WorldWideScience

Sample records for state waste discharge

  1. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  2. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  3. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  4. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  5. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond

  6. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field

  7. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  8. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment

  9. State waste discharge permit application: Hydrotest, maintenance and construction discharges. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US DOE< Richland Operation Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 (216 Consent Order) (Ecology and US DOE 1991). The 216 Consent Order list regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site and requires compliance with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized on the 216 Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams were initially addressed in two report. Miscellaneous Streams are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the 216 Consent Order. This document constitutes the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for hydrotest,maintenance and construction discharges throughout the Hanford Site. This categorical permit application form was prepared and approved by Ecology

  10. State waste discharge permit application: Hydrotest, maintenance and construction discharges. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US DOE< Richland Operation Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 (216 Consent Order) (Ecology and US DOE 1991). The 216 Consent Order list regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site and requires compliance with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized on the 216 Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams were initially addressed in two report. Miscellaneous Streams are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the 216 Consent Order. This document constitutes the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for hydrotest,maintenance and construction discharges throughout the Hanford Site. This categorical permit application form was prepared and approved by Ecology.

  11. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  12. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks

  13. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water

  14. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  15. State waste discharge permit application 400 Area secondary cooling water. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site that affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Based upon compositional and flow rate characteristics, liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site have been categorized into Phase 1, Phase 2, and Miscellaneous streams. This document only addresses the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream, which has been identified as a Phase 2 stream. The 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream includes contribution streams from the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the Maintenance and Storage Facility, the 481-A pump house, and the Fast Flux Test Facility

  16. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  17. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  18. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  19. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  20. Low level radioactive waste management and discharge policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Oezdemir, C.; Uslu, I.

    2005-01-01

    The legal infrastructure in Turkey for the management of low-level radioactive waste covers the liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. Management of these radioactive wastes is briefly described in this paper. Moreover, delay and decay tank systems that are used to collect and store the low level radioactive wastes as a part of low-level radioactive effluent discharge policy are introduced. (author)

  1. Treatment of hazardous wastes by DC thermal plasma arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toru, Iwao; Yafang, Liu; Furuta, N.; Tsuginori, Inaba

    2001-01-01

    The temperature of the DC thermal plasma arc discharge is discussed, and examples of the waste treatment for the inorganic compounds such as fly ash, asbestos, and for the organic compounds such as the toxic dioxines and TBT by using the DC plasma arc discharge are shown. In addition, the plasma treatment by using a radiant power emitted from the DC plasma arc discharge is also shown as another new kind of ones. (authors)

  2. Waste water discharges into natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, P.; Barsanti, P.; Mione, A.; Posarelli, M.

    1996-12-01

    The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

  3. Water reuse achieved by zero discharge of aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelchner, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for zero discharge of aqueous waste from ERDA's nuclear weapons plant near Denver are discussed. Two plants - a process waste treatment facility now under construction, and a reverse osmosis desalting plant now under design, will provide total reuse of waste water for boiler feed and cooling tower supply. Seventy million gallons of water per year will be conserved and downstream municipalities will be free of inadvertent pollution hazards

  4. Discharged of the nuclear wastes by health service centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, G.; Jednorog, S.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper Polish national regulation in radiation protection on nuclear medical domain was discussed. The method of utilized nuclear wastes in medical and science centres was deliberate. From many years activity of wastes from Nuclear Medicine Department of Central Clinical Hospital Armed Forces Medical Academy and Radiation Protection Department of Armed Forces Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology was measured. In debate centres radiation monitoring was performed. In this purpose the beta global activity and gamma spectrometry measurement of discharged wastes occurred. From last year in discussed centres wastes activity do not increased permissible levels. (author). 3 refs, 5 tabs

  5. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Koonchun; Lim, Sooking; Teh, Pehchiong

    2015-05-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  6. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm

  7. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong [Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Lim, Sooking [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  8. 21 CFR 1250.51 - Railroad conveyances; discharge of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Manager, Interstate Travel Sanitation Sub-Program, HFF-312... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad conveyances; discharge of wastes. 1250.51 Section 1250.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  9. Perturbation of seafloor bacterial community structure by drilling waste discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tan T; Cochrane, Sabine K J; Landfald, Bjarne

    2018-04-01

    Offshore drilling operations result in the generation of drill cuttings and localized smothering of the benthic habitats. This study explores bacterial community changes in the in the upper layers of the seafloor resulting from an exploratory drilling operation at 1400m water depth on the Barents Sea continental slope. Significant restructurings of the sediment microbiota were restricted to the sampling sites notably affected by the drilling waste discharge, i.e. at 30m and 50m distances from the drilling location, and to the upper 2cm of the seafloor. Three bacterial groups, the orders Clostridiales and Desulfuromonadales and the class Mollicutes, were almost exclusively confined to the upper two centimeters at 30m distance, thereby corroborating an observed increase in anaerobicity inflicted by the drilling waste deposition. The potential of these phylogenetic groups as microbial bioindicators of the spatial extent and persistence of drilling waste discharge should be further explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground during 1974 and since startup within the Production and Waste Management control zone are summarized in tabular form. Estimates of the radioactivity discharged to individual ponds, cribs, and retention sites are also summarized. (LK)

  11. Effect of liquid waste discharges from steam generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, H.E. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    This report contains a summary of the effects of liquid waste discharges from steam electric generating facilities on the environment. Also included is a simplified model for use in approximately determining the effects of these discharges. Four basic fuels are used in steam electric power plants: three fossil fuels--coal, natural gas, and oil; and uranium--presently the basic fuel of nuclear power. Coal and uranium are expected to be the major fuels in future years. The following power plant effluents are considered: heat, chlorine, copper, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, pH, oil and grease, iron, zinc, chrome, phosphorus, and trace radionuclides.

  12. Effect of liquid waste discharges from steam generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, H.E. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    This report contains a summary of the effects of liquid waste discharges from steam electric generating facilities on the environment. Also included is a simplified model for use in approximately determining the effects of these discharges. Four basic fuels are used in steam electric power plants: three fossil fuels--coal, natural gas, and oil; and uranium--presently the basic fuel of nuclear power. Coal and uranium are expected to be the major fuels in future years. The following power plant effluents are considered: heat, chlorine, copper, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, pH, oil and grease, iron, zinc, chrome, phosphorus, and trace radionuclides

  13. Processing method for discharged radioactive laundry water waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Tatsuo; Kitsukawa, Ryozo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kiuchi, Yoshimasa; Hattori, Yasuo.

    1995-01-01

    In order to process discharged radioactive laundry water wastes safely and decrease radioactive wastes, bubbling of a surface active agent in a detergent which causes a problem upon its condensation is suppressed, so that the liquid condensate are continuously and easily dried into a powder. A nonionic surface active agent is used against the bubbling of the surface active agent. In addition, the bubbling in an the evaporation can is reduced, and the powderization is facilitated by adding an appropriate inorganic builder. (T.M.)

  14. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has...... a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From 1992, the maximum average concentrations allowed for municipal waste water discharges to receiving...... waters will be; 15 mg/1 for BOD5, 8 mg/1 for total nitrogen, and 1.5 mg/1 for total phosphorus. These general requirements cover all types of receiving waters, but regional authorities have, in a number of cases, fixed lower values for sensitive areas....

  15. Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Neng-Ping; Walsh, William J.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

  16. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Signore, John C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  17. Treatment of complex electroplating waste by 'zero discharge' technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, B.Q.; Ram Sankar, P.; Jain, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Surface treatment processes generate lot of liquid waste, which contains toxic substances and are potentially harmful to the living beings. It is extremely difficult to treat the pollutants where processes and frequencies are not fixed. In Chemical Treatment Facility of RRCAT, surface treatment processes are user dependent and makes the electroplating waste very complicated. Initially the waste was treated by simple chemical transformation technique in which heavy metal ions are converted to hydroxide precipitates. Non metallic ions that contribute much to the plating waste could not be treated by this process. To remove maximum possible pollutants, many experiments were conducted on the laboratory scale. Based on those results, a pilot ion exchange plant of various resins was introduced in the process to achieve disposal quality effluent. Anionic load of Phosphate, Nitrate and fluoride caused frequent anionic bed exhaustions and polymeric network damaging. To avoid this phenomenon a new setup was designed. This pre treatment has the capacity to treat 500 litres per hour connected to a platter with clarifier followed by high pressure carbon and pebbles filters. Analysis of these ions was carried out on the advanced ion chromatography system and is found free of toxic metals, phosphate and fluoride. This effluent can be reused by adding a reverse osmosis system followed by ion exchange system to produce good quality de mineralized water needed for surface treatment activities. In this paper we describe the existing status of effluent treatment facility and future plans for achieving 'zero discharge'. (author)

  18. Regulation, proportionality and discharges of radioactive wastes: UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, Bob; Butler, Gregg; Mc Glynn, Grace

    2008-01-01

    billion per annum, orders of magnitude below the level assumed by National Radiological Protection Board in their 1993 valuation of collective dose. Arguably, UK Operators have already been driven by the Regulator to go considerably beyond the (subjective) requirements of ALARA with respect to discharges from their sites, and the resources invested to reach the current very low levels of discharges have been, and continue to be, clearly disproportionate to any benefits gained. Despite this, the UK nuclear industry is under intense pressure from the regulatory bodies to reduce its already small discharges still further. This is not the case in other European countries. The consequences of such socio-political primacy in decision making has been a significant contributory factor in driving the costs of UK nuclear generation and waste management to levels where the economics of nuclear generation in the GB have been artificially skewed to make it more prohibitive. This paper questions the practical application of ALARA, especially consistency in the treatment of risk and hazard; and proportionate and cost effective delivery of public, worker and environmental protection. It then suggests a solution to these issues. (author)

  19. Notice of intent to discharge water contaminants. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Eddy County, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.S.; Porter, K.R.; Register, J.K.

    1983-04-01

    This report provides information in support of a ''Notice of Intent to Discharge Water Contaminants,'' pursuant to Section 1-201 of the New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission Regulations. The anticipated discharges are not expected to move directly or indirectly into groundwater. These discharges will be caused by activities related to the construction of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development program to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities and programs of the United States. The facility is to be developed in deep layers of bedded salt. The WIPP site is located in Eddy County, New Mexico, about 26 miles east of Carlsbad. The US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office, Albuquerque, New Mexico, as the sponsor of the project, is responsible for any discharges from the site. The following sections describe generally the WIPP construction activities. Pertinent site conditions, potential sources of discharges and their expected effects, and proposed groundwater monitoring efforts are also described

  20. Distribution of the active liquid waste discharge concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.H.C.

    1985-03-01

    In assessing the proposal for removing the on-line liquid effluent monitor (LEM) from the Darlington NGS-A design, it was required to estimate the probability that the concentration of β-y emitters in the active liquid waste (ALW) tank discharges exceeds a specified level. To achieve this, it was necessary to know the underlying distribution of the ALW discharge concentration. Since the distribution could only be estimated from the historical data, it was also important to provide the confidence interval for the estimated probability. Using the ALW discharge records of Pickering and Bruce NGS-A, it was found that the log-normal distribution provided the best fit for the data. The frequency of the tank concentration exceeding the specified level of 24000μCi/m 3 was estimated to be 1 in 200,000 years at Bruce NGS-A and 1 in 100,000 years at Pickering. The 99% upper confidence limits are 1 in 2777 years and 1 in 77 years, respectively

  1. Treatment of hazardous organic wastes using silent discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Anderson, G.K.; Bechtold, L.A.; Coogan, J.J.; Heck, H.G.; Kang, M.; McCulla, W.H.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the past two decades, interest in applying non-equilibrium plasmas to the removal of hazardous chemicals from gaseous media has been growing, in particular from heightened concerns over the pollution of our environment and a growing body of environmental regulations. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we are currently engaged in a project to develop non-equilibrium plasma technology for hazardous waste treatment. Our present focus is on dielectric-barrier discharges, which are historically called silent electrical discharges. This type of plasma is also named a silent discharge plasma (SDP). We have chosen this method due to its potential for high energy efficiency, its scientific and technological maturity, and its scalability. The SDP process has been demonstrated to be reliable and economical for the industrial-scale synthesis of ozone, where municipal water treatment plants frequently require the on-site generation of thousands of kilograins per day (Eliasson ampersand Kogelschatz). The related methods of corona processing are presently the focus of work at other institutions, particularly for flue gas processing. Both SDP and corona processes are characterized by the production of large quantities of highly reactive free radicals, especially atomic oxygen O(3P) and the hydroxyl OH, in the gaseous medium and their subsequent reaction with contaminants. Our primary objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more amenable to treatment. In the ideal case, the hazardous wastes are destructively oxidized to simpler, non-hazardous compounds plus CO2 and H2O. Sometimes the reaction products are still potentially hazardous, but are easily treated by conventional methods to yield non-hazardous products

  2. 75 FR 29757 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ..., 4 dispose of wastes to an on-site septic system, 21 dispose to a holding tank and 62 dispose to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Thus all vessel sewage will be either discharge into State approved and regulated septic tanks or holding tanks for transport to a sewage treatment plant. Online maps are...

  3. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges...

  4. Waste water discharge and its effect on the quality of water of Mahim creek and bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    Coastal environment around Mahim was monitored to evaluate the effects of domestic and industrial waste water discharge in Mahim Creek, Maharashtra, India. Vertical salinity and DO gradient occasionally observed in the Mahim Bay during postmonsoon...

  5. Categorisation of waste streams arising from the operation of a low active waste incinerator and justification of discharge practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Waste streams arising from the low active waste incinerator at Harwell are described, and the radiological impact of each exposure pathway discussed. The waste streams to be considered are: (i) discharge of scrubber liquors after effluent treatment to the river Thames; (ii) disposal of incinerator ash; and (iii) discharge of airborne gaseous effluents to the atmosphere. Doses to the collective population and critical groups as a result of the operation of the incinerator are assessed and an attempt made to justify the incineration practice by consideration of the radiological impact and monetary costs associated with alternative disposal methods. (author)

  6. Radioactive liquid waste discharged from Nuclear Electric licensed sites during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, L.S.; Odell, K.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the detailed isotopic composition of radioactive liquid waste discharged from Nuclear Electric licensed sites in 1991. Liquid discharges from those Magnox stations using pond storage of irradiated fuel contained low levels of activation and fission products, while those from Wylfa and the AGR stations contained lower levels of activation products with only traces of fission products. Discharges were similar to those observed in previous years, with any changes concordant with changes in stations' generation performance. (author)

  7. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  8. Radioactivity in gaseous waste discharged from the separations facilities during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Poremba, B.E.

    1979-01-01

    This document is issued quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive gaseous wastes that are discharged from the facilities of the Rockwell Hanford Operations. Data on alpha and beta emissions during 1978 are presented where relevant to the gaseous effluent. Emission data are not included on gaseous wastes produced within the 200 Areas by other Hanford contractors

  9. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF

  10. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  11. Treatment of mixed wastes by thermal plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    The present study has as purpose to apply the technology of thermal plasma in the destruction of certain type of waste generated in the ININ. As first instance, origin, classification and disposition of the radioactive waste generated in the ININ is identified. Once identified the waste, the waste to treat is determined based on: the easiness of treating him with plasma, classification and importance. Later on, a substance or compound settles down (sample model) that serves as indicative of the waste for its physical-chemical characteristics, this is made because in the Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory is not had the license to work with radioactive material. The sample model and the material to form the vitreous matrix are characterized before and after the treatment in order to evaluating their degradation and vitrification. During the treatment by means of the thermal plasma, the appropriate conditions are determined for the degradation and vitrification of the waste. Also, it is carried out an energy balance in the system to know the capacity to fuse the material depending the transfer of existent heat between the plasma and the material to treat. Obtaining favorable results, it thought about to climb in the project and by this way to help to solve one of the environmental problems in Mexico, as they are it the mixed wastes. (Author)

  12. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  13. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing waste (wastewater), which emanates from land-based sources and which directly impact on the marine environment. These sources include sea outfalls, storm water drains, canals, rivers and diffuse sources of pollution. To date ...

  14. Waste heat discharges in the aquatic environment -- impact and monitoring 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on ecological impacts, on fishes in particular, of waste heat discharges in the aquatic environment are briefly reviewed. These studies cover the susceptibility of fishes to disease and predation, population biology, parasite proliferation and its impact on fishes, synergistic effects due to heat and other stresses such as chemicals, pollutant, lowering of saturation limit of dissolved oxygen at elevated temperature and radioactivity. Experiences of monitoring waste heat discharges at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) and the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) are presented. Entrainment losses and impingement losses are also reviewed. Requirements for thermal monitoring are mentioned. (M.G.B.)

  15. United States steps up waste isolation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H W [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (USA). Office of Waste Isolation; Carbiener, W A [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (USA)

    1982-11-01

    A description is given of the United States' waste isolation programme which now involves tests of specific sites. The US Department of Energy plans to build a system of mined geological repositories for the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste. It is hoped that the first repository will be available by 1998. Studies of the geology and hydrology of the proposed sites, the waste packaging and the repository design are reported.

  16. Radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, efforts to dispose of the nation's high- and low-level radioactive wastes are based on somewhat different approaches.The individual States are responsible for disposing of low-level wastes with the Federal Government providing technical and financial support to help the States in the early phases of their efforts. The Federal Government has responsibility for developing facilities for the disposal of high-level waste. However, both efforts show a common need to meet national objectives while satisfying the concerns of the public. (author)

  17. Measuring the availability to sediments and biota of radionuclides in wastes discharged to the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, M.D.; Hunt, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclides in waste discharged to the sea are taken up by marine sediments and organisms. The concentrations observed in these materials are determined by a complex process depending upon present and past discharges, and the rates of decay, dispersion, uptake and elimination. A simple, semi-empirical model is derived to predict current concentrations from historical discharges. An important parameter in this model is the mean availability time, the average time for which the radionuclide is effectively available to the material. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model's parameters are derived. The theory is applied to data collected in the marine environment near British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield. (Author)

  18. A new method for decontamination of radioactive waste using low-pressure arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Furukawa, Shizue; Adachi, Kazuo; Amakawa, Tadashi; Kanbe, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the decontamination features of the low-pressure arc-discharge method for radioactive waste generated in the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants were examined. The low-pressure arc-discharge method was applied to type 304 stainless-steel, type 316L stainless-steel, alloy 600 and carbon-steel covered with radioactive corrosion products. Approximately, 80% of the radioactivity build up on stainless-steels could be removed by the low-pressure arc discharge

  19. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 Areas during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Poremba, B.E.

    1979-01-01

    This document is issued quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive liquid wastes that have been discharged to the ground in the 200 Areas. In addition to data for 1978, cumulative data since plant startup are presented. Also, in this document is a listing of decayed activity to the various plant sites

  20. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248...

  1. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during the first three quarters of 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    An overall summary of radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground during the first three quarters of 1974 and since startup within the Production and Waste Management control zone is presented in tabular form. Estimates of the radioactivity discharged to individual ponds, cribs, and specific retention sites are given. (LK)

  2. Radioactive waste discharges from UKAEA establishments during 1996 and associated monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, A.K.M.; Forbes, S.A.; Hughes, B.; Richardson, E.

    1997-08-01

    This annual report is published by the Safety Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and provides information on radioactive discharges from its sites. The Culcheth site was closed and then redeveloped during the end of 1993 and the Springfields site became part of BNFL in October 1994. No operations involving the need to discharge radioactivity are undertaken at the Risley site. After discussions with the Authorising Departments at that time, the discharge authorisations were revoked on 1 July 1994. These sites are therefore no longer included in this report. UKAEA has published annual radioactive waste discharges and associated monitoring results since 1963. This report is intended to give a relatively short factual overview of UKAEA waste discharge and disposal, and its impact on the environment. Additional information may be found in annual discharge reports published by the individual UKAEA establishments and the UKAEA Report on Safety and the Environment 1996-97 due to be issued at the end of September 1997. (UK)

  3. Characterisation of discharge areas of radionuclides originating from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, L.; Woerman, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate if there are certain landscape elements that will generally act as discharge areas for radio-nuclides leaking from a subsurface deposit of nuclear waste. We also characterize the typical properties that distinguish these areas from others. Understanding the processes controlling the clustering of discharge to certain areas is an additional topic of study. Landscape topography is the most important driving force for groundwater flow. Because groundwater is the main transporting agent for migrating radio-nuclides, the topography will determine the flow paths of leaking radionuclides. How topography and heterogeneities in the subsurface affect the discharge distribution of the radionuclides is the main scope of this study. An analytical and a numerical model are used. Conclusions are: Our results suggest that the varieties of landscape elements which have potential for receiving significant amounts of radio-nuclides are limited. To save recourses, the surficial radiological assessments should therefore be focused in these areas. Furthermore, the discharge areas of groundwater from repository depth have defining characteristics that distinguish them from discharge areas of shallower groundwater flow cells. Due to the similarities within deep groundwater discharge areas, one can make site-specific analyses of those areas, which have a broad applicability for migration of radio-nuclides originating from a nuclear waste repository (author)(tk)

  4. Disposal of liquid radioactive waste - discharge of radioactive waste waters from hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwieg, F.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given about legal prescriptions in the FRG concerning composition and amount of the liquid waste substances and waste water disposal by emitting into the sewerage, waste water decay systems and collecting and storage of patients excretions. The radiation exposure of the population due to drainage of radioactive waste water from hospitals lower by more than two orders than the mean exposure due to nuclear-medical use. (HP) [de

  5. The spatio-temporal dynamic pattern of rural domestic solid waste discharge of China and its challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangjin; Kong, Lingqiang; Liu, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Wenping

    2018-04-01

    At present, construction of rural domestic waste treatment facilities is seriously lagging, and in many cases, treatment facilities do not yet exist in some villages of China. Serious rural waste pollution has not only impacted the quality of surface water and groundwater but also the atmosphere and the living environment of farmers of China. There are relatively few studies of rural domestic waste pollution, especially with respect to the spatio-temporal dynamic pattern of rural domestic waste discharge. Using survey data and income per capita, we calculated rural domestic waste discharge per capita per day. From this, we calculated provincial rural domestic waste discharge. According to our study, rural domestic waste discharge was 1.42 × 10 8 t/year in 2000. This number increased to 2.3 × 10 8 t/year in 2006 and to 2.47 × 10 8 t/year in 2010. Rural domestic waste increased dramatically while the actual rural population and the proportion of the rural population declined. When examining the eight regions, the rural domestic waste discharge of northeastern China, Qinghai-Tibet, middle China, and southwestern China had increased dramatically, while that of northern China, southern China, and eastern China increased relatively slowly. The economies of northern China, southern China, and eastern China are more developed; their rural domestic waste discharge has been high since 2000 and has continued to increase slowly. In northeastern China, Qinghai-Tibet, middle China, and southwestern China, rural domestic waste discharge was low in 2000; however, in the ten-year period from 2000 to 2010, their rural domestic waste discharge increased dramatically.

  6. Sediment filtration can reduce the N load of the waste water discharge - a full-scale lake experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni L.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Karvinen, Anu; Rissanen, Antti J.; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    European commission has obliged Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which requires high investments on the nitrate removal processes and may increase emissions of greenhouse gases, e.g. N2O, in the waste water treatment plants. We used ecosystem-scale experimental approach to test a novel sediment filtration method for economical waste water N removal in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland between 2014 and 2015. By spatially optimizing the waste water discharge, the contact area and time of nitrified waste water with the reducing microbes of the sediment was increased. This was expected to enhance microbial-driven N transformation and to alter microbial community composition. We utilized 15N isotope pairing technique to follow changes in the actual and potential denitrification rates, nitrous oxide formation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the lake sediments receiving nitrate-rich waste water input and in the control site. In addition, we investigated the connections between observed process rates and microbial community composition and functioning by using next generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of sediment filtration method on waste water contact time with sediment using the 3D hydrodynamic model. We sampled one year before the full-scale experiment and observed strong seasonal patterns in the process rates, which reflects the seasonal variation in the temperature-related mixing patterns of the waste water within the lake. During the experiment, we found that spatial optimization enhanced both actual and potential denitrification rates of the sediment. Furthermore, it did not significantly promote N2O emissions, or N retention through DNRA. Overall, our results indicate that sediment filtration can be utilized as a supplemental or even alternative method for the waste water N removal.

  7. DOE states reheat nuclear waste debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, M.

    1985-01-01

    After decades of struggling with the issue, Congress in late 1982 established a firm plan for burying growing volumes of nuclear reactor wastes. But 2 l/2 years later the waste disposal debate is as hot as ever. Utility companies, environmentalists, federal officials, and state governments are again clashing - this time over the way the program is proceeding. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act calls for the Department of Energy to start accepting wastes in 1998 at the first of two planned repositories. Selection of this first repository site was mandated for early 1987, but program delays at DOE have pushed the decision back to March 1991. Despite this postponement and other schedule slips, the Department still aims to meet Congress's 1998 deadline. But states, Indian tribes, and environmentalists fear the site selection process will be compromised and want the start up date rolled back

  8. State compacts and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, for the first time, low-level waste (LLW) was brought to the attention of policy makers in most states. For several decades, technical personnel had regulated and managed LLW, but elected officials and their staff had been largely ignorant of the origins and destination of low-level radioactive materials. Events in the fall of 1979 set in motion a sequence of events that has compelled the continuing attention of policy makers in every state in the nation. In December 1979, the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Association appointed an eight-member task force, chaired by Governor Bruce Babbitt of Arizona, to review low-level waste management and to formulate state policy by July 1980. The principal findings were as follows: 1. LLW could be managed most efficiently, both technically and politically, at the state level. 2. Each state should take responsibility for its own waste. 3. The creation of a regional waste management system by means of interstate compacts offered the best promise of creating new disposal capacity. 4. Regions should be allowed to exclude waste generated outside their borders after a specified date

  9. Update on low-level waste compacts and state agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenan, M.; Rabbe, D.; Thompson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This article updates information on the following agencies involved in low-level radioactive wastes: Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Central Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Commission; Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Compact; Massachusetts Low-Level radioactive Waste Management Board; Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority; Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission; Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact; Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Board; Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management;Southwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  10. Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.Raman

    2003-01-01

    The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs

  11. Latest movements on waste recycling measures. Dynamic state and risk assessment of radioactive cesium in disaster waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive substances were discharge by the catastrophe of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company. From the analysis of the dynamic state of radioactive substances in the environment, the radioactive cesium in the land and freshwater environment is distributed much in soil and freshwater sediment (solid phase) rather than in aqueous phase, even though the distribution depends on the composition of liquid phase water and adsorption objects. From this fact, the problem of radioactive cesium in the living environment can be summarized in the problem of solid system disaster waste in the end, such as soil, sediment, sludge, and waste. As for the current situation of disaster waste, this paper introduces the present state of disaster waste, in which treatment operations are not smoothly proceeding due to the large amount of waste, and difficulty in the classification work of waste and incineration treatment work. Regarding the wide-area treatment measures, there are various problems such that some municipalities are cooperative and some municipalities are hesitant about the acceptance of waste with radioactive contamination. As an example, this paper introduces the reviewing process and reference information in Osaka Prefecture regarding the acceptance of waste. (O.A.)

