surface water and groundwater in this karst system.

  4. Isolate extended state in the DNA molecular transistor with surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Le, E-mail: wang_le917@gs.zzu.edu.cn; Qin, Zhi-Jie

    2016-02-01

    The field effect characteristic of a DNA molecular device is investigated in a tight binding model with binary disorder and side site correlation. Using the transfer-matrix method and Landauer–Büttiker theory, we find that the system has isolated extended state that is irrespective of the DNA sequence and can be modulated by the gate voltage. When the gate voltage reaches some proper value, the isolated extended state appears at the Fermi level of the system and the long range charge transport is greatly enhanced. We attribute this phenomenon to the combination of the external field, the surface interaction, and the intrinsic disorder of DNA. The result is a generic feature of the nanowire with binary disorder and surface interaction.

  5. Aqueduct: an interactive tool to empower global water risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Paul; Gassert, Francis

    2013-04-01

    The Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas (Aqueduct) is a publicly available, global database and interactive tool that maps indicators of water related risks for decision makers worldwide. Aqueduct makes use of the latest geo-statistical modeling techniques to compute a composite index and translate the most recently available hydrological data into practical information on water related risks for companies, investors, and governments alike. Twelve global indicators are grouped into a Water Risk Framework designed in response to the growing concerns from private sector actors around water scarcity, water quality, climate change, and increasing demand for freshwater. The Aqueduct framework includes indicators of water stress, variability in supply, storage, flood, drought, groundwater, water quality and social conflict, addressing both spatial and temporal variation in water hazards. It organizes indicators into three categories of risk that bring together multiple dimensions of water related risk into comprehensive aggregated scores, which allow for dynamic weighting to capture users' unique exposure to water hazards. All information is compiled into an online, open access platform, from which decision-makers can view indicators, scores, and maps, conduct global risk assessments, and export data and shape files for further analysis. Companies can use this tool to evaluate their exposure to water risks across operations and supply chains, investors to assess water-related risks in their portfolio, and public-sector actors to better understand water security. Additionally, the open nature of the data and maps allow other organizations to build off of this effort with new research, for example in the areas of water-energy or water-food relationships. This presentation will showcase the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas online tool and the features and functionalities it offers, as well as explain how it can be used for both private and public sector applications. The session will

  6. Monitoring of bentonite pore water with a probe based on solid-state microsensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, Jahir; Baldi, Antoni; Martin, Pedro L.; Bratov, Andrei; Jimenez, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate the waste from the biosphere. This multi-barrier system typically comprises Natural geological barrier provided by the repository host rock and its surroundings and an engineered barrier system (EBS). Bentonite is being studied as an appropriated porous material for an EBS to prevent or delay the release and transport of radionuclides towards biosphere. The study of pore water chemistry within bentonite barriers will permit to understand the transport phenomena of radionuclides and obtain a database of the bentonite-water interaction processes. In this work, the measurement of some chemical parameters in bentonite pore water using solid-state microsensors is proposed. Those sensors are well suited for this application since in situ measurements are feasible and they are robust enough for the long periods of time that monitoring is needed in an EBS. A probe containing an ISFET (ion sensitive field effect transistor) for measuring pH, and platinum microelectrodes for measuring conductivity and redox potential was developed, together with the required instrumentation, to study the chemical changes in a test cell with compacted bentonite. Response features of the sensors' probe and instrumentation performance in synthetic samples with compositions similar to those present in bentonite barriers are reported. Measurements of sensors stability in a test cell are also presented

  7. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking--United States, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer L; Dziuban, Eric J; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Moore, Matthew R; Gelting, Richard J; Calderon, Rebecca L; Beach, Michael J; Roy, Sharon L

    2006-12-22

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreaks Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne disease and outbreaks (WBDOs). This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and effects of WBDOs in the United States. Data presented summarize 36 WBDOs that occurred during January 2003-December 2004 and nine previously unreported WBDOs that occurred during 1982-2002. The surveillance system includes data on WBDOs associated with drinking water, water not intended for drinking (excluding recreational water), and water of unknown intent. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and Freely Associated States (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating WBDOs and voluntarily reporting them to CDC by using a standard form. During 2003-2004, a total of 36 WBDOs were reported by 19 states; 30 were associated with drinking water, three were associated with water not intended for drinking, and three were associated with water of unknown intent. The 30 drinking water-associated WBDOs caused illness among an estimated 2,760 persons and were linked to four deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 25 (83.3%) of these WBDOs: 17 (68.0%) involved pathogens (i.e., 13 bacterial, one parasitic, one viral, one mixed bacterial/parasitic, and one mixed bacterial/parasitic/viral), and eight (32.0%) involved chemical/toxin poisonings. Gastroenteritis represented 67.7% of the illness related to drinking water-associated WBDOs; acute respiratory illness represented 25.8%, and dermatitis represented 6.5%. The classification of deficiencies contributing

  8. Theory of long-range interactions for Rydberg states attached to hyperfine-split cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robicheaux, F.; Booth, D. W.; Saffman, M.

    2018-02-01

    The theory is developed for one- and two-atom interactions when the atom has a Rydberg electron attached to a hyperfine-split core state. This situation is relevant for some of the rare-earth and alkaline-earth atoms that have been proposed for experiments on Rydberg-Rydberg interactions. For the rare-earth atoms, the core electrons can have a very substantial total angular momentum J and a nonzero nuclear spin I . In the alkaline-earth atoms there is a single (s ) core electron whose spin can couple to a nonzero nuclear spin for odd isotopes. The resulting hyperfine splitting of the core state can lead to substantial mixing between the Rydberg series attached to different thresholds. Compared to the unperturbed Rydberg series of the alkali-metal atoms, the series perturbations and near degeneracies from the different parity states could lead to qualitatively different behavior for single-atom Rydberg properties (polarizability, Zeeman mixing and splitting, etc.) as well as Rydberg-Rydberg interactions (C5 and C6 matrices).

  9. A leader-follower-interactive method for regional water resources management with considering multiple water demands and eco-environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the mathematical formulation and implementations of a synergistic optimization framework based on an understanding of water availability and reliability together with the characteristics of multiple water demands. This framework simultaneously integrates a set of leader-followers-interactive objectives established by different decision makers during the synergistic optimization. The upper-level model (leader's one) determines the optimal pollutants discharge to satisfy the environmental target. The lower-level model (follower's one) accepts the dispatch requirement from the upper-level one and dominates the optimal water-allocation strategy to maximize economic benefits representing the regional authority. The complicated bi-level model significantly improves upon the conventional programming methods through the mutual influence and restriction between the upper- and lower-level decision processes, particularly when limited water resources are available for multiple completing users. To solve the problem, a bi-level interactive solution algorithm based on satisfactory degree is introduced into the decision-making process for measuring to what extent the constraints are met and the objective reaches its optima. The capabilities of the proposed model are illustrated through a real-world case study of water resources management system in the district of Fengtai located in Beijing, China. Feasible decisions in association with water resources allocation, wastewater emission and pollutants discharge would be sequentially generated for balancing the objectives subject to the given water-related constraints, which can enable Stakeholders to grasp the inherent conflicts and trade-offs between the environmental and economic interests. The performance of the developed bi-level model is enhanced by comparing with single-level models. Moreover, in consideration of the uncertainty in water demand and availability, sensitivity analysis and policy analysis are

  10. Arsenic mobilization and attenuation by mineral-water interactions: implications for managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Chelsea W; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Jun, Young-Shin

    2012-07-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has potential for addressing deficits in water supplies worldwide. It is also widely used for preventing saltwater intrusion, maintaining the groundwater table, and augmenting ecological stream flows, among many other beneficial environmental applications. However, field MAR sites have experienced arsenic mobilization from aquifer formation minerals due to induced changes in groundwater chemistry. To address this environmental concern, it is crucial to understand the potential sources and sinks impacting arsenic mobilization. This paper outlines important mineral-water interactions that can occur at MAR sites. Detailed information on minerals of concern, physiochemical processes for arsenic mobilization or attenuation, and the potential impact of microbial activity and hydrology on these processes is provided. Based on these mineral-water interactions, guidelines for predicting arsenic mobility are presented, and recommendations are made concerning MAR site monitoring. The review emphasizes important aspects in correlating interfacial reactions to reactive transport modeling and elucidating future challenges, a first step toward developing safer and more sustainable MAR operations.

  11. On the effect of interaction of molybdenum trioxide and magnesium oxide in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunin, V.M.; Karelin, A.I.; Solov'eva, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    Interaction of molybdenum trioxide and magnesium oxide in water was studied. It is shown that molybdenum trioxide forms consecutively magnesium molybdate, dimolybdate and magnesium polymolybdates with magnesium oxide

  12. Water stress and social vulnerability in the southern United States, 2010-2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    cassandra Johnson-Gaither; John Schelhas; Wayne Zipperer; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Neelam Poudyal

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcities are striking in semiarid, subregions of the Southern United States such as Oklahoma and western Texas (Glennon 2009, Sabo et al. 2010). In Texas, water stress has been a constant concern since the 1950s when the state experienced severe drought conditions (Moore 2005). The nearly 2000-mile Rio Grande River, which forms part of the Texas–Mexico border,...

  13. Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Niño and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Niño and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area—the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east—provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge

  14. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between molten aluminum and nuclear dispersion fuels with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahani, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the possibility of rapid physical and chemical molten fuel-water interactions during a core melt accident in noncommercial or experimental reactors, it is important to understand the interactions that might occur if these materials were to contact water. An existing vertical 1-D shock tube facility was improved and a gas sampling device to measure the gaseous hydrogen in the upper chamber of the shock tube was designed and built to study the impact of a water column driven downward by a pressurized gas onto both molten aluminum (6061 alloy) and oxide and silicide depleted nuclear dispersion fuels in aluminum matrices. The experiments were carried out with melt temperatures initially at 750 to 1,000 C and water at room temperature and driving pressures of 0.5 and 1 MPa. Very high transient pressures, in many cases even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure of the water (∼ 20 MPa), were generated due to the interactions between the water and the crucible and its contents. The molten aluminum always reacted chemically with the water but the reaction did not increase consistently with increasing melt temperature. An aluminum ignition occurred when water at room temperature impacted 28.48 grams of molten aluminum at 980.3 C causing transient pressures greater than 69 MPa. No signs of aluminum ignition were observed in any of the experiments with the depleted nuclear dispersion fuels, U 3 O 8 -Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al. The greater was the molten aluminum-water chemical reaction, the finer was the debris recovered for a given set of initial conditions. Larger coolant velocities (larger driving pressures) resulted in more melt fragmentation but did not result in more molten aluminum-water chemical reaction. Decreasing the water temperature also resulted in more melt fragmentation and did not suppress the molten aluminum-water chemical reaction

  15. Probing Interactions of N-Donor Molecules with Open Metal Sites within Paramagnetic Cr-MIL-101: A Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic and Density Functional Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Thomas; Mondal, Arobendo; Tschense, Carsten B L; Wittmann, Johannes J; Klimm, Ottokar; Siegel, Renée; Corzilius, Björn; Weber, Birgit; Kaupp, Martin; Senker, Juergen

    2018-02-14

    Understanding host-guest interactions is one of the key requirements for adjusting properties in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In particular, systems with coordinatively unsaturated Lewis acidic metal sites feature highly selective adsorption processes. This is attributed to strong interactions with Lewis basic guest molecules. Here we show that a combination of 13 C MAS NMR spectroscopy with state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculations allows one to unravel the interactions of water, 2-aminopyridine, 3-aminopyridine, and diethylamine with the open metal sites in Cr-MIL-101. The 13 C MAS NMR spectra, obtained with ultrafast magic-angle spinning, are well resolved, with resonances distributed over 1000 ppm. They present a clear signature for each guest at the open metal sites. Based on competition experiments this leads to the following binding preference: water open metal sites, the NMR data offer additional information about the guest and framework dynamics. We expect that our strategy has the potential for probing the binding situation of adsorbate mixtures at the open metal sites of MOFs in general and thus accesses the microscopic interaction mechanisms for this important material class, which is essential for deriving structure-property relationships.

  16. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  17. Trends in the occurrence of MTBE in drinking water in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Public water systems in Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Rhode Island sampled treated drinking water from 1993-2006 and analyzed the samples for MTBE. The US Geological Survey examined trends in the occurrence of MTBE in drinking water derived from ground water in these States for two near-decadal time steps; 1993-1999 and 2000-2006. MTBE was detected in 14% of drinking water samples collected in all States from 1993-1999 and in 19% of drinking water samples collected from the same systems from 2000-2006 and this difference was statistically significant. Trends in the occurrence of MTBE in each State by individual year indicated significant positive trends in Maryland and New Hampshire. Significant, increasing trends in MTBE concentrations were observed in Maryland and Rhode Island by individual year. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water: Prevention, Assessment and Remediation Conference (Houston, TX 11/5-6/2007).

  18. The influence of water on the oxygen-silver interaction and on the oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefferts, Leon; Van Ommen, Jan G.; Ross, Julian R H

    1988-01-01

    Experiments carried out using temperature-programmed desorption and reduction could detect no interaction between water and silver at 200 °C. However, separate experiments on the effect of water on the oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol over a silver catalyst showed that water affected the

  19. Interaction and activity coordination of territorial customs bodies of the State fiscal service of Ukraine with local state administrations and local self-government bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Павлович Федотов

    2016-06-01

    Based on the results of the study the author notes that the interaction of the Ukrainian SFS customs offices and local state administrations with local self-government bodies is an inherent quality, link and component of the Ukrainian SFS Customs offices functioning organization, which aims to improve the state customs service implementation standards by the Ukrainian SFS customs houses and to ensure the said implementation efficiency. However, in the course of interaction of the Ukrainian SFS customs with local state administrations and local self-government bodies each of the mentioned organizations specializes in solving their specific tasks in accordance with their subject expertise, and forms a clear organizational system. The complementarity of such kind helps to improve the state customs affairs conductance quality and is realized through the coordination of performance of the Ukrainian SFS customs offices, local state administrations and local self-government bodies as the interaction subjects through normative, informational and analytical provision for the interaction and concretization of the activities of each subject within the planned activities.