  12. BPEO as a Guide to Decision Making in the Authorisation of Radioactive Waste Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, Michael; Collier, David; Stone, Andrew; Keep, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    The Environment Agency (EA) and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are the independent public bodies responsible for regulating the disposal of radioactive wastes in the UK in order to ensure protection of people and the environment. Operators at nuclear sites must obtain authorisation from the relevant Agency, granted under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (RSA93), in order to make disposals of radioactive waste. Draft Statutory Guidance to the EA on the Regulation of Radioactive Discharges into the Environment from Nuclear Licensed Sites was published by the Government in October 2000. The Guidance establishes an obligation on the EA to ensure that proper consideration is given to the identification and evaluation of alternatives, in order to ensure that the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) is chosen, before authorisations can be granted. Such a requirement supplements and reinforces current regulatory practice in the UK, whereby nuclear site operators may be required (under Improvement Conditions attached to existing authorisations) to review waste management strategies on a regular basis in order to demonstrate that they represent the BPEO. SEPA shares a common interest with EA in use of the BPEO concept in the regulation of radioactive waste management, for both operational licensing and decommissioning projects. There has been no single standard methodology or guidance to Agency staff on application of the BPEO concept to radioactive waste management. BPEO studies presented by nuclear site operators have therefore been considered on a case-by-case basis. In the light of this, and taking account of the specific requirements emerging from the new Statutory Guidance, EA and SEPA have jointly supported the development of guidance for use by the Agencies in reviewing and assessing BPEO studies submitted in relation to authorisations granted under RSA93. This paper describes activities that have been undertaken to support the

  13. Characterization of Discharge Areas of Radionuclides Originating From Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, L.; Xu, S.; Worman, A.

    2009-05-01

    If leakages in nuclear waste repositories located in crystalline bedrock arise, radionuclides will reach the biosphere and cause a risk of radiological impact. The extent of the radiological impact depends on in which landscape elements the radionuclides emerge. In this study, we investigate if there are certain landscape elements that generally will act as discharge areas for radionuclides leaking from subsurface deposits. We also characterize the typical properties that distinguish these areas from others. In humid regions, landscape topography is the most important driving force for groundwater flow. Because groundwater is the main transporting agent for migrating radionuclides, the topography will determine the flowpaths of leaking radionuclides. How topography and heterogeneities in the subsurface affect the discharge distribution of the radionuclides is therefore an important scope of this study. To address these issues, we developed a 3-D transport model. Our analyses are based on site-specific data from two different areas in Sweden, Forsmark, Uppland, and Oskarshamn, Småland. The Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company (SKB) has selected these two areas as candidate areas for a deep repository of nuclear waste and the areas are currently subject to site investigations. Our results suggest that there are hot-spots in the landscape i.e. areas with high probability of receiving large amounts of radionuclides from a leaking repository of nuclear waste. The hot-spots concentrate in the sea, streams, lakes and wetlands. All these elements are found at lower elevations in the landscape. This pattern is mostly determined by the landscape topography and the locations of fracture zones. There is a relationship between fracture zones and topography, and therefore the importance of the topography for the discharge area distribution is not contradicted by the heterogeneity in the bedrock. The varieties of landscape elements which have potential for receiving

  14. Toxicity limitation on radioactive liquid waste discharge at OPG Nuclear Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, T.; Lovasic, Z.; Nicolaides, G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Municipal and Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) regulation, which came into effect in 1995 in Ontario (Ontario Regulation 215/95 under the Environmental Protection Act). This imposed additional limitations on liquid discharges from power generating stations. The MISA regulation has divided discharges into non-event and event streams, which have to be monitored for the prescribed parameters and for toxicity. Radioactive Waste Management Systems fall into the category of non-event streams. Standard toxicity testing involves monitoring lethality of Daphnia Magna and Rainbow trout in the effluent. The new legislation has imposed a need to address several issues: acute toxicity, complying with the specific limits prescribed by the regulation and, in the long run chronic toxicity

  15. Discharges of nuclear waste into the Kola Bay and its impact on human radiological doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matishov, Genady G.; Matishov, Dimitry G.; Namjatov, Alexey A.; Carroll, JoLynn; Dahle, Salve

    2000-01-01

    The civilian nuclear icebreaker facility, RTP ''ATOMFLOT,'' is located in Kola Bay, Northwest Russia, as are several nuclear installations operated by the Russian Northern Fleet. A treatment plant at the Atomflot facility discharges purified nuclear waste into the bay at an annual rate of 500 m 3 . As a result of plant modifications this rate will soon increase to 5000 m 3 /yr. Evidence of minor leakages of 60 Co are reported by in the vicinity of Atomflot as well as near several military installations in Kola and the adjacent Motovsky Bays. 137 Cs levels reported in the present study for seawater and seaweed collected from locations within the bays are at expected levels except in the vicinity of Atomflot, where the 137 Cs level in a seaweed sample was 46±5 Bq/kg w.w. indicating significant uptake of radionuclides to biota. Uptake also may be occurring in higher trophic levels of the food web through environmental exchange and/or biotransformation. We consider the impact of the present and anticipated discharges from Atomflot through a radiological dose assessment for humans consuming fish from Kola Bay. Mixing and transport of nuclear waste is simulated using a simple box model. Maximum doses, assuming consumption of 100 kg/yr of fish, are below 10 -9 Sv/yr; the planned ten-fold increase in the discharge of treated waste will increase the doses to below 10 -8 Sv/yr. Using data on radionuclide levels in sediments and assuming equilibrium partitioning of radionuclides among sediment, seawater and fish, we estimate that the total doses to humans consuming fish from different areas of Kola and Motovsky Bays, including adjacent to military-controlled nuclear installations, are ∼10 -7 Sv/yr. Nuclear activities in Kola and Motovsky Bays thus far have had minimal impact on the environment. Discharges from the treatment plant currently account for less than 0.2% of the total dose predictions. The increase in discharges from the treatment plant is not expected to change

  16. Contaminant transport modelling in tidal influenced water body for low level liquid waste discharge out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Naidu, Velamala Simhadri

    2018-01-01

    Low level liquid waste is generated from nuclear reactor operation and reprocessing of spent fuel. This waste is discharged into the water body after removing bulk of its radioactivity. Dispersion of contaminant mainly depends on location of outfall and hydrodynamics of water body. For radiological impact assessment, in most of the analytical formulations, source term is taken as continuous release. However, this may not be always true as the water level is influenced by tidal movement and the selected outfall may come under intertidal zone in due course of the tidal cycle. To understand these phenomena, a case study has been carried out to evaluate hydrodynamic characteristics and dilution potential of outfall located in inter-tidal zone using numerical modelling

  17. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-09-27

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements.

  18. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements

  19. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out

  20. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

  1. Waste Field Characteristics, Ultimate Mixing and Dilution in Surface Discharge of Dense Jets into Stagnant Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct discharges of municipal and industrial waste waters into water bodies through marine outfalls are considered as a common way to dispose the generated waste in coastal zones. Marine discharge, intensifying flow mixing and entrainment, decrease the concentration of polutant up to accepted concentration and meet the guideline values and to make possible continues discharge of flow into matine environment. During last years due to quick development of coastal desalination plants, surface discharge of preduced salty water into seas and oceans has increased significantly. In this study, releases of dense jets from surface rectangular channel into stagnant bodies are experimentally studied. The location of flow plunge point, impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were drown out by a digital video technology. In addition, using some conductivity probes located in ambient floor, waste filed dilution in flow impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were identified. Finally the obtained results were plotted and explained along with some diagrams to show flow non-dimensional behavior. The results showed that the properties of flow are changing directly with ambient water depth and discharge initial fluxes.

  2. Characterization and analysis of medical solid waste in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    1Department of Civil Engineering, Osun State College of Technology, ... achieve waste segregation, packaging in colour-coded and labeled bags, safe ...... J. Air. Waste Manage. Assoc., 48: 516–526. Martin J, Nakayama T, Flores L (2002).

  3. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, D.; Moilleron, R.; Lorgeoux, C.; El Samarani, A.; Chebbo, Gh.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

  5. Groundwater recharge and discharge scenarios for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Steinborn, T.L.; Thorson, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve potential scenarios have been identified whereby groundwater may enter or exit a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The 12 scenarios may be grouped into 4 categories or failure modes: dissolution, fracturing, voids, and penetration. Dissolution modes include breccia pipe and breccia blanket formation, and dissolution around boreholes. Fracture modes include flow through preexisting or new fractures and the effects of facies changes. Voids include interstitial voids (pores) and fluid inclusions. Penetration modes include shaft and borehole sealing failures, undetected boreholes, and new mines or wells constructed after repository decommissioning. The potential importance of thermal effects on groundwater flow patterns and on the recharge-discharge process is discussed. The appropriate levels of modeling effort, and the interaction between the adequacy of the geohydrologic data base and the warranted degree of model complexity are also discussed

  6. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  7. Solid healthcare waste management in Anambra State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aims at ascertaining the current healthcare waste management practices in Anambra State. It highlights the sources of healthcare waste, its classification, the hazards associated with it and the gold standard in its management. The specific objectives are: to determine current practice of healthcare waste ...

  8. Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Waste Discharges to the Almendares River near Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Considerable debate exists over the primary cause of increased antibiotic resistance (AR) worldwide. Evidence suggests increasing AR results from overuse of antibiotics in medicine and therapeutic and nontherapeutic applications in agriculture. However, pollution also can influence environmental AR, particularly associated with heavy metal, pharmaceutical, and other waste releases, although the relative scale of the “pollution” contribution is poorly defined, which restricts targeted mitigation efforts. The question is “where to study and quantify AR from pollution versus other causes to best understand the pollution effect”. One useful site is Cuba because industrial pollution broadly exists; antibiotics are used sparingly in medicine and agriculture; and multiresistant bacterial infections are increasing in clinical settings without explanation. Within this context, we quantified 13 antibiotic resistance genes (ARG; indicators of AR potential), 6 heavy metals, 3 antibiotics, and 17 other organic pollutants at 8 locations along the Almendares River in western Havana at sites bracketing known waste discharge points, including a large solid waste landfill and various pharmaceutical factories. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between sediment ARG levels, especially for tetracyclines and β-lactams (e.g., tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), blaOXA), and sediment Cu and water column ampicillin levels in the river. Further, sediment ARG levels increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude downstream of the pharmaceutical factories and were highest where human population densities also were high. Although explicit links are not shown, results suggest that pollution has increased background AR levels in a setting where other causes of AR are less prevalent. PMID:21133405

  9. Implications of electron attachment to highly-excited states in pulsed-power discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    1997-01-01

    The author points out the possible implications of electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules in two pulsed power technologies. One involves the pulsed H 2 discharges used for the generation of H ion beams for magnetic fusion energy and particle accelerators. The other is the power modulated plasma discharges used for material processing

  10. Polymerization of phenol by using discharged plasma under hydrothermal state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsugi, M; Yoshida, A; Watanabe, H; Kiyan, T; Takade, M; Miyaji, K; Kuwahara, Y; Akiyama, H; Hara, M; Sasaki, M [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University (Japan); Namihira, T; Goto, M, E-mail: mgoto@kumamoto-u.ac.j [Bioelectrics Research Center, Kumamoto University 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 865-8555 Japan (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Supercritical fluid with plasma is a type of green processing media because this technique does not use catalyst and toxic solvents. In this study, we carried out experiments of organic materials in the presence of discharged plasma in sub- and supercritical water to evaluate the possibility for new reactions. For this purpose, we used SUS316 reactor that generates plasma at temperature and pressure up to 573K and 30MPa, respectively. 100 mmol/L aqueous phenol solution was used as starting material. The reactions were carried out at temperature of 523K and under pressure of 25MPa. After a series of reactions, water-soluble, water-insoluble (oily products), solid residue and gaseous product were obtained. For the analysis of these products, HPLC, GC-MS, TOC, GC-TCD and TOF-MS were used. The highest phenol conversion was 16.96% obtained at 523K, 25MPa and with 4000 times discharged plasma. Polymerized phenol was obtained as a product.

  11. Polymerization of phenol by using discharged plasma under hydrothermal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsugi, M; Yoshida, A; Watanabe, H; Kiyan, T; Takade, M; Miyaji, K; Kuwahara, Y; Akiyama, H; Hara, M; Sasaki, M; Namihira, T; Goto, M

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid with plasma is a type of green processing media because this technique does not use catalyst and toxic solvents. In this study, we carried out experiments of organic materials in the presence of discharged plasma in sub- and supercritical water to evaluate the possibility for new reactions. For this purpose, we used SUS316 reactor that generates plasma at temperature and pressure up to 573K and 30MPa, respectively. 100 mmol/L aqueous phenol solution was used as starting material. The reactions were carried out at temperature of 523K and under pressure of 25MPa. After a series of reactions, water-soluble, water-insoluble (oily products), solid residue and gaseous product were obtained. For the analysis of these products, HPLC, GC-MS, TOC, GC-TCD and TOF-MS were used. The highest phenol conversion was 16.96% obtained at 523K, 25MPa and with 4000 times discharged plasma. Polymerized phenol was obtained as a product.

  12. United States Geological Survey discharge data from five example gages on intermittent streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are mean daily discharge data at United States Geological Survey gages. Once column provides the date (mm/dd/yyyy) and the other column provides the mean...

  13. Transuranic waste transportation issues in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.; Rodgers, J.C.; Neill, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin disposal of defence transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico before the end of 1988. Approximately 25,000 truck shipments involving 35 million vehicle kilometers will be required to transport about 175,000 m 3 of contact-handled transuranic waste. Up to 5,000 shipments of remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) will also be shipped to WIPP in shielded casks. This paper addresses the shipment of CH-TRU wastes

  14. Identifying factors associated with the discharge of male State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Designated psychiatric facilities are responsible for the care, treatment and reintegration of State patients. ... State patients were associated with being a primary caregiver (p = 0.031) having good insight into illness (p = 0.025) or offence (p = 0.005) and having had multiple successful leaves of absences.

  15. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill. PMID:28044139

  16. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Yao, Jun; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill.

  17. State-space prediction of spring discharge in a karst catchment in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenwei; Xu, Xianli; Liu, Meixian; Li, Xuezhang; Zhang, Rongfei; Wang, Kelin; Xu, Chaohao

    2017-06-01

    Southwest China represents one of the largest continuous karst regions in the world. It is estimated that around 1.7 million people are heavily dependent on water derived from karst springs in southwest China. However, there is a limited amount of water supply in this region. Moreover, there is not enough information on temporal patterns of spring discharge in the area. In this context, it is essential to accurately predict spring discharge, as well as understand karst hydrological processes in a thorough manner, so that water shortages in this area could be predicted and managed efficiently. The objectives of this study were to determine the primary factors that govern spring discharge patterns and to develop a state-space model to predict spring discharge. Spring discharge, precipitation (PT), relative humidity (RD), water temperature (WD), and electrical conductivity (EC) were the variables analyzed in the present work, and they were monitored at two different locations (referred to as karst springs A and B, respectively, in this paper) in a karst catchment area in southwest China from May to November 2015. Results showed that a state-space model using any combinations of variables outperformed a classical linear regression, a back-propagation artificial neural network model, and a least square support vector machine in modeling spring discharge time series for karst spring A. The best state-space model was obtained by using PT and RD, which accounted for 99.9% of the total variation in spring discharge. This model was then applied to an independent data set obtained from karst spring B, and it provided accurate spring discharge estimates. Therefore, state-space modeling was a useful tool for predicting spring discharge in karst regions in southwest China, and this modeling procedure may help researchers to obtain accurate results in other karst regions.

  18. Policy gridlock in waste management: Balancing federal and state concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.; Peretz, J.H.; Jendrucko, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    Current federal hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management policies fail to balance national concerns for policy consistency with state concerns for equity, discretion, and adequate resources. Failure to balance these competing values has resulted in open-quotes policy gridlockclose quotes - exemplified by conflicts over the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Acts. Both conflicts have resulted in recent U.S. Supreme Court litigation. After reviewing federal-state conflict in hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management, we propose that the solution to gridlock lies in modifying conjoint federalism. Conjoint federalism allows for joint responsibility for waste policy between federal and state governments, with state programs meeting minimum standards set by federal programs. However, conjoint federalism does not currently allow for sufficient state discretion, which is paramount for successful waste management programs. Specifically, Congress should expand conjoint federalism, to allow states to charge differential fees on imported hazardous waste as is done for low-level radioactive waste. This expansion would encourage waste minimization and better interstate planning

  19. Policy gridlock in waste management: Balancing federal and state concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peretz, J.H.; Jendrucko, B.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Current federal hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management policies fail to balance national concerns for policy consistency with state concerns for equity, discretion, and adequate resources. Failure to balance these competing values has resulted in {open_quotes}policy gridlock{close_quotes} - exemplified by conflicts over the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Acts. Both conflicts have resulted in recent U.S. Supreme Court litigation. After reviewing federal-state conflict in hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management, we propose that the solution to gridlock lies in modifying conjoint federalism. Conjoint federalism allows for joint responsibility for waste policy between federal and state governments, with state programs meeting minimum standards set by federal programs. However, conjoint federalism does not currently allow for sufficient state discretion, which is paramount for successful waste management programs. Specifically, Congress should expand conjoint federalism, to allow states to charge differential fees on imported hazardous waste as is done for low-level radioactive waste. This expansion would encourage waste minimization and better interstate planning.

  20. State National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program Withdrawal Petitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Search for pending and resolved NPDES withdrawal petitions by state, region, date, or keyword. "Pending" means EPA has received the petition and is working with the...

  1. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites

  2. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This is the second update of Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration. It completely replaces the first update (15 April 1983). The updated report covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. The cover page indicates whether or not it is an Agreement State, the low-level waste compacts in which the state is listed as an eligible state, and the high-level waste repository site screening regions in which the state or a portion of it is located. Included under the compacts is a description of what the state has done or currently plans to do, as well as the compact status of other eligible states in the region. The Administrative section provides information on the governor, lead agencies, other involved administrative agencies, relevant commissions, boards and councils and various contacts. In a number of states, Boards of Health or similar boards are lead agencies, so they have been listed in that section. Each board's administrative agency is listed under it. The Legislative section provides general information on the legislature and lists legislative leaders, the relevant committees and their chairs, and a legislative contact. Many legislatures do not set a date for session adjournment, so the date listed represents a combination of information provided by the states and by the history of past sessions. In the section covering Applicable Legislation, laws related to radiation protection, low-level waste and high-level waste have been summarized. Hazardous waste siting laws are included for states that do not have a siting law covering radioactive waste. The section also contains summaries of relevant bills introduced in 1982 and 1983 legislative sessions and this disposition. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of July 15, 1983

  3. Developing a methodology for real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Maryam; Kerachian, Reza

    2018-04-15

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for the real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in agricultural areas along the rivers. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is chosen as an indicator of river water quality and the TDS load that agricultural water users discharge to the river are controlled by storing a part of return flows in some evaporation ponds. Available surface water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits are determined using a non-linear multi-objective optimization model. Total available permits are then fairly reallocated among agricultural water users, proportional to their arable lands. Water users can trade their water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits simultaneously, in a bilateral, step by step framework, which takes advantage of differences in their water use efficiencies and agricultural return flow rates. A trade that would take place at each time step results in either more benefit or less diverted return flow. The Nucleolus cooperative game is used to redistribute the benefits generated through trades in different time steps. The proposed methodology is applied to PayePol region in the Karkheh River catchment, southwest Iran. Predicting that 1922.7 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) of annual flow is available to agricultural lands at the beginning of the cultivation year, the real-time optimization model estimates the total annual benefit to reach 46.07 million US Dollars (USD), which requires 6.31 MCM of return flow to be diverted to the evaporation ponds. Fair reallocation of the permits, changes these values to 35.38 million USD and 13.69 MCM, respectively. Results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the real-time water and waste load allocation and simultaneous trading of permits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Medical rehabilitation of leprosy patients discharged home in abia and ebonyi States of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwereji, Ezinne Ezinna; Ahuizi, Eke Reginald; Iheanocho, Okereke Chukwunenye; Enwereji, Kelechi Okechukwu

    2011-11-01

    To examine the extent to which medical coverage is available to discharged leprosy patients in communities. Evidence has shown that after care services, follow-up visits and national disease prevention programs are important components of medical rehabilitation to leprosy patients discharged home after treatment. Denying them accessibility to these services could expose them to multiple disabilities as well as several disease conditions including HIV/AIDS. These adverse health conditions could be averted if health workers extend healthcare services to discharged leprosy patients. This study was conducted to examine the extent to which discharged leprosy patients have access to healthcare services in the communities. All 33 leprosy patients who were fully treated with multi-drug therapy (MDT) and discharged home in the two leprosy settlements in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria were included in this study. The list of discharged leprosy patients studied and their addresses were provided by the leprosy settlements where they were treated. Also, snowball-sampling method was used to identify some of the leprosy patients whose addresses were difficult to locate in the communities. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire, interview guide and checklist. These were administered because respondents were essentially those with no formal education. Analysis of data was done quantitatively and qualitatively. Findings showed that 20 (60.6%) of discharged patients did not receive health programs like HIV/AIDS prevention or family planning. Also, follow-up visits and after-care services were poor. About 14 (42.4%) of the patients live in dirty and overcrowded houses. On the whole, discharged patients were poorly medically rehabilitated (mean score: 4.7±1.1 out of total score of 7). Denying discharged leprosy patients opportunity of accessing health care services could increase prevalence of infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS among them. There is need to extend

  5. Current state of waste and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1979-01-01

    Research and industrial applications are briefly described of irradiation technology in Czechoslovakia and in other countries. Intensive research into the irradiation of meat, grain, fruit and vegetables is going on; it has not, however, been widely applied in practice. The objective of the research into industrial and agricultural waste irradiation is to make the wastes usable as fertilizers or feed additives for farm animals. (M.S.)

  6. Changing climate increases discharge and attenuates its seasonal distribution in the northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Berton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest is well-established as a Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site for climate change and anthropogenic impacts studies on hydrological processes. It is located at the headwater regions of the Merrimack Watershed, the fourth largest basin in New England, USA. The watershed is mostly forested (67% with some developed regions (16%. Study focus: We assessed the scale-dependency of streamflow response to climate variation, river regulation, and development for dry, average, and wet years using long-term precipitation and discharge records. New hydrological insights for the region: The effects of basin scale were limited to discharges with exceedance probability less than 15% and greater than 60% and were expressed as lagged discharge in large sub-basins and earlier discharge in small catchments. Annual discharge responded to increases in annual precipitation but not to river regulation or land development. In general, the temporal trends showed less discharge in dry and greater discharge in wet hydrologic flow classes. Keywords: Climate change, Land development, Hydrologic indicator, Scale dependency, Merrimack river, Northeastern United States

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  8. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for State and Local Government/Solid Waste Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by state and local government/solid waste planners. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  9. Variability in temperature, precipitation and river discharge in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriauciuniene, J.; Meilutyte-Barauskiene, D.; Sarauskiene, D. (Lithuanian Energy Inst., Kaunas (Lithuania), Lab. of Hydrology); Reihan, A. (Tallinn Univ. of Technology (Estonia), Inst. of Environmental Engineering); Koltsova, T.; Lizuma, L. (Latvian Hydrometeorological Agency, Riga (LV))

    2012-07-01

    The climate change impact on water resources is observed in all the Baltic States. These processes became more evident in the last decades. Although the territory of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) is not large (175000 km2), the climatic differences are quite considerable. We performed a regionalization of the territory of the Baltic States depending on the conditions of river runoff formation which can be defined according to percentages of the river feeding sources (precipitation, snowmelt, groundwater). Long-term series of temperature (40 stations), precipitation (59 stations) and river discharge (77 stations) were used to compose ten regional series. This paper addresses: (1) variability in long-term regional series of temperature, precipitation and river discharge over a long period (1922-2007); (2) changes in regional series, comparing the periods 1991-2007 and 1931-1960 with the reference period (1961-1990), and (3) the impact of temperature and precipitation changes on regional river discharge. (orig.)

  10. The IAEA Member States' database of discharges of radionuclides to the atmosphere and the aquatic environment (DIRATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovskyy, Volodymyr; Hood, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper provides the abstract model for authors. It embodies all the required formats and it is written complying with them. DIRATA is the IAEA Member States' database on discharges of radionuclides to the atmosphere and the aquatic environment (http://dirata.iaea.org/). It is a worldwide centralized repository of data submitted by IAEA Member States on a voluntary basis and each site dataset includes annual discharge and detection limits. Regulatory limits are given by Member States whenever available and a limited amount of information on the location of the site (country, geographical coordinates, water body into which radioactivity is released, number, names and types of installations) is also included. One of important purposes of DIRATA is to assist UNSCEAR in the preparation of the regular reports to the UN General Assembly and to serve Member States as a technical means for reporting and reviewing within the framework of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The on-line version of the DIRATA database was deployed for the pilot application by Member States and the general public in 2006 and provides tools for: 1-)Input of the primary information by IAEA Member States and international organizations in batch or interactive (record by record) modes. The Microsoft Excel template is provided on the DIRATA website for the batch input; 2-) On-line access of Member States and the public to the dataset. The information contained in DIRATA is available for downloading (in CSV format) and interactive review. The new web-based version of DIRATA has inherited all of the important features contained on the previous CD-ROM versions, and has been extended by the number of principally new functionalities. The paper describes the structure, functionalities and content of the DIRATA database. (author)

  11. Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.; Feitshans, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

  12. Low-level nuclear waste in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial disposal site for low-level nuclear wastes opened at Hanford in 1965. By 1971 a total of six were in operation: Hanford, Nevada, South Carolina, Kentucky, New York State, and Illinois. The history of the operation of these sites is described. Only the first three listed are still open. The effects of the large volumes of waste expected from Three Mile Island are described. This paper examines the case history of Hanford operations with low-level waste disposal for lessons that might apply in other states being considered for disposal sites

  13. Identifying factors associated with the discharge of male State patients from Weskoppies Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan G. Prinsloo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designated psychiatric facilities are responsible for the care, treatment and reintegration of State patients. The necessary long-term care places a considerable strain on health-care resources. Resource use should be optimised while managing the risks that patients pose to themselves and the community. Identifying unique factors associated with earlier discharge may decrease the length of stay. Factors associated with protracted inpatient care without discharge could identify patients who require early and urgent intervention. Aim: We identify socio-economic, demographic, psychiatric and charge-related factors associated with the discharge of male State patients. Methods: We reviewed the files of discharged and admitted forensic State patients at Weskoppies Psychiatric Hospital. Data were captured in an electronic recording sheet. The association between factors and the outcome measure (discharged vs. admitted was determined using chi-squared tests and Fischer’s exact tests. Results: Discharged State patients were associated with being a primary caregiver (p = 0.031 having good insight into illness (p = 0.025 or offence (p = 0.005 and having had multiple successful leaves of absences. A lack of substance abuse during admission (p = 0.027, an absence of a diagnosis of substance use disorder (p = 0.013 and the absence of verbal and physical aggression (p = 0.002 and p = 0.016 were associated with being discharged. Prolonged total length of stay (9–12 years, p = 0.031 and prolonged length of stay in open wards (6–9 years, p = 0.000 were associated with being discharged. A history of previous offences (p = 0.022, a diagnosis of substance use disorder (p = 0.023, recent substance abuse (p = 0.018 and a history of physical aggression since admission (p = 0.017 were associated with continued admission. Conclusion: Discharge of State patients is associated with an absence of substance abuse, lack of aggression

  14. Analyze Trends: State Hazardous Waste Dashboard | ECHO ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  15. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil's Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University's non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building

  16. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-26

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil`s Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University`s non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building.

  17. 77 FR 47302 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... EPA proposed to authorize South Dakota's State Hazardous waste management Program revisions published... to the hazardous waste program revisions submitted by South Dakota. The Agency published a Proposed...

  18. 77 FR 59758 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection..., (RCRA), allows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to authorize State hazardous waste management... codification of the authorized Idaho hazardous waste management program and incorporates by reference...

  19. Radioactive waste management in an Australian state - IAEA style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, B.; Newbery, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA have produced a series of publications within the RADWASS programme. These publications are comprehensive in their coverage and are applicable to all aspects of radioactive waste management - from the individual user level to State and National level. Adherence to the principles contained in these publications is advocated in the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The publications provide a useful check list against which to determine the current status of radioactive management, at various levels (individual level, State, National) and also provide a basis for planning future waste management requirements. In Tasmania, these publications have been utilised to assess the current radioactive waste management system and to determine future management requirements, particularly for storage of radioactive waste. This paper illustrates the application of the publications for auditing individual users' waste management status and for determining future State storage requirements for radioactive waste. A brief outline of the process used and the main issues identified as a result, will be presented. These issues include some requiring a National approach for their resolution. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  20. Vadose zone monitoring plan using geophysical nuclear logging for radionuclides discharged to Hanford liquid waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    During plutonium production at Hanford, large quantities of hazardous and radioactive liquid effluent waste have been discharged to the subsurface (vadose zone). These discharges at over 330 liquid effluent disposal facilities (ie. cribs, ditches, and ponds) account for over 3,000,000 curies of radioactive waste released into the subsurface. It is estimated that 10% of the contaminants have reached the groundwater in many places. Continuing migration may further impact groundwater quality in the future. Through the RCRA Operational Monitoring Program, a Radionuclide Logging System (RLS) has been obtained by Hanford Technical Services (HTS) and enhanced to measure the distribution of contaminants and monitor radionuclide movement in existing groundwater and vadose zone boreholes. Approximately 100 wells are logged by HTS each year in this program. In some cases, movement has been observed years after discharges were terminated. A similar program is in place to monitor the vadose zone at the Tank Farms. This monitoring plan describes Hanford Programs for monitoring the movement of radioactive contamination in the vadose zone. Program background, drivers, and strategy are presented. The objective of this program is to ensure that DOE-RL is aware of any migration of contaminants in the vadose zone, such that groundwater can be protected and early actions can be taken as needed

  1. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  2. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  3. Vaporization Mode and State of the Ablatant of a Deuterium Pellet in Tokamak Discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The ablation of a deuterium pellet under prevailing tokamak discharge conditions is shown to be a dynamic phase transition process. An alternative boundary condition at the pellet surface is formulated. Computational results based on the new boundary condition showed that the state of the ablatant...

  4. 78 FR 43842 - State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R07-RCRA-2013-0447; FRL-9833-6] State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA proposes to...

  5. New York State interim waste management cost evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.S.; Watts, R.J.; Jorgensen, J.R.; Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., NY)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and quantify the comparative costs associated with including or excluding Class A utility wastes at a centralized interim waste management facility in New York State. The objective of the study is to assess the unit costs and total statewide costs associated with two distinct scenarios: (1) the case where non-utility Class A LLRW is received, incinerated and stored at the centralized interim facility, and utility Class A wastes are held without incineration at respective nuclear power plant interim onsite facilities without incineration; and (2) the alternative case where both utility and non-utility Class A wastes are accepted, incinerated and stored at the centralized facility. Unit costs to waste generators are estimated for each of the two cases described. This is followed by an estimation of the statewide cost impact to the public. The cost impact represents the cost differential resulting from the exclusion of utility Class A waste from the centralized NYS interim waste management facility. The principal factors comprising the cost differential include (1) higher unit disposal fees charged to non-utility waste generators, which are passed along in the costs of products and services; and (2) costs to utilities due to construction of additional onsite storage capacity, which in turn are charged to electric rate payers

  6. State-of-the-art report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the considerable work required to develop repositories for radioactive waste, an extensive international co-operation has evolved within the area. The work has also engaged the IAEA to a great extent. The Agency has published a number of reports, covering different aspects of waste disposal. Following a recommendation by its Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (TRCUD) the Agency will publish a ''state-of-the-art'' report on radioactive waste disposal. The report is still in the preparation stage. In this article the principal subjects of the future report are discussed

  7. Variables of state and charateristics for isentropic discharge phenomena of water, starting with saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudisch, H.

    1968-03-15

    The tables presented in this report contain the thermodynamic values of isentropic change of state for water in the two-phase region starting from the saturation line down to 0.01 at. The variables have been computed in the pressure range from 5-100 at. in equal pressure intervals of 5 at. and in the range from 100-170 at. in intervals of 10 at. Assuming a one-dimensional flow and a known saturation pressure, the dimensions of a discharge nozzle may be determined by interpolation of the calculated values for an isentropic discharge. 4 figs., 29 tabs., 23 refs.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number...... to global warming and photochemical ozone formation due to methane emission. In Scenario D, landfill gas flaring was thus be modeled and proven to be efficient for reducing impacts by approximately 90% in most categories, like global warming, photochemical ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment......, with major contaminants of As, ammonia, and Cd. A number of ions, such as Cl−, Mg2+, and Ca2+, may also contaminate groundwater. In Scenario C, the direct discharge of leachate to surface water may result in acidification (2.71 PE) and nutrient enrichment (2.88 PE), primarily attributed to soluble ammonia...

  9. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  10. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in-situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.J.; P'Pool, R.K.; Thomas, S.P.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs

  12. Amendment of the administrative skeleton provision for minimum requirements to be met by waste water discharged into bodies of water. Administrative skeleton provision on waste water of 25 November, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This provision applies to waste water to be discharged into bodies of water and whose pollution load stems mainly from the sectors indicated in appendices. Without prejudice to stricter requirements governing the execution of the Water Resources Act, the requirements to be met by the discharge of waste water, as indicated in appendices, are defined in accordance with section 7a, subsection 1, number 3 of the Water Resources Act. - The maximum concentrations indicated in appendices, for instance for waste water from brown coal briquetting plant, black coal treatment plant, petroleum refineries and flue gas scrubbers at combustion plant, relate to waste water in the discharge pipe of the waste water treatment plant. Contrary to technical rules that may apply in each instance, these concentrations must not be attained by dilution or mixing. (orig.) [de

  13. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, R.C.

    1986-03-01

    This document summarizes radioactive liquids discharged to the ground in the 200 areas of the Hanford site and is provided pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5484.1A, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements.'' There are twenty-eight liquid discharge streams in the 200 areas excluding sanitary sewers. Twenty-five streams were normally or potentially contaminated with radioactive material in 1985. Two streams had no potential for radioactive contamination but were included as adjustments in this report to maintain an accurate record of the total volume of the discharges to each disposal site. One stream, the 242-S Evaporator cooling water discharge, was not used during 1985

  14. Modification of medullary respiratory-related discharge patterns by behaviors and states of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F C

    1992-02-07

    The modulatory influences of behaviors and states of arousal on bulbar respiratory-related unit (RRU) discharge patterns were studied in an unanesthetized, freely behaving guinea pig respiratory model system. When fully instrumented, this model system permits concurrent monitoring and recording of (i) single units from either Bötzinger complex or nucleus para-ambiguus; (ii) electrocorticogram; and, (iii) diaphragmatic EMG. In addition to being used in surveys of RRU discharge patterns in freely behaving states, the model system also offered a unique opportunity in investigating the effects of pentobarbital on RRU discharge patterns before, throughout the course of, and during recovery from anesthesia. In anesthetized preparations, a particular RRU discharge pattern (such as tonic, incrementing or decrementing) typically displayed little, if any notable variation. The most striking development following pentobarbital was a state of progressive bradypnea attributable to a significantly augmented RRU cycle duration, burst duration and an increase in the RRU spike frequencies during anesthesia. In freely behaving states, medullary RRU activities rarely adhered to a fixed, immutable discharge pattern. More specifically, the temporal organization (such as burst duration, cycle duration, and the extent of modulation of within-burst spike frequencies) of RRU discharge patterns regularly showed complex and striking variations, not only with states of arousal (sleep/wakefulness, anesthesia) but also with discrete alterations in electrocorticogram (ECoG) activities and a multitude of on-going behavioral repertoires such as volitional movement, postural modification, phonation, mastication, deglutition, sniffing/exploratory behavior, alerting/startle reflexes. Only during sleep, and on occasions when the animal assumed a motionless, resting posture, could burst patterns of relatively invariable periodicity and uniform temporal attributes be observed. RRU activities during

  15. 75 FR 50932 - Massachusetts: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental...-1990. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site... final [[Page 50933

  16. 77 FR 29275 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The... State regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act...

  17. 77 FR 59879 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Idaho's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA... Federal Register, the EPA is codifying and incorporating by reference the State's hazardous waste program...

  18. 77 FR 46994 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The... State regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act...

  19. 75 FR 36609 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The... State regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act...

  20. 77 FR 3224 - New Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental... entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' New Mexico's authorized hazardous waste... of the State regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste...

  1. Institutional options for state management of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns ''institutional'' (legal, organizational, and political) aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Its point of departure is the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. With federal law and political consensus now behind the policy of state responsibility for low level waste, the question becomes, how is this new policy to be implemented. The questions of policy implementation are essentially institutional: What functions must a regional low level waste management system perform. What entities are capable of performing them. How well might various alternatives or combinations of alternatives work. This paper is a preliminary effort to address these questions. It discusses the basic functions that must be performed, and identifies the entities that could perform them, and discusses the workability of various alternative approaches

  2. Bankfull discharge and channel characteristics of streams in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Miller, Sarah J.; DeKoskie, Douglas; DuBois, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Equations that relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and channel characteristics (such as width, depth, and cross-sectional area) at gaged sites are needed to help define bankfull discharge and channel characteristics at ungaged sites and can be used in stream-restoration and protection projects, stream-channel classification, and channel assessments. These equations are intended to serve as a guide for streams in areas of similar hydrologic, climatic, and physiographic conditions. New York State contains eight hydrologic regions that were previously delineated on the basis of high-flow (flood) characteristics. This report seeks to increase understanding of the factors affecting bankfull discharge and channel characteristics to drainage-area size relations in New York State by providing an in-depth analysis of seven previously published regional bankfull-discharge and channel-characteristics curves.Stream-survey data and discharge records from 281 cross sections at 82 streamflow-gaging stations were used in regression analyses to relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and bankfull-channel width, depth, and cross-sectional area. The R2 and standard errors of estimate of each regional equation were compared to the R2 and standard errors of estimate for the statewide (pooled) model to determine if regionalizing data reduced model variability. It was found that regional models typically yield less variable results than those obtained using pooled statewide equations, which indicates statistically significant regional differences in bankfull-discharge and channel-characteristics relations.Statistical analysis of bankfull-discharge relations found that curves for regions 4 and 7 fell outside the 95-percent confidence interval bands of the statewide model and had intercepts that were significantly diferent (p≤0.10) from the other five hydrologic regions.Analysis of channel-characteristics relations found that the bankfull width, depth, and cross-sectional area

  3. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  4. 75 FR 60398 - California: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... its hazardous waste management program by November 1, 2010. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments... waste management program. EPA continues to have independent enforcement authority under RCRA sections...

  5. 77 FR 15273 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous waste management program. We authorized the following revisions: Oklahoma received authorization... its program revision in accordance with 40 CFR 271.21. The Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act...

  6. 75 FR 76633 - Oregon; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ...; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental... its federally authorized RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Program. These authorized changes included... with Conditionally Exempt Small Quality Generators (CESQG) waste is subject to RCRA used oil management...

  7. 77 FR 65351 - Missouri: Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ...: Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Jackson-Johnson, Environmental Protection Agency, Waste Enforcement & Materials Management Branch, 11201... its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA proposes to...

  8. Opto-galvanic effect on degenerate magnetic states of sputtered atoms in a glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhechev, D; Steflekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The opto-galvanic response of some degenerate states of sputtered atoms to linearly- and circularly polarize light is studied. On the same optical transition both time-resolved- and amplitude opto-galvanic signals are found depending on the polarizations of light absorbed. The latter induces galvanic responses differing in opto-galvanic efficiency, time-evolution and sensitivity to discharge current and laser power. The differences are ascribed to the rate constants of the decay processes, characterizing aligned and oriented atoms

  9. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  10. Steady-state ozone concentration in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O 2 and noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10 15 eV.cm -3 .s -1 . The experimental apparatus and proceedure were previously described. The experimentally observed stead-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O 2 discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF 6 addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF 6 addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O 2 discharges

  11. Steady-state ozone concentrations in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O/sub 2/ and noble gas-o/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10/sup 15/ eV . cm/sup -3/ . s/sup -1/. The experimental apparatus and procedure were previously described. The experimentally observed steady-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF/sub 6/ addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF/sub 6/ addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges

  12. The juridic control of transboundary shipments of hazardous waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergensmeyer, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    An intergovernmental conflict over location of disposal of hazardous waste is discussed; the several definitions of hazardous waste in the United States are analysed; moreover the American Law Regulating the transport and disposal of hazardous waste as well is put in question; also the restrictions an disposal of waste are examined in light of the Constitution of the United States, finally, transboundary shipments of hazardous waste and international agreements on hazardous waste shipment are considered [pt

  13. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A. J.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a continuous assessment of the impact of solid urban waste (SUW) landfills in the central Iberian Peninsula that were sealed with a layer of soil 20 years ago. cover soils and soils from discharge areas have been periodically analysed. Soil concentrations of salts and heavy metals affect the biotic components of these ecosystems. (Author)

  14. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997

  15. 76 FR 19989 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ...: Pumpout Station and Dump Station Technical Guidelines (Federal Register, Vol. 59, No. 47, March 10, 1994.... The New London to Orient Point Ferry does not discharge to LIS waters. It pumps waste from its ferries... Harbor, Port VHF 9 & 16. Mon-Sun; 24 Washington Dock Washington. hours. Pump Replacement. 33...

  16. 76 FR 6564 - Florida: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... hazardous pharmaceutical waste to the list of wastes that may be managed under the Universal Waste rule...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  17. Hospital waste management in Katsina State | Umar | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article has bee retracted by the editor. Healthcare settings which restore and maintain community health are also threatening their well being. An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted in Katsina State to determine the awareness about waste management policy and practices. Attitude related to the issue ...

  18. Characterization and analysis of medical solid waste in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the study of quantum and characterization of medica solid wastes generated by healthcare facilities in Osun State. The work involved administration of a questionnaire and detailed studies conducted on facilities selected on the basis of a combination of purposive and random sampling methods.

  19. THE IMPACT OF FOOD WASTE DISCHARGE INTO THE MUNICIPAL SEWERAGE ON COD CONCENTRATION IN URBAN WASTEWATER IN OLSZTYN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Janczukowicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The operators of wastewater treatment plants in Poland have been observing an increase in the concentration of raw sewage for several years. In particular for organic substances. This is the effect of water consumption reduction, restoration of the sewerage networks, growing wealth, widespread waste of food. The most serious adverse, influencing on the municipal wastewater composition is colloid mills application in gastronomical objects and the discharge of shredded food waste to sewer. That widespread behavior has been noticed and negated, in 2010 year, by the common position of GIS and the ME. Far too late, which confirms the situation observed at the Olsztyn wastewater treatment plant, where the biggest increase of COD values ​​was observed in 2008–2010. The average concentration of COD of sewage in the period 2011–2014 was almost twice higher than in 1996, real PE is close to the design value, despite the fact that the hydraulic load of the object slightly exceeded 50% of design value. Removing such large organic pollutant loads generates high costs, that could be avoided by reasonable food waste management.

  20. Chemical states of molybdenum in radioactive waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Kawanishi, Nobuo; Nagaki, Hiroshi; Naito, Aritsune

    1982-01-01

    In order to confirm an expectation that the chemical state of molybdenum in glass reflects the phase separation tendency of the yellow solid from the melt of borosilicate glass, simulated waste glasses were prepared, and ESCA analysis was performed using a commercially available electron spectrometer (PHI550 E) with an excitation source consisting of Mg Kα-ray. The effects of the concentration of Mo and FE 2 O 3 and the melting atmosphere (oxidizing or reducing) in which the samples were prepared on the chemical state of Mo and the solubility of MoO 3 were examined. From the observation of Mo spectra, it was shown that Mo in waste glass had several valencies, e.g., Mo(3), Mo(4), Mo(5) and Mo(6), while Mo in the yellow solid separated from the melts exhibited hexa-valent state, the peak intensity of higher valencies increased relatively with the increase of MoO 3 concentration, but the chemical state of Mo did not change remarkably around the solubility limit of MoO 3 , the melting atmosphere influenced on the Mo state in the waste glass, the peak intensity of Mo(6) increased relatively with the increasing Fe 2 O 3 concentration, and Mo in devitrified glass exhibited hexa-valent state. (Yoshitake, I.)

  1. Ca-doped LTO using waste eggshells as Ca source to improve the discharge capacity of anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, D.; Subhan, A.; Saptari, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    The necessity of high charge-discharge capacity lithium-ion battery becomes very urgent due to its applications demand. Several researches have been done to meet the demand including Ca doping on Li4Ti5O12 for anode material of lithium-ion batteries. Ca-doped Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) in the form of Li4-xCaxTi5O12 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1) have been synthesized using simple solid state reaction. The materials preparation involved waste eggshells in the form of CaCO3 as Ca source. The structure and capacity of as-prepared samples were characterized using X-Ray Diffractometer and Cyclic Voltametry. X-Ray Diffractometer characterization revealed that all amount of dopant had entered the lattice structure of LTO successfully. The crystalline sizes were obtained by using Scherrer equation. No significant differences are detected in lattice parameters (˜8.35 Å) and crystalline sizes (˜27 nm) between all samples. Cyclic Voltametry characterization shows that Li4-xCaxTi5O12 (x = 0.05) has highest charge-discharge capacity of 177.14 mAh/g and 181.92 mAh/g, respectively. Redox-potentials of samples show no significant differences with the average of 1.589 V.

  2. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This is the sixth update of ''Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration.'' It completely replaces the fifth update (15 September 1984). The updated report covers low-level radioactive waste compacts, and the administration, the legislature and the laws related to radioactive waste management in each of the fifty states. The report is organized by low-level waste compact regions. Each section begins with a description of the low-level waste compact, followed by reports on each state within the region. There are also sections for states which have made plans to dispose of waste independently of a compact, and for those states which have not yet declared their intentions. The report on each compact is divided into four sections: Cover Page, Chair Organization, State Delegations, and Compact

  3. 75 FR 45583 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... authorized hazardous waste program which is set forth in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', New York's authorized hazardous waste program. EPA will incorporate by...

  4. 75 FR 17332 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Idaho's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA... regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly...

  5. 1992 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; McDonald, S.D.

    1993-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1992 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1988 through 1992; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1992. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report

  6. 1994 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1994 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1990 through 1994; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1994. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  7. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD and Electrical Overstress (EOS: The state of the art in components to systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Voldman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic Discharge (ESD, Electrical Overstress (EOS and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC continue to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics. The range of concern for components include semiconductor components, magnetic recording industry, MEMs, and for products from disk drives, cell phones, notebooks, tablets, laptops, and desktop computers. The objective of this lecture is to address the state of the art of electrostatic discharge (ESD and electrical overstress (EOS in today’s electronic components and systems. The tutorial provides a clear picture of ESD, EOS and EMC phenomena, sources, physics, failure mechanisms, testing and qualification of components and systems. The conclusion of this talk is that ESD and EOS continue to be a concern in technologies from micro-electronics to nano-structures, and will remain a reliability and quality issue in the future.

  8. Solid Waste Management Practices of Select State Universities in CALABARZON, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado C. Gequinto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The enactment of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act prompted higher education institutions including state universities and colleges (SUCs to incorporate ecological waste management in the school system. Thus, this paper aimed to assess the extent of implementation of solid waste management practices in select SUCs in CALABARZON in terms of waste reuse, waste reduction, waste collection, waste recycling, waste treatment, and final waste disposal. Respondents of the study included university administrators, faculty members, non-teaching staff, students and concessionaries for a total of 341. A survey questionnaire was used to gather data from Batangas State University (BatState-U, Cavite State University (CavSU, Laguna State Polytechnic University (LSPU and Southern Luzon State University (SLSU. Result revealed that solid waste management practices are implemented to a great extent. Among the practices, waste collection got the highest composite mean particularly on the promotion of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle in the collection of waste. On the other hand, waste recycling and waste treatment obtained the lowest composite mean. In terms of waste recycling, establishing partnership with local or private business for recyclable recovery program was to moderate extent. Waste treatment particularly neutralization of acid bases was also of moderate extent. The study recommended strengthening of publicprivate partnership (PPP on the recycling and treatment of wastes.