  20. Study on mechanical interaction between molten alloy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Izumi

    1999-01-01

    Simulant experiments using low melting point molten alloy and water have been conducted to observe both fragmentation behavior of molten jet and boiling phenomena of water, and to measure both particle size and shape of fragmented solidified jet, focusing on post-pin-failure molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCl) which was important to evaluate the sequence of the initiating phase for metallic fueled FBR. In addition, characteristics of coolant boiling phenomena on FCIs have been investigated, focusing on the boiling heat transfer in the direct contact heat transfer mode. As a results, it is concluded that the fragmentation of poured molten alloy jet is affected by a degree of boiling of water and is classified into three modes by thermal conditions of both the instantaneous contact interface temperature of two liquids and subcooling of water. In the case of forced convection boiling in direct contact mode, it is found that the heat transfer performance is enhanced by increase of the heat transfer area, due to oscillation of the surface and fragmentation of molten alloy. As a results of preliminary investigation of FCI behavior for metallic fuel core based on these results, it is expected that the ejected molten fuel is fragmented into almost spherical particles due to the developed boiling of sodium. (author)

  1. Interaction of VUV-photons with molecules. Spectroscopy and dynamics of molecular superexcited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A survey is given of recent progress in experimental studies of the interaction of VUV-photons with molecules, i.e., those of photoabsorption, photoionization, and photodissociation of molecules in the excitation photon energy range of 10-50 eV, with a particular emphasis placed on current understanding of the spectroscopy and dynamics of formed molecular superexcited states. These studies are of great importance in understanding the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter. Molecules studied are ranged from simple diatomic and triatomic molecules to polyatomic molecules such as hydrocarbons. Most of the observed molecular superexcited states are assigned to high Rydber states which are vibrationally, doubly, or inner-core excited and converge to each of ion states. Non-Rydberg superexcited states are also observed. Dissociation into neutral fragments in comparison with ionization is of unexpectedly great importance in the observed decay of each of these state-assigned superexcited molecules. Dissociation dynamics as well as its products of superexcited states are remarkably different from those of lower excited states below about ionization thresholds. Some remarks are also presented of molecules in the condensed phase

  2. The Character of the Solar Wind, Surface Interactions, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the key characteristics of the proton-rich solar wind and describe how it may interact with the lunar surface. We suggest that solar wind can be both a source and loss of water/OH related volatiles, and review models showing both possibilities. Energy from the Sun in the form of radiation and solar wind plasma are in constant interaction with the lunar surface. As such, there is a solar-lunar energy connection, where solar energy and matter are continually bombarding the lunar surface, acting at the largest scale to erode the surface at 0.2 Angstroms per year via ion sputtering [1]. Figure 1 illustrates this dynamically Sun-Moon system.

  3. An isotope-aided study on the interaction of surface water and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jong Sung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yun, Si Tae; Jeong, Chan Ho; Kim, Kae Nam

    1987-12-01

    The interaction between surface water and groundwater was studied by isotope-aided techniques in the vicinity of the KAERI area. The understanding of surface water and groundwater flow systems and the analysis of geomaterials which provide the pathway of groundwater is important for the hydrogeological safety assessment of the radioactive waste disposal. The results of the analyses of environmental isotopes have shown that the shallow groundwater in this area was originated from the meteoric water which is infiltrated rapidly into the subsurface materials. The higher content of the environmental isotopes in some groundwater samples indicate that this anomalous values is attributed to impermeable, fine-grained materials. Also, the results of hydrochemical analyses of water samples indicate that shallow groundwater and precipitation are well mixed. (Author)

  4. Note: Nonpolar solute partial molar volume response to attractive interactions with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Steven M.; Ashbaugh, Henry S., E-mail: hanka@tulane.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    The impact of attractive interactions on the partial molar volumes of methane-like solutes in water is characterized using molecular simulations. Attractions account for a significant 20% volume drop between a repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen and full Lennard-Jones description of methane interactions. The response of the volume to interaction perturbations is characterized by linear fits to our simulations and a rigorous statistical thermodynamic expression for the derivative of the volume to increasing attractions. While a weak non-linear response is observed, an average effective slope accurately captures the volume decrease. This response, however, is anticipated to become more non-linear with increasing solute size.

  5. Note: Nonpolar solute partial molar volume response to attractive interactions with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven M; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2014-01-07

    The impact of attractive interactions on the partial molar volumes of methane-like solutes in water is characterized using molecular simulations. Attractions account for a significant 20% volume drop between a repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen and full Lennard-Jones description of methane interactions. The response of the volume to interaction perturbations is characterized by linear fits to our simulations and a rigorous statistical thermodynamic expression for the derivative of the volume to increasing attractions. While a weak non-linear response is observed, an average effective slope accurately captures the volume decrease. This response, however, is anticipated to become more non-linear with increasing solute size.

  6. Thermal interaction for molten tin dropped into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Plesset, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    Multiflash photography with extremely short duration exposure times per flash has been used to observe the interaction of molten tin dropped into a water bath. Detailed photographic evidence is presented which demonstrates that transition, or nucleate boiling, is a possible triggering mechanism for vapour explosions. It was also found that the thermal constraints required to produce vapour explosions could be relaxed by introducing a stable thermal stratification within the coolant. In the present work, the threshold value of the initial tin temperature required for vapour explosion was reduced from about 500 to 343 0 C. (author)

  7. Severe accident in pressurized water reactors: molten fuel-coolant interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battail-Claret, Sylvie

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the phenomenon of interaction between corium and water, the author of this research thesis proposes a scenario to describe the behaviour of a drop of molten iron oxide suddenly plunged into a bath of liquid at room temperature. First, she addresses the modelling of the evolution of the vapour film which surrounds the hot drop and comprises a phase of establishment of a steady film and the phase of destabilisation of this film when an external pressure wave passes by. Besides, she modelled the process of fragmentation of a hot body induced by the destabilisation of a process due to the impact of liquid water micro-jets with water trapping in the hot body. Finally, a model of 'bubble dynamics' is proposed to describe the evolution of the vapour bubble fed by fragments. Theoretical results are compared with experimental results [fr

  8. Dual-Functional Superhydrophobic Textiles with Asymmetric Roll-Down/Pinned States for Water Droplet Transportation and Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhonghua; He, Jie; Zeng, Xingrong

    2018-01-31

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion from lotus-leaf to rose-petal states have generated much attention for their potential applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, oil-water separation, microdroplet transportation, and microfluidic devices. Herein we report a facile magnetic-field-manipulation strategy to fabricate dual-functional superhydrophobic textiles with asymmetric roll-down/pinned states on the two surfaces of the textile simultaneously. Upon exposure to a static magnetic field, fluoroalkylsilane-modified iron oxide (F-Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moved along the magnetic field to construct discrepant hierarchical structures and roughnesses on the two sides of the textile. The positive surface (closer to the magnet, or P-surface) showed a water contact angle up to 165°, and the opposite surface (or O-surface) had a water contact angle of 152.5°. The P-surface where water droplets easily slid off with a sliding angle of 7.5° appeared in the "roll-down" state as Cassie mode, while the O-surface was in the "pinned" state as Wenzel mode, where water droplets firmly adhered even at vertical (90°) and inverted (180°) angles. The surface morphology and wetting mode were adjustable by varying the ratios of F-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and PDMS. By taking advantage of the asymmetric adhesion behaviors, the as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile was successfully applied in no-loss microdroplet transportation and oil-water separation. Our method is simple and cost-effective. The fabricated textile has the characteristics of superhydrophobicity, magnetic responsiveness, excellent chemical stability, adjustable surface morphology, and controllable adhesion. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate functional superhydrophobic materials with asymmetric surface properties for various potential applications.

  9. Final state interaction effect on correlations in narrow particles pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednicky, R.; Lyuboshitz, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of the two-particle correlation function on the space-time dimensions of the particle production region is discussed. The basic formulae, taking into account he effects of quantum statistics and final state interaction, and the conditions of their applicability are given

  10. Hydrogen absorption mechanisms and hydrogen interactions - defects: implications to stress corrosion of nickel based alloys in pressurized water reactors primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambon, F.

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1960's, a special form of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been identified for Alloy 600 exposed to pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary water: intergranular cracks develop during the alloy exposure, leading, progressively, to the complete ruin of the structure, and to its replacement. The main goal of this study is therefore to evaluate in which proportions the hydrogen absorbed by the alloy during its exposure to the primary medium can be responsible for SCC crack initiation and propagation. This study is aimed at better understanding of the hydrogen absorption mechanism when a metallic surface is exposed to a passivating PWR primary medium. A second objective is to characterize the interactions of the absorbed hydrogen with the structural defects of the alloy (dislocations, vacancies...) and evaluate to what extent these interactions can have an embrittling effect in relation with SCC phenomenon. Alloy 600-like single-crystals were exposed to a simulated PWR medium where the hydrogen atoms of water or of the pressuring hydrogen gas were isotopically substituted with deuterium, used as a tracer. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth-profiling of deuterium was performed to characterize the deuterium absorption and localization in the passivated alloy. The results show that the hydrogen absorption during the exposure of the alloy to primary water is associated with the water molecules dissociation during the oxide film build-up. In an other series of experiments, structural defects were created in recrystallized samples, and finely characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, before or after the introduction of cathodic hydrogen. These analyses exhibited a strong hydrogen/defects interaction, evidenced by their structural reorganization under hydrogenation (coalescence, migrations). However, thermal desorption spectroscopy analyses indicated that these interactions are transitory, and dependent on

  11. Interactions between wall rocks around magma and hot water. Magma shuhen no hekigan/nessui sogo sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes interactions between wall rocks around magma and hot water. The paper discusses effects of hydrothermal environments on dynamic properties of rock minerals with respect to hydrolytic weakening (decrease in dynamic strength of a mineral under presence of water) and reaction enhanced deformation (deformation accelerated by chemical change occurring in a mineral itself). It also explains chemical reactivity of minerals under hydrothermal enviroments with respect to four types of chemical changes in minerals, factors governing mineral dissolution rates, and importance of equilibrium and non-equilibrium in main components in reactions between minerals and waters. These statements quote mainly results of indoor experiments. The paper indicates the following matters as problems to be discussed on interactions between wall rocks around intrusive rocks and hot waters: Deviation from chemical equilibrium in reactions between rocks and waters; change in permeability as a result of reactions between rocks and waters; and possibilities of hydrolytic weakening in rocks around intrusive rock bodies. 52 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Impact of water-fertilizer interaction on yields of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Junejo, M.R.; Ghaffar, A.

    2002-01-01

    Water-fertilizer interaction was studied on wheat and cotton during crop seasons of 1995 to 1998 in the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia (south), Irrigation and Drainage Project. Irrigation levels applied included 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 times the evapotranspiration (ET), while fertilizer doses were 75, 100 and 125 percent of recommendations of NPK for district Bahawalnagar. The experiment was conducted at four different locations of the project, where soil was medium textured, free from salinity/alkalinity and sufficiently drained, with water table in the range of 2-3m from the soil surface. Wheat variety Inqalab-91 and cotton variety CLM-109 were sown at their recommended time of sowing, seed rate and management practices. Irrigation was applied in consideration of open-pan evaporation and crop co-efficient for the respective crop, when sum total of the products of pan-evaporation and KC values reached 7.5 cm. Irrigation was applied to all the plots according to treatment allowance, i.e. , with 25 percent cut and addition to .75 and 1.25 Et levels, respectively. The results indicated that irrigation levels had non-significant effect on wheat and cotton yields. The results clearly negate the concept of heavy irrigation, generally exercised by our farming community. Light irrigation as a results of 0.75 Et indication were equally effective: rather, these were economical and efficient under the scarce water availability. Fertilizer had somewhat significant response. Irrigation and fertilizer did not exhibit much significant interaction. In case of wheat, the two inputs were independent, while cotton had significant inter-dependence of the two variables. The experiment gave the conclusion that both wheat and cotton crops should be applied lighter irrigation and NPK fertilizer must be applied in compliance to recommendations, for efficient and economical use of the available crop-production resources. (author)

  13. Beneficial Reuse of Produced and Flowback Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water reuse and recycling is a significant issue in the development of oil and gas shale plays in the United StatesDrilling operations – 60,000 to 650,000 gallons per wellHydraulic fracturing operations – 3 million to 5 million gallons per wellDefinition of produced water and flowback waterInteractions of water quality constituents as they relate to water reuse and recyclingTesting criteria in the laboratory and field operations

  14. Thermodynamic interactions of water-soluble homopolymers and double-hydrophilic diblock copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, D. Topaloglu; Askin, A.; Buetuen, V.