  9. The United States: breakthroughs and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, U E

    1992-01-01

    The health system of the United States is in a paradoxical position. At its best, the system is a magnet for those seeking the latest technical breakthroughs. It can offer that excellence because there have never been effective financial constraints on the imagination; the system has become a major economic frontier, at which professional and other entrepreneurs successfully seek their fortune. At the same time, the system is leaving increasing numbers of Americans frustrated and disillusioned. It is beset by excess capacity in many areas, is needlessly expensive, and often bestows unnecessary health services. Yet only the experts are aware of these flaws; most Americans still express high satisfaction with the quality of the services they receive from their doctors and hospitals. The public's major misgivings arise over the awkward and inequitable way in which American health care is financed. The typical private health insurance policy, for example, is tied to a particular job. If the job is lost, so is the health insurance. Furthermore, these policies are priced on actuarially "fair" principles, so sick individuals are forced to pay higher insurance premiums than relatively healthy ones and chronically ill persons often cannot obtain health insurance coverage at any price. Although there are public programs to catch many persons not privately insured, the coverage tends to be insufficiently extensive and deep. Some 35 million Americans, mostly poor, have no health insurance whatsoever. Unfortunately, at this time there is no political force in the United States strong enough to reform the American health system toward greater social equity and economic efficiency, whereas there are numerous groups powerful enough to block whatever reform might harm their own narrow economic interests. Other nations can learn from America's clinical and organizational innovations in health care delivery. They can also learn what not to do by studying the unseemly way in which

  10. Directions in low-level radioactive-waste management. Planning state policy on low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The majority of states face a growing problem in the management of low-level radioactive waste generated within their borders. The current uncertainty regarding the availability of disposal sites for these waste products exacerbates their increasing generation rate. The purpose of this publication is to assist state governments in planning effective policy to address these problems. Background information is presented on the current situation, the responsibilities of state government, and the assistance available to states from federal agencies and national groups. The document then focuses on state policy planning, including: (a) methodology for assessing a state's current waste management status and for projecting future needs, (b) consideration of waste management options for a state, and (c) insight into the possible effects and implications of planned policies. This information is intended primarily for state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - and does not include detailed technical information on waste characteristics or handling techniques

  11. Radioactive waste management and decommissioning in The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymont, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    With their missions and access to disposal sites changing over the last decade, radioactive waste management and decommissioning practice in the U.S. commercial and federal nuclear markets has evolved to keep pace. This paper reviews the changes that have occurred and the differing waste management practices that have resulted depending on whether a nuclear facility is situated on federally owned or privately owned property in the United States, confirming that the cost of disposal generally dictates waste management and decommissioning practices. Of the 123 utility-owned licensed commercial reactors in U.S., 19 are undergoing decomissioning, with the balance of 104 reactors focusing on plant life extension, power upgrades, and power generation. As a result, almost all of the approximately dollar 400 million in annual expenditures on waste processing and disposal comes from waste generated from operations. In contrast, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Management (EM) program, is focused on decommissioning the facilities, tanks, and ground contamination resulting from 50-years of Cold War activities and spending about dollar 7 billion a year on these activities. Other than spent fuel, U.S. federal law precludes disposal of commercial nuclear power plant radioactive wastes at DOE disposal sites. In contrast to the commercial disposal market, which must go through extensive public hearings and decision-making, the DOE has a much freer hand in siting new disposal capacity on federal land. As a result, the DOE has ample disposal capacity, 'routinely' opens new disposal sites, and enjoys disposal pricing well below the commercial market. Waste composition, volume, and activity levels drive disposal costs, which is the key life cycle parameter in determining radioactive waste management practice. Differences in these parameters drive the differences in how radioactive waste management practice is performed in the commercial and DOE markets

  12. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Mangement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This is the first quarterly update of Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration. Because states have been very active on waste management issues, the whole report is being reissued in this update. It covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. The cover page indicates whether or not it is an Agreement State, the low-level waste compacts in which the state is listed as an eligible state, and the high-level waste repository site screening regions in which the state or a portion of it is located. The administrative section provides information on the governor, lead agencies, other involved administrative agencies, relevant commissions, boards and councils and various contacts. The Legislative section provides general information on the legislature and lists legislative leaders, the relevant committees and their chairs and a legislative contact. In the section covering Applicable Legislation, laws related to radiation protection, low-level waste and high-level waste have been summarized. Hazardous waste siting laws are included for states that do not have a siting law covering radioactive waste. The section also contains summaries of relevant bills introduced in 1982 and 1983 legislative sessions and their disposition. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 15 April 1983

  13. Assessment of the Impact of Radioactive Disposals and Discharges from the United Kingdom Low Level Waste Repository on the Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of the impacts to ecosystems and wildlife species from radioactive discharges and disposals at the United Kingdom's low level waste disposal facility in West Cumbria. The assessment was undertaken in response to a requirement in the site's current authorisation and comprised a detailed desk based review along with an exercise to screen relevant monitoring data from the site against generic assessment criteria and undertake a numerical risk assessment. Much of the site is vegetated, comprising a variety of habitats including grassland, relict dune heath and surface water bodies. Furthermore, the site is located adjacent to a coastal/estuarine area which is protected as it provides a habitat of high ecological value and species of animals and plants are present that are rare, endangered or vulnerable. However, the current impact of aerial and liquid radioactive discharges from the low level waste repository on ecosystems and wildlife species is considered to be low. Site monitoring data also indicate that there has been a reduction of radionuclide activities in ground and surface water and leachates over time, a result of measures initiated to minimise rainwater infiltration and improve leachate management associated with the disposal area. A quantitative assessment was undertaken to assess future impacts to relevant terrestrial, fresh water and marine ecosystems. This showed that modelled peak radionuclide concentrations in the first 4,000 years after site closure were not sufficiently high to cause potential impact to any of these ecosystems or associated wildlife. This cut-off date was chosen as it is considered probable that, due to the effects of future climate and landscape change and, unless actions are taken to defend the coastline, the site is likely to be disrupted by coastal erosion in the next 4,000 years. (authors)

  14. 78 FR 25678 - Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Gwendolyn Gleaton, Permits and State Programs Section, RCRA Programs and Materials Management Branch, RCRA...

  15. Development of solid radionuclide waste forms in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    New ways of reworking the wastes require a new classification in terms of the final waste forms. This paper surveys the candidate forms: encapsulation binders, in-place solidification waste forms, glass and ceramic waste forms, mineral waste forms, matrix waste forms, gaseous waste forms (fixation), and canisters and engineered barriers. Participants in the US-high-level waste form development program are listed. Requirements and selection of waste forms are also discussed. 26 references

  16. 75 FR 43409 - Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...--Statistical Methods for Evaluating Ground-Water Monitoring Data from Hazardous Waste Facilities, 53 FR 39720... Refining Primary and Secondary Oil/Water/Solids Separation Sludge Listings, 56 FR 21955, May 13, 1991: Rule... handle hazardous sludges as hazardous wastes when they leave the zero discharge unit. Whether this...

  17. Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

  18. Quantitative measurements of ground state atomic oxygen in atmospheric pressure surface micro-discharge array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Kong, M. G.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Leys, C.; Nikiforov, A.

    2017-06-01

    The generation of atomic oxygen in an array of surface micro-discharge, working in atmospheric pressure He/O2 or Ar/O2 mixtures, is investigated. The absolute atomic oxygen density and its temporal and spatial dynamics are studied by means of two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. A high density of atomic oxygen is detected in the He/O2 mixture with up to 10% O2 content in the feed gas, whereas the atomic oxygen concentration in the Ar/O2 mixture stays below the detection limit of 1013 cm-3. The measured O density near the electrode under the optimal conditions in He/1.75% O2 gas is 4.26  ×  1015 cm-3. The existence of the ground state O (2p 4 3 P) species has been proven in the discharge at a distance up to 12 mm away from the electrodes. Dissociative reactions of the singlet O2 with O3 and deep vacuum ultraviolet radiation, including the radiation of excimer \\text{He}2\\ast , are proposed to be responsible for O (2p 4 3 P) production in the far afterglow. A capability of the surface micro-discharge array delivering atomic oxygen to long distances over a large area is considered very interesting for various biomedical applications.

  19. The development of hazardous waste management as a state policy concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzik, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    Hazardous waste management has become a primary concern of state governments. This concern is relatively recent, with state governments assuming a leading role in hazardous waste policy development and implementation only in the past decade. This article outlines the scope of the hazardous waste problem to which state governments must respond. The scope of the problem is then linked to changing public perceptions and intergovernmental relationships to explain the expanding state government policy role in hazardous waste management. 15 refs., 1 tab

  20. Production of proteases from organic wastes by solid-state fermentation: downstream and zero waste strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Maria; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-04-01

    Production of enzymes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) of agro-industrial wastes reports high productivity with low investment. The extraction of the final product from the solid waste and solid disposal represent the main cost of the process. In this work, the complete downstream processes of SSF of two industrial residues for the production of proteases, soy fibre (SF) and a mixture of hair and sludge (HS), were studied in terms of activity recovery, using different extraction parameters (extracting solvent, ratio solid: solvent and extraction mode). Activity after lyophilisation was tested. Solid waste valorisation after extraction was studied using respiration techniques and biogas production tests, as part of a zero waste strategy. Results showed a maximum extraction yield of 91% for SF and 121% for HS, both in agitated mode and distilled water as extraction agent. An average activity recovery of 95 ± 6 and 94 ± 6% for SF and HS, respectively, was obtained after lyophilisation and redissolution. To reduce the cost of extraction, a ratio 1:3 w : v solid-solvent in static mode is advised for SF, and 1:2 w : v extraction ratio in agitated mode for HS, both with distilled water as extracting agent. Both composting and anaerobic digestion are suitable techniques for valorisation of the waste material.

  1. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  2. Changing Snow Cover and Stream Discharge in the Western United States - Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Barton, Jonathan S.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack has important implications for the management of water resources. We studied ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover products, 40 years of stream discharge and meteorological station data and 30 years of snow-water equivalent (SWE) SNOw Telemetry (SNOTEL) data in the Wind River Range (WRR), Wyoming. Results show increasing air temperatures for.the 40-year study period. Discharge from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades. Changes in streamflow may be related to increasing air temperatures which are probably contributing to a reduction in snow cover, although no trend of either increasingly lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. And SWE on 1 April does not show an expected downward trend from 1980 to 2009. The extent of snow cover derived from the lowest-elevation zone of the WRR study area is strongly correlated (r=0.91) with stream discharge on 1 May during the decade of the 2000s. The strong relationship between snow cover and streamflow indicates that MODIS snow-cover maps can be used to improve management of water resources in the drought-prone western U.S.

  3. Theory of hollow cathode arc discharges. II. Metastable state balance inside the cathode. Application to argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C.M.; Delcroix, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    In the hollow cathode the metastable species are created by fast electrons, which are emitted by the cathode wall and injected in the plasma across a space-charge sheath, and destroyed by Maxwellian electrons. A detailed analysis of the different electronic destruction mechanisms in argon shows that the re-excitation up to 3p 5 4p states plays a very important role. Solutions of the metastable balance equation were obtained in a wide range of variation of the discharge parameters displaying the best conditions of operation to obtain high concentrations [fr

  4. 1989 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites: National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1990-12-01

    The National Low-Level Waste Management Program has published eleven annual state-by-state assessment reports. These reports provide both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are divided into generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1989 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1985 through 1989; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1989. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that handled by an intermediary. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 5. Assessment of the radiological impact to the public resulting from discharges of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the assessment of the radiological impact to the public resulting from discharges of radioactive effluents (liquid and gaseous) in connection with the implementation of the Belgian scenario for the management of PWR waste. Both individual and collective doses have been estimated for a critical group of the population living around the nuclear power plants concerned. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management wastes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  6. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Deng, Wenjing; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    In some arid regions where landfill produces minimal amount of leachate, leachate recirculation is suggested as a cost-effective option. However, its long-term impacts to environment remain disputed. For the purpose of revealing the environmental impacts of leachate recirculation in landfill, four scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280 t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human toxicity in surface water, and those to groundwater, present relatively low levels. In Scenario B, leachate evaporation in a collecting pool has minimal impacts on surface water. However, this strategy significantly impacts groundwater (1055.16 PE) because of the potential infiltration of leachate, with major contaminants of As, ammonia, and Cd. A number of ions, such as Cl(-), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), may also contaminate groundwater. In Scenario C, the direct discharge of leachate to surface water may result in acidification (2.71 PE) and nutrient enrichment (2.88 PE), primarily attributed to soluble ammonia in leachate and the depositional ammonia from biogas. Moreover, the direct discharge of leachate may also result in ecotoxicity and human toxicity via water contaminated by heavy metals in leachate, with 3.96 PE and 11.64 PE respectively. The results also show that landfill gas is the main contributor to global warming and photochemical ozone formation due to methane emission. In Scenario D, landfill gas flaring was thus be modeled and proven to be efficient for reducing

  7. 75 FR 76691 - Oregon; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ...; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental... to the State of Oregon's federally authorized RCRA hazardous waste management program. On January 7... changes the State of Oregon made to its federally authorized RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Program...

  8. 77 FR 46964 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Agency (EPA) to authorize States to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the Federal program. The EPA uses the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management...

  9. 77 FR 29231 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Agency (EPA) to authorize States to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the Federal program. The EPA uses the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management...

  10. 76 FR 26616 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... (RCRA) allows EPA to authorize States to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the Federal program. EPA uses the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management...

  11. 75 FR 45489 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... (EPA) to authorize States to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the Federal program. EPA uses the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'' to...

  12. Environmental Analysis of U.S. Navy Submarine Solid Waste Discharges. Report of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    generation rates between the USS Cincinnati and the USS Kamehameha (shown in table 6-1) were described in the NNS study (1994) as due to differences in crew...habits, menus, variations in at-sea time, and differences in waste reduction efforts. It was noted that some boats, including the USS Kamehameha , have...kg·person-l·d-l) PCMG(%) (kg·person-l·d-l) PCMG(%) Submarine Submarine USS Cincinnati USS Kamehameha Cardboard 0.21 0.05 Paper(FC) 0.06 0.06 Paper(NFC

  13. Impact of hazardous waste handling legislation on nuclear installations and radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosten, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The United States has enacted complex legislation to help assure proper handling of hazardous waste and the availability of funds to cover the expenditures. There are a number of uncertainties concerning the impact of this legislation, and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency and the states, upon nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. This report provides an overview of the U.S. hazardous waste legislation and examines the outlook for its application to the nuclear industry (NEA) [fr

  14. Experience of waste characterization study for the State of Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Zarina Zainuddin

    2004-01-01

    The state of Penang has been identified as a major city along with Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru. Along with this recognition came rapid development and an increase in the amount of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) that needs treatment. The state government has engaged a study to have an integrated waste management system. MIREC was enlisted into a consortium of consultants that would propose to the state and central government a solution to the problem. MIREC has been actively involved with waste characterization in Malaysia, but due to the fact that there are no standards for such processes, the study underwent many changes during the course of the project. Apart from this, the Terms of Reference for the study was not well established causing much inconvenience to the study team. However, the project was successful in terms of MIREC being able to transfer some technology to the local company, part of the study was also used to enhance the R and D capability of MIREC and also worked as a training ground for new staff to acquire practical knowledge. Hence, this kind of projects are good in terms of allowing for new R and D development and also to work as an income to MIREC. (Author)

  15. The 1988 state-by-state assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1989-12-01

    This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are divided into generator categories, waste classes, volumes, and activities. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1988 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1984 through 1988; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1988. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that which was handled by an intermediary. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG ampersand G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured

  17. Status of United States civilian waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 confirms the Federal responsibility for nuclear waste management and provides for unprecedented involvement by States, Indian tribes and the public. The Act provides a comprehensive framework for disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes of domestic origin generated by civilian nuclear power reactors. It establishes detailed schedules and procedures for selecting and developing geologic repositories; provides a mechanism for financing the cost of disposal; and sets forth other provisions relating to nuclear waste disposal. The other provisions of the Act include provision for a user-financed federal interim storage facility with time and quantity limitations, as well as strict Nuclear Regulatory Commission-prescribed eligibility criteria; a proposal for a Federally-owned and operated monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for the interim period prior to operation of a permanent repository; and provision for a Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF). This paper centers on the schedule and current status and siting of the first two geologic repositories

  18. 76 FR 26681 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Wisconsin's authorized hazardous waste program. EPA will incorporate... that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred...

  19. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  20. State powers and responsibilities concerning the flow of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Patrick M.; Monaco, Cindy M.

    1992-01-01

    The primary source of federal jurisdiction over the transportation and management of waste is derived from the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution. That authority is of two main types - active, which empowers federal supervision over matters affecting commerce, and passive, which restrains state activity regarding commerce-related issues. The passive, or dormant, powers prevent a state from undertaking economic protectionist actions, but they do not prevent legitimate regulation for public health and safety where there is not a less intrusive alternative. The Commerce Clause does not prohibit states from making market-based decisions as proprietors, and discriminatory activities may be undertaken in that capacity. A federally approved compact empowers states or groups of states to act in ways that would otherwise be precluded by the Commerce Clause. The public policy issues at work in the above situations are discussed. Several proposals to revise the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act to conform with these principles are described. (author)

  1. Multi-temperature state-dependent equivalent circuit discharge model for lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Marinescu, Monica; Auger, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are described extensively in the literature, but existing computational models aimed at scientific understanding are too complex for use in applications such as battery management. Computationally simple models are vital for exploitation. This paper proposes a non......-linear state-of-charge dependent Li-S equivalent circuit network (ECN) model for a Li-S cell under discharge. Li-S batteries are fundamentally different to Li-ion batteries, and require chemistry-specific models. A new Li-S model is obtained using a ‘behavioural’ interpretation of the ECN model; as Li...... pulse profile at four temperatures from 10 °C to 50 °C, giving linearized ECN parameters for a range of states-of-charge, currents and temperatures. These are used to create a nonlinear polynomial-based battery model suitable for use in a battery management system. When the model is used to predict...

  2. The causes of the municipal solid waste and the greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungtaek; Kim, Jonghoon; Chong, Wai K O

    2016-10-01

    The United States generated approximately 730kg of waste per capita in 2013, which is the highest amount of waste among OECD countries. The waste has adverse effects to human health and the environment. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas emissions, especially methane (CH4), which causes global warming. However, the United States' amount of waste generation is not decreasing, and the recycling rate is only 26%, which is lower than other OECD countries. In order to decrease waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying the causality of the waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions from waste sector should be made a priority. The research objective is to verify whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship is supported for waste generation and GDP across the U.S. Moreover, it also confirmed that total waste generation and recycling of waste influences carbon dioxide emissions from the waste sector. Based on the results, critical insight and suggestions were offered to policymakers, which is the potential way to lower the solid waste and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector. This research used annually based U.S. data from 1990 to 2012, and these data were collected from various data sources. To verify the causal relationship, the Granger causality test was applied. The results showed that there is no causality between GDP and waste generation, but total waste and recycling generate significantly increasing and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector, respectively. This implies that waste generation will not decrease even if GDP increases. And, if waste generation decreases or the recycling rate increases, greenhouse gas emission will decrease. Based on these results, increasing the recycling rate is first suggested. The second suggestion is to break the causal relationship between MSW and greenhouse gas emission from the waste sector. The third is that the U.S. government should benchmark a

  3. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

  4. Public responses to radioactive wastes in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Whatever the actual public health and environmental risks posed by nuclear power and the disposal of radioactive wastes, they pale in comparison with what the public believes they are. There can be little doubt that members of the public perceive substantial dangers from such facilities and are intensely concerned about them. Intense concern is apparent in the controversy that has erupted not only in the United States but in many societies where search activities have been conducted for a radioactive or other hazardous waste disposal facility. It is also apparent in the findings from a significant accumulation of polls, surveys, attitude studies, and psychometric research as well as in direct experience in diverse countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. (author). 10 refs

  5. State-of-the-art dry active waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmer, T.; Ingalsbe, H.; Alcorn, G.; Anderson, K.; Dahlen, D.

    1989-01-01

    Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) is operated by Arizona Public Service for a consortium of seven owners. The site consists of three identical single unit power plants. Each unit is a Combustion Engineering Series 80 pressurized water reactor (PWR) rated at 1270 Megawatts electric. The site is located 100 kilometers west of Phoenix, Arizona in the arid southwest desert region of the United States of America. Since the start up of Unit One in 1985, Palo Verde has aggressively pursued waste volume reduction. This includes a dry active waste (DAW) segregation program that locates and separates nonradioactive and reusable materials that have been mixed with the radioactive DAW. The DAW program is described in further detail in the paper

  6. New York State's low-level radioactive waste storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Like their counterparts in other states, low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generators in New York State face the prospect of being unable to transfer their LLRW off site beginning January 1, 1993. How long will those generators be able to accumulate and store LLRW on site before activities producing the waste are seriously interrupted? Would a centralized storage facility be a more economically viable solution for medical and academic institutions? The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is conducting a study that seeks to answer these and a variety of related questions over the coming year. This paper describes the origin and design of the study. It reviews the plans for generator-specific data collection, the method for assessing generator storage capability, and the approach to evaluating economic viability. In pursuing this study, the Energy Authority has attempted to incorporate the views of the broad spectrum of LLRW interests. The formation and role of the Study Review Panel, established specifically for that purpose, is discussed. Finally, the paper reviews some of the more interesting questions and issues raised in the development of the study and relates the study to the State's other LLRW management activities, particularly its Interim LLRW Management Plan. (author)

  7. Natural radionuclides in waste water discharged from coal-fired power plants in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Sarap, Nataša B; Krneta Nikolić, Jelena D; Rajačić, Milica M; Pantelić, Gordana K

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the natural radioactivity levels in water around power plants, as well as in plants, coal, ash, slag and soil, and to assess the associated radiation hazard is becoming an emerging and interesting topic. This paper is focused on the results of the radioactivity analysis in waste water samples from five coal-fired power plants in Serbia (Nikola Tesla A, Nikola Tesla B, Kolubara, Morava and Kostolac), which were analyzed in the period 2003-2015. River water samples taken upstream and downstream from the power plants, drain water and overflow water were analyzed. In the water samples gamma spectrometry analysis was performed as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activity. Natural radionuclide 40 K was detected by gamma spectrometry, while the concentrations of other radionuclides, 226 Ra, 235 U and 238 U, usually were below the minimum detection activity (MDA). 232 Th and artificial radionuclide 137 Cs were not detected in these samples. Gross alpha and beta activities were determined by the α/β low level proportional counter Thermo Eberline FHT 770 T. In the analyzed samples, gross alpha activity ranged from MDA to 0.47 Bq L - 1 , while the gross beta activity ranged from MDA to 1.55 Bq L - 1 .

  8. Evaluation of environmental dosimetry models for applicability to possible radioactive waste repository discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, J.J.; Michlewicz, D.; Letizia, A.

    1977-09-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the available codes, for application to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Consideration was given to the types of radionuclides which may be of concern, the possible modes of release of these radionuclides and the various pathways by which members of the general public in the vicinity of a terminal storage facility may be exposed to the releases. Results reveal that the types and quantities of radioactive material requiring disposal will depend on the type of back and fuel cycle adopted. It can be assumed that under normal operating conditions there will be virtually no liquid effluent and inconsequentially small quantities of radioactive gaseous effluent. Under accident conditions during operation, both liquid and gaseous releases could occur resulting in exposures to the general public. Failure of the facility subsequent to decommissioning could also result in exposures but primarily via the aquatic pathways. A review of three atmospheric dispersion models and 32 environmental dosimetry codes presently used by the nuclear industry was performed. A discussion is presented on standard NRC methodologies for determining the dispersion coefficients used as input to the various models and the inherent limitations of many of the techniques routinely used to evaluate site specific atmospheric dispersion. The review of the dosimetry codes reveals that no one code is generally applicable to the NWTS Program, but some codes permit radiological assessment of the most important exposure pathways

  9. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the State solid waste management plan. 256.02 Section 256.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements, Definitions § 256.0...

  10. 75 FR 81187 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed Rule. SUMMARY: The Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, commonly... Agency (EPA) to authorize states to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the...

  11. Decomposition of toluene in a steady-state atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trushkin, A. N.; Grushin, M. E.; Kochetov, I. V.; Trushkin, N. I.; Akishev, Yu. S.

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of decomposition of toluene (C 6 H 5 CH 3 ) in a polluted air flow by means of a steady-state atmospheric pressure glow discharge at different water vapor contents in the working gas. The experimental results on the degree of C 6 H 5 CH 3 removal are compared with the results of computer simulations conducted in the framework of the developed kinetic model of plasma chemical decomposition of toluene in the N 2 : O 2 : H 2 O gas mixture. A substantial influence of the gas flow humidity on toluene decomposition in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is demonstrated. The main mechanisms of the influence of humidity on C 6 H 5 CH 3 decomposition are determined. The existence of two stages in the process of toluene removal, which differ in their duration and the intensity of plasma chemical decomposition of C 6 H 5 CH 3 is established. Based on the results of computer simulations, the composition of the products of plasma chemical reactions at the output of the reactor is analyzed as a function of the specific energy deposition and gas flow humidity. The existence of a catalytic cycle in which hydroxyl radical OH acts a catalyst and which substantially accelerates the recombination of oxygen atoms and suppression of ozone generation when the plasma-forming gas contains water vapor is established.

  12. Decomposition of toluene in a steady-state atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkin, A. N.; Grushin, M. E.; Kochetov, I. V.; Trushkin, N. I.; Akishev, Yu. S.

    2013-02-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of decomposition of toluene (C6H5CH3) in a polluted air flow by means of a steady-state atmospheric pressure glow discharge at different water vapor contents in the working gas. The experimental results on the degree of C6H5CH3 removal are compared with the results of computer simulations conducted in the framework of the developed kinetic model of plasma chemical decomposition of toluene in the N2: O2: H2O gas mixture. A substantial influence of the gas flow humidity on toluene decomposition in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is demonstrated. The main mechanisms of the influence of humidity on C6H5CH3 decomposition are determined. The existence of two stages in the process of toluene removal, which differ in their duration and the intensity of plasma chemical decomposition of C6H5CH3 is established. Based on the results of computer simulations, the composition of the products of plasma chemical reactions at the output of the reactor is analyzed as a function of the specific energy deposition and gas flow humidity. The existence of a catalytic cycle in which hydroxyl radical OH acts a catalyst and which substantially accelerates the recombination of oxygen atoms and suppression of ozone generation when the plasma-forming gas contains water vapor is established.

  13. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  15. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. The state of municipal solid waste management in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskal, Shira; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

    2018-06-01

    Regulation is a key tool for implementing municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategies and plans. While local authorities in Israel are responsible for the storage, collection, and disposal of MSW, Israel's Ministry of Environmental Protection (MoEP) is responsible for the formulation and implementation of waste management policies and legislation. For the past 12 years, about 80% of the MSW in Israel has been landfilled and recycling rates have not increased, despite regulations. This paper presents the state of MSW management in Israel in light of the MoEP's strategic goal of landfilling reduction, the regulations and legislation designed and implemented for achieving this goal, and the ensuing results. Among other things, the results indicate the importance of monitoring and assessing policy and regulations to examine whether regulation is in fact effective and whether it keeps track of its own targets and goals or not. It is also concluded that even when there is an extensive regulation that includes a wide range of laws, economic penalties and financial incentives (such as landfill levy and financing of MSW separation at source arrangements), this does not guarantee proper treatment or even an improvement in waste management. The key to success is first and foremost a suitable infrastructure that will enable achievement of the desired results.

  17. An overview of radioactive waste management in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luik, A.E. van

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. radioactive waste management program is implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) for high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel; defense-related transuranic wastes; and U.S. DOE-generated low-level and mixed wastes. The various states are responsible for the disposal of civilian low-level wastes. Selected radioactive waste management and disposal topics will be overviewed, followed by a more detailed discussion of the high-level and low-level waste disposal regulatory framework and some issues involved in showing compliance with the applicable regulations. (author)

  18. The Epidemiology of Emergency Department Trauma Discharges in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaggio, Charles J; Avraham, Jacob B; Lee, David C; Frangos, Spiros G; Wall, Stephen P

    2017-10-01

    Injury-related morbidity and mortality is an important emergency medicine and public health challenge in the United States. Here we describe the epidemiology of traumatic injury presenting to U.S. emergency departments (EDs), define changes in types and causes of injury among the elderly and the young, characterize the role of trauma centers and teaching hospitals in providing emergency trauma care, and estimate the overall economic burden of treating such injuries. We conducted a secondary retrospective, repeated cross-sectional study of the Nationwide Emergency Department Data Sample (NEDS), the largest all-payer ED survey database in the United States. Main outcomes and measures were survey-adjusted counts, proportions, means, and rates with associated standard errors (SEs) and 95% confidence intervals. We plotted annual age-stratified ED discharge rates for traumatic injury and present tables of proportions of common injuries and external causes. We modeled the association of Level I or II trauma center care with injury fatality using a multivariable survey-adjusted logistic regression analysis that controlled for age, sex, injury severity, comorbid diagnoses, and teaching hospital status. There were 181,194,431 (SE = 4,234) traumatic injury discharges from U.S. EDs between 2006 and 2012. There was a mean year-to-year decrease of 143 (95% CI = -184.3 to -68.5) visits per 100,000 U.S. population during the study period. The all-age, all-cause case-fatality rate for traumatic injuries across U.S. EDs during the study period was 0.17% (SE = 0.001%). The case-fatality rate for the most severely injured averaged 4.8% (SE = 0.001%), and severely injured patients were nearly four times as likely to be seen in Level I or II trauma centers (relative risk = 3.9 [95% CI = 3.7 to 4.1]). The unadjusted risk ratio, based on group counts, for the association of Level I or II trauma centers with mortality was risk ratio = 4.9 (95% CI = 4.5 to 5.3); however, after sex, age

  19. Overview of the United States' nuclear waste repository programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surles, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of the future of civilian or defense-based nuclear materials, the United States will be responsible for a vast array of these materials for generations to come. The cornerstone programme for the disposal of waste materials is the Yucca Mountain Programme. Based on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, it has been the United States' policy to develop a geological repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste materials. This presentation will discuss the process and strategy leading to the present and will include the scientific and management activities required to support the recent Viability Assessment. Also to be discussed are the timeline and milestones leading to the opening of the repository. The focus will be on the scientific and engineering studies required for a successful Site Recommendation, and then for a similarly successful License Application. Both of these activities will require considerable management efforts in addressing legal and regulatory issues. Finally, the presentation will discuss projections for the future operation of the facility, including emplacement projections, coupled with the required locations of nuclear materials. Additional scientific research and engineering studies will also be conducted to determine the longer-term viability of the facility, which is designed, by policy, for permanent storage. Retrievability is currently not an option, although access to the facility will be maintained for several decades. The focus of the discussion will be on the scientific and engineering advances made on understanding the natural systems for preventing migration of radionuclides, coupled with new developments in engineered systems in areas such as cask cladding, drip shields, and related materials engineering developments. The coupling of engineered and natural systems is designed to offer safety factors that are several orders of magnitude greater than what is estimated to be necessary

  20. Water state changes during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Huan-Lin; Hu, Li-Fang; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste were determined. Three experiments, R(55), R(60), and R(65), with different initial moisture contents, 55%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, were performed. Three water states, entrapped water (EW), capillary water (CW), and multiple-molecular-layer water (MMLW), were monitored during the experiments. Changes only occurred with the EW and CW during the composting process. The percentage of EW increased, and the percentage of CW decreased as the composting process progressed. The R(60) experiment performed better than the other experiments according to changes in the temperature and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N). The percentage of EW correlated well (P<0.05) with the dissolved organic carbon content (DOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N, and was affected by the hemicellulose and cellulose contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Forecasting the Amount of Waste-Sewage Water Discharged into the Yangtze River Basin Based on the Optimal Fractional Order Grey Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliang; Meng, Wei; Xie, Yufeng

    2017-12-23

    With the rapid development of the Yangtze River economic belt, the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into the Yangtze River basin increases sharply year by year, which has impeded the sustainable development of the Yangtze River basin. The water security along the Yangtze River basin is very important for China, It is something aboutwater security of roughly one-third of China's population and the sustainable development of the 19 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions among the Yangtze River basin. Therefore, a scientific prediction of the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into Yangtze River basin has a positive significance on sustainable development of industry belt along with Yangtze River basin. This paper builds the fractional DWSGM(1,1)(DWSGM(1,1) model is short for Discharge amount of Waste Sewage Grey Model for one order equation and one variable) model based on the fractional accumulating generation operator and fractional reducing operator, and calculates the optimal order of "r" by using particle swarm optimization(PSO)algorithm for solving the minimum average relative simulation error. Meanwhile, the simulation performance of DWSGM(1,1)model with the optimal fractional order is tested by comparing the simulation results of grey prediction models with different orders. Finally, the optimal fractional order DWSGM(1,1)grey model is applied to predict the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into the Yangtze River basin, and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward through analyzing and comparing the prediction results. This paper has positive significance on enriching the fractional order modeling method of the grey system.

  2. The application of the German reg. guides ('elements of calculation') for radioactive discharges via exhaust air and waste water on fuel element fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.; Rudolph, W.

    1978-01-01

    The fuel element fabricating plants at Hanau are handlung uranium, plutonium and thorium. The process essentially of converting these heavy metals into oxide, carbide or metal compounds. Thereby occur radioactive discharges into the exhaust air and the waste water. The most important pathway for exposure from these substances is inhalation, the released radionuclides mostly being α-emitters. Compared to this the external irradiation from immersion in γ, β, and neutron radiation is of less importance. (orig./HP) [de

  3. 1983 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The 1983 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 76,702 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 505,340 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1983. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is tabulated. Typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector are given. Predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector are tabulated. Sometimes the amount of waste reported by power facilities is equal to or exceeds the state volume reported from commercial disposal site operators. Discrepancies may be a result of waste volumes being credited to the home state of the waste broker instead of the actual state location of the generator. Additionally, waste volumes may have been in transit from the generator to the disposal site at year's end. The Low-Level Waste Management Program felt a responsibility to report information accurately from the various sources, so did not alter the figures to make them balance

  4. 75 FR 43478 - Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental.... Mail: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site Remediation and Restoration (OSRR 07... Delivery or Courier: Deliver your comments to: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site...

  5. 78 FR 32161 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... waste management program. We authorized the following revisions: Oklahoma received authorization for... authorization of its program revision in accordance with 40 CFR 271.21. The Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management...

  6. 76 FR 62303 - California: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the revisions to California's hazardous waste management program shall be effective at 1 p.m. on... implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. EPA granted authorization for changes to California's...

  7. 75 FR 918 - Oregon: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... hazardous waste management program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA). On... has decided that the revisions to the Oregon hazardous waste management program satisfy all of the...

  8. 76 FR 18927 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous waste management program. We authorized the following revisions: Oklahoma received authorization... accordance with 40 CFR 271.21. The Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act (``OHWMA'') provides the ODEQ with...

  9. 77 FR 61326 - Indiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted authorization for changes to their program on... 202. Hazardous Waste Management July 30, 2003; 68 329 IAC 3.1-6-2(16); System; Identification and FR...

  10. 78 FR 15299 - New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... Waste program as addressed by the federal used oil management regulations that were published on..., New York Codes, Rules and Regulations (6 NYCRR), Volume A-2A, Hazardous Waste Management System...

  11. 76 FR 37021 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... implement its base Hazardous Waste Management Program. We granted authorization for changes to their program... opportunity to apply for final authorization to operate all aspects of their hazardous waste management...

  12. 76 FR 6561 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... December 31, 1984 (49 FR 48694) to implement its base hazardous waste management program. EPA granted... XV are from the North Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Rules 15A NCAC 13A, effective April 23...

  13. 77 FR 13200 - Texas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... December 26, 1984 (49 FR 48300), to implement its Base Hazardous Waste Management Program. This... Waste 53478, September Annotated Sections Management facilities. 8, 2005. 5.103 and 5.105 (Checklist 210...

  14. 75 FR 35720 - Massachusetts: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental...: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site Remediation and Restoration (OSRR 07-1... Courier: Deliver your comments to: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site...

  15. 78 FR 15338 - New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, commonly... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R02-RCRA-2013-0144; FRL-9693-3] New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental...

  16. 78 FR 79654 - Vermont: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] Vermont: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY... Docket ID No. EPA-R01- RCRA-2013-0554, by mail to Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management and UST Section..., RCRA Waste Management and UST Section, Office of Site Remediation and Restoration (OSRR07-1), US EPA...

  17. 78 FR 25579 - Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... adopted these requirements by reference at Georgia Hazardous Waste Management Rule 391-3-11-.07(1), EPA... authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA...

  18. 77 FR 60919 - Tennessee: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental..., Division of Solid Waste Management, 5th Floor, L & C Tower, 401 Church Street, Nashville, Tennessee 37243... RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted authorization for changes to Tennessee's program on...

  19. The problem of nuclear wastes. A possible point of conflict between Mexico and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas Poblano, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: a) To analyse the problem of nuclear wastes, and the importance of their safe handling; b) To investigate the best and safest technologies for the treatment of radioactive wastes and two relevant international laws or regulations; c) To study whether the wastes produced in the United States represent an environmental problem for Mexico

  20. Management of PET plastic bottles waste through recycling Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. B. I.

    2010-10-01

    This study been carried out to assess the general waste management in Khartoum State and effectively manage the PET plastic bottles by identifying practical means and introducing recycling as cleaner production tool to achieve sustainable development goals. The information data were gathered during the period June-July 2010 through questionnaires, interview, meeting and visits to various sites, in addition to the official information and documents collected from reliable sources, mainly Sudan Central Bank, customs authorities, Ministry of Industry, soft drink and water bottling factories. The data were presented in tables, graphs and charts by applying windows excel program and also applying e view package for the future forecast. Analysis of data shows a rising consumption in PET bottles and the forecasted PET consumption in year 2015 estimated to be 60000 Tons, twice the estimate in the year 2010. This situation will create serious environmental problems that require much more effort to be exerted by all stake holders to book for scientific and practical solutions for the disposal of plastic waste through recycling. Based on the analysis and findings recommendations have been made that ensure on recycling of PET plastic bottles by mechanical method that depends mainly on collection, segregation, cleaning and processing. Further studies and researches on other recycling methods have been recommended in the future. (Author)

  1. Current researches on safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Hiroshi; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1980-01-01

    Recently, the problem of safe disposal of radioactive waste generated from nuclear fuel cycle becomes more important in Japan. On the other hand, many researches on shallow land burial of low-level wastes and geologic isolation of high-level wastes have been carried out in the United States of America. In this report, the researches on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal in the United States of America were briefly introduced with emphasis on the studies on behavior and migration of radionuclide from disposed waste in geosphere. (author)

  2. The effect of purified sewage discharge from a sewage treatment plant on the physicochemical state of water in the receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanownik Włodzimierz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents changes in the contents of physicochemical indices of the Sudół stream water caused by a discharge of purified municipal sewage from a small mechanical-biological treatment plant with throughput of 300 m3·d−1 and a population equivalent (p.e. – 1,250 people. The discharge of purified sewage caused a worsening of the stream water quality. Most of the studied indices values increased in water below the treatment plant. Almost a 100-fold increase in ammonium nitrogen, 17-fold increase in phosphate concentrations and 12-fold raise in BOD5 concentrations were registered. Due to high values of these indices, the water physicochemical state was below good. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable effect of the purified sewage discharge on the stream water physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in 10 indices values (BOD5, COD-Mn, EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, K+, PO43−, N-NH4+ and N-NO2 as well as significant decline in the degree of water saturation with oxygen were noted below the sewage treatment plant. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences between the water indices values were registered between the measurement points localised 150 and 1,000 m below the purified sewage discharge. It evidences a slow process of the stream water self-purification caused by an excessive loading with pollutants originating from the purified sewage discharge.

  3. Optimization of waste water discharge and waste water cleaning on the basis of measurements of the organic pollutant load; Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und Abwasserreinigung durch Messung der organischen Abwasserbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, M. [Dr. Bruno Lange GmbH Berlin, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The spectral absorption coefficient (SAC) is a sum parameter for describing the organic pollutant load of waste water. It is based on a purely physical measuring technique and can be monitored continuously and directly in the medium by means of the described UV process probe. From this arise numerous opportunities for optimizing waste water discharge and cleaning. (orig.) [German] Der spektrale Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) ist ein Summenparameter zur Beschreibung der organischen Abwasserbelastung. Er basiert auf einem rein physikalischen Messverfahren und kann mit der hier vorgestellten UV-Prozess-Sonde kontinuierlich und direkt im Medium erfasst werden. Daraus ergeben sich zahlreiche Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und -reinigung. (orig.)

  4. Change-Point and Trend Analysis on Annual Maximum Discharge in Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, F.; Villarini, G.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2008-12-01

    Annual maximum discharge records from 36 stations representing different hydro-climatic regimes in the continental United States with at least 100 years of records are used to investigate the presence of temporal trends and abrupt changes in mean and variance. Change point analysis is performed by means of two non- parametric (Pettitt and CUSUM), one semi-parametric (Guan), and two parametric (Rodionov and Bayesian Change Point) tests. Two non-parametric (Mann-Kendall and Spearman) and one parametric (Pearson) tests are applied to detect the presence of temporal trends. Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) models are also used to parametrically model the streamflow data exploiting their flexibility to account for changes and temporal trends in the parameters of distribution functions. Additionally, serial correlation is assessed in advance by computing the autocorrelation function (ACF), and the Hurst parameter is estimated using two estimators (aggregated variance and differenced variance methods) to investigate the presence of long range dependence. The results of this study indicate lack of long range dependence in the maximum streamflow series. At some stations the authors found a statistically significant change point in the mean and/or variance, while in general they detected no statistically significant temporal trends.

  5. The role of high Rydberg states in the generation of negative ions in negative-ion discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The generation of substantial yields of H - ions in a laser excited H 2 gas has been reported by Pinnaduwage and Christoforu. These H - yields have been attributed to (2 + 1) REMP photoexcitation processes leading to dissociative attachment of doubly-excited or superexcited states (SES), or dissociative attachment of high Rydberg product states. The new feature of these experiments is the implied large dissociative attachment rates, of order 10 -6 cm 3 sec -1 , values that are orders-of-magnitude larger than the dissociative attachment of the vibrationally excited levels of the ground electronic state. While these laser excitations are not directly applicable to a hydrogen negative-ion discharge, the implication of large dissociative attachment rates to the high Rydberg states may affect both the total negative-ion density and the interpretation of discharge performance. Within the discharge energetic electrons will collisionally excite the higher Rydberg states, and the relative contribution of the dissociative attachment of these states when compared with the dissociative attachment to the ground state vibrational levels, is the topic of this paper

  6. State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office narrative report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) is the State of Nevada agency designated by State law to monitor and oversee US Department of Energy (DOE) activities relative to the possible siting, construction, operation and closure of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain and to carry out the State of Nevada's responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During the reporting period the NWPO continued to work toward the five objectives designed to implement the Agency's oversight responsibilities: (1) Assure that the health and safety of Nevada's citizens are adequately protected with regard to any federal high-level radioactive waste program within the State; (2) Take the responsibilities and perform the duties of the State of Nevada as described in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987; (3) Advise the Governor, the State Commission on Nuclear Projects and the Nevada State Legislature on matters concerning the potential disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the State; (4) Work closely and consult with affected local governments and State agencies; (5) Monitor and evaluate federal planning and activities regarding high-level radioactive waste disposal. Plan and conduct independent State studies regarding the proposed repository

  7. The state of innovation in the South African waste sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the first South African Waste Sector Survey shows that landfilling remains the main technology option for the management of waste in South African, with 90% of all waste generated, disposed of to landfill. However, the results show a...

  8. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  9. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This is the third update of Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration. It completely replaces the second update (15 July 1983). The updated report covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. The cover page indicates whether or not it is an Agreement State, the low-level waste compacts in which the state is listed as an eligible state, and the high-level waste repository site screening regions in which the state or a portion of it is located. Included under the compacts is a description of what the state has done or currently plans to do, as well as the compact status of other eligible states in the region. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of January 1, 1984

  10. Development of a state-of-the-art solid waste characterisation facility at JRC ISPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Hubert, P.; Vassallo, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will review the development and construction of a state-of-the-art waste characterisation facility that represents a fundamental element in the JRC's strategy to characterise radioactive wastes originating from four decades of nuclear research activities conducted at the Ispra Site. The state-of-the-art NDA measurement solution selected by JRC-Ispra will be presented in the light of special requirements imposed by applicable Italian legislation, norms and the qualities of the waste packages. The intended plant combines the state-of-the-art-measurement solution with comprehensive process automation in an industrial environment and is therefore of significant interest to the radioactive waste management community. (orig.)

  11. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This updated report covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 31 August 1984

  12. 76 FR 6594 - Florida: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... and State Programs Section, RCRA Programs and Materials Management Branch, RCRA Division, U.S...

  13. 77 FR 60963 - Tennessee: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Johnson, Permits and State Programs Section, RCRA Programs and Materials Management Branch, RCRA Division...

  14. 1980 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented on the volumes, curie values, sources, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in each state. The wastes are segmented into 2 broad categories - institutional/industrial and commercial power reactor wastes. The volumes and curie values were obtained from the commercial site operators. The percentage of LLW disposed of at each of the 3 operating disposal sites located at Barnwell, SC, Beatty, NV, and Richland, WA are included

  15. Waste water discharges into natural waters; Problematiche sulla dispersione di effluenti liquidi da canali o condotte a pelo liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marri, P [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Santa Teresa, La Spezia (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Barsanti, P; Mione, A; Posarelli, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-12-01

    The acqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point.

  16. Role of the state in the regulation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenneman, F.N.; Salomon, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    This document describes the role of the State in the regulation of low-level radioactive waste in the context of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), which recognizes that the States are responsible for disposal of the waste and as such may develop interstate compacts. The perspective is the present national regulatory framework for the waste system, including generation, transport, treatment, storage and disposal. Although not a definitive legal statement of the area in which States may properly act, the regulatory authority of all Compact States as Agreement States, States with a limited Agreement, and as non-Agreement States is described. The analysis is based on the assumption that the disposal site is State land

  17. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  18. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohee, Romeela [University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Mauthoor, Sumayya, E-mail: sumayya.mauthoor@umail.uom.ac.mu [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  19. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies used outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Leigh, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal technologies are an integral part of the waste management process. In the United States, commercial LLW disposal is the responsibility of the State or groups of States (compact regions). The United States defines LLW as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high- level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material as defined in Section II(e)(2) of the Atomic Energy Act. LLW may contain some long-lived components in very low concentrations. Countries outside the United States, however, may define LLW differently and may use different disposal technologies. This paper outlines the LLW disposal technologies that are planned or being used in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom (UK)

  20. NUCLEAR WASTE state-of-the-art reports 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The report is organized in three parts. First part: 'The nuclear waste question in international and Swedish perspective' takes up questions about how the handling of nuclear waste is organized. This part starts with an international overview of nuclear waste handling in several countries. The overview gives a hint about how countries look for solutions that are judged to be appropriate in the own country. The overview shows clearly that the responsibility for the nuclear waste includes both private and public operators, in varying degrees from country to country. A detailed review is presented of the Swedish process in the chapter 'The municipalities - major stakeholders in the nuclear waste issue'. In the light of the the international overview it is shown that great efforts are spent in order to reach mutual understanding and agreement at the local basis in the Swedish consultation procedure. Part two 'To handle nuclear waste risks: An overview over methods, problems and possibilities' contains an overview of our knowledge in estimating and handling risks and about methods to produce data for assessments associated with the disposal of nuclear waste from a scientific perspective. This part first presents two geoscientific methods that are used to calculate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. In the chapter 'Fractioning of different isotopes' the possibility to consider properties of different isotopes for estimation of transport velocities of radioactive substances is discussed, for a repository for spent nuclear fuel or other radioactive wastes. In the chapter 'Copper canisters - production, sealing, durability' an overview is given of the methods used for manufacture and control of those copper canisters that constitute one of the protective barriers around the waste at geologic disposal according to the KBS-3-method. In the last chapter, an experiment to compare classification of radioactive wastes and chemical wastes, is discussed. 'The

  1. Quantity assessment of waste in the dismantlement of liquid waste treatment plant and its actual state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Takafumi; Mitsuhashi, Ishi; Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Morishima, Kayoko; Tanzawa, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    From the progress of decommissioning project work of Tokyo City University Atomic Energy Research Institute, this paper reports the comparison between the actual amount of the waste generated during dismantlement work at liquid waste treatment facilities and the assessment quantity before starting the dismantlement. The quantity assessment was made on the basis of the installation license application, design specifications, drawings, records, history of use, site investigation results, etc. Since this quantity assessment did not take into account the dismantling contents of reservoir concrete, the assessed quantity of non-radioactive waste (NR waste) did not match the sum of actual NR waste. However, if an actually generated quantity of concrete of radioactive waste was added to the quantity assessment as NR waste, the quantity of actually generated NR waste and that of assessed NR waste were nearly consistent, which verified the validity of this assessment. This method is considered to be able to be utilized in the future quantity assessment of decommissioning work and the like. On the other hand, it was found that the number of drums that were actually stored tended to increase more than the estimated number of drum conversion. In old buildings, it is necessary to take into account the generation of waste other than radioactive materials in the quantity assessment stage and dismantlement stage. (A.O.)

  2. Conditioning of radioactive waste from the waste collection centers of the German states as illustrated by radioactive waste from industrial production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellmacher, J.; Sickert, T.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of negligible heat generating waste in Germany is increasing due to deconstruction of decommissioned nuclear facilities. Until 2040 277.000 m 3 are expected. By conditioning processes the wastes are transferred into a chemical stabile and water insoluble state and packaged in appropriate containers for final repository disposal. The radioactive waste in the collection containers are coated with wax for immobilization of the surface contamination, in the next step the containers are filled with pressurized geopolymer, a thixotropic fluid (under pressure the viscosity is decreased, so that cavities are filled). The conditioned material, the so called interim product is stored in trays for the final packaging in appropriate containers.

  3. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uçkun Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly affected by the initial pH and incubation time. The highest glucoamylase activity of 108.47 U/gds was achieved at initial pH of 7.9, moisture content of 69.6% wt., inoculum loading of 5.2×105 cells/gram substrate (gs and incubation time of 6 d. The enzyme preparation could effectively digest 50% suspension of domestic food waste in 24 h with an almost complete saccharification using an enzyme dose of only 2U/g food waste at 60°C.

  4. PEA PEEL WASTE: A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AND ITS UTILITY IN CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Trichoderma reesei UNDER SOLID STATE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundant remains which represent an inexpensive material that has been undervalued until now. Pea peel waste is one of the undervalued, unused sources of energy that can serve as a potential source for cellulase production. Batch experiments have been performed, using pea peel waste as a carbon source for cellulase production under solid state cultivation by Trichoderma reesei. It was observed that 30 oC temperature and pH 5.0 are the most favorable conditions for cellulase production by T. reesei. FPase activity significantly increases by incorporation of whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in the basal salt media used in the production study. The present study describes the utility of pea peel waste, whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in cellulase production by T. reesei. The utilization of economically cheap, pea peel waste for cellulase production could be a novel, cost effective, and valuable approach in cellulase production as well as in solid waste management.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste management in New York State: Meeting the milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 made the states responsible for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated within their borders. After extensive hearings and public participation, New York State enacted a Radioactive Waste Management Act (State LLRWMA) in July 1986. This paper describes New York's program and reviews the State's progress in complying with the milestone established by Public Law 99-240. A number of concerns about LLRW disposal and the schedule calling for a facility to be operational by January 1, 1993, are also discussed

  6. Management of hospitals solid waste in Khartoum State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Suhair A Gayoum

    2013-10-01

    This research had been conducted during year 2012 to review existing data on hospital waste management for some of Khartoum town hospitals and to try to produce appropriate proposals acceptable for waste management and final treatment methods. The overall status of hospital waste management in Khartoum has been assessed through direct visits and designated questionnaires. Eight main hospitals were covered in the study with an overall bed capacity of 2,978. The current waste management practice observed at all studied hospitals was that most of waste, office, general, food, construction debris, and hazardous chemical materials were all mixed together as they are generated, collected, and finally disposed of. Only a small portion of waste in some hospitals (part of potentially infectious, body parts, and sharps) are collected separately and treated in a central incinerator. The estimated value of per bed generation rate in the studied hospitals was found to be 0.87 kg/day, which lies within the range for the low-income countries. In all studied hospitals, it was found that workers were working under very poor unsafe conditions with very low salaries ($35 to $45 per month on average). About 90 % were completely illiterate or had very low education levels. At the national level, no laws considering hospital waste, or even hazardous waste, were found; only some federal general environmental regulations and some procedures from town and city localities for controlling general municipal waste exist. At the hospital level, no policies or rules were found, except in the radiotherapy center, where they manage radioactive wastes under the laws of the Sudanese Atomic Agency. Urgent actions are needed for the remediation and prevention of hazards associated with this type of waste.

  7. Mixing zones studies of the waste water discharge from the Consolidated Paper Company into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Ganatra, R.

    1973-01-01

    Effluent concentration distributions from the waste water discharge of the Kraft Division Mill, Consolidated Paper Company, into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, is investigated. Effluent concentrations were determined from measurements of the temperature distribution, using temperature as a tracer. Measurements of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the outfall were also made. Due to limitations in the extent of the field observations, the analysis and comparison of the measurements is limited to the region within about 300 feet from the outfall. Effects of outfall submergence, of buoyancy and momentum of the effluent and of the pattern and magnitude of river currents on these characteristics are considered.

  8. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Degradation of Remazol Red in batik dye waste water by contact glow discharge electrolysis method using NaOH and NaCl electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksono, Nelson; Putri, Dita Amelia; Suminar, Dian Ratna

    2017-03-01

    Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE) method is one of Plasma Electrolysis technology which has been approved to degrade organic waste water because it is very productive in producing hydroxyl radical. This study aims to degrade Remazol Red by CGDE method and evaluate important parameters that have influent in degradation process of Remazol Red in Batik dye waste water in batch system. The kind of electrolyte (acid and base) and the addition of metal ion such as Fe2+ have affected Remazol Red degradation percentage. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra were used to monitor the degradation process. The result of study showed that percentage degradation was 99.97% which obtained by using NaCl 0.02 M with addition Fe2+ 20 ppm, applied voltage 700 volt, anode depth 0.5 cm, initial concentration of Remazol Red 250 ppm and the temperature of solutions was maintained 50-60 ˚C.