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamic interaction parameters of water-soluble poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (DMA) and poly[2-(N-morpholino)ethyl methacrylate] (MEMA) homopolymers and their diblock copolymer (DMA-MEMA) were investigated at the temperatures above their glass-transition temperatures (T g ) by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) method. Sorption thermodynamic parameters of some aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, weight fraction activity coefficients, Flory-Huggins interaction parameters, and solubility parameters for hydrocarbons and polymers were calculated. It was observed that sorption thermodynamic parameters on (co)polymers depend on the molecular structures of hydrocarbons. Evaluating both the calculated values of the weight fraction activity coefficients and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters, the solving ability of the hydrocarbons for DMA, MEMA homopolymers, and DMA-MEMA diblock copolymer decreased in the following sequence: Aromatic > alicyclic > aliphatic hydrocarbons

  15. A framework model for water-sharing among co-basin states of a river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, N. K.; Azad, Shambhu

    2018-05-01

    A new framework model is presented in this study for sharing of water in a river basin using certain governing variables, in an effort to enhance the objectivity for a reasonable and equitable allocation of water among co-basin states. The governing variables were normalised to reduce the governing variables of different co-basin states of a river basin on same scale. In the absence of objective methods for evaluating the weights to be assigned to co-basin states for water allocation, a framework was conceptualised and formulated to determine the normalised weighting factors of different co-basin states as a function of the governing variables. The water allocation to any co-basin state had been assumed to be proportional to its struggle for equity, which in turn was assumed to be a function of the normalised discontent, satisfaction, and weighting factors of each co-basin state. System dynamics was used effectively to represent and solve the proposed model formulation. The proposed model was successfully applied to the Vamsadhara river basin located in the South-Eastern part of India, and a sensitivity analysis of the proposed model parameters was carried out to prove its robustness in terms of the proposed model convergence and validity over the broad spectrum values of the proposed model parameters. The solution converged quickly to a final allocation of 1444 million cubic metre (MCM) in the case of the Odisha co-basin state, and to 1067 MCM for the Andhra Pradesh co-basin state. The sensitivity analysis showed that the proposed model's allocation varied from 1584 MCM to 1336 MCM for Odisha state and from 927 to 1175 MCM for Andhra, depending upon the importance weights given to the governing variables for the calculation of the weighting factors. Thus, the proposed model was found to be very flexible to explore various policy options to arrive at a decision in a water sharing problem. It can therefore be effectively applied to any trans-boundary problem where

  16. Turbulent flow over an interactive alternating land-water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerwaarden, C.; Mellado, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The alternating land-water surface is a challenging surface to represent accurately in weather and climate models, but it is of great importance for the surface energy balance in polar regions. The complexity of this surface lies in the fact that secondary circulations, which form at the boundary of water and land, interact strongly with the surface energy balance. Due to its large heat capacity, the water temperature adapts slowly to the flow, thus the properties of the atmosphere determine the uptake of energy from the water. In order to study this complex system in a simpler way, retaining only the most essential physics, we have simplified the full surface energy balance including radiation. We have derived a boundary condition that mimics the full balance and can be formulated as a so-called Robin boundary condition: a linear combination of Dirichlet (fixed temperature) and Neumann (fixed temperature gradient) ones. By spatially varying the coefficients, we are able to express land and water using this boundary condition. We have done a series of direct numerical simulations in which we generate artificial land-water patterns from noise created from a Gaussian spectrum centered around a dominant wave number. This method creates realistic random patterns, but we are still in control of the length scales. We show that the system can manifest itself in three regimes: micro-, meso- and macro-scale. In the micro-scale, we find perfect mixing of the near-surface atmosphere that results in identical air properties over water and land. In the meso-scale, secondary circulations alter the heat exchange considerably by advecting air between land and water. In addition, they bring the surface temperature of the land closer to that of the air, thereby modulating the energy loss due to outgoing longwave radiation. In the macro-scale regime, the flow over land and water become independent of each other and only the large scale forcings determine the energy balance.

  17. EnviroAtlas - Watershed Index Online Water Mask for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents all surface water features in the United States. This grid was created by combining water features identified in two sources, the Cropland...

  18. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking--United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan; Roberts, Virginia; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Hicks, Lauri A; Alexander, Nicole T; Radke, Vince; Calderon, Rebecca L; Hlavsa, Michele C; Beach, Michael J; Roy, Sharon L

    2008-09-12

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs) and cases of waterborne disease. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and effects of waterborne disease in the United States. Data presented summarize 28 WBDOs that occurred during January 2005--December 2006 and four previously unreported WBDOs that occurred during 1979--2002. The surveillance system includes data on WBDOs associated with recreational water, drinking water, water not intended for drinking (WNID) (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and Freely Associated States (FAS) (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating WBDOs and voluntarily reporting them to CDC by a standard form. Only cases and outbreaks associated with drinking water, WNID (excluding recreational water), and water of unknown intent (WUI) are summarized in this report. Cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported in a separate Surveillance Summary. Fourteen states reported 28 WBDOs that occurred during 2005--2006: a total of 20 were associated with drinking water, six were associated with WNID, and two were associated with WUI. The 20 drinking water-associated WBDOs caused illness among an estimated 612 persons and were linked to four deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 18 (90.0%) of the drinking water-associated WBDOs. Among the 18 WBDOs with identified pathogens, 12 (66.7%) were associated with bacteria, three

  19. Notification: Oversight of Clean Water State Revolving Loan Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY15-0153, April 6, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is beginning preliminary research on the EPA oversight of the Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF).

  20. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO 3 with NaBH 4 in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility

  1. Impact of water-deficit stress on tritrophic interactions in a wheat-aphid-parasitoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Suhail Ahmed

    Full Text Available Increasing temperature and CO2 concentrations can alter tritrophic interactions in ecosystems, but the impact of increasingly severe drought on such interactions is not well understood. We examined the response of a wheat-aphid-parasitoid system to variation in water-deficit stress levels. Our results showed that arid area clones of the aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius, tended to have longer developmental times compared to semiarid and moist area clones, and the development of S. avenae clones tended to be slower with increasing levels of water-deficit. Body sizes of S. avenae clones from all areas decreased with increasing water-deficit levels, indicating their declining adaptation potential under drought. Compared to arid area clones, moist area clones of S. avenae had a higher frequency of backing under severe water stress only, but a higher frequency of kicking under well-watered conditions only, suggesting a water-deficit level dependent pattern of resistance against the parasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead. The number of S. avenae individuals attacked by the parasitoid in 10 min showed a tendency to decrease with increasing water-deficit levels. Clones of S. avenae tended to have lower parasitism rates under treatments with higher water-deficit levels. The development of the parasitoid tended to be slower under higher levels of water-deficit stress. Thus, the bottom-up effects of water-deficit stressed plants were negative on S. avenae. However, the top-down effects via parasitoids were compromised by water-deficit, which could favor the growth of aphid populations. Overall, the first trophic level under water-deficit stress was shown to have an indirect and negative impact on the third trophic level parasitoid, suggesting that parasitoids could be increasingly vulnerable in future warming scenarios.

  2. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  3. Coherent correlated states of interacting particles - the possible key to paradoxes and features of LENR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, Vladimir I.; Vysotskyy, Mykhaylo V.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the universal mechanism of optimization of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) on the basis of coherent correlated states (CCS) of interacting particles is discussed. Formation of these states is the result of special nonstationary low energy action to parameters of potential well containing interacting particles. It was shown that in real nuclear-physical systems usage of CCS leads to sharp growth (up to 10 30 -10 100 and more) of Coulomb barrier penetrability at very low energy of interacting particles. Several successful LENR experiments based on CCS are discussed. (author)

  4. Water flow in carbon-based nanoporous membranes impacted by interactions between hydrated ions and aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Shi, Guosheng; Fang, Haiping

    2017-02-24

    Carbon-based nanoporous membranes, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene/graphene oxide and graphyne, have shown great potential in water desalination and purification, gas and ion separation, biosensors, and lithium-based batteries, etc. A deep understanding of the interaction between hydrated ions in an aqueous solution and the graphitic surface in systems composed of water, ions and a graphitic surface is essential for applications with carbon-based nanoporous membrane platforms. In this review, we describe the recent progress of the interaction between hydrated ions and aromatic ring structures on the carbon-based surface and its applications in the water flow in a carbon nanotube. We expect that these works can be extended to the understanding of water flow in other nanoporous membranes, such as nanoporous graphene, graphyne and stacked sheets of graphene oxide.

  5. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Contribution of Nutrient Pollution to Water Scarcity in the Water-Rich Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Lopez, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of water stress focus on water-scarce regions such as drylands. Yet, even water-rich regions can be water stressed due to local water withdrawals that exceed supply or due to water pollution that makes water unusable. The northeastern United States (NE) is a water-rich region relative to the rest of the country, as it concentrates about 50% of total renewable water of the country. Yes the NE features relatively high water withdrawals, ~50 km3/yr, for thermo-power generation, agriculture, and industry, as well as to support a human population of about 70 million. At the same time, rivers and streams in the NE suffer from nutrient pollution, largely from agricultural and urban land uses. We asked: to what extent is the NE water stressed, and how do water withdrawals and water quality each contribute to water scarcity across the NE? We used information on county-level water withdrawals and runoff to calculate a water scarcity index (WSI) for 200 hydrologic units across the NE from 1987 to 2002. We used data on surface water concentrations of nitrogen to calculate the additional water necessary to dilute surface water pollution to weak, moderate, and strong water quality standards derived from the literature. Only considering withdrawals, we found that approximately 10% of the NE was water stressed. Incorporating a moderate water quality standard, 25% of the NE was water stressed. We calculated a dilution burden by sectors of water users and found that public utilities faced 41% of the total dilution burden for the region, followed by irrigation users at 21%. Our results illustrate that even water rich regions can experience water stress and even scarcity, where withdrawals exceed surface water supplies. Water quality contributes to water stress and can change the spatial patterns of water stress across a region. The common approach to address scarcity has required the use of inter-basin water transfers, or in the case of water quality-caused scarcity

  7. Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems. ... method has been used to study heavy metal interaction in model lake water in KNO3 ... is of no consequential effect because in its normal state, the [OH-] of the lake water is ...

  8. Interaction in triple systems of neodymium nitrate, water and nitrates of trimethylammonium and tetramethylammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeva, M.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    At 20 and 40 deg C the mutual solubility is studied in systems neodymium nitrate-water-trimethylamine nitrate and neodymium nitrate-water-tetramethylammonium nitrate. It has been established that the above systems belong to those with chemical interaction of the components. The compounds have been isolated preparatively, their composition has been confirmed analytically, and their thermal behaviour studied

  9. Effects of the Interaction of Caffeine and Water on Voice Performance: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Maria Claudia; Simpson, Kenneth O.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this "pilot" investigation was to study the effects of the interaction of caffeine and water intake on voice as evidenced by acoustic and aerodynamic measures, to determine whether ingestion of 200 mg of caffeine and various levels of water intake have an impact on voice. The participants were 48 females ranging in age…

  10. Estimated use of water in the United States, 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKichan, K.A.; Kammerer, J.C.

    1961-01-01

    The estimated overage withdrawal use of water in the United States during 1960 was almost 270,000 mgd (million gallons per day), exclusive of water used to develop water power. This estimated use amounts to about 1,500 gpd (galIons per day) per capita. An additional 2,000,000 mgd were used to develop waterpower.Withdrawal use of water requires that the water be removed from the ground or diverted from a stream or lake. In this report the use is divided into five types: public supplies, rural, irrigation, self-supplied industrial, and waterpower. Consumptive use of water is the quantity discharged to the atmosphere or incorporated in the products of the process in which it was used. Only 61,000 mgd of the 270,000 mgd withdrawn was consumed.Of the water withdrawn in 1960, 220,000 mgd (including irrigation conveyance losses) was taken from surface sources and 47,000 from underground sources. Withdrawal of water for uses other than waterpower has increased 12 percent since 1955. The amount of water used for generation of waterpower has! increased 33 percent since 1955. The use of saline water was almost twice as great in 1960 as in 1955.The upper limit of our water supply is the average annual runoff, nearly 1,200,000 mgd. The supply in 1960 was depleted by 61,000 mgd, the amount of water consumed. However, a large part of the water withdrawn but not consumed was deteriorated in quality.

  11. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solley, Wayne B.; Merk, Charles F.; Pierce, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Water withdrawals in the United States during 1985 were estimated to average 399,000 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of freshwater and saline water for offstream uses--10 percent less than the 1980 estimate. Average per-capita use for all offstream uses was 1,650 gallons per day (gal/d) of freshwater and saline water combined and 1,400 gal/d of freshwater alone. Offstream water-use categories are classified in this report as public supply, domestic, commercial, irrigation, livestock, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric power. During 1985, public-supply withdrawals were estimated to be 36,500 Mgal/d, and self-supplied withdrawals were estimated as follows: domestic, 3,320 Mgal/d: commercial, 1,230 Mgal/d; irrigation, 137,000 Mgal/d: livestock, 4,470 Mgal/d; industrial, 25,800 Mgal/d; mining, 3,440 Mgal/d; and thermoelectric power, 187,000 Mgal/d. Water use for hydroelectric power generation, the only instream use compiled in this report, was estimated to be 3,050,000 Mgal/d during 1985, or 7 percent less than during 1980. This is in contrast to an increasing trend that persisted from 1950 to 1980. Estimates of withdrawals by source indicate that, during 1985, total surface-water withdrawals were 325,000 Mgal/d, or 10 percent less than during 1980, and total ground-water withdrawals were 74,000 Mgal/d, or 12 percent less than during 1980. Total saline-water withdrawals during 1985 were 60,300 Mgal/d, or 16 percent less than during 1980; most was saline surface water. Reclaimed sewage averaged about 579 Mgal/d during 1985, or 22 percent more than during 1980. Total freshwater consumptive use was estimated to be 92,300 Mgal/d during 1985, or 9 percent less than during 1980. Consumptive use by irrigation accounted for the largest part of consumptive use during 1985 and was estimated to be 73,800 Mgal/d. A comparison of total withdrawals (fresh and saline) by State indicates that 37 States and Puerto Rico had less water withdrawn for offstream uses during 1985 than

  12. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne; Dalton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise. PMID:20689852

  13. An overview of marine biodiversity in United States waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Delton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George R.; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise.

  14. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  15. Interaction of D0-brane bound states and Ramond-Ramond photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatollahi, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of the interaction between a D0-brane bound state and one-form Ramond-Ramond (RR) photons using the world-line theory. Based on the fact that in the world-line theory the RR gauge fields depend on the matrix coordinates of D0-branes, the gauge fields also appear as matrices in the formulation. At the classical level, we derive the Lorentz-like equations of motion for D0-branes, and it is observed that the center of mass is colorless with respect to the SU(N) sector of the background. Using the path integral method, the perturbation theory for the interaction between the bound state and the RR background is developed. Qualitative considerations show that the possibility of the existence of a map between the world-line theory and the non-Abelian gauge theory is very considerable

  16. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO₂-Water-Rock Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Qiao; Ranjith, Pathegama Gamage; Long, Xinping; Ji, Bin

    2016-08-06

    The effects of CO₂-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO₂ in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days) in water dissoluted with gaseous/super-critical CO₂. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young's modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with gaseous/super-critical CO₂. Compared to samples without saturation, 30-day saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young's modulus for gaseous saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young's modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for samples without saturation to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with gaseous CO₂, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂). SC-CO₂ causes a greater reduction of shale's mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with gaseous/super-critical CO₂. The EDS results show that CO₂-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to samples without saturation.