  10. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  11. The 1985 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The 1985 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,909 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 748,903 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1985. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1985. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Nonreactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1985. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. New to the 1985 report is Appendix B, 1985 Assessments Listed By Ratified Compacts, as well as the proposed Western and Appalachian compacts. Inclusion of the most accurate information available from all sources has resulted in an improved national waste distribution profile of generator sectors. 11 refs

  12. Report on the state of radiation contamination in disaster waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuko; Sasaki, Satoru; Yamada, Norikazu; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-09-01

    Fukushima Prefecture faces extreme difficulties in disposing of waste generated from the tsunami disaster (hereinafter referred to as disaster waste) and contaminated with radioactive material released from the crippled Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. Although the waste should be treated according to the level of radioactivity, there are only air dose rates and radionuclide analyses of soil due to monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station and there has been no information on the radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste. The radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste was investigated by sampling measurement and in-situ Ge measurement at 20 temporary disaster waste storages in Fukushima Prefecture excluding the evacuation zone and 'deliberate evacuation zone.' JNES carried out this investigation upon a request from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. The investigation revealed that the measured radioactivity concentrations of the disaster waste lumps were enveloped within the soil monitoring readings in Fukushima Prefecture and also within a correlated curve between the air dose rates obtained from air dose rate readings around the disaster waste and the radioactivity concentrations of it. With these correlation curves, the radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste is estimated to be less than 8,000 Bq/kg at almost all places in the affected area excluding the evacuation zone and 'deliberate evacuation zone.' Measurements by in-situ Ge showed that the radioactivity of the disaster waste which had been expected to be more than 8,000 Bq/kg was less than 8,000 Bq/kg. (author)

  13. 1982 State-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,891 cubic meters of radioactive waste containing 413,898 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1982. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 summarizes estimated volumes by generator categories. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity by disposal site for each state. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Data reported for the calendar year 1982 were used for this report where available. When report data were not available, reactor information was obtained directly from the utility

  14. 1984 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The 1984 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,429 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 600,909 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1984. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1984. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Non-reactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1984. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. Academic includes university hospitals and medical and nonmedical research facilities. The medical category includes hospitals and clinics, research facilities, and private medical offices. The industrial category includes private entities such as research and development companies, manufacturers, nondestructive testing, mining, and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers. Government includes state and federal agencies. Data from previous publications were also used as a comparison. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Plate waste of adults in the United States measured in free-living conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Roe

    Full Text Available We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias. Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers.

  16. Plate waste of adults in the United States measured in free-living conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H. Raymond

    2018-01-01

    We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals) per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias). Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals) or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers. PMID:29444094

  17. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and adminstration. Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This is the fourth update of Radioactive Waste Management: a summary of State Laws and Administration. It completely replaces the third update (January 15, 1984). The updated report covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: cover page; administrative; legislative; and applicable legislation. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of April 30, 1984

  18. State and localisation of the nuclear wastes in France. Index established by the ANDRA observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This index is the seventh edition of the the national index on nuclear wastes state and localisation. Its purpose is to index the sites where people could find radioactive wastes in France (great industry as EDF or Cogema but also little producers, national defense sites and research laboratories) and the sealed sources distributors. Law texts concerning the radioactive wastes and general information on nuclear elements or radioactivity are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Argon Metastable State Through Optical Emission From Pulsed Argon Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    supply to energize the discharge was connected in series with an ohmite L225J high power 150 Ω resistor and the hollow electrode anode. A stainless...input analog voltage signal to control a piezo -electric actuator within the diode laser head. The general beam path of the diode laser involved an initial

  20. 77 FR 58830 - State Program Requirements; Application To Administer Partial National Pollutant Discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    .... ODAFF does not have jurisdiction over storm water discharges associated with industrial activity (as defined at 40 CFR 122.26(b)(14)) at facilities whose primary industrial activity is storage of grain, feed... regulated by ODAFF that only incidentally store grain, feed, seed, fertilizer, and agriculture chemicals to...

  1. Plastic flexible films waste management - A state of art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodytska, O; Valdés, F J; Fullana, A

    2018-04-21

    Plastic flexible films are increasingly used in many applications due to their lightness and versatility. In 2014, the amount of plastic films represented 34% of total plastic packaging produced in UK. The flexible film waste generation rises according to the increase in number of applications. Currently, in developed countries, about 50% of plastics in domestic waste are films. Moreover, about 615,000 tonnes of agricultural flexible waste are generated in the EU every year. A review of plastic films recycling has been conducted in order to detect the shortcomings and establish guidelines for future research. This paper reviews plastic films waste management technologies from two different sources: post-industrial and post-consumer. Clean and homogeneous post-industrial waste is recycled through closed-loop or open-loop mechanical processes. The main differences between these methods are the quality and the application of the recycled materials. Further research should be focused on closing the loops to obtain the highest environmental benefits of recycling. This could be accomplished through minimizing the material degradation during mechanical processes. Regarding post-consumer waste, flexible films from agricultural and packaging sectors have been assessed. The agricultural films and commercial and industrial flexible packaging are recycled through open-loop mechanical recycling due to existing selective waste collection routes. Nevertheless, the contamination from the use phase adversely affects the quality of recycled plastics. Therefore, upgrading of current washing lines is required. On the other hand, household flexible packaging shows the lowest recycling rates mainly because of inefficient sorting technologies. Delamination and compatibilization methods should be further developed to ensure the recycling of multilayer films. Finally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies on waste management have been reviewed. A lack of thorough LCA on plastic films waste

  2. Waste Management Strategies; the State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghodrat, Alireza Ghasemi; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Aghbashlo, Mortaza

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to present a short critical overview on the various municipal solid waste management (MSWM) technologies together with a glance at how conducting a feasibility study to choose the most suitable scenario for a particular region. In the first part, a conceptual approach...... to waste management followed by a valuable laconic review over the global status are presented. Short and must-know explanations about the various waste management technologies are provided in the second part within six subsections, i.e., materials recovery facility (MRF), refuse-derived fuel (RDF...

  3. State of nuclear waste management of German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The waste management of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany is today prevailing in the public discussion. Objections raised in this connection, e.g. that the nuclear waste management has been omitted from the development of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy or remained insolved, are frequently accepted without examination, and partly spread as facts. This is, however, not the truth: From the outset in 1955 the development of nuclear technology in the Federal Republic of Germany has included investigations of the problems of reprocessing and non-detrimental disposal of radioactive products, and the results have been compiled in a national nuclear waste management concept. (orig.) [de

  4. Delaware State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Delaware State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Delaware. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Delaware. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Delaware

  5. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-12

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts.

  6. New Mexico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The New Mexico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Mexico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Mexico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Mexico

  7. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont

  8. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal Agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  9. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  10. West Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The West Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in West Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in West Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in West Virginia

  11. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  12. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah.

  13. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky

  14. New York State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The New York State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New York. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New York. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New York

  15. Indiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, E.L.; Hume, R.D.; Briggs, H.R.; Feigenbaum, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Indiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Indiana. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Indiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Indiana

  16. Hawaii State briefing book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Hawaii State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Hawaii. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Hawaii. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Hawaii

  17. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  18. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  19. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina

  20. Louisiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Louisiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Louisiana. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Louisiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Louisiana

  1. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  2. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  3. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida.

  4. California State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The California State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in California. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in California. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in California

  5. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts

  6. Arizona State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Arizona State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arizona. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arizona. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arizona

  7. Iowa State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Iowa State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Iowa. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Iowa. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Iowa

  8. Colorado State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Colorado State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Colorado. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Colorado. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Colorado

  9. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas.

  10. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee.

  11. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  12. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin

  13. Idaho State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Idaho State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Idaho. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Idaho. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Idaho

  14. Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Virginia

  15. Illinois State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Illinois State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Illinois. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Illinois. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Illinois

  16. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon

  17. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington

  18. Kansas State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Kansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kansas. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Kansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Kansas

  19. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  20. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming.

  1. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

  2. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  3. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming

  4. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota

  5. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  6. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island

  7. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut

  8. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina

  9. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi.

  10. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  11. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio

  12. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey

  13. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  14. Michigan State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Michigan State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Michigan. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Michigan. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Michigan

  15. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota

  16. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  17. Alabama State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Alabama State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Alabama. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Alabama. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Alabama

  18. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal cmmunications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  19. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  20. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi

  1. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  2. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico

  3. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio.

  4. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  5. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  6. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  7. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas

  8. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania

  9. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah

  10. Minnesota State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Minnesota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Minnesota. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Minnesota conducted by the Minnesota Department of Health. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Minnesota

  11. New state roles in the management and disposal of commercial nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udall, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    Arguments are presented for the need for congressional action to clarify the respective regulatory responsibilities of the state and Federal Governments as they relate to commercial nuclear power. Three case studies in radioactive waste management and disposal are reviewed which are proported to illustrate the inadequacy of the existing regulatory framework to effectively manage and dispose of nuclear wastes. Examples of instances in which state legislatures have taken the initiative in the waste disposal problem are cited. It is concluded that regulatory reform should be in the direction of a dual system that provides states with new authority and leverage to control nuclear energy development patterns within their borders

  12. Health state of population as a criterion of harmfulness of environmental pollution with hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khacatrian, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Valuation of children's health state living in an industrial city, in different microdistricts of which environmental pollution with various hazardous wastes takes place, is done. Investigation results established essential distinctions in health state of children's contingent under examination in dependence upon microdistrict of their permanent living in the given city which is connected with the environmental pollution with various hazardous wastes. The received data allow to examine the health state of population as an integral indicator of ecological situation in the region, and also as a criterion of environmental pollution with hazardous wastes. (au)

  13. 78 FR 70255 - West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R03-RCRA-2013-0571; FRL-9903-07-Region 3] West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY... final authorization of revisions to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and...

  14. 76 FR 6594 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Section, RCRA Programs and Materials Management Branch, RCRA Division, U.S. Environmental Protection...

  15. Radioactive solid waste inventories at United States Department of Energy burial and storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-06-01

    Radioactive solid waste inventories are given for United States Department of Energy (DOE) burial and storage sites. These data are obtained from the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) and reflect the inventories as of the end of the calendar year 1986. 4 figs., 7 tabs

  16. 77 FR 47797 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0307; FRL-9713-2] Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  17. 76 FR 19004 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0307; FRL-9290-9] Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  18. 78 FR 32223 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2012-0821; 9817-5] Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA...

  19. 77 FR 38566 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA--R06-RCRA-2012-0367; FRL-9692-6] Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  20. 78 FR 54200 - Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R03-RCRA-2012-0294; FRL-9900-37-Region3] Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... of revisions to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA...

  1. 76 FR 37048 - Louisiana; Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0307; FRL-9323-8] Louisiana; Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  2. 77 FR 15343 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2012-0054; FRL-9647-8] Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  3. Identification and characterization of potential discharge areas for radionuclide transport by groundwater from a nuclear waste repository in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Sten; Bosson, Emma; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Sassner, Mona

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes solute transport modeling carried out as a part of an assessment of the long-term radiological safety of a planned deep rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden. Specifically, it presents transport modeling performed to locate and describe discharge areas for groundwater potentially carrying radionuclides from the repository to the surface where man and the environment could be affected by the contamination. The modeling results show that topography to large extent determines the discharge locations. Present and future lake and wetland objects are central for the radionuclide transport and dose calculations in the safety assessment. Results of detailed transport modeling focusing on the regolith and the upper part of the rock indicate that the identification of discharge areas and objects considered in the safety assessment is robust in the sense that it does not change when a more detailed model representation is used.

  4. Sewer slime analysis as a method of spotting heavy metal bearing waste water discharge. Sielhautuntersuchungen zur Einkreisung schwermetallhaltiger Einleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutekunst, B.

    1988-01-01

    The sewer slime method, in analogy to sediment analyses, informs about the discharges which are polluted with heavy metals and fed into the public sewage system at specific points, independent of the time of discharge. The sewer slime consisting of bacteria, fungi, organic and inorganic compounds concentrates heavy metals by sedimentation, adsorption and precipitation processes and thus represents a pollution indicator. This study characterizes sewer slimes by means of physical properties and by analysis of the chemical and biological composition. The mechanisms of heavy metal enrichment and reduction under altered environmental conditions are analyzed using the elements Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn as examples. (RB).

  5. Investigating Pulsed Discharge Polarity Employing Solid-State Pulsed Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    condition plays an important role in maintaining the desired performance. Investigating the system parameters contributed to the generated pulses is an effective way in improving the system performance further ahead. One of these parameters is discharge polarity which has received less attention....... In this paper, effects of applied voltage polarity on plasma discharge have been investigated in different mediums at atmospheric pressure. The experiments have been conducted based on high voltage DC power supply and high voltage pulse generator for point-to-point and point-to-plane geometries. Furthermore......, the influence of electric field distribution is analyzed using Finite Element simulations for the employed geometries and mediums. The experimental and simulation results have verified the important role of the applied voltage polarity, employed geometry and medium of the system on plasma generation....

  6. Very low frequency oscillations of heat load and recycling flux in steady-state tokamak discharge in TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Hanada, K.; Iyomasa, A.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.N.; Idei, H.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Matsuo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Sugata, T.; Maezono, N.; Hoshika, H.; Sasaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma wall interaction (PWI) driven relaxation oscillations are investigated in the steady state discharge for 5 hours. The oscillation frequency was about 10 -3 Hz and each perturbation lasted for about 300 s. The heat load, recycling flux and impurity influx were varied from a few % to several tens of %. The largest variation of 70% was seen on the Mo XIII (molybdenum), although the influx of Mo I was only 20 %. Although the input rf power is kept constant during the discharge, the coupling between the rf and plasma was increased by about 10%. The current drive efficiency is decreased by 24 % in spite of current ramp. The toroidal and poloidal profiles of the recycling flux were also changed. During the last relaxation phase, the plasma was finally terminated. The current reduction (> 4 kA) was not recovered by intense local perturbation of the recycling superposed on the relaxation oscillation. (authors)

  7. Very low frequency oscillations of heat load and recycling flux in steady-state tokamak discharge in TRIAM-1M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Hanada, K.; Iyomasa, A.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.N.; Idei, H.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Hasegawa, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (Japan); Matsuo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Sugata, T.; Maezono, N.; Hoshika, H.; Sasaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Plasma wall interaction (PWI) driven relaxation oscillations are investigated in the steady state discharge for 5 hours. The oscillation frequency was about 10{sup -3} Hz and each perturbation lasted for about 300 s. The heat load, recycling flux and impurity influx were varied from a few % to several tens of %. The largest variation of 70% was seen on the Mo XIII (molybdenum), although the influx of Mo I was only 20 %. Although the input rf power is kept constant during the discharge, the coupling between the rf and plasma was increased by about 10%. The current drive efficiency is decreased by 24 % in spite of current ramp. The toroidal and poloidal profiles of the recycling flux were also changed. During the last relaxation phase, the plasma was finally terminated. The current reduction (> 4 kA) was not recovered by intense local perturbation of the recycling superposed on the relaxation oscillation. (authors)

  8. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha

    1998-03-01

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  9. Special Report: E-Waste Management in the United States and Public Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberger, Jessica; Grandhi, Radhika; Kim, Stephani S; Mase, William A; Reponen, Tiina; Ho, Shuk-mei; Chen, Aimin

    2016-10-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) generation is increasing worldwide, and its management becomes a significant challenge because of the many toxicants present in electronic devices. The U.S. is a major producer of e-waste, although its management practice and policy regulation are not sufficient to meet the challenge. We reviewed e-waste generation, current management practices and trends, policy challenges, potential health impact, and toxicant exposure prevention in the U.S. A large amount of toxic metals, flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants exist in e-waste or can be released from the disposal of e-waste (e.g., landfill, incineration, recycling). Landfill is still a major method used to dispose of obsolete electronic devices, and only about half of the states have initiated a landfill ban for e-waste. Recycling of e-waste is an increasing trend in the past few years. There is potential, however, for workers to be exposed to a mixture of toxicants in e-waste and these exposures should be curtailed. Perspectives and recommendations are provided regarding managing e-waste in the U.S. to protect public health, including enacting federal legislation, discontinuing landfill disposal, protecting workers in recycling facilities from toxicant exposure, reducing toxicant release into the environment, and raising awareness of this growing environmental health issue among the public.

  10. Waste management state-of-the-art review for mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodsum, H.C.; Goodman, J.

    1977-11-01

    This report provides a state-of-the-art review of the waste management for mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facilities. The intent of this report is to focus on those processes and regulatory issues which have a direct bearing on existing and anticipated future management of transuranic (TRU) wastes from a commercial MOX fuel fabrication faciity. Recent government agency actions are reviewed with regard to their impact on existing and projected waste management regulations; and it is concluded that acceleration in the development of regulations, standards, and criteria is one of the most important factors in the implementation of improved MOX plant waste management techniques. ERDA development programs pertaining to the management of TRU wastes have been reviewed and many promising methods for volume reduction of both solid and liquid wastes are discussed. For solid wastes, these methods include compaction, shredding and baling, combustion, acid digestion, and decontamination by electropolishing or by electrolytic treatment. For liquid wastes, treatment options include evaporation, drying, calcination, flocculation, ion exchange, filtration, reverse osmosis, combustion (of combustible organics), and bioprocessing. Based on this review, it is recommended that ERDA continue with its combustible solid waste volume reduction program and complete these development activities by 1979. Following this, a critical evaluation of solid waste volume reduction techniques should be made to select the most promising systems for a commercial MOX fuel facility

  11. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the marine environment: a water quality management perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available that apply for such discharges in order for this country to retain international credibility. In this paper the authors provide a concise discussion on: The development of an operational policy providing the strategic view on marine disposal, as well...

  12. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Larson, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  13. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States -- Progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The US nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW -- industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW -- face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of US low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  14. 77 FR 47380 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... test fluids, sanitary waste, domestic waste and miscellaneous discharges is authorized. More stringent... permit. Major changes also include definition of ``operator'', acute toxicity test for produced water, spill prevention best management practices, and electronic reporting requirements. To obtain discharge...

  15. Radioactive-waste classification in the United States: history and current predicaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Within the United States we have taken disposal to mean the permanent emplacement of waste in the earth in a manner such that, after a brief period of monitoring and active maintenance, institutional control could be abandoned without damaging human health and the environment. But several attempts at disposal (the AEC facilities mentioned in Section 2, and commercial facilities at Maxey Flats and West Valley), and even attempts at short-term management (such as Hanford), have fallen far short of the our hopes for disposal. Most of the problems arose out of insufficient restrictions on waste forms (the untreated hazardous chemicals), disposal facilities that by nature or poor design saw infiltration, or a combination that resulted in facilities that failed because the designs and the waste forms were incompatible. Lessons have been learned from experience and some of these problems have been addressed, but fundamentally the tension between top-down classes defined by the generator and bottom-up considerations based on the disposal environment has not been resolved, and the government has not effected integrated planning for management of nuclear materials in the country. There appears, for example, to be a continued disconnect between the designers of disposal facilities and the policy and decision makers. Performance assessments are generally carried out with a set of assumptions about the waste streams corresponding to the classes of waste designated for disposal at the site. Little consideration is given to problem wastes within known waste classes, such as spent fuel from research reactors. And as the wastes that do not fit, the so-called ''orphan wastes'' such as greater-than-class-C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), excess weapons-grade plutonium, and mixed waste, are redirected for co-disposal with other wastes, the waste stream changes. In the case of GTCC LLW, the waste forms will be radically different from those used in modeling of the high-level waste

  16. Status of activities: Low-level radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.B.; Shilkett, R.C.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of low-level radioactive waste management in the United States is to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In support of this objective is the development of waste treatment and disposal technologies designed to provide stabilization and long-term institutional control of low-level radioactive wastes. Presented herein is a technical review of specific low-level radioactive waste management activities in the United States. Waste treatment and disposal technologies are discussed along with the performance objectives of the technologies aimed at protecting the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. 13 refs., 4 figs

  17. Regulatory authority of the Rocky Mountain states for low-level radioactive waste packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.; Tate, P.

    1983-07-01

    The newly-formed Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is an interstate agreement for the management of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Eligible members of the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Each state must ratify the compact within its legislature for the compact to become effective in that state and to make that state a full-fledged member of the compact. By so adopting the compact, each state agrees to the terms and conditions specified therein. Among those terms and conditions are provisions requiring each member state to adopt and enforce procedures requiring low-level waste shipments originating within its borders and destined for a regional facility to conform to packaging and transportation requirements and regulations. These procedures are to include periodic inspections of packaging and shipping practices, periodic inspections of waste containers while in the custody of carriers and appropriate enforcement actions for violations. To carry out this responsibility, each state must have an adequate statutory and regulatory inspection and enforcement authority to ensure the safe transportation of low-level radioactive waste. Three states in the compact region, Arizona, Utah and Wyoming, have incorporated the Department of Transportation regulations in their entirety, and have no published rules and regulations of their own. The other states in the compact, Colorado, Nevada and New Mexico all have separate rules and regulations that incorporate the DOT regulations. A brief description of the regulatory requirements of each state is presented

  18. Low-level radioactive waste management: federal-state cooperation or confusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the legislative history of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and discusses major issues and problems resulting from the implementation of the Act. Five specific issues addressed in this paper are: what radioactive waste constitutes ''low-level radioactive waste'' within the meaning of the Act; what responsibilities, if any, do the states have to dispose of federal radioactive waste; what liabilities and protections govern the disposal of waste not generated in a disposal-site state (hereafter, the ''host state''); to what standards of care should generators of low-level radioactive waste be held, and by what authority should such generators be licensed and inspected; which disposal-site activities should be considered ''disposal,'' and which activities should be considered ''management,'' within the meaning of the Act, and what authority do the states have, under the Act, to engage in each activity, respectively. The federal government and state governments must solve these problems in order to implement the Act, and thus, to establish equity among the 50 states, and the interstate regional compacts

  19. Self-organization as the cause of different states of dc and hf discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozneanu, E.; Dimitriu, D.; Gaman, C.; Furtuna, C.; Filep, E.; Sanduloviciu, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dc and hf gas discharges used in industrial devices are strongly nonlinear media whose characteristics and behavior critically depend on the type of the device and on the way and the amount of energy injected into the system. Consequently, considering a certain industrial device, it is possible to select, by gradually changing the injected energy, the working regimes that offer the most suitable conditions for a certain practical applications. The consideration of the nonlinear behavior of gaseous conductors (plasmas), created in dc and hf electric fields, and implicitly of the self-organizing phenomena at their origin become important for certain applications (Authors)

  20. Dynamics of excited nitrogen molecular states in glow- and afterglow phases of discharge: experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napartovich, A.P.; Akishev, Yu.S.; Dyatko, N.A.; Grushin, M.E.; Filippov, A.V.; Trushkin, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Population dynamics for a number of levels from N2 ( A 3 Σ + u ), N 2 (B 3 Π g ) and N 2 (C 3 Π u ) manifolds was studied spectroscopically in a long pulse glow discharge in pure nitrogen and in afterglow at pressure 50 Torr. Overshot in time behaviour of N 2 (A 3Σ + u ), N 2 (B 3 Π g ) and N 2 (C 3 Π u ) levels populations was revealed. A rather complete kinetic model is developed for conditions of the experiments. Results of comparison are analyzed

  1. Low-level waste management: a report on the states - the laws, the legislature, the administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This document presents a state-by-state review of existing legislation on low-level radioactive waste disposal. As noted in the introduction, exploration of regional waste management has begun in many parts of the country. To aid readers wishing to obtain legislative information quickly, this document has been organized according to those general geographical areas currently engaged in regional discussion. The first section includes those states who have yet to enter into formal compact negotiations or who have indicated their intention to manage waste as a single state. At this writing only three states have enacted a regional compact. It should also be noted that the membership of the Midwest and Southcentral areas particularly are in considerable flux. The grouping of state profiles in this document is thus for the purpose of quick reference to the changing national picture and is not presented as recommended regions

  2. The future implications of some long-lived fission product nuclides discharged to the environment in fuel reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.M.; Jones, J.A.

    1972-12-01

    Current reprocessing practice leads to the discharge to the environment of virtually all the krypton-85 and tritium, and a large fraction of the iodine-129, formed as fission products in reactor fuel. As nuclear power programmes expand the global inventory of these long-lived nuclides is increasing. The radiological significance of these discharges is assessed in terms of radiation exposure of various population groups during the next few decades. The results of this assessment show that krypton-85 will give higher dose rates than tritium or iodine-129, but that on conventional radiological protection criteria these do not justify taking action to remove krypton-85 from reprocessing plant effluents before the 21st century. (author)

  3. A state perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the problems he sees with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) program. He labels the problems as: against the law, all the eggs in one basket, acceptance rate, and the MRS program. The author comments of five issues that need to be addressed to right the wrongs of the NWPA program

  4. Information systems to support low-level waste management: perspective from the State of Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willaford, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) is required by state law to develop a comprehensive regulatory system for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management. Reliable, extensive information about LLW in Illinois is needed to plan and implement such a regulatory program. IDNS annually surveys, by mail and follow-up phone calls, approximately 260 LLW generators in Illinois. This information is being supplemented by a more detailed characterization of waste streams. Additional information needed for IDNS's regulatory program includes data on components of a waste disposal facility (e.g., concrete performance), site and performance computer models for various kinds of sites and for alternative waste disposal facility designs. In the future, all states will need more information than has been historically the case, given the changes in management and disposal systems and the increased role of the states

  5. Situation and prospects of radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Orlowski, S.

    1990-01-01

    All Member States of the European Community with a nuclear power production programme are preparing for the disposal of radioactive waste produced in the nuclear fuel cycle and through the use of radionuclides in health care, research and industry. The situation of storage and planned, on-going - and already performed - disposal of radioactive waste in these States is first summarised. Suitable sites for disposal of radioactive waste of all categories exist in all Member States concerned. The general principles and international recommendations, and common principles, standards and requirements applicable to disposal in the European Community are then presented, followed by a description of existing disposal facilities and of those which are in an advanced planning stage, and the implementation of basic criteria by national authorities. Finally, policies and strategies for long-term storage and disposal for definitively shut-down nuclear installations, and contributions to research in this field in the ''Communities' Radioactive Waste Management Programme'' are discussed. (author)

  6. Alaska State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Alaska State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste generators in Alaska. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Alaska. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Alaska

  7. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

  8. New Hampshire State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The New Hampshire State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books based on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste generators in New Hampshire. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Hampshire. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Hampshire

  9. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  10. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 1981 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This state-by-state report again uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the nation baseline figure. A volume of 87,789 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 279,863 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1981. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1 and a summary of estimated volumes by generator categories is contained in Table 2. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Data reported for the calendar year 1981 were used for this report where available. When report data were not available reactor information was obtained directly from the utility. The reported quantities of solid radioactive wastes generated by government installations shipped to commercial disposal sites are annually summarized in the SWIMS report. Records of radioactive wastes shippped to commercial disposal sites from the US Navy nuclear-powered ships and support facilities are maintained by the Nuclear Power Directorate, Naval Sea Systems Command, Department of the Navy, and are reported on an annual basis. Available information from other military departments such as the Army and the Air Force were included in this study. Wastes from these other military commands do not constitute a significant volume of radioactive source

  12. The peculiarities of spectral manifestations of high-voltage electric discharge in different phase states of ion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, M M; Aliev, A R; Ataev, M B; Rabadanov, K Sh

    2013-10-01

    The effects of high-voltage pulsed discharge (HVPD activation) on vibrational spectra of ion salt systems have been studied. The peculiarities of spectral display of HVPD in ion melts and aqueous solutions of electrolytes, in ion-conducting phases of crystalline and glassy salt systems have been investigated. After HVPD a salt system is in non-equilibrium activated state. In the activated state of a salt system, the relaxation time of the vibrational excited states of molecular ions is shorter than in the equilibrium state if the vibrational relaxation rate increases with temperature in the system. For those systems for which the relaxation rate decreases at elevated temperatures, the relaxation time of the vibrational excited states of molecular ions is longer than in the equilibrium state. HVPD activation of a salt system can change the configuration of the electron shell of molecular ions. Therefore, the lifetime values of activated state of salt systems are abnormally large. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's. Advice on issues which need to be addressed in the Guidance to be given to the Environment Agencies on the Principles for determining Radioactive Waste Discharge Authorisations - the 'Principles Document'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    In January 1998, the Minister for the Environment, Mr Michael Meacher, informed the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) that, during the coming year, he would welcome the Committee's advice on proposals for guidance from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) to the Environment Agencies on assessment principles for determining radioactive waste discharge authorisations. This will hereafter be referred to as the Principles Document. The RWMAC has provided advice on the process of regulating radioactive waste discharges for many years. A summary of some of this activity is given in Annex 1. As a result, it has been pressing for this Principles Document guidance to be made available since its Twelfth Report in 1991. In response to the Minister's request, the RWMAC offered to assemble and submit early advice on what it believes the guidance needs to cover: this document fulfils that offer. The fundamental purpose of the advice is to help promote clarity of the regulatory regime for the benefit of the regulators themselves who must apply it, the industry to whom it is applied and, most importantly, the public whose safety it is designed to protect. Clarification of a number of aspects of the process is also likely to provide opportunity for efficiency gains. At a subsequent stage, the RWMAC will be happy to provide comment on any draft principles documentation prepared by the DETR. The RWMAC acknowledges that some of the issues it raises in this advice could be taken by others to be either outside the scope of the Principles Document or, by implying a need for more fundamental consideration of the discharge authorisation process, could potentially preclude its early publication. In the first instance, reference to an alternative source of relevant advice might suffice, providing this advice is itself easily accessible and understandable. In the second, the issue itself might be one to be fed into the Government's planned

  14. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  15. Electric circuit modeling of lithium-sulfur batteries during discharging state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are characterized by having very good performance in terms of efficiency, lifetime, and selfdischarge, which allowed them to become the major player in the electric vehicle applications. However, they were not able to totally overcome the EV range anxiety. Thus, research...... is carried out nowadays to develop batteries with even higher gravimetric energy density, which should allow a substantial range increase. One of the technologies, which should be able to meet the range requirements is the Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery. Thanks to the extensive research and development...... static and pulse discharge profiles, showing a good accuracy in predicting the voltage of the tested Li-S battery cell....

  16. Transport of Zn (II by TDDA-Polypropylene Supported Liquid Membranes and Recovery from Waste Discharge Liquor of Galvanizing Plant of Zn (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Ur Rehman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The facilitated passage of Zn (II across flat sheet supported liquid membrane saturated with TDDA (tri-n-dodecylamine in xylene membrane phase has been investigated. The effect of acid and metal ion concentration in the feed solution, the carrier concentration in membrane phase, stripping agent concentration in stripping phase, and coions on the extraction of Zn (II was investigated. The stoichiometry of the extracted species, that is, complex, was investigated on slope analysis method and it was found that the complex (LH2·Zn(Cl2 is responsible for transport of Zn (II. A mathematical model was developed for transport of Zn (II, and the predicted results strongly agree with experimental ones. The mechanism of transport was determined by coupled coion transport mechanism with H+ and Cl− coupled ions. The optimized SLM was effectively used for elimination of Zn (II from waste discharge liquor of galvanizing plant of Zn (II.

  17. Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

  18. Energy need, energy production, waste heat quantities - the present state and a look into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikarski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The possibilities and methods to keep the waste heat low in our society so dependent on energy, are manifold and they affect many aspects of our economic and social life. A society which shows concern for its environment will not hesitate to explore all possible avenues and to realize them. Nevertheless, one has to start from the assumption that the energy consumption, which is closely connected with the standard of living, will increase in the near future. Thus, we have to reckon with more waste heat. Therefore, on a medium-term basis, the amount of waste heat we will be confronted with and its distribution in the environment is to be investigated carefully in order that on the one hand hydrosphere and atmosphere, the limit load of which is given, are not burdened in excess, and that on the other hand the media taking up waste heat are utilized in an optimal way (cooling management). On a long-term basis, the limits of waste heat discharge into water and atmosphere have to be determined carefully, something which can probably be done on the basis of climatological consequences. (orig.) [de

  19. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  20. Education programs at Penn State Breazale Reactor - a focus on waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.

    1993-01-01

    Discussions about energy policy and issues focus on environmental impact of energy production and the generation of waste. When dealing specifically with nuclear energy, one of the major concerns is the solution to the open-quotes waste problem.close quotes Since there is no repository in the US for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste generated by nuclear power plants, questions and criticism arise concerning this issue. Education is the key to providing information about this issue to help develop a more technologically literate society. Several educational programs and approaches will be discussed including: Penn State University's programs for students and teachers. The US DOE curriculum materials - open-quotes Science, Society and America's Nuclear Waste,close quotes the open-quotes International Workshop on Education in the field of Radioactive Waste Management - at the crossroad of energy, science and environment,close quotes and the American Nuclear Science Teacher's Association

  1. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  2. Environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for E-waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlayel, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for proper e-waste handling using Jordan as a case study. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was employed to evaluate five advanced management systems represent state-of-the-art treatment technologies, including sanitary landfilling; proper recycling of metals, materials, and precious metals (PMs); and incineration of plastic and the hazardous portion of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Six e-waste products that contribute the most to the e-waste in Jordan were included in the assessment of each scenario, which resulted in 30 total cases of e-waste management. The findings indicated that landfills for the entire components of the e-waste stream are the worst option and should be avoided. The most promising e-waste management scenario features integrated e-waste processes based on the concept of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), including recycling materials such as non-PMs and PMs, incinerating plastic and the hazardous content of PCBs using the energy recovered from incineration, and using sanitary landfills of residues. For this scenario, the best environmental performance was obtained for the treatment of mobile phones. Incineration of the portion of hazardous waste using energy recovery is an option that deserves attention. Because scenario implementation depends on more than just the environmental benefits (e.g., economic cost and technical aspects), the study proposes a systematic approach founded on the IWM concept for e-waste management scenario selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Status of the United States' high-level nuclear waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is a remarkable piece of legislation in that there is general agreement on its key provisions. Nevertheless, this is a program intended to span more than a century, with some choices by Congress, states, Indian tribes and the nuclear power industry yet to be made. The crafters of the Act clearly recognized this. And further, the crafters recognized ''. . .that. . .state, Indian tribe and public participation in the planning and development of repositories is essential in order to promote public confidence in the safety of disposal of such waste and spent fuel . . . High-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel have become major subjects of public concern, and appropriate precautions must be taken to ensure that such waste and spent fuel do not adversely affect the public health and safety and the environment for this or future generations

  4. The 1986 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The data are grouped and presented by compact regions. The data include activity and volume by waste classes, generator type, and disposal site. The report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 1,804,998 cubic feet (51,113 cubic meters) of radioactive waste containing 233,726 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1986. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear Systems, Inc., and US Ecology for each state. Sixty-three percent of low-level waste volumes disposed at commercial sites was assigned to the state of origin. These volumes represent those disposed at Beatty and Barnwell disposal sites. Thirty-seven percent, or 665,066 cubic feet (18,831 cubic meters), of the waste disposed in the US in 1986 went to the Richland site. 8 refs., 75 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Nuclear medicine environmental discharge measurement. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Prichard, H.M.; Davis, E.M.; Pirtle, O.L.; DiPietro, W.

    1975-06-01

    The discharge of most man-made radioactive materials to the environment is controlled by Federal, State or local regulatory agencies. Exceptions to this control include the radioactive wastes eliminated by individuals who have undergone diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of radioactivity released to the environment via the nuclear medicine pathway for a single sewage drainage basin and to measure the amounts discharged to the environment. The report is organized into a review of previous studies, scope of work, facility data, environmental measurements and estimates of population exposure

  6. Managing California's low-level waste: state policy and waste generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Cramer, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1982, public and private organizations in California that use radioactive materials and generate low-level radioactive waste have worked together through the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (CRMMF) to assure the continued safe disposal of low-level waste (LLW). The forum's corporate and institutional members include electric utilities, universities, hospitals, industries, professional societies, and firms engaged in biological research and the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, over 200 individuals are members. The objectives of CRMMF are: (a) establishing a disposal facility for LLW in California and (b) maintaining access to the existing disposal sites in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina until a California site is licensed and operating. This paper describes the forum's programs in the areas of legislation, litigation, and public information that contribute to the achievement of these objectives

  7. Radioactive solid waste inventories at United States Department of Energy burial and storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1986-06-01

    Radioactive solid waste inventories are given for United States Department of Energy (DOE) burial and storage sites. These data are obtained from the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) and reflect the inventories as of the end of the calendar year 1985. This report differs from previous issues in that the data cutoff date is December 31, 1985, rather than the fiscal year end. Another difference from previous issues is that data for the TRU categories 1 and 6 have been omitted

  8. Radioactive waste management: State of the art in the world. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2001-01-01

    In the former number of this publication, the management of low and intermediate level wastes (LILW) was described as well as an overview of the state of art in the world. This report summarizes the strategies for high level waste management including final disposal. What is being done on an international basis in this field in different countries will be described in the next number of this review. (author)

  9. Some activities in the United States concerning the physics aspects of actinide waste recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1976-01-01

    This review paper briefly discusses the reactor types being considered in the United States for the purpose of actinide waste recycling. The reactor types include thermal reactors operating on the 3.3% 235 U- 238 U and the 233 U- 232 Th fuel cycles, liquid metal fast breeder reactors, reactors fueled entirely by actinide wastes, gaseous fuel reactors and fusion reactors. This paper also discusses cross section measurements in progress or planned toward providing basic data for testing the recycle concept. (author)

  10. Some activities in the United States concerning the physics aspects of actinide waste recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1975-01-01

    Reactor types being considered in the United States for the purpose of actinide waste recycling are discussed briefly. The reactor types include thermal reactors operating on the 3.3 percent 235 U-- 238 U and the 233 U-- 232 Th fuel cycles, liquid metal fast breeder reactors, reactors fueled entirely by actinide wastes, gaseous fuel reactors, and fusion reactors. Cross section measurements in progress or planned toward providing basic data for testing the recycle concept are also discussed

  11. Discharge against medical advice in a pediatric emergency center in the State of Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Abdulateef

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze cases that had left the Pediatric Emergency Center Al Sadd, Doha (PEC against medical advice, with the aim of developing policies to help reduce this occurrence. Methodology: All patients that were admitted to the main PEC observation room for treatment and/or investigation and subsequently left against medical advice from February 18, 2007 to June 18, 2007, were followed by a phone call, and a questionnaire, which was completed by the departmental patient representative. Results: 99,133 patients attended the facility during the study period. Of those, 106 left the facility against medical advice. Ninety-four guardians were successfully contacted. 90% of the cases were in children below 2 years of age. In 87% of the cases the mother was the main decision maker for leaving against medical advice. Domestic obligations were the leading cause of DAMA (discharge against medical advice, reported in 45% of the cases. Respondents reported that the consequences of DAMA were well explained by medical staff before they left the facility however, they had not met with the departmental patient representative during their stay. Conclusion:As the majority of DAMA cases occurred in infants, medical staff should address the concerns of this group early on in the course of treatment. Maintaining communication and providing support, in particular for mothers of higher risk groups may help to reduce the rate of DAMA cases.

  12. Environmental risks of radioactive discharges from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Dessel, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, J Vives I; Sweeck, L; Wannijn, J; Vandenhove, H

    2016-10-01

    The potential radiological impact of releases from a low-level radioactive waste (Category A waste) repository in Dessel, Belgium on the local fauna and flora was assessed under a reference scenario for gradual leaching. The potential impact situations for terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora considered in this study were soil contamination due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater from a well at 70 m from the repository, contamination of the local wetlands receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer and contamination of the local river receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer. In addition, an exploratory study was carried out for biota residing in the groundwater. All impact assessments were performed using the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management (ERICA) tool. For all scenarios considered, absorbed dose rates to biota were found to be well below the ERICA 10 μGy h -1 screening value. The highest dose rates were observed for the scenario where soil was irrigated with groundwater from the vicinity of the repository. For biota residing in the groundwater well, a few dose rates were slightly above the screening level but significantly below the dose rates at which the smallest effects are observed for those relevant species or groups of species. Given the conservative nature of the assessment, it can be concluded that manmade radionuclides deposited into the environment by the near surface disposal of category A waste at Dessel do not have a significant radiological impact to wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiological effect of caesium-137 and strontium-90 on aquatic system of the pathway of the discharged liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Pothipin, K.; Supaokit, P.

    1984-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the radiological effect from the release of treated liquid radioactive waste to the fresh water environment in order to the protection of human health. The emphasis in this program was concentrated on Sr-90 and Cs-137 analyses on Sr-90 and Cs-137 analyses in surface water, water-plants and fish collected during August 1980 to July 1981. Sr-90 concentration was separated by solvent extraction (TBP-tributyl phosphate) procedure. Beta radioactivity of the two nuclides were measured in the form of yttrium oxalate (Y-90, the daughter nuclide of Sr-90) and caesium phospho-molybdate using a low-background anticoincidence proportional counter. To interpret the result obtained, the analytical data were converted to percent derived working limits (%DWL) using Derived Working Limit acquired from the value of (MPC) and water consumption rate stipulated by ICRP as 100% DWL. The value of %DWL is a useful and convenient index to judge the hazardous from radiation exposed by a certain group of people. The interpretation of the result revealed the equivalence of %DWL of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in canal-fish and swamp cabbage for people resided nearby the canal who obtained their whole protein from consumption of that fish from canal and vegetation grown in that water. The value above was equal 2.5 percent which means that this critical group of people exposed to the radiation only 2.5 percent of that intake limit recommended by ICRP. Thus, the amounts of waste disposed of from waste treatment plant into the canal were too small to have a radiological effect on the environment

  14. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, H.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs

  15. State of the nuclear waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerzeler, P.

    1988-01-01

    A deficiency in the realization of repositories in Switzerland is not a deficiency due to lack of knowledge or responsibility, even if not solely an execution deficiency. Our mode of legislation, i.e. laws, should be made with due consideration of citizen rights so that forthcoming tasks can be solved within a reasonable period. The energy policy is being presently reviewed in Switzerland and the renewal of the nuclear energy legislation is imminent. Let us contribute to the retention of nuclear energy as an alternative also the aspect of waste management. 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Management of Discharge of Low Level Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated in Medical, Educational, Research and Industrial Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    Although published information on management technologies suitable for radioactive effluents is readily available, smaller facilities such as hospitals, universities and research laboratories in some countries can benefit from more detailed guidance on identifying optimal arrangements for effectively managing their radioactive liquid effluents. A wide range of circumstances exist globally, given that the generation of radioactive liquid effluents may be regular or irregular, and the liquid effluents may be suitable for direct discharge to the environment, or may require a period of decay storage prior to discharge. Countries typically fit into one of the four following categories with respect to the status of their arrangements for the management of radioactive liquid effluents: (1) The country does not have sufficient technical, regulatory and organizational infrastructure to effectively manage its radioactive liquid effluents; (2) The country's technical infrastructure for effectively managing its radioactive liquid effluents is almost sufficient, but it is not supported by an acceptable level of regulatory and organizational capacity (e.g. legal infrastructure, administrative infrastructure); (3) The country has sufficient technical, regulatory and organizational capacity, but it is known that the application of the requirements for proper management of radioactive liquid effluents is, in many cases, not being carried out to the standard indicated by official reports; (4) The country has well developed and established regulatory and organizational capacity, which is complemented by an acceptable level of relevant technical infrastructure such that the radioactive liquid effluents can be properly managed. Facilities, as well as countries, in the first three categories will find information in this publication to assist their further development. Even countries that already have the necessary infrastructure to properly manage their liquid radioactive effluents may

  17. Performance, compliance and reliability of Waste stabilization pond: Effluent discharge quality and environmental protection agency standards in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    function to establish the relationship between the statistical coefficient of variation and the coefficient of reliability based on rth moment about the origin in the moment of generation function to generate the functions of the mean and standard deviation, properties of the standard Z normal distribution...... were used to establish the coefficient of reliability relationship depending on the coefficient of variation influenced by the standard of deviation. Discharge values of Physico-chemical Parameters measured from the WSP were found be performing acceptably based on the EPA standards, whereas only four......Measuring performance has been arguerably, one of the metric with many facets with different school of thoughts, as there exist different approaches of measuring it. Several of the existing approaches measure such metric by comparison with standards esherined in policy documents and as a result...

  18. Management of Discharge of Low Level Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated in Medical, Educational, Research and Industrial Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    Although published information on management technologies suitable for radioactive effluents is readily available, smaller facilities such as hospitals, universities and research laboratories in some countries can benefit from more detailed guidance on identifying optimal arrangements for effectively managing their radioactive liquid effluents. A wide range of circumstances exist globally, given that the generation of radioactive liquid effluents may be regular or irregular, and the liquid effluents may be suitable for direct discharge to the environment, or may require a period of decay storage prior to discharge. Countries typically fit into one of the four following categories with respect to the status of their arrangements for the management of radioactive liquid effluents: (1) The country does not have sufficient technical, regulatory and organizational infrastructure to effectively manage its radioactive liquid effluents; (2) The country's technical infrastructure for effectively managing its radioactive liquid effluents is almost sufficient, but it is not supported by an acceptable level of regulatory and organizational capacity (e.g. legal infrastructure, administrative infrastructure); (3) The country has sufficient technical, regulatory and organizational capacity, but it is known that the application of the requirements for proper management of radioactive liquid effluents is, in many cases, not being carried out to the standard indicated by official reports; (4) The country has well developed and established regulatory and organizational capacity, which is complemented by an acceptable level of relevant technical infrastructure such that the radioactive liquid effluents can be properly managed. Facilities, as well as countries, in the first three categories will find information in this publication to assist their further development. Even countries that already have the necessary infrastructure to properly manage their liquid radioactive effluents may

  19. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed

  20. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  1. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RECHARD, ROBERT P.

    2000-01-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed

  2. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... qualifies for the exemption. (d) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Units are exempt... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel oil.../rubber recycling units. Units are exempt from your State plan if four requirements are met: (1) The...

  3. Treatment of mixed wastes by thermal plasma discharges; Tratamiento de desechos mixtos por descargas de plasma termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz A, L.V.; Pacheco S, J.O.; Pacheco P, M.; Monroy G, F.; Emeterio H, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: lauradiazarch@yahoo.com.mx

    2007-07-01

    The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) uses an ion exchange resin: IRN 150 (copolymer styrene Divynilbencene) in the TRIGA Mark III reactor to absorb polluted particles with heavy metals and radioactive particles of low level. Once the capacity of filtrate of the resin is exceeded, it is replaced and considered with a mixed waste. This work is based on taking advantage of the advantages of the technique of the thermal plasma in a unique process: (high energy density 105W/cm{sup 3} high enthalpy, high reactivity chemical, high operation temperatures 6000-11500K and quick quenching 106K/s) for the degradation and vitrification of the resin IRN 150. The reactor of plasma is compact and it works to atmospheric pressure and reduced thermal inertia. Therefore, the main parameters involved during the degradation tests and vitrification are: plasma current, voltage, gas flow and distance among the electrodes. The used vitreous matrix, is obtained from a ceramic clay composed by an oxides mixture which are characterized by their good resistance to mechanical impacts and erosion caused by the water. The ceramic clay and the resin IRN 150 were analyzed before the treatment by Scanning Electron Microscopy (MEB), X-ray Diffraction (DRX), Thermal gravimetry (TGA) once vitrified the materials were also analyzed by MEB and DRX. It is obtained as a result that the material more appropriate to be used as vitreous matrix it is a ceramic clay formed by several oxides, being operated the plasma system with a current of 115A, voltage of 25V, flow of the argon gas of 5 l/m and a distance among electrodes of 10mm. With the development of the proposed technology and the material for the vitreous matrix, be rotted to try in a future a great variety of mixed waste. (Author)

  4. State-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of flooding on a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report is a review of the state-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of flooding on a deep radioactive-waste repository, namely, for predicting the future occurrence of catastrophic flooding and for estimating the effect of such flooding on waste containment characteristics. Several detrimental effects are identified: flooding can increase groundwater seepage velocities through a repository within the framework of the existing hydrologic system and thus increase the rate of radioactive-waste leakage to the biosphere; flooding may alter repository hydrology by reversing flow gradients, relocating sources of groundwater recharge and discharge, or shortening seepage paths, thereby producing unpredictable leakage; saturation of a vadose-zone repository during flooding can increase groundwater seepage velocities by several orders of magnitude; and flooding can damage repository-media containment properties by inducing seismic or chemical instability or increasing fracture permeability in relatively shallow repository rock as a result of redistributing in-situ stresses. Short-term flooding frequency and magnitude can be predicted statistically by analyzing historical records of flooding. However, long-term flooding events that could damage a permanent repository cannot be predicted with confidence because the geologic record is neither unique nor sufficienly complete for statistical analysis. It is more important to identify parameters characterizing containment properties (such as permeability, groundwater gradient, and shortest seepage path length to the biosphere) that could be affected by future flooding, estimate the maximum magnitude of flooding that could occur within the life of the repository by examining the geologic record, and determine the impact such flooding could have on the parameter values

  5. Radioactive waste governance, state of the art and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Jantine; Meskens, Gaston

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, a positive evolution towards more openness, transparency and communication can be observed within Radioactive Waste Management (RWM). An expertocratic, top down approach is slowly and gradually changing towards a governance approach. We will argue that, despite this positive and pragmatically speaking inevitable evolution in RWM, stakeholders on both sides of the spectrum as to speak, cannot deny the persistent fragility of trust and proneness to misunderstanding. Long standing opposing paradigms stand strong. Scientist on the one hand and the public on the other, confront each other respectively with speaking of what one believes but cannot prove, and of what one feels but cannot explain. Both sides often end up baffled with each others vocabulary and motivations. Throughout this paper, we will investigate the underlying reasons for this chasm, focussing on the theoretical interconnected statuses of science, knowledge, the expert and the lay-person. The (Belgian) case of RWM will be used as an illustration for each section. (authors)

  6. The state-of-the-art report on management of the decommissioning waste generated from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Lee, K. M.; Chung, K. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, K. J.

    1998-03-01

    As a result of this research on management methodologies of decommissioning waste from nuclear facilities, the state of the art of decommissioning status, plan, and management field on decommissioning waste in foreign countries as well as in Korea is evaluated. Radioactive waste for final disposal according to reusing non-radioactive waste by clear guideline on classification criteria of decommissioning waste by clear guideline on classification criteria of decommissioning waste will be reduced and metal through melting decontamination may be reused. Also, the relevant regulations on acceptance criteria of disposal site for decommissioning waste should be introduced to manage decommissioning waste effectively. It is necessary that large transport containers which satisfy relevant regulations should be designed and manufactured to transport of large waste. (author). 49 refs., 24 tabs., 30 figs

  7. Study of the 60Co speciation in the aqueous radioactive waste of the la Hague nuclear reprocessing plant; environmental behaviour after discharges in the waters of the channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudaire, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    60 Co is produced as an activation product and is present in the low-level aqueous radioactive waste released from the La Hague plant. At present, the concentration in the sea (non filtered at 0.45 μm) at the Goury site are close to or even below, the detection limit: 0.2 mBq.l -1 . The 60 Co speciation depends on the type of effluent considered: in the effluent A ('active'), the cobalt is in the form of a stable trivalent complex; in the effluent V (to be checked), the cobalt is in majority (50% of the activity release) in the form of particles (>0.45 μm), and then in the form of two soluble species: ionic divalent (Co 2+ ) and some stable complexes. The evolution of the reprocessing techniques used does not affect the speciation. So, since the nuclear reprocessing plant started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the chemical species discharged in the sea shows time variation related to the evolution of the type of effluent discharged. Thus, since 1994, the particles of cobalt are the main species discharged in the Channel (the V effluents represent more than 85% of the total 60 Co activity released). The effect of instantaneous dilution into the marine conditions involving a variation of pH, oxido-reduction, ionic strength, a gradient of salinity, does not interfere with the evolution of the chemical species discharged. Nevertheless, during the discharge of the V effluent, the main constituents of the sea water (Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ) go through a precipitation. This comes with the coprecipitation of the ion Co 2+ and with the particles of cobalt (complexes are not affected), and it can be responsible for an increase in the concentration in the particles. The chemical behaviour of the cobalt in the Channel is different from those of conservative element such as antimony. The ionic cobalt and the particles have a small dispersion in the water (cobalt has a very high particle/dissolved distribution factor, it is a non-conservative radionuclide). This sedimentary stock can

  8. Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  9. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  10. Solid-State Fermentation as a Novel Paradigm for Organic Waste Valorization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraziah Abu Yazid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of organic solid waste throughout the world has become a common issue that needs complete management at every level. Also, the scarcity of fuel and the competition between food and substance as an alternative to a petroleum-based product has become a major problem that needs to be properly handled. An urge to find renewable substances for sustainable development results in a strategy to valorize organic solid waste using solid state fermentation (SSF and to manage the issue of solid wastes in a green approach. This paper reviews management of solid wastes using SSF, with regard to its current application, advantages and challenges, downstream processing in SSF, economic viewpoint, and future perspectives.