  17. Separation of methyltin species from inorganic tin, and their interactions with humates in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Bowen, H.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) and tin(IV) are absorbed from aqueous solutions by Sephadex G-25 gel, from which they can be eluted by humates or fulvates, with which they interact more strongly. Methyltin species are not absorbed by Sephadex G-25, and so can be separated from inorganic tin. Both inorganic tin and methyltin species in natural waters at pH 7.4 can be quantitatively retained by passing through small columns of Chelex-100 resin: the methyltin species can then be washed off the resin with 4M nitric acid. Trimethyltin chloride 113 Sn in water scarcely interacts with fulvates, humates, kaolinite or montmorillonite but is absorbed by Sphagnum peat. Dimethyltin dichloride- 113 Sn reacts significantly with all the above materials after 2 hours equilibration. Methyltin trichloride- 113 Sn interacts weakly in alkaline solutions. (author)

  18. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberly, Brandon M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  19. How Much Water Can We Save by Achieving Renewable Portfolio Standards in the Southwest United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity in the Southwestern United States is primarily generated with water intensive steam turbines. If energy demand continues to rise this will lead to a further rise in water demand. A comprehensive understanding of water consumption and withdrawal for utility scale generation of electricity is necessary before any improvements in the water efficiency of such systems in arid environments can be made. This study estimated and compared the water usage associated with thermoelectric generation (i.e., natural gas, coal, and solar energy, in the five driest Colorado River Basin states: Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and California. This study also examined and compared each state’s Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS and how this might impact water savings. Results showed that each state’s current RPS goals would reduce the water that is consumed by the generation of electricity. However, the amount of water savings will vary on a state by state basis. In order to reduce water consumption, replacing thermal electric generation with photovoltaic (PV solar can be significant and should be encouraged. The amount of water saved will vary, however, depending on the state’s choice of coal or natural gas.

  20. Investigation of structural responses of breakwaters for green water based on fluid-structure interaction analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Seung Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the structural response of breakwaters installed on container carriers against green water impact loads was numerically investigated on the basis of the fluid-structure interaction analysis. A series of numerical studies is carried out to induce breakwater collapse under such conditions, whereby a widely accepted fluid-structure interaction analysis technique is adopted to realistically consider the phenomenon of green water impact loads. In addition, the structural behaviour of these breakwaters under green water impact loads is investigated simultaneously throughout the transient analysis. A verification study of the numerical results is performed using data from actual collapse incidents of breakwaters on container carriers. On the basis of the results of a series of numerical analyses, the pressure distribution of green water was accurately predicted with respect to wave mass and velocity. It is expected that the proposed analytical methodology and predicted pressure distribution could be used as a practical guideline for the design of breakwaters on container carriers.

  1. Decision support for integrated water-energy planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Castillo, Cesar; Hart, William Eugene; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-10-01

    Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While water and energy use are tightly coupled, planning and management of these fundamental resources are rarely treated in an integrated fashion. Toward this need, a decision support framework has been developed that targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. The framework integrates analysis and optimization capabilities to identify trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., national, state, county, watershed, NERC region). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. Ultimately, this open and interactive modeling framework provides a tool for evaluating competing policy and technical options relevant to the energy-water nexus.

  2. Zero-Magnetic-Field Spin Splitting of Polaron's Ground State Energy Induced by Rashba Spin-Orbit Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Xiao Jingling

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically the ground state energy of a polaron near the interface of a polar-polar semiconductor by considering the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling with the Lee-Low-Pines intermediate coupling method. Our numerical results show that the Rashba SO interaction originating from the inversion asymmetry in the heterostructure splits the ground state energy of the polaron. The electron areal density and vector dependence of the ratio of the SO interaction to the total ground state energy or other energy composition are obvious. One can see that even without any external magnetic field, the ground state energy can be split by the Rashba SO interaction, and this split is not a single but a complex one. Since the presents of the phonons, whose energy gives negative contribution to the polaron's, the spin-splitting states of the polaron are more stable than electron's.

  3. Trophic state of water in the watershed of Lake Mirim, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Pereira-Ramirez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the spacetime variations in the trophic characteristics of the principal water bodies feeding Lake Mirim, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, by determination of the Trophic State Index proposed by Toledo Jr. (IETT and Lamparelli (IETL, to assess water quality data between 1996 and 1998. It was verified that the lotic environments presented greater eutrophication conditions when evaluated by the Toledo Jr. methodology, in which the IETT varied from Eutrophic to Hypereutrophic. However, the evaluated environments showed variations from Mesotrophic to Hypereutrophic for the IETL when evaluated according to the Lamparelli methodology. From the classification proposed by Toledo Jr., lentic water bodies were considered Mesotrophic (IETT > 44 and Hypereutrophic (IETT > 74, while the Lamparelli method classified them as Eutrophic (IETL > 59 and Hypereutrophic (IETL > 67. Concentrations of phosphorus encountered in all water samples were greater than the limits established by the CONAMA Resolution n. 357, 2005, for class 2 water bodies, probably due to the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial wastes into the waters.

  4. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Maupin, Molly A.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Harris, Melissa A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Lovelace, John K.; Barber, Nancy L.; Linsey, Kristin S.

    2018-06-19

    Water use in the United States in 2015 was estimated to be about 322 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), which was 9 percent less than in 2010. The 2015 estimates put total withdrawals at the lowest level since before 1970, following the same overall trend of decreasing total withdrawals observed from 2005 to 2010. Freshwater withdrawals were 281 Bgal/d, or 87 percent of total withdrawals, and saline-water withdrawals were 41.0 Bgal/d, or 13 percent of total withdrawals. Fresh surface-water withdrawals (198 Bgal/d) were 14 percent less than in 2010, and fresh groundwater withdrawals (82.3 Bgal/day) were about 8 percent greater than in 2010. Saline surface-water withdrawals were 38.6 Bgal/d, or 14 percent less than in 2010. Total saline groundwater withdrawals in 2015 were 2.34 Bgal/d, mostly for mining use.Thermoelectric power and irrigation remained the two largest uses of water in 2015, and total withdrawals decreased for thermoelectric power but increased for irrigation. With­drawals in 2015 for thermoelectric power were 18 percent less and withdrawals for irrigation were 2 percent greater than in 2010. Similarly, other uses showed reductions compared to 2010, specifically public supply (–7 percent), self-supplied domestic (–8 percent), self-supplied industrial (–9 percent), and aquaculture (–16 percent). In addition to irrigation (2 percent), mining (1 percent) reported larger withdrawals in 2015 than in 2010. Livestock withdrawals remained essentially the same in 2015 compared to 2010 (0 percent change). Thermoelectric power, irrigation, and public-supply withdrawals accounted for 90 percent of total withdrawals in 2015.Withdrawals for thermoelectric power were 133 Bgal/d in 2015 and represented the lowest levels since before 1970. Surface-water withdrawals accounted for more than 99 percent of total thermoelectric-power withdrawals, and 72 percent of those surface-water withdrawals were from freshwater sources. Saline surface-water withdrawals for

  5. A combined experimental and computational study of the molecular interactions between anionic ibuprofen and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-Escobar, Andy; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela; Guerra, Doris; Hadad, C. Z.; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report a detailed study of the microsolvation of anionic ibuprofen, Ibu − . Stochastic explorations of the configurational spaces for the interactions of Ibu − with up to three water molecules at the DFT level lead to very rich and complex potential energy surfaces. Our results suggest that instead of only one preponderant structure, a collection of isomers with very similar energies would have significant contributions to the properties of the solvated drug. One of these properties is the shift on the vibrational frequencies of the asymmetric stretching band of the carboxylate group in hydrated Ibu − with respect to the anhydrous drug, whose experimental values are nicely reproduced using the weighted contribution of the structures. We found at least three types of stabilizing interactions, including conventional CO 2 − ⋯H 2 O, H 2 O⋯H 2 O charge assisted hydrogen bonds (HBs), and less common H 2 O⋯H–C and H 2 O⋯π interactions. Biological water molecules, those in direct contact with Ibu − , prefer to cluster around the carboxylate oxygen atoms via cyclic or bridged charge assisted hydrogen bonds. Many of those interactions are strongly affected by the formal carboxylate charge, resulting in “enhanced” HBs with increased strengths and degree of covalency. We found striking similarities between this case and the microsolvation of dymethylphosphate, which lead us to hypothesize that since microsolvation of phosphatidylcholine depends mainly on the formal charge of its ionic PO 2 − group in the polar head, then microsolvation of anionic ibuprofen and interactions of water molecules with eukaryotic cell membranes are governed by the same types of physical interactions

  6. The influence of final state interaction on two-particle correlations in multiple production of particles and resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednicky, R.; Lyuboshitz, V.L.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of pair correlations of interacting particles moving with nearby velocities is analysed. A general formalism of the two-particle space-time density matrix, taking into account the space-time coherence of the production process, is developed. The influence of strong final state interaction on two-particle correlations in the case of the production of a system resonance + particle is investigated in detail. It is shown that in the limit of small distances between the resonance and particle production points the effect of final state interaction is enhanced due to logarithmic singularity of the triangle diagram. Numerical estimates indicate that, in this limit, the effect of strong final state interaction becomes important even for two-pion correlations. (author)

  7. Final State Interactions in Hadronic WW Decay at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Dierckxsens, M

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given of the study of final state interactions in hadronically decaying W pairs produced in e^+e^--collisions as it is performed by the four LEP experiments. Bose-Einstein correlations are investigated by comparing like- with unlike-signed pairs of pions and/or using the mixed event analysis technique. Colour reconnection is examined with a method that compares the particle flow distributions in inter-jet regions.

  8. 78 FR 36183 - State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... systems serving American Indian (AI) communities and Alaska Native Villages (ANV). These agencies... water systems within each individual State and for AI/ANV systems within each EPA Region or the Navajo... needed and future projects that will be needed over the next 20 years. Projects to correct immediate...

  9. Isolation of plutonium physical--chemical states from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this research program was to evaluate the feasibility, on a bench scale, of methods for preconcentrating selectively individual plutonium forms from very dilute natural water samples, and to apply these results to use with the Battelle large volume water sampler. From the results of the current investigations, several alternative water sampling strategies have been recommended. The preferred water sampling technique has been field tested at several groundwater wells in the 200 East and 200 West areas of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Reservation. These laboratory investigations, in combination with field testing of the proposed water sampling techniques, have yielded the following conclusions: (1) The use of polypropylene microporous filters (0.04μ pore size) in conjunction with glass fiber filters (3.0μ pore size) enables the characterization of two size fractions of particulate plutonium forms in groundwater samples. Those species which pass the microporous polypropylene filters are considered to be in solution. (2) The sorption and ion exchange media evaluated do not show the selectivity necessary to allow preconcentration of individual plutonium forms from natural water samples by any of these media beds under the conditions evaluated. (3) Al 2 O 3 is the most effective sorption media that was examined for removing any plutonium species from natural water samples at neutral pH values. On the basis of these investigations, a standard field testing methodology has been proposed for sampling ground waters near nuclear waste management areas. Additional laboratory evaluations of plutonium species interactions with sorption and ion exchange media have also been recommended

  10. INTERACTING MANY-PARTICLE SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE TYPES CONVERGE TO A SORTED STATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby; Starke, Jens; Hummel, N.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model class of interacting many-particle systems consisting of different types of particles defined by a gradient flow. The corresponding potential expresses attractive and repulsive interactions between particles of the same type and different types, respectively. The introduced...... system converges by self-organized pattern formation to a sorted state where particles of the same type share a common position and those of different types are separated from each other. This is proved in the sense that we show that the property of being sorted is asymptotically stable and all other...... states are unstable. The models are motivated from physics, chemistry, and biology, and the principal investigations can be useful for many systems with interacting particles or agents. The models match particularly well a system in neuroscience, namely the axonal pathfinding and sorting in the olfactory...

  11. Modelling the phase equilibria of multicomponent mixtures containing CO2, alkanes, water, and/or alcohols using the quadrupolar CPA equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a quadrupolar cubic plus association (qCPA) equation of state is evaluated for its ability to predict the phase equilibria of multicomponent mixtures containing CO2 and alkanes, alcohols, and/or water. A single binary interaction parameter is employed in qCPA for all binary combinat...... CPA yields the best results of all the models for the prediction of dew point pressures....

  12. Management of ground water and evolving hydrogeologic studies in New Jersey : a heavily urbanized and industrialized state in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P. Patrick

    1985-01-01

    New Jersey is the most densely populated and one of the most industrialized states in the United States. An abundance of freshwater and proximity to major northeastern metropolitan centers has facilitated this development. Pumpage of freshwater from all aquifers in the State in 1980 was 730 million gallons per day (2.76 million cubic meters per day).Management and efficient development of the ground-water resources of the State are the responsibility of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Laws have been enacted and updated by the State legislature to manage water allocation and to control the disposal of hazardous wastes. Present resource management is guided by the New Jersey Water-Supply Master Plan of 1981. Funding for management activities is partially derived from the sale of state-approved bonds.Effective planning and regional management require accurate and up-to-date hydrologic information and analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Geological Survey, is conducting three intensive ground-water studies involving the collection and interpretation of hydrologic data to meet the urgent water-management needs of New Jersey. These studies are part of a long-term cooperative program and are funded through the Water-Supply Bond Act of 1981. They began in 1983 and are scheduled to be completed in 1988.The project areas are situated in the New Jersey part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in and near Atlantic City, Camden, and South River. They range in size from 400 to 1,200 mil (1,040 to 3,120 km2). The studies are designed to define the geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the local ground-water systems. The results of these studies will enable the State to address more effectively major problems in these areas such as declining water levels, overpumping, saltwater intrusion, and ground-water contamination resulting from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes.Specific objectives of these studies by the U

  13. Estimation of lake water - groundwater interactions in meromictic mining lakes by modelling isotope signatures of lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebach, Anne; Dietz, Severine; Lessmann, Dieter; Knoeller, Kay

    2008-03-01

    A method is presented to assess lake water-groundwater interactions by modelling isotope signatures of lake water using meteorological parameters and field data. The modelling of delta(18)O and deltaD variations offers information about the groundwater influx into a meromictic Lusatian mining lake. Therefore, a water balance model is combined with an isotope water balance model to estimate analogies between simulated and measured isotope signatures within the lake water body. The model is operated with different evaporation rates to predict delta(18)O and deltaD values in a lake that is only controlled by weather conditions with neither groundwater inflow nor outflow. Comparisons between modelled and measured isotope values show whether the lake is fed by the groundwater or not. Furthermore, our investigations show that an adaptation of the Craig and Gordon model [H. Craig, L.I. Gordon. Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. In Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperature, Spoleto, E. Tongiorgi (Ed.), pp. 9-130, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare, Pisa (1965).] to specific conditions in temperate regions seems necessary.

  14. Subtask 1.24 - Optimization of Cooling Water Resources for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Stepan; Richard Shockey; Bethany Kurz; Wesley Peck

    2009-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed an interactive, Web-based decision support system (DSS{copyright} 2007 EERC Foundation) to provide power generation utilities with an assessment tool to address water supply issues when planning new or modifying existing generation facilities. The Web-based DSS integrates water and wastewater treatment technology and water law information with a geographic information system-based interactive map that links to state and federal water quality and quantity databases for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wyoming, Montana, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Iowa.

  15. 1944 Water Treaty Between Mexico and the United States: Present Situation and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically and culturally, water has always been considered to be a critical issue in Mexico- USA agenda. Along the 3 140-km border between Mexico and the United States, there is intense competition over the adequate availability of water. Water uses in urban border areas have continued to increase exponentially due to steadily increasing levels of population growth. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in more intensive patterns of water consumption and use. Agricultural water demands continue to be high. Mexico and the United States have established institutions and agreements to manage and protect rivers in the border region. The Treaty between Mexico and the United States for the Utilisation of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande was signed in 1944. With the turn of the century, the growing urban centers along the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo, where the river becomes the international boundary, started increasingly to depend on groundwater. This situation was not specifically addressed in the 1944 Treaty, especially as groundwater use at that time was not so significant.

  16. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Role of the Coulomb interaction in the low-frequency density of states of DNA double helices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.E.; Krumhansl, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The complete vibrational frequency spectrum of several DNA double-helical oligomers is calculated using established pair potentials. Various cutoff values are used for the range of the Coulomb interactions. At very low frequency the integrated density of states shows a noninteger exponent with values ranging from 0.75 to 1.55, depending on the cutoff value for the Coulomb interactions. We conclude that the cumulative densities of states in those molecules depend more on competing interactions than on various proposed universal laws

  18. Ground-Water System in the Chimacum Creek Basin and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction in Chimacum and Tarboo Creeks and the Big and Little Quilcene Rivers, Eastern Jefferson County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, F. William; Longpre, Claire I.; Justin, Greg B.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study of the ground-water system in the unconsolidated glacial deposits in the Chimacum Creek Basin and the interactions between surface water and ground water in four main drainage basins was conducted in eastern Jefferson County, Washington. The study will assist local watershed planners in assessing the status of the water resources and the potential effects of ground-water development on surface-water systems. A new surficial geologic map of the Chimacum Creek Basin and a series of hydrogeologic sections were developed by incorporating LIDAR imagery, existing map sources, and drillers' logs from 110 inventoried wells. The hydrogeologic framework outlined in the study will help characterize the occurrence of ground water in the unconsolidated glacial deposits and how it interacts with the surface-water system. Water levels measured throughout the study show that the altitude of the water table parallels the surface topography and ranges from 0 to 400 feet above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 across the basin, and seasonal variations in precipitation due to natural cycles generally are on the order of 2 to 3 feet. Synoptic stream-discharge measurements and instream mini-piezometers and piezometers with nested temperature sensors provided additional data to refine the positions of gaining and losing reaches and delineate seasonal variations. Chimacum Creek generally gains water from the shallow ground-water system, except near the community of Chimacum where localized losses occur. In the lower portions of Chimacum Creek, gaining conditions dominate in the summer when creek stages are low and ground-water levels are high, and losing conditions dominate in the winter when creek stages are high relative to ground-water levels. In the Quilcene Bay area, three drainage basins were studied specifically to assess surface water/ground water interactions. The upper reaches of Tarboo Creek generally gain water from the shallow ground-water system

  19. A Study on the Surface and Subsurface Water Interaction Based on the Groundwater Recession Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. T.; Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.; Chiang, C. J.; Wang, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of surface to subsurface water is an important issue for groundwater resources assessment and management. The influences of surface water to groundwater are mainly through the rainfall recharge, river recharge and discharge and other boundary sources. During a drought period, the interaction of river and groundwater may be one of the main sources of groundwater level recession. Therefore, this study explores the interaction of surface water to groundwater via the groundwater recession. During drought periods, the pumping and river interaction together are the main mechanisms causing the recession of groundwater level. In principle, larger gradient of the recession curve indicates more groundwater discharge and it is an important characteristic of the groundwater system. In this study, to avoid time-consuming manual analysis, the Python programming language is used to develop a statistical analysis model for exploring the groundwater recession information. First, the slopes of the groundwater level hydrograph at every time step were computed for each well. Then, for each well, the represented slope to each groundwater level was defined as the slope with 90% exceedance probability. The relationship between the recession slope and the groundwater level can then be obtained. The developed model is applied to Choushui River Alluvial Fan. In most wells, the results show strong positive correlations between the groundwater levels and the absolute values of the recession slopes.

  20. IMPROVED PARAMETERIZATION OF WATER CLOUD MODEL FOR HYBRID-POLARIZED BACKSCATTER SIMULATION USING INTERACTION FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chauhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prime aim of this study was to assess the potential of semi-empirical water cloud model (WCM in simulating hybrid-polarized SAR backscatter signatures (RH and RV retrieved from RISAT-1 data and integrate the results into a graphical user interface (GUI to facilitate easy comprehension and interpretation. A predominant agricultural wheat growing area was selected in Mathura and Bharatpur districts located in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan respectively to carry out the study. The three-date datasets were acquired covering the crucial growth stages of the wheat crop. In synchrony, the fieldwork was organized to measure crop/soil parameters. The RH and RV backscattering coefficient images were extracted from the SAR data for all the three dates. The effect of four combinations of vegetation descriptors (V1 and V2 viz., LAI-LAI, LAI-Plant water content (PWC, Leaf water area index (LWAI-LWAI, and LAI-Interaction factor (IF on the total RH and RV backscatter was analyzed. The results revealed that WCM calibrated with LAI and IF as the two vegetation descriptors simulated the total RH and RV backscatter values with highest R2 of 0.90 and 0.85 while the RMSE was lowest among the other tested models (1.18 and 1.25 dB, respectively. The theoretical considerations and interpretations have been discussed and examined in the paper. The novelty of this work emanates from the fact that it is a first step towards the modeling of hybrid-polarized backscatter data using an accurately parameterized semi-empirical approach.

  1. Stability of stationary states of non-local equations with singular interaction potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Fellner, Klemens; Raoul, Gaë l

    2011-01-01

    repulsive interaction potentials we show the stability of stationary states of uniformly bounded solutions under a convexity condition.Finally, we present numerical simulations to illustrate our results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mapping of tritium in drinking water from various Indian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag A.; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The tritium in fresh water used for drinking purpose across five state of India was analyzed for tritium activity. The tritium data obtained were compared with the monitoring data of tritium in drinking water sources at Tarapur site, which houses a number of nuclear facilities. It is observed that the tritium activity in the water sample from various out station locations were in the range of < 0.48 to 1.33 Bq/l. The tritium value obtained in the drinking water sources at Tarapur was found to be in the range of 0.91 to 3.10 Bq/l. The monitoring of tritium in drinking water from Tarapur and from various out station location indicate that the level is negligible compared to the USEPA limit of 10000 Bq/l and the contribution of operation nuclear facilities to the tritium activity in drinking water source at Tarapur is insignificant. (author)

  3. Interacting vegetative and thermal contributions to water movement in desert soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Cooper, C.A.; Šimůnek, J.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally driven water-vapor flow can be an important component of total water movement in bare soil and in deep unsaturated zones, but this process is often neglected when considering the effects of soil–plant–atmosphere interactions on shallow water movement. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the coupled and separate effects of vegetative and thermal-gradient contributions to soil water movement in desert environments. The evaluation was done by comparing a series of simulations with and without vegetation and thermal forcing during a 4.7-yr period (May 2001–December 2005). For vegetated soil, evapotranspiration alone reduced root-zone (upper 1 m) moisture to a minimum value (25 mm) each year under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. Variations in the leaf area index altered the minimum storage values by up to 10 mm. For unvegetated isothermal and nonisothermal simulations, root-zone water storage nearly doubled during the simulation period and created a persistent driving force for downward liquid fluxes below the root zone (total net flux ~1 mm). Total soil water movement during the study period was dominated by thermally driven vapor fluxes. Thermally driven vapor flow and condensation supplemented moisture supplies to plant roots during the driest times of each year. The results show how nonisothermal flow is coupled with plant water uptake, potentially influencing ecohydrologic relations in desert environments.

  4. The State and Water Resources Development through the Lens of History: A South African Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Swatuk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article sets contemporary challenges to good water governance in South Africa within an important historical context. While it is correct to say that 'the world water crisis is a crisis of governance', it is problematic to assume that all states can follow a similar path toward environmentally sustainable, economically efficient and socially equitable water resources governance and management. The nexus of decision-making power varies within and beyond states, and over time. Gramsci (1971 describes this as the "constellation of social forces". Where this constellation of social forces achieves consensus, a 'historic bloc' is said to emerge giving rise to a particular state form. The South African state form has varied greatly over several centuries, giving rise to various historic blocs. The resulting body of laws and policies and the varied forms of infrastructure that were developed to harness water for multiple social practices over time constitute a complex political ecological terrain not easily amenable to oversimplified frameworks for good water governance. This article outlines the role of water in the history of South Africa’s multiple state forms. It shows that over time, water policy, law and institutions came to reflect the increasingly complex needs of multiple actors (agriculture, mining, industry, cities, the newly enfranchised represented by different state forms and their characteristic political regimes: the Dutch East India Company; the British Empire; the Union of South Africa; the apartheid and post-apartheid republics. Authoritarian, semi-authoritarian and democratic state forms have all used central-state power to serve particular interests. Through time, this constellation of social forces has widened until, today, the state has taken upon itself the task of providing "some water for all forever" (slogan of the Department of Water Affairs. As this article suggests, despite the difficult challenges presented by a

  5. Water and sanitation in Nigeria: a case study of Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and sanitation have been recognized as critical to ensure good quality of life. This paper examines the existing water supply and sanitation in Ondo State, Nigeria with a view to determine the extent of deficiency and what will be required to meet the Millennium Development Goals that seeks to halve the Population of ...

  6. Water interactions with condensed organic phases: a combined experimental and theoretical study of molecular-level processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Sofia M.; Kong, Xiangrui; Thomson, Erik S.; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Lovrić, Josip; Toubin, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake on aerosol particles modifies their chemistry and microphysics with important implications for air quality and climate. A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol consists of organic aerosol particles or inorganic particles with condensed organic components. Here, we combine laboratory studies using the environmental molecular beam (EMB) method1 with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize water interactions with organic surfaces in detail. The over-arching aim is to characterize the mechanisms that govern water uptake, in order to guide the development of physics-based models to be used in atmospheric modelling. The EMB method enables molecular level studies of interactions between gases and volatile surfaces at near ambient pressure,1 and the technique may provide information about collision dynamics, surface and bulk accommodation, desorption and diffusion kinetics. Molecular dynamics simulations provide complementary information about the collision dynamics and initial interactions between gas molecules and the condensed phase. Here, we focus on water interactions with condensed alcohol phases that serve as highly simplified proxies for systems in the environment. Gas-surface collisions are in general found to be highly inelastic and result in efficient surface accommodation of water molecules. As a consequence, surface accommodation of water can be safely assumed to be close to unity under typical ambient conditions. Bulk accommodation is inefficient on solid alcohol and the condensed materials appear to produce hydrophobic surface structures, with limited opportunities for adsorbed water to form hydrogen bonds with surface molecules. Accommodation is significantly more efficient on the dynamic liquid alcohol surfaces. The results for n-butanol (BuOH) are particularly intriguing where substantial changes in water accommodation taking place over a 10 K interval below and above the BuOH melting point.2 The governing mechanisms for the

  7. Wave–particle interactions in a resonant system of photons and ion-solvated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Eiji, E-mail: konishi.eiji.27c@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2017-02-26

    Highlights: • We consider a QED model of rotating water molecules with ion solvation effects. • The equations of motion are cast in terms of a conventional free electron laser. • We offer a new quantum coherence mechanism induced by collective instability. - Abstract: We investigate a laser model for a resonant system of photons and ion cluster-solvated rotating water molecules in which ions in the cluster are identical and have very low, non-relativistic velocities and direction of motion parallel to a static electric field induced in a single direction. This model combines Dicke superradiation with wave–particle interaction. As the result, we find that the equations of motion of the system are expressed in terms of a conventional free electron laser system. This result leads to a mechanism for dynamical coherence, induced by collective instability in the wave–particle interaction.

  8. Secondary phases formed during nuclear waste glass-water interactions: Thermodynamic and derived properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of secondary phases observed to form during nuclear waste glass-water interactions are of particular interest as it is with the application of these properties together with the thermodynamic properties of other solid phases, fluid phases, and aqueous species that one may predict the environmental consequences of introducing radionuclides contained in the glass into groundwater at a high-level nuclear waste repository. The validation of these predicted consequences can be obtained from laboratory experiments and field observations at natural analogue sites. The purpose of this report is to update and expand the previous compilation (McKenzie, 1991) of thermodynamic data retrieved from the literature and/or estimated for secondary phases observed to form (and candidate phases from observed chemical compositions) during nuclear waste glass-water interactions. In addition, this report includes provisionally recommended thermodynamic data of secondary phases

  9. Interaction of solitons and the formation of bound states in the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rivas, Pedro; Gomila, Damia; Colet, Pere; Gelens, Lendert

    2017-07-01

    Bound states, also called soliton molecules, can form as a result of the interaction between individual solitons. This interaction is mediated through the tails of each soliton that overlap with one another. When such soliton tails have spatial oscillations, locking or pinning between two solitons can occur at fixed distances related with the wavelength of these oscillations, thus forming a bound state. In this work, we study the formation and stability of various types of bound states in the Lugiato-Lefever equation by computing their interaction potential and by analyzing the properties of the oscillatory tails. Moreover, we study the effect of higher order dispersion and noise in the pump intensity on the dynamics of bound states. In doing so, we reveal that perturbations to the Lugiato-Lefever equation that maintain reversibility, such as fourth order dispersion, lead to bound states that tend to separate from one another in time when noise is added. This separation force is determined by the shape of the envelope of the interaction potential, as well as an additional Brownian ratchet effect. In systems with broken reversibility, such as third order dispersion, this ratchet effect continues to push solitons within a bound state apart. However, the force generated by the envelope of the potential is now such that it pushes the solitons towards each other, leading to a null net drift of the solitons. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  10. DETECTION OF EXTREMELY BROAD WATER EMISSION FROM THE MOLECULAR CLOUD INTERACTING SUPERNOVA REMNANT G349.7+0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, J. [SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hewitt, J. W. [CRESST/University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Boogert, A. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kaufman, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192-0106 (United States); Gusdorf, A., E-mail: jrho@seti.org, E-mail: john.w.hewitt@nasa.gov, E-mail: aboogert@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: michael.kaufman@sjsu.edu, E-mail: antoine.gusdorf@lra.ens.fr [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, École Normale Suprieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2015-10-10

    We performed Herschel HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE observations toward the molecular cloud interacting supernova remnant G349.7+0.2. An extremely broad emission line was detected at 557 GHz from the ground state transition 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01} of ortho-water. This water line can be separated into three velocity components with widths of 144, 27, and 4 km s{sup −1}. The 144 km s{sup −1} component is the broadest water line detected to date in the literature. This extremely broad line width shows the importance of probing shock dynamics. PACS observations revealed three additional ortho-water lines, as well as numerous high-J carbon monoxide (CO) lines. No para-water lines were detected. The extremely broad water line is indicative of a high velocity shock, which is supported by the observed CO rotational diagram that was reproduced with a J-shock model with a density of 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3} and a shock velocity of 80 km s{sup −1}. Two far-infrared fine-structure lines, [O i] at 145 μm and [C ii] line at 157 μm, are also consistent with the high velocity J-shock model. The extremely broad water line could be simply from short-lived molecules that have not been destroyed in high velocity J-shocks; however, it may be from more complicated geometry such as high-velocity water bullets or a shell expanding in high velocity. We estimate the CO and H{sub 2}O densities, column densities, and temperatures by comparison with RADEX and detailed shock models.

  11. Detecting and monitoring water stress states in maize crops using spectral ratios obtained in the photosynthetic domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Van Leeuwen, Spencer R.

    2017-07-01

    The reliable detection and monitoring of changes in the water status of crops composed of plants like maize, a highly adaptable C4 species in large demand for both food and biofuel production, are longstanding remote sensing goals. Existing procedures employed to achieve these goals rely predominantly on the spectral signatures of plant leaves in the infrared domain where the light absorption within the foliar tissues is dominated by water. It has been suggested that such procedures could be implemented using subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios obtained in the visible (photosynthetic) domain with the assistance of polarization devices. However, the experiments leading to this proposition were performed on detached maize leaves, which were not influenced by the whole (living) plant's adaptation mechanisms to water stress. In this work, we employ predictive simulations of light-leaf interactions in the photosynthetic domain to demonstrate that the living specimens' physiological responses to dehydration stress should be taken into account in this context. Our findings also indicate that a reflectance to transmittance ratio obtained in the photosynthetic domain at a lower angle of incidence without the use of polarization devices may represent a cost-effective alternative for the assessment of water stress states in maize crops.

  12. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  13. Study of $\\pi^{-}p$ interactions with neutral final states

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a study of the production of neutral particles or states decaying into photons in the reaction $\\pi^{-} + p \\rightarrow M^{0} + n$ at SPS energies. \\\\ \\\\ Special attention is paid to the measurement of the production of heavy particles with hidden quantum numbers and of possible new heavy spinless states decaying into two photons. \\\\ \\\\ The large four-momentum transfer behaviour of binary processes involving known neutral mesons and the production of new meson resonances with high mass and spin will also be studied. Complex multiparticle final states will be analysed as a by-product.\\\\ \\\\ The central unit of the experimental set-up is a 4000 cell Cerenkov hodoscope spectrometer (GAMS) which allows the measurement of the momentum vector of each $\\gamma$ in a multigamma event. \\\\ \\\\ The longitudinal position of the interaction point in the liquid hydrogen target is measured by the Cerenkov light intensity. \\\\ \\\\ A guard system, made of scintillation counters and lead-glass Cerenkov counters, ...

  14. Interaction of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow with Iceland Basin intermediate waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullgren, Jenny E.; Fer, Ilker; Darelius, Elin; Beaird, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The narrow and deep Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) is an important pathway for cold, dense waters from the Nordic Seas to flow across the Iceland-Scotland ridge into the North Atlantic. The swift, turbulent FBC overflow is associated with strong vertical mixing. Hydrographic profiles from a shipboard survey and two Slocum electric gliders deployed during a cruise in May-June 2012 show an intermediate water mass characterized by low salinity and low oxygen concentration between the upper waters of Atlantic origin and the dense overflow water. A weak low-salinity signal originating north-east of Iceland is discernible at the exit of the FBC, but smeared out by intense mixing. Further west (downstream) marked salinity and oxygen minima are found, which we hypothesize are indicators of a mixture of Labrador Sea Water and Intermediate Water from the Iceland Basin. Water mass characteristics vary strongly on short time scales. Low-salinity, low-oxygen water in the stratified interface above the overflow plume is shown to move along isopycnals toward the Iceland-Faroe Front as a result of eddy stirring and a secondary, transverse circulation in the plume interface. The interaction of low-salinity, low-oxygen intermediate waters with the overflow plume already at a short distance downstream of the sill, here reported for the first time, affects the final properties of the overflow waters through entrainment and mixing.

  15. Spatially-explicit modeling of multi-scale drivers of aboveground forest biomass and water yield in watersheds of the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz Ahmed, Mukhtar Ahmed; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Escobedo, Francisco J; Cropper, Wendell P; Martin, Timothy A; Timilsina, Nilesh

    2017-09-01

    Understanding ecosystem processes and the influence of regional scale drivers can provide useful information for managing forest ecosystems. Examining more local scale drivers of forest biomass and water yield can also provide insights for identifying and better understanding the effects of climate change and management on forests. We used diverse multi-scale datasets, functional models and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to model ecosystem processes at the watershed scale and to interpret the influence of ecological drivers across the Southeastern United States (SE US). Aboveground forest biomass (AGB) was determined from available geospatial datasets and water yield was estimated using the Water Supply and Stress Index (WaSSI) model at the watershed level. Our geostatistical model examined the spatial variation in these relationships between ecosystem processes, climate, biophysical, and forest management variables at the watershed level across the SE US. Ecological and management drivers at the watershed level were analyzed locally to identify whether drivers contribute positively or negatively to aboveground forest biomass and water yield ecosystem processes and thus identifying potential synergies and tradeoffs across the SE US region. Although AGB and water yield drivers varied geographically across the study area, they were generally significantly influenced by climate (rainfall and temperature), land-cover factor1 (Water and barren), land-cover factor2 (wetland and forest), organic matter content high, rock depth, available water content, stand age, elevation, and LAI drivers. These drivers were positively or negatively associated with biomass or water yield which significantly contributes to ecosystem interactions or tradeoff/synergies. Our study introduced a spatially-explicit modelling framework to analyze the effect of ecosystem drivers on forest ecosystem structure, function and provision of services. This integrated model approach facilitates

  16. Charaterising water-rock interaction in a mixed carbonate-evaporite karstified aquifer system, Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirathititham, R.; Whitaker, F.

    2017-12-01

    Qatar is an arid country, most of the rainfall (80 mm/yr) occurring during intense storms. Surface runoff is endorheic and recharge is facilitated by karst features developed over an extended (c.30 Ma) period of exposure of the carbonate bedrock. In December 2016, we sampled a rare intense rainfall event (41 mm over 3 days), after which waters ponded within low-relief terminal depressions prior to infiltration. We compare the chemistry of these recharge waters with that of ground waters from 76 wells distributed across Qatar to understand the nature and spatial distribution of water-rock interaction. Using Cl- as a conservative tracer for seawater mixing, we calculate concentrations of rock-derived Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42-. During surface detention, rain chemistry is modified by evaporation and interaction with clays and the surface bedrock over days to weeks. However, groundwater chemistry is dominated by subsurface interaction between recharge waters and the karstified Tertiary aquifers. These include the largely dolomitic Paleocene to Lower Eocene Umm er Radhuma (UER) and overlying Lower Eocene Rus, with the Middle Eocene Abarug limestone forming a locally important aquifer in the south west. Away from coastal areas which show clear evidence of salinisation, TDS of groundwaters in the interior of the peninsula increases from north to south. All groundwaters are significantly enriched in SO42-, but this enrichment is marked greater in the south. This likely reflects the presence of a unit of middle Rus gypsum that in the south of the country confines the Lower Rus and UER aquifers, whilst in the north either gypsum was not deposited or has been dissolved. Waters in the Abarug limestone show limited sulfate enrichment and a 1:1 molar ratio of rock-derived SO42-: Ca2+, but across much of the country both SO42- enrichment and SO42-: Ca2+ molar ratio are significantly higher, the latter reaching 2:1 and suggesting an additional sink for Ca2+. The dolomite aquifer waters

  17. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  18. Water conservation and hydrological transitions in cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, George M.; Hess, David J.; Gilligan, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Cities across the world have had to diversify and expand their water supply systems in response to demand growth, groundwater depletion and pollution, and instability and inadequacy of regional surface freshwater sources. In the U.S., these problems plague not only the arid Western cities but increasingly also cities in the Eastern portions of the country. Although cities continue to seek out new sources of water via Promethean projects of long-distance supply systems, desalinization plants, and the recharge of aquifers with surface water, they also pursue water conservation because of its low cost and other benefits. We examine water conservation as a complex sociotechnical system comprising interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors. We provide quantitative data on the factors that affect more and less advanced transitions in water conservation regimes, and we show that water stress and other hydrological data can only partially predict the transition. We also provide qualitative case studies to identify institutional and political barriers to more advanced water conservation regimes. This interdisciplinary, mixed methods approach typifies the need for knowledge that informs hydrologists about how their research may or may not be adopted by decision-makers.

  19. Influence of magnetic dipole and magnetoelastic interactions on the phase states of 2D non-Heisenberg ferromagnetic with complex exchange interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Matunin, D.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Kosmachev, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    The phase states of the 2D non-Heisenberg ferromagnetic with anisotropic bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions are investigated. The limiting cases of the system under consideration are the two-dimensional XY-model with biquadratic exchange interaction and the isotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic. The account of the magnetic dipole interaction leads to the realization of spatially inhomogeneous quadrupolar phase. The stability regions of various phase transitions for different values of the material parameters are studied. The phase diagram is built. Besides, the temperature phase transitions are investigated. The influence of the magnetoelastic interaction on the formation of the long-range quadrupolar order is determined.

  20. Attractive PHHP interactions revealed by state-of-the-art ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourdkhani, Sirous; Jabłoński, Mirosław; Echeverría, Jorge

    2017-10-25

    We report in this work a combined structural and state-of-the-art computational study of homopolar P-HH-P intermolecular contacts. Database surveys have shown the abundance of such surprisingly unexplored contacts, which are usually accompanied by other weak interactions in the solid state. By means of a detailed theoretical study utilizing SAPT(DFT), MP2, SCS-MP2, MP2C and CCSD(T) methods and both aug-cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pCVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5) basis sets as well as extrapolation to the CBS limit, we have shown that P-HH-P contacts are indeed attractive and considerably strong. SAPT(DFT) calculations have revealed the dispersive nature of the P-HH-P interaction with only minor contribution of the inductive term, whereas the first-order electrostatic term is clearly overbalanced by the first-order exchange energy. In general the computed interaction energies follow the trend: E ≈ E < E < E. Our results have also shown that the aug-cc-pVDZ (or aug-cc-pCVDZ) basis set is not yet well balanced and that the second-order dispersion energy term is the slowest converging among all SAPT(DFT) energy components. Compared to aug-cc-pVXZ basis sets, their core-correlation counterparts have a modest influence on all supermolecular interaction energies and a negligible influence on both the SAPT(DFT) interaction energy and its components.

  1. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Subsystem Dynamic Interaction Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Robert [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Peter [BMT Scientific Marine Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shi, Shan [Houston Offshore Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Marinho, Thiago [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). LabOceano

    2014-05-09

    A commercial floating 100-megawatt (MW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant will require a cold water pipe (CWP) with a diameter of 10-meter (m) and length of up to 1,000 m. The mass of the cold water pipe, including entrained water, can exceed the mass of the platform supporting it. The offshore industry uses software-modeling tools to develop platform and riser (pipe) designs to survive the offshore environment. These tools are typically validated by scale model tests in facilities able to replicate real at-sea meteorological and ocean (metocean) conditions to provide the understanding and confidence to proceed to final design and full-scale fabrication. However, today’s offshore platforms (similar to and usually larger than those needed for OTEC applications) incorporate risers (or pipes) with diameters well under one meter. Secondly, the preferred construction method for large diameter OTEC CWPs is the use of composite materials, primarily a form of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The use of these material results in relatively low pipe stiffness and large strains compared to steel construction. These factors suggest the need for further validation of offshore industry software tools. The purpose of this project was to validate the ability to model numerically the dynamic interaction between a large cold water-filled fiberglass pipe and a floating OTEC platform excited by metocean weather conditions using measurements from a scale model tested in an ocean basin test facility.

  2. A combined experimental and computational study of the molecular interactions between anionic ibuprofen and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Escobar, Andy; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela; Guerra, Doris; Hadad, C. Z.; Restrepo, Albeiro, E-mail: albeiro@exactas.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Química, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52–21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report a detailed study of the microsolvation of anionic ibuprofen, Ibu{sup −}. Stochastic explorations of the configurational spaces for the interactions of Ibu{sup −} with up to three water molecules at the DFT level lead to very rich and complex potential energy surfaces. Our results suggest that instead of only one preponderant structure, a collection of isomers with very similar energies would have significant contributions to the properties of the solvated drug. One of these properties is the shift on the vibrational frequencies of the asymmetric stretching band of the carboxylate group in hydrated Ibu{sup −} with respect to the anhydrous drug, whose experimental values are nicely reproduced using the weighted contribution of the structures. We found at least three types of stabilizing interactions, including conventional CO {sub 2}{sup −}⋯H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O⋯H{sub 2}O charge assisted hydrogen bonds (HBs), and less common H{sub 2}O⋯H–C and H{sub 2}O⋯π interactions. Biological water molecules, those in direct contact with Ibu{sup −}, prefer to cluster around the carboxylate oxygen atoms via cyclic or bridged charge assisted hydrogen bonds. Many of those interactions are strongly affected by the formal carboxylate charge, resulting in “enhanced” HBs with increased strengths and degree of covalency. We found striking similarities between this case and the microsolvation of dymethylphosphate, which lead us to hypothesize that since microsolvation of phosphatidylcholine depends mainly on the formal charge of its ionic PO {sub 2}{sup −} group in the polar head, then microsolvation of anionic ibuprofen and interactions of water molecules with eukaryotic cell membranes are governed by the same types of physical interactions.

  3. 76 FR 79604 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... following methods: 1. http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments... inland waters rule established numeric nutrient criteria in the form of total nitrogen, total phosphorus... of the State's applicable water quality designated uses. More specifically, the numeric nutrient...

  4. Surface water and groundwater interaction in Marala - Khanki area, Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Latif, Z.; Tariq, J.A.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-07-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in two selected areas of Indus Basin viz. Haripur Area and Chashma- Taunsa Area for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Haripur Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of the Haripur pocket of Tarbela Lake are higher than those of Main Lake / Indus River meaning that there is a significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Indus River appeared to be the dominant source of groundwater recharge at most of the locations in Chashma- Taunsa Area. Isotopic data of Indus River showed an increase at Taunsa as compared to Chashma in low flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  5. Methodology for Outdoor Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool for U.S. and Selected States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Green lawns and landscaping are archetypical of the populated American landscape, and typically require irrigation, which corresponds to a significant fraction of residential, commercial, and institutional water use. In North American cities, the estimated portion of residential water used for outdoor purposes ranges from 22-38% in cooler climates up to 59-67% in dry and hot environments, while turfgrass coverage within the United States spans 11.1-20.2 million hectares (Milesi et al. 2009). One national estimate uses satellite and aerial photography data to develop a relationship between impervious surface and lawn surface area, yielding a conservative estimate of 16.4 (± 3.6) million hectares of lawn surface area in the United States—an area three times larger than that devoted to any irrigated crop (Milesi et al. 2005). One approach that holds promise for cutting unnecessary outdoor water use is the increased deployment of “smart” irrigation controllers to increase the water efficiency of irrigation systems. This report describes the methodology and inputs employed in a mathematical model that quantifies the effects of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s WaterSense labeling program for one such type of controller, weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC). This model builds off that described in “Methodology for National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool–Outdoor Water Use” and uses a two-tiered approach to quantify outdoor water savings attributable to the WaterSense program for WBIC, as well as net present value (NPV) of that savings. While the first iteration of the model assessed national impacts using averaged national values, this version begins by evaluating impacts in three key large states that make up a sizable portion of the irrigation market: California, Florida, and Texas. These states are considered to be the principal market of “smart” irrigation controllers that may result in the bulk of national savings. Modeled

  6. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Aspe...

  7. Hyperfine interaction in the Autler-Townes effect: The formation of bright, dark, and chameleon states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirova, T.; Cinins, A.; Efimov, D. K.; Bruvelis, M.; Miculis, K.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Auzinsh, M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Ekers, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper is devoted to clarifying the implications of hyperfine (HF) interaction in the formation of adiabatic (i.e., "laser-dressed") states and their expression in the Autler-Townes (AT) spectra. We first use the Morris-Shore model [J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 27, 906 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevA.27.906] to illustrate how bright and dark states are formed in a simple reference system where closely spaced energy levels are coupled to a single state with a strong laser field with the respective Rabi frequency ΩS. We then expand the simulations to realistic hyperfine level systems in Na atoms for a more general case when non-negligible HF interaction can be treated as a perturbation in the total system Hamiltonian. A numerical analysis of the adiabatic states that are formed by coupling of the 3 p3 /2 and 4 d5 /2 states by the strong laser field and probed by a weak laser field on the 3 s1 /2-3 p3 /2 transition yielded two important conclusions. Firstly, the perturbation introduced by the HF interaction leads to the observation of what we term "chameleon" states—states that change their appearance in the AT spectrum, behaving as bright states at small to moderate ΩS, and fading from the spectrum similarly to dark states when ΩS is much larger than the HF splitting of the 3 p3 /2 state. Secondly, excitation by the probe field from two different HF levels of the ground state allows one to address orthogonal sets of adiabatic states; this enables, with appropriate choice of ΩS and the involved quantum states, a selective excitation of otherwise unresolved hyperfine levels in excited electronic states.

  8. Groundwater–surface water interactions, vegetation dependencies and implications for water resources management in the semi-arid Hailiutu River catchment, China – a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, large-scale land use changes took place in the Hailiutu River catchment, a semi-arid area in northwest China. These changes had significant impacts on the water resources in the area. Insights into groundwater and surface water interactions and vegetation-water dependencies help to understand these impacts and formulate sustainable water resources management policies. In this study, groundwater and surface water interactions were identified using the baseflow index at the catchment scale, and hydraulic and water temperature methods as well as event hydrograph separation techniques at the sub-catchment scale. The results show that almost 90% of the river discharge consists of groundwater. Vegetation dependencies on groundwater were analysed from the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and groundwater depth at the catchment scale and along an ecohydrogeological cross-section, and by measuring the sap flow of different plants, soil water contents and groundwater levels at different research sites. The results show that all vegetation types, i.e. trees (willow (Salix matsudana and poplar (Populus simonii, bushes (salix – Salix psammophila, and agricultural crops (maize – Zea mays, depend largely on groundwater as the source for transpiration. The comparative analysis indicates that maize crops use the largest amount of water, followed by poplar trees, salix bushes, and willow trees. For sustainable water use with the objective of satisfying the water demand for socio-economical development and to prevent desertification and ecological impacts on streams, more water-use-efficient crops such as sorghum, barley or millet should be promoted to reduce the consumptive water use. Willow trees should be used as wind-breaks in croplands and along roads, and drought-resistant and less water-use intensive plants (for instance native bushes should be used to vegetate sand dunes.

  9. Distribution and Availability of State and Areawide Water Quality Reports in Oklahoma Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Million, Anne

    This report examines the distribution and availability of water quality reports in the state of Oklahoma. Based on legislation from the Clean Water Act and regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency's "Public Participation Handbook for Water Quality Management," depository libraries must be established to provide citizen access to…

  10. Surface water and groundwater interaction in selected areas of Indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Latif, Z.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-08-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in Marala-Khanki Area of Punjab for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water (Chenab River) samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no significant contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Marala-Khanki Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of Tarbala lake are higher than those of main lake. Indus river meaning that there is significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Isotopic data of Indus river showed an increase at Tunsa as compared to Chashma in flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  11. Interaction of water with epoxy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-07-01

    The chemistries of reactants, plasticizers, solvents and additives in an epoxy paint are discussed. Polyamide additives may play an important role in the absorption of molecular iodine by epoxy paints. It is recommended that the unsaturation of the polyamide additive in the epoxy cure be determined. Experimental studies of water absorption by epoxy resins are discussed. These studies show that absorption can disrupt hydrogen bonds among segments of the polymers and cause swelling of the polymer. The water absorption increases the diffusion coefficient of water within the polymer. Permanent damage to the polymer can result if water causes hydrolysis of ether linkages. Water desorption studies are recommended to ascertain how water absorption affects epoxy paint.

  12. Gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water from Goias State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Regina A.; Costa, Heliana F. da, E-mail: raquel.mingote@cdtn.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil). Parque Estadual Telma Ortegal

    2017-07-01

    Detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity is important for a quick surveying of both natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in water. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in Brazilian legislation on quality of drinking water. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha and gross beta in samples of the public water supplies in the state of Goias, Brazil, during 2010-2015. Sample preparation involved evaporation to concentrate the sample ten-fold. The results indicate that the water meets the radioactivity standards required by the regulations MS 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Department of Health. Concerning the high level of censored observations, a statistical treatment of data was conducted by using analysis methods of censored data to provide a reference value of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water from the state of Goias. The estimated typical activities are very low, 0.030 Bq•L{sup -1} and 0.058 Bq•L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  13. Implementation of State Obligations and Responsibility Ensuring the Availability of Clean Water in Karimunjawa Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih

    2018-02-01

    This article aims to analyze the implementation of state obligations and responsibility ensuring the availability of clean water as part of human rights in Karimunjawa islands. The analysis based on principle of the State obligations and responsibility to fulfill their citizen right. Water sources in Karimunjawa Islands is very limited. It depend on forest conservation. Around 9.600 peoples live in Karimunjawa Islands, but Karimunjawa is non groundwater basin region. It means, Karimunjawa doesn't have groundwater potential. The quantity of water depends on the season. The solution to maintain the sustainability of clean water is piping from water reservoir to residential areas. The problem is there are so many hotels in Karimunjawa islands, it disrupted the fulfillment of clean water. Besides utilizing water from reservoir, many hotels drilled the ground to get water. It had impact to the availibity of water in dry season and affected to fulfillment of water supply for Karimunjawa people. There is no specific regulation and policy to solve this problem. Clean water management is doing by Karimunjawa's people. Meanwhile, based on Mahkamah Konstitusi Decree number 85/PUU-XI/2013, state is a rights holder to dominate the water in accordance with the Articles 33 paragraph (2) and (3) UUD NRI 1945, so the government has an obligation to make a policy, regulations, management, and supervision.

  14. Optimizing Reservoir-Stream-Aquifer Interactions for Conjunctive Use and Hydropower Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Fayad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctive management of water resources involves coordinating use of surface water and groundwater resources. Very few simulation/optimization (S-O models for stream-aquifer system management have included detailed interactions between groundwater, streams, and reservoir storage. This paper presents an S-O model doing that via artificial neural network simulators and genetic algorithm optimizer for multiobjective conjunctive water use problems. The model simultaneously addresses all significant flows including reservoir-stream-diversion-aquifer interactions in a more detailed manner than previous models. The model simultaneously maximizes total water provided and hydropower production. A penalty function implicitly poses constraints on state variables. The model effectively finds feasible optimal solutions and the Pareto optimum. Illustrated is application for planning water resource and minihydropower system development.

  15. Magnetic monopole interactions: shell structure of meson and baryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is suggested that a low-mass magnetic monopole of Dirac charge g = (137/2)e may be interacting with a c-quark's magnetic dipole moment to produce Zeeman splitting of meson states. The mass M 0 = 2397 MeV of the monopole is in contrast to the 10 16 -GeV monopoles of grand unification theories (GUT). It is shown that shell structure of energy E/sub n/ = M 0 + 1/4nM 0 ... exists for meson states. The presence of symmetric meson states leads to the identification of the shell structure. The possible existence of the 2397-MeV magnetic monopole is shown to quantize quark masses in agreement with calculations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). From the shell structure of meson states, the existence of two new mesons is predicted: eta(1814 +/- 50 MeV) with I/sup G/(J/sup PC/) = 0 + (0 -+ ) and eta/sub c/ (3907 +/- 100 MeV) with J/sup PC/ = 0 -+ . The presence of shell structure for baryon states is shown

  16. Collective Dynamics of Intracellular Water in Living Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orecchini, A; Sebastiani, F; Paciaroni, A; Petrillo, C; Sacchetti, F; Jasnin, M; Francesco, A De; Zaccai, G; Moulin, M; Haertlein, M

    2012-01-01

    Water dynamics plays a fundamental role for the fulfillment of biological functions in living organisms. Decades of hydrated protein powder studies have revealed the peculiar dynamical properties of hydration water with respect to pure water, due to close coupling interactions with the macromolecule. In such a framework, we have studied coherent collective dynamics in protein and DNA hydration water. State-of-the-art neutron instrumentation has allowed us to observe the propagation of coherent density fluctuations within the hydration shell of the biomolecules. The corresponding dispersion curves resulted to be only slightly affected by the coupling with the macromolecules. Nevertheless, the effects of the interaction appeared as a marked increase of the mode damping factors, which suggested a destructuring of the water hydrogen-bond network. Such results were interpreted as the signature of a 'glassy' dynamical character of macromolecule hydration water, in agreement with indications from measurements of the density of vibrational states. Extending the investigations to living organisms at physiological conditions, we present here an in-vivo study of collective dynamics of intracellular water in Escherichia coli cells. The cells and water were fully deuterated to minimise the incoherent neutron scattering background. The water dynamics observed in the living cells is discussed in terms of the dynamics of pure bulk water and that of hydration water measured in powder samples.

  17. Ozone interaction with surfactants of waste waters of NPP specialized laundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachok, M.A.; Prokudina, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ozone interaction with OP-10 and Kristall synthetic detergent contained in sewage water of NPP specialized laundries was investigated. It is shown that the medium acidity practically does not affect the rate of OP-10 oxidation -complete oxidation of the preparation with the concentration of 130 mg/l in pH range of 6-11 is achieved in 90 min in case of ozone consumption of 1.6 g/g of the substance. Absorption coefficient equals 0.64. Carbonic acids are products of OP-10 oxidation, which are then oxidized to carbonic acid and water. It is ascertained that ozonation rate of the Kristall synthetic detergent is decreased at pH 9)

  18. Effects of water-channel attractions on single-file water permeation through nanochannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yousheng; Zheng, Youqu; Tian, Xingling; Lv, Mei; He, Bing; Deng, Maolin; Xiu, Peng; Tu, Yusong

    2016-01-01

    Single-file transportation of water across narrow nanochannels such as carbon nanotubes has attracted much attention in recent years. Such permeation can be greatly affected by the water-channel interactions; despite some progress, this issue has not been fully explored. Herein we use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of water-channel attractions on occupancy, translational (transportation) and orientational dynamics of water inside narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We use SWNTs as the model nanochannels and change the strength of water-nanotube attractions to mimic the changes in the hydrophobicity/polarity of the nanochannel. We investigate the dependence of water occupancy inside SWNTs on the water-channel attraction and identify the corresponding threshold values for drying states, wetting-drying transition states, and stably wetting states. As the strength of water-channel attractions increases, water flow increases rapidly first, and then decreases gradually; the maximal flow occurs in the case where the nanochannel is predominately filled with the 1D water wire but with a small fraction of ‘empty states’, indicating that appropriate empty-filling (drying-wetting) switching can promote water permeation. This maximal flow is unexpected, since in traditional view, the stable and tight hydrogen-bonding network of the water wire is the prerequisite for high permeability of water. The underlying mechanism is discussed from an energetic perspective. In addition, the effect of water-channel attractions on reorientational dynamics of the water wire is studied, and a negative correlation between the flipping frequency of water wire and the water-channel attraction is observed. The underlying mechanism is interpreted in term of the axial total dipole moment of inner water molecules. This work would help to better understand the effects of water-channel attractions on wetting properties of narrow nanochannels, and on single

  19. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Angeles Cerezo; Purificación Sierra-García; Gemma Pons-Salvador; Rosa M. Trenado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each gro...

  20. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  1. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A.

    2014-10-01

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  2. Interaction of water components in the semi-arid Huasco and Limarí river basins, North Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Strauch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For sustainable water resource management in semi-arid regions, sound information is required about interactions between the different components of the water system: rain/snow precipitation, surface/subsurface run-off, groundwater recharge. Exemplarily, the Huasco and Limarí river basins as water stressed river catchments have been studied by isotope and hydrochemical methods for (i the origin of water, (ii water quality, (iii relations of surface and groundwater.

    Applying the complex multi-isotopic and hydrochemical methodology to the water components of the Huasco and Limarí basins, a differentiation of water components concerning subsurface flow and river water along the catchment area and by anthropogenic impacts are detected. Sulphate and nitrate concentrations indicate remarkable input from mining and agricultural activities along the river catchment.

    The 2H-18O relations of river water and groundwater of both catchments point to the behaviour of river waters originated in an arid to semi-arid environment.

    Consequently, the groundwater from several production wells in the lower parts of the catchments is related to the rivers where the wells located, however, it can be distinguished from the river water. Using the hydrological water balance and the isotope mixing model, the interaction between surface and subsurface flows and river flow is estimated.

  3. On the role of final-state interactions in Dalitz plot studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian; Niecknig, Franz; Schneider, Sebastian P.

    2012-01-01

    The study of Dalitz plots of heavy-meson decays to multi-hadron final states has received intensified interest by the possibility to gain access to precision investigations of CP violation. A thorough understanding of the hadronic final-state interactions is a prerequisite to achieve a highly sensitive, model-independent study of such Dalitz plots. We illustrate some of the theoretical tools, predominantly taken from dispersion theory, available for these and related purposes, and discuss the low-energy decays ω,φ→3π in some more detail.

  4. On the role of final-state interactions in Dalitz plot studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Bastian, E-mail: kubis@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Niecknig, Franz; Schneider, Sebastian P. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    The study of Dalitz plots of heavy-meson decays to multi-hadron final states has received intensified interest by the possibility to gain access to precision investigations of CP violation. A thorough understanding of the hadronic final-state interactions is a prerequisite to achieve a highly sensitive, model-independent study of such Dalitz plots. We illustrate some of the theoretical tools, predominantly taken from dispersion theory, available for these and related purposes, and discuss the low-energy decays {omega},{phi}{yields}3{pi} in some more detail.

  5. On the role of final-state interactions in Dalitz plot studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Bastian; Niecknig, Franz; Schneider, Sebastian P.

    2012-04-01

    The study of Dalitz plots of heavy-meson decays to multi-hadron final states has received intensified interest by the possibility to gain access to precision investigations of CP violation. A thorough understanding of the hadronic final-state interactions is a prerequisite to achieve a highly sensitive, model-independent study of such Dalitz plots. We illustrate some of the theoretical tools, predominantly taken from dispersion theory, available for these and related purposes, and discuss the low-energy decays ω,ϕ→3π in some more detail.

  6. Weekend Warriors for Water: Combating Water Scarcity in West Africa with United States Army National Guard and Reserve Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    vulnerable to “conflict and instability from political, social, economic , and environmental challenges” (United States Africa Command 2017). The...improve regional stability , which in turn increases economic , political, and social development. RC deployments to support water scarcity missions can...Capacity DOD Department of Defense DOS Department of State ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States FHA Foreign Humanitarian Assistance

  7. Interaction of steel elements with products of lithium-water reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, O.V.; Orlov, A.V.; Orlova, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Isobar and isothermal potentials of reactions of products of lithium interaction with water (Li 2 O, LiOH) with components of structural steels (Fe, Cr, Ni, Cr 4 C, Ni, Ti, Si, Al) are calculated at the general pressure of P=1 at in the absence of mutual solubility of components. The chemical resistance of steel components to lithium oxide and hydroxide effect in the temperature range of 300-1500 K is estimated comparatively. Lithium oxide and hydroxide have different corrosion properties relatively to chromium-nickel steels (simple and complex compounds form with LiOH, which do not form with Li 2 O). Titanium, niobium, silicon, aluminium form stable compounds when interacting with LiOH. In reactions with Li 2 O only complex titanium compounds are stable at the temperature >1150 K; aluminium compounds are stable in the whole range of temperatures investigated

  8. 78 FR 9047 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Water System Supervision Program. Texas has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), (2) the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection... Drinking Water Section (MC-155), Building F, 12100 Park 35 Circle, Austin, TX 78753; and United States...

  9. Water-magma interaction and plume processes in the 2008 Okmok eruption, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unema, Joel; Ort, Michael H.; Larsen, Jessica D; Neal, Christina; Schaefer, Janet R.

    2016-01-01

    Eruptions of similar explosivity can have divergent effects on the surroundings due to differences in the behavior of the tephra in the eruption column and atmosphere. Okmok volcano, located on Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands, erupted explosively between 12 July and 19 August 2008. The basaltic andesitic eruption ejected ∼0.24 km3dense rock equivalent (DRE) of tephra, primarily directed to the northeast of the vent area. The first 4 h of the eruption produced dominantly coarse-grained tephra, but the following 5 wk of the eruption deposited almost exclusively ash, much of it very fine and deposited as ash pellets and ashy rain and mist. Meteorological storms combined with abundant plume water to efficiently scrub ash from the eruption column, with a rapid decrease in deposit thickness with distance from the vent. Grain-size analysis shows that the modes (although not their relative proportions) are very constant throughout the deposit, implying that the fragmentation mechanisms did not vary much. Grain-shape features consistent with molten fuel-coolant interaction are common. Surface and groundwater drainage into the vents provided the water for phreatomagmatic fragmentation. The available water (water that could reach the vent area during the eruption) was ∼2.8 × 1010 kg, and the erupted magma totaled ∼7 × 1011 kg, which yield an overall water:magma mass ratio of ∼0.04, but much of the water was not interactive. Although magma flux dropped from 1 × 107 kg/s during the initial 4 h to 1.8 × 105 kg/s for the remainder of the eruption, most of the erupted material was ejected during the lower-mass-flux period due to its much greater length, and this tephra was dominantly deposited within 10 km downwind of the vent. This highlights the importance of ash scrubbing in the evaluation of hazards from explosive eruptions.

  10. Water states and types of water in materials from different argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Melon, A.

    2010-01-01

    clayey formations, the amount of accessory minerals, type of clays and water contents affect the amount and distribution of the external and internal water; and the combination of such properties is not well understood. In this work, the study of water states, types of water (adsorbed, free water), and the water volume accessible to ions is performed in samples belonging to different clay formations (Boom Clay, Opalinus Clay and Callovo-Oxfordian). This offers the opportunity of understanding the nature of water in clayey systems because of their variations in parameters affecting to the amount of adsorbed and capillary water such as: degree of compaction, water content, clay content, type of clays, salinity, nature of exchangeable cations, etc. The aim is to obtain the accessible porosity or geochemical porosity in compacted materials in order to determine the chemical composition of the pore water. The results are compared with those obtained in experimental lab (by squeezing and aqueous leaching) and in situ studies. The research is accomplished by a careful and detailed characterization of the clay samples. Parameters such as particle size, layer spacing, chemical composition, mineralogy, external and total surfaces, porosity and pore water chemistry were determined. The method combines different types of methodologies to obtain a representative description of double porosity systems and the amount of free, adsorbed and confined water involved in real-type porous media: water adsorption isotherms, XRD, TG, calorimetric measurements and diffuse reflectance FTIR. Besides, a comparison among different types of clayey formation is given, in which there are variations in the types of clays, water contents, dry densities, pore water chemistry and type of exchangeable cations. The results try to reduce the lack of data about water volume accessible to ions, and the involved uncertainty in the use of total porosity or accessible porosity in the modelling of the pore water

  11. Monitoring groundwater-surface water interaction using time-series and time-frequency analysis of transient three-dimensional electrical resistivity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Elwaseif, Mehrez

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse resistivity imaging is increasingly used to monitor hydrologic processes. Compared to conventional hydrologic measurements, surface time-lapse resistivity provides superior spatial coverage in two or three dimensions, potentially high-resolution information in time, and information in the absence of wells. However, interpretation of time-lapse electrical tomograms is complicated by the ever-increasing size and complexity of long-term, three-dimensional (3-D) time series conductivity data sets. Here we use 3-D surface time-lapse electrical imaging to monitor subsurface electrical conductivity variations associated with stage-driven groundwater-surface water interactions along a stretch of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 near Richland, Washington, USA. We reduce the resulting 3-D conductivity time series using both time-series and time-frequency analyses to isolate a paleochannel causing enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions. Correlation analysis on the time-lapse imaging results concisely represents enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions within the paleochannel, and provides information concerning groundwater flow velocities. Time-frequency analysis using the Stockwell (S) transform provides additional information by identifying the stage periodicities driving groundwater-surface water interactions due to upstream dam operations, and identifying segments in time-frequency space when these interactions are most active. These results provide new insight into the distribution and timing of river water intrusion into the Hanford 300 Area, which has a governing influence on the behavior of a uranium plume left over from historical nuclear fuel processing operations.

  12. Incorporating water-release and lateral protein interactions in modeling equilibrium adsorption for ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, Marvin E; Pinto, Neville G

    2006-09-08

    The equilibrium adsorption of two albumin proteins on a commercial ion exchanger has been studied using a colloidal model. The model accounts for electrostatic and van der Waals forces between proteins and the ion exchanger surface, the energy of interaction between adsorbed proteins, and the contribution of entropy from water-release accompanying protein adsorption. Protein-surface interactions were calculated using methods previously reported in the literature. Lateral interactions between adsorbed proteins were experimentally measured with microcalorimetry. Water-release was estimated by applying the preferential interaction approach to chromatographic retention data. The adsorption of ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin on an anion exchanger at solution pH>pI of protein was measured. The experimental isotherms have been modeled from the linear region to saturation, and the influence of three modulating alkali chlorides on capacity has been evaluated. The heat of adsorption is endothermic for all cases studied, despite the fact that the net charge on the protein is opposite that of the adsorbing surface. Strong repulsive forces between adsorbed proteins underlie the endothermic heat of adsorption, and these forces intensify with protein loading. It was found that the driving force for adsorption is the entropy increase due to the release of water from the protein and adsorbent surfaces. It is shown that the colloidal model predicts protein adsorption capacity in both the linear and non-linear isotherm regions, and can account for the effects of modulating salt.

  13. Bound states of water in gelatin discriminated by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yukiko; Shirakashi, Ryo; Hirakawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-11-01

    By near-infrared spectroscopy, we classified water molecules in hydrated gelatin membranes in a drying process. Absorbance spectra in the frequency range of 4500-5500 cm-1 were resolved into three peaks, S0, S1, and S2, that correspond to water molecules with different hydrogen bond states. From the areas of the absorbance peaks as a function of the water content of gelatin, together with the information on the freezing properties of water measured by differential scanning calorimetry, we found that, when the water content is less than 20%, free water disapp