  11. Biogas Production from Rice Husk Waste by using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawali Abdul Matin Hashfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effort to obtain alternative energy is still interesting subject to be studied, especially production of biogas from agriculture waste. This paper was an overview of the latest development of biogas researches from rice husk waste by Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD. The main obstacle of biogas production from rice husk waste was the lignin content which is very difficult degraded by microbes. Various pretreatments have been conducted, either physically, chemically as well as biologically. The SSAD method was an attractive option because of the low water content of rice husk waste. The biogas yield by SSAD method gave more attractive result compared to Liquid Anaerobic Digestion (LAD method. Various studies were still conducted in batch mode laboratory scale and also has not found optimum operating conditions. Research on a larger scale such as bench and pilot scale with continuous systems will be an increase trend in the future research.

  12. Biogas Production from Rice Husk Waste by using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Hashfi Hawali Abdul; Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    An effort to obtain alternative energy is still interesting subject to be studied, especially production of biogas from agriculture waste. This paper was an overview of the latest development of biogas researches from rice husk waste by Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD). The main obstacle of biogas production from rice husk waste was the lignin content which is very difficult degraded by microbes. Various pretreatments have been conducted, either physically, chemically as well as biologically. The SSAD method was an attractive option because of the low water content of rice husk waste. The biogas yield by SSAD method gave more attractive result compared to Liquid Anaerobic Digestion (LAD) method. Various studies were still conducted in batch mode laboratory scale and also has not found optimum operating conditions. Research on a larger scale such as bench and pilot scale with continuous systems will be an increase trend in the future research.

  13. Maryland and District of Columbia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The District of Columbia and Maryland State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in the District of Columbia and Maryland. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in the District of Columbia and Maryland. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in the District of Columbia and Maryland

  14. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous types of waste are produced by the nuclear industry ranging from high-level radioactive and heat-generating, HLW, to very low-level, LLW and usually very bulky wastes. These may be in solid, liquid or gaseous phases and require different treatments. Waste management practices have evolved within commercial and environmental constraints resulting in considerable reduction in discharges. (UK)

  15. Healthcare waste management status in Lagos State, Nigeria: a case study from selected healthcare facilities in Ikorodu and Lagos metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Ezechiel O

    2012-06-01

    A survey of healthcare waste management practices and their implications for health and the environment was carried out. The study assessed waste management practices in 20 healthcare facilities ranging in capacity from 40 to 600 beds in Ikorodu and metropolitan Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria. The prevailing healthcare waste management status was analysed. Management issues on quantities and proportion of different constituents of waste, segregation, collection, handling, transportation, treatment and disposal methods were assessed. The waste generation averaged 0.631 kg bed(-1) day(-1) over the survey area. The waste stream from the healthcare facilities consisted of general waste (59.0%), infectious waste (29.7%), sharps and pathological (8.9%), chemical (1.45%) and others (0.95%). Sharps/pathological waste includes disposable syringes. In general, the waste materials were collected in a mixed form, transported and disposed of along with municipal solid waste with attendant risks to health and safety. Most facilities lacked appropriate treatment systems for a variety of reasons that included inadequate funding and little or no priority for healthcare waste management as well as a lack of professionally competent waste managers among healthcare providers. Hazards associated with healthcare waste management and shortcomings in the existing system were identified.

  16. Commercial processing and disposal alternatives for very low levels of radioactive waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States has several options available in the commercial processing and disposal of very low levels of radioactive waste. These range from NRC licensed low level radioactive sites for Class A, B and C waste to conditional disposal or free release of very low concentrations of material. Throughout the development of disposal alternatives, the US promoted a graded disposal approach based on risk of the material hazards. The US still promotes this approach and is renewing the emphasis on risk based disposal for very low levels of radioactive waste. One state in the US, Tennessee, has had a long and successful history of disposal of very low levels of radioactive material. This paper describes that approach and the continuing commercial options for safe, long term processing and disposal. (author)

  17. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in this report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1997. (Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second.) Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1997. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1997 LLRW reports were received

  18. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal...

  19. Assessment of phenol infiltration resilience in soil media by HYDRUS-1D transport model for a waste discharge site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, K; Pal, S; Chakraborty, B; Mukherjee, S N; Gangopadhyay, A

    2014-10-01

    The movement of contaminants through soil imparts a variety of geo-environmental problem inclusive of lithospheric pollution. Near-surface aquifers are often vulnerable to contamination from surface source if overlying soil possesses poor resilience or contaminant attenuation capacity. The prediction of contaminant transport through soil is urged to protect groundwater from sources of pollutants. Using field simulation through column experiments and mathematical modeling like HYDRUS-1D, assessment of soil resilience and movement of contaminants through the subsurface to reach aquifers can be predicted. An outfall site of effluents of a coke oven plant comprising of alarming concentration of phenol (4-12.2 mg/L) have been considered for studying groundwater condition and quality, in situ soil characterization, and effluent characterization. Hydrogeological feature suggests the presence of near-surface aquifers at the effluent discharge site. Analysis of groundwater of nearby locality reveals the phenol concentration (0.11-0.75 mg/L) exceeded the prescribed limit of WHO specification (0.002 mg/L). The in situ soil, used in column experiment, possess higher saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS  = 5.25 × 10(-4) cm/s). The soil containing 47 % silt, 11 % clay, and 1.54% organic carbon content was found to be a poor absorber of phenol (24 mg/kg). The linear phenol adsorption isotherm model showed the best fit (R(2) = 0.977, RMSE = 1.057) to the test results. Column experiments revealed that the phenol removal percent and the length of the mass transfer zone increased with increasing bed heights. The overall phenol adsorption efficiency was found to be 42-49%. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) predicted by HYDRUS-1D model appears to be close fitting with the BTCs derived from the column experiments. The phenol BTC predicted by the HYDRUS-1D model for 1.2 m depth subsurface soil, i.e., up to the depth of groundwater in the study area, showed that the exhaustion

  20. Solid waste integrated management proposal in Churuguara and Maparari population axis, Federacion municipality Falcon State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Torres, Magly; Melendez, Angelica; Sanchez, Angel

    2009-01-01

    This research shows a solid waste integrated management proposal in Churuguara and Maparari axis population, Federation municipality Falcon State. The inadequate arrangement of solid waste in these populations lacks of any type of control. It has caused environmental pollution problems that affect public health. For this reason, a diagnosis of the situation was made to classify the solid waste, an optimal way of processing and storing them was shown; the fleet that will offer the service, the routes of collection, the frequency and timetable of them, the waste to recycle and the design of a semi-mechanized landfill site were measured as a technical and economical alternative for the government. In this proposal, there are established strategies to increase the quality of life of the inhabitants of this region that allow to reform, improve and transform the solid waste management within a valid legal frame. Since, this is one of the most important services and it has direct consequences in people's health. It is necessary the community and governmental entities participation in the managerial process of these kinds of waste. (author)

  1. State-of-the-art of recycling e-wastes by vacuum metallurgy separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-16

    In recent era, more and more electric and electronic equipment wastes (e-wastes) are generated that contain both toxic and valuable materials in them. Most studies focus on the extraction of valuable metals like Au, Ag from e-wastes. However, the recycling of metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, and organics has not attracted enough attentions. Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) processes can reduce pollution significantly using vacuum technique. It can effectively recycle heavy metals and organics from e-wastes in an environmentally friendly way, which is beneficial for both preventing the heavy metal contaminations and the sustainable development of resources. VMS can be classified into several methods, such as vacuum evaporation, vacuum carbon reduction and vacuum pyrolysis. This paper respectively reviews the state-of-art of these methods applied to recycling heavy metals and organics from several kinds of e-wastes. The method principle, equipment used, separating process, optimized operating parameters and recycling mechanism of each case are illustrated in details. The perspectives on the further development of e-wastes recycling by VMS are also presented.

  2. Long sustainment of quasi-steady-state high βp H mode discharges in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayama, A.; Kamada, Y.; Ozeki, T.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Oikawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Neyatani, Y.; Isei, N.; Hamamatsu, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Kajiwara, K.

    2001-01-01

    Quasi-steady-state high β p H mode discharges performed by suppressing neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are described. Two operational scenarios have been developed for long sustainment of the high β p H mode discharge: NTM suppression by profile optimization, and NTM stabilization by local electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD)/electron cyclotron heating (ECH) at the magnetic island. Through optimization of pressure and safety factor profiles, a high β p H mode plasma with H 89PL = 2.8, HH y,2 = 1.4, β p ∼ 2.0 and β N ∼ 2.5 has been sustained for 1.3 s at small values of collisionality ν e* and ion Larmor radius ρ i* without destabilizing the NTMs. Characteristics of the NTMs destabilized in the region with central safety factor above unity are investigated. The relation between the beta value at the mode onset β N on and that at the mode disappearance β N off can be described as β N off /β N on =0.05-0.4, which shows the existence of hysteresis. The value of β N /ρ i* at the onset of an m/n = 3/2 NTM has a collisionality dependence, which is empirically given by β N /ρ i* ∝ ν e* 0.36 . However, the profile effects such as the relative shapes of pressure and safety factor profiles are equally important. The onset condition seems to be affected by the strength of the pressure gradient at the mode rational surface. Stabilization of the NTM by local ECCD/ECH at the magnetic island has been attempted. A 3/2 NTM has been completely stabilized by EC wave injection of 1.6 MW. (author)

  3. Low-level radioactive waste transportation plan for the State of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparala, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to prepare a recommended transportation plan that will outline specific procedures for monitoring and regulating low-level radioactive waste transport in Maryland and which is consistent with federal law and party-state requirements under the Appalachian Compact

  4. 75 FR 51392 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 [EPA-R02-RCRA-2010-0249; FRL-9178-8] New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Correction In rule document 2010-18927 beginning on page 45489 in the issue of Tuesday, August 3, 2010, make the following correction: Appendix A...

  5. Woody residues and solid waste wood available for recovery in the United States, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Robert H. Falk

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of woody residues and solid wood waste are generated annually in the United States from the extraction of timber from forests, from forestry cultural operations, in the conversion of forest land to nonforest uses, in the initial processing of roundwood timber into usable products, in the construction and demolition of buildings and structures, and in the...

  6. Inventories of woody residues and solid wood waste in the United States, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of woody residues and wood waste are generated annually in the United States. In 2002, an estimated 240 million metric tons was generated during the extraction of timber from the Nation’s forests, from forestry cultural operations, in the conversion of forest land to nonforest uses, in the initial processing of roundwood timber into usable products, in...

  7. Solid Waste Processing. A State-of-the-Art Report on Unit Operations and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Richard B.

    The importance and intricacy of the solid wastes disposal problem and the need to deal with it effectively and economically led to the state-of-the-art survey covered by this report. The material presented here was compiled to be used by those in government and private industry who must make or implement decisions concerning the processing of…

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the State of New Jersey. One of th...

  9. A summary of radiological waste disposal practices in the United States and the United Kingdom - 16379

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranville, Victoria M.; McGrath, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of near-surface repositories for radioactive waste in the United States (US) was conducted. The main focus of the review consisted of a literature search of available documents and other published sources on low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal practices, remediation of LLRW sites in the US, and public participation for remediation efforts of near-surface radiological waste disposal sites in the US. This review was undertaken to provide background information in support of work by the United Kingdom's (UK) Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) and to aid in optimizing the future management of this site. The review contained a summary of the US and UK radiological waste classification requirements including a discussion of the waste types, disposal requirements, and the differences between US and UK disposal practices. A regulatory overview and evolution of regulatory requirements in the US is presented. The UK regulatory environment is also discussed and contrasted to the US process. The public participation, as part of the US regulatory process, is provided and the mechanism for stakeholder identification and involvement is detailed. To demonstrate how remediation of radiologically impacted sites is implemented in the US, existing US case studies, in which remediation activities were carried out, were reviewed. The following information was compiled: type of wastes disposed of to US shallow ground facilities [with comparison with UK classifications], facility designs (with special emphasis on those directly comparable to the subsurface conditions in the UK), and deficiencies identified in operation or in demonstrating safe post closure; and processes and difficulties in remedial actions encountered at the selected sites. Stakeholder involvement is discussed within the case studies. Publicly available information related to radiological waste management and disposal practices were reviewed. Two sites are presented in this publication for

  10. Technical support for the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear Radiation Safety on specific waste issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The government of Ukraine, a now-independent former member of the Soviet Union, has asked the United States to assist its State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SCNRS) in improving its regulatory control in technical fields for which it has responsibility. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing this assistance in several areas, including management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. Radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear power plant operation, maintenance, and decommissioning must be stored and ultimately disposed of appropriately. In addition, radioactive residue from radioisotopes used in various industrial and medical applications must be managed. The objective of this program is to provide the Ukrainian SCNRS with the information it needs to establish regulatory control over uranium mining and milling activities in the Zheltye Vody (Yellow Waters) area and radioactive waste disposal in the Pripyat (Chernobyl) area among others. The author of this report, head of the Environmental Technology Section, Health Sciences Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accompanied NRC staff to Ukraine to meet with SCNRS staff and visit sites in question. The report highlights problems at the sites visited and recommends license conditions that SCNRS can require to enhance safety of handling mining and milling wastes. The author's responsibility was specifically for the visit to Zheltye Vody and the mining and milling waste sites associated with that facility. An itinerary for the Zheltye Vody portion of the trip is included as Appendix A

  11. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  12. Summary report, low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Vol. 4. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  13. Summary report. Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Volume 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  14. Criticality safety of high-level tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing low concentrations of fissile isotopes is stored in underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The goal of criticality safety is to ensure that this waste remains subcritical into the indefinite future without supervision. A large ratio of solids to plutonium provides an effective way of ensuring a low plutonium concentration. Since the first waste discharge, a program of audits and appraisals has ensured that operations are conducted according to limits and controls applied to them. In addition, a program of surveillance and characterization maintains watch over waste after discharge

  15. Experience in the United States with a secondary resource curriculum on ''Science, society and America's nuclear waste''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear power and nuclear waste situation in the Usa, is first reviewed. In order to enhance information concerning these topics among pupils and teachers, a resource curriculum, 'Science, society, and America's Nuclear Waste', was developed by teachers for teachers; it consists of four units: nuclear waste, ionizing radiation, the nuclear waste policy act, and the waste management system. It has been well received by teachers. Within nine months after its national introduction, 350000 teacher and student curriculum documents were requested by teachers from all 50 states. Requests have been also received from 250 foreign colleges and universities

  16. Metal recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA): state of the art, potential and environmental benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Holtze, Maria S.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Incineration has a central role in the waste management system in Denmark (e.g. 52% of the household waste) resulting in approximately 726000t of solid residues each year. However, the targets imposed by the Danish Waste Strategy and the increasing discussions about resource in waste raise an issue...... on resource losses through waste incineration. In this framework, this study provides actual data on the state of the art of the recovery of resource in MSWIBA in Denmark (i.e. metals), on the potential for further recovery and on the environmental benefits or burdens assessed through the Life Cycle...

  17. Strategy and field implementation for determining a dangerous waste mixture in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Steve; Foster, Rick; Wright, Jamie

    1992-01-01

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), states rather than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maybe authorized to implement RCRA regulations. Under RCRA, environmental regulations implemented by an authorized state must be at least as stringent as those contained in RCRA. Compared to RCRA, the corresponding regulations of the State of Washington regarding the determination of characteristic wastes are more stringent and complex. This paper discusses the complexities of the regulations and presents a strategy for successfully managing diverse waste streams. This strategy was used during the cleanup of contaminated areas and equipment at the Albany Research Center (ARC) in Albany, Oregon, which processed uranium and thorium for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission during the early days of the nation's atomic energy program. Wastes from the cleanup of ARC were shipped to the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Reservation. Because the DOE Hanford Reservation is located in Washington, this paper should be of interest to DOE waste generators. (author)

  18. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntzing, L.M.; Person, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. It is currently a problem at nuclear weapons sites in the United States, but as the civilian nuclear industry everywhere deals with decommissioning and decontamination, the lessons learned from these early activities will be influential. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Third the task is technically demanding. Those who undertake the challenge must be technically sophisticated, creative, and innovative. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one. Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basic crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts

  19. Development of Models to Predict the Redox State of Nuclear Waste Containment Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinet, O.; Guirat, R.; Advocat, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Departement de Traitement et de Conditionnement des Dechets, Marcoule, BP 71171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Phalippou, J. [Universite de Montpellier II, Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Vitrification is one of the recommended immobilization routes for nuclear waste, and is currently implemented at industrial scale in several countries, notably for high-level waste. To optimize nuclear waste vitrification, research is conducted to specify suitable glass formulations and develop more effective processes. This research is based not only on experiments at laboratory or technological scale, but also on computer models. Vitrified nuclear waste often contains several multi-valent species whose oxidation state can impact the properties of the melt and of the final glass; these include iron, cerium, ruthenium, manganese, chromium and nickel. Cea is therefore also developing models to predict the final glass redox state. Given the raw materials and production conditions, the model predicts the oxygen fugacity at equilibrium in the melt. It can also estimate the ratios between the oxidation states of the multi-valent species contained in the molten glass. The oxidizing or reductive nature of the atmosphere above the glass melt is also taken into account. Unlike the models used in the conventional glass industry based on empirical methods with a limited range of application, the models proposed are based on the thermodynamic properties of the redox species contained in the waste vitrification feed stream. The thermodynamic data on which the model is based concern the relationship between the glass redox state and the oxygen fugacity in the molten glass. The model predictions were compared with oxygen fugacity measurements for some fifty glasses. The experiments carried out at laboratory and industrial scale with a cold crucible melter. The oxygen fugacity of the glass samples was measured by electrochemical methods and compared with the predicted value. The differences between the predicted and measured oxygen fugacity values were generally less than 0.5 Log unit. (authors)

  20. Appalachian States Compact Low-Level Radioactive Waste management survey, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.N.

    1989-03-01

    Since the enactment of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act in February 1988, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has undertaken major steps to develop a Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Disposal Facility within its borders for the exclusive use of radioactive material licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. In order to adequately plan for the design and development of that facility, it is essential to obtain accurate data on LLRW being generated in the Compact. To that end, the Division of Nuclear Safety of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) conducted a survey to determine volume and activity of LLRW shipped and stored in 1987 by the licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. The 1986 LLRW survey included licensees in Pennsylvania and Maryland, while surveys conducted prior to 1986 involved only Pennsylvania licensees. So this is the first survey conducted by BRP that has included all four states of the Compact

  1. Overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1994-01-01

    Disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is a critical part of the national infrastructure needed to maintain the health of American businesses, universities, and hospitals. Currently only 19 States (located in the Northwest and Southeast) have access to operating disposal facilities; all other States are storing their LLW until they open new disposal facilities on their own or in concert with other States through regional compact agreements. In response to recommendations from the National Governors Association, Congress assigned the burden for LLW disposal to all States, first in 1980 through Public Law 96-573, the open-quotes Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Actclose quotes, and again in 1986 through Public Law 99-240, the open-quotes Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985close quotes. As directed by Congress, the Department of Energy provides technical assistance to States and compact regions with this task. After almost 14 years, nine compact regions have been ratified by Congress; California, Texas, North Carolina, and Nebraska have submitted license applications; California has issued an operating license; and the number of operating disposal facilities has decreased from three to two

  2. The status of radioactive waste repository development in the United States - December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of affairs concerning development in the United States of a permanent repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is, in a word, uncertain. The President of the United States has asserted that he believes licensing and development of the Yucca Mountain repository should be abandoned, while other important parties believe licensing and development should continue. And not surprisingly, there is a disagreement as to what the law requires and whether the licensing process for the Yucca Mountain repository can be terminated at this point, even if the President would like for that to happen. The future of Yucca Mountain, and the future of radioactive waste disposal in the United States generally, currently are pending before the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and eventually the Supreme Court of the United States may decide some of the important legal issues concerning Yucca Mountain's future. The November 2012 US elections also likely will have a significant impact on future radioactive waste repository development

  3. High-level radioactive waste management in the United States. Background and status: 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The US high-level radioactive waste disposal program is investigating a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether or not it is a suitable location for the development of a deep mined geologic repository. At this time, the US program is investigating a single site, although in the past, the program involved successive screening and comparison of alternate locations. The United States civilian reactor programs do not reprocess spent fuel; the high-level waste repository will be designed for the emplacement or spent fuel and a limited amount of vitrified high-level wastes from previous reprocessing in the US. The legislation enabling the US program also contains provisions for a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility, which could provide temporary storage of spent fuel accepted for disposal, and improve the flexibility of the repository development schedule

  4. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntzing, L.M.; Person, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. It is currently a problem at nuclear weapons sites in the Unites States, but as the civilian nuclear industry everywhere deals with decommissioning and decontamination, the lessons learned from these early activities will be influential. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Third, the task is technically demanding. Those who undertake the challenge must be technically sophisticated, creative, and innovative. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one. Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basic crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts. This paper briefly outlines some of the liabilities surrounding environmental contracting and ways to minimize risks

  5. Effects of N2O and O2 addition to nitrogen Townsend dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure on the absolute ground-state atomic nitrogen density

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Gherardi, Nicolas; Massines, Franç oise

    2012-01-01

    Absolute ground-state density of nitrogen atoms N (2p3 4S3/2) in non-equilibrium Townsend dielectric barrier discharges (TDBDs) at atmospheric pressure sustained in N2/N2O and N2/O2 gas mixtures has been measured using Two-photon absorption laser

  6. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  7. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  8. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  9. 75 FR 1559 - Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received and requests public comment on a petition for rulemaking dated November 6, 2009, filed by the Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) (petitioner). The petition was docketed by the NRC and has been assigned Docket No. PRM-32-6. The petitioner requests that the NRC amend its regulations and/or guidance to improve the labeling and accountability of tritium exit signs.

  10. A state of the art review of vitrification of high level waste in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimerl, W.

    This paper gives a review of the state-of-the-art of the development and demonstration of vitrification processes for high level radioactive waste solutions on an industrial scale in four European countries (France, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and Belgium). Historical development, experiences and operations present status and future plans are presented. Three of the processes which seem to be of major importance are described (AVM-France, HARVEST-United Kingdom, PAMELA Germany/Belgium). (author)

  11. Establishing deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.; Ballard, W.W. Jr.; Cooley, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes, in broad terms, the interrelationship of the several regulations and recent legislation governing the National Waste Terminal Storage programme. The schedules of the first and second repositories are detailed, as are the interactions between the federal, state, and local governments. Limited portions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations and the Environmental Protection Agency's standard are discussed to the extent that they affect the development schedules. (author)

  12. Institutional aspects of siting nuclear waste disposal facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, John Cameron.; Prichard, Clark. W.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter deals with the institutional issues associated with the disposal of nuclear waste in the United States of America. These include socio-economic, financial, land use and especially, political factors. Institutional issues must, however, be resolved, as well as the technological problems of engineering and geology. The general issues are first examined, then the organisation and financing, land use, community acceptance, transport problems and finally, local economic impacts. (UK)

  13. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States: An overview of current commercial regulations and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States is regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under 10 CFR 61 (1991). This regulation was issued in 1981 after a lengthy and thorough development process that considered the radionuclide concentrations and characteristics associated with commercial low-level radioactive waste streams; alternatives for waste classification; alternative technologies for low-level radioactive waste disposal; and data, modeling, and scenario analyses. The development process also included the publication of both draft and final environmental impact statements. The final regulation describes the general provisions; licenses; performance objectives; technical requirements for land disposal; financial assurances; participation by state governments and Indian tribes; and records, reports, tests, and inspections. This paper provides an overview of, and tutorial on, current commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal regulations in the United States

  14. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  15. Pilot research projects for underground disposal of radioactive wastes in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.; Collyer, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Disposal of commercial radioactive waste in the United States of America in a deep underground formation will ensure permanent isolation from the biosphere with minimal post-closure surveillance and maintenance. The siting, design and development, performance assessment, operation, licensing, certification and decommissioning of an underground repository have stimulated the development of several pilot research projects throughout the country. These pilot tests and projects, along with their resulting data base, are viewed as important steps in the overall location and construction of a repository. Beginning in the 1960s, research at pilot facilities has progressed from underground spent fuel tests in an abandoned salt mine to the production of vitrified nuclear waste in complex borosilicate glass logs. Simulated underground repository experiments have been performed in the dense basalts of Washington State, the volcanic tuffaceous rock of Nevada and both domal and bedded salts of Louisiana and Kansas. In addition to underground pilot in situ tests, other facilities have been constructed or modified to monitor the performance of spent fuel in dry storage wells and self-shielded concrete casks. As the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) programme advances to the next stage of underground site characterization for each of three different geological sites, additional pilot facilities are under consideration. These include a Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF) for site verification and equipment performance and testing, as well as a salt testing facility for verification of in situ simulation equipment. Although not associated with the NWTS programme, the construction of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the bedded salts of New Mexico is well under way for deep testing and experimentation with the defence programme's transuranic nuclear waste. (author)

  16. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM 2.5 ) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality

  17. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios, E-mail: giovanis95@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM{sub 2.5}) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality.

  19. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. State of knowledge and development for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seichi; Muraoka, Susumu; Murano, Toru

    1995-01-01

    In Europe and USA, the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste entered the stage of doing the activities aiming at its execution. Also in Japan, the storage of high level waste began in the spring of 1995. Regarding the utilization of nuclear power, the establishment of the technology for disposing radioactive waste is the subject of fist priority, and the stage that requires its social recognition has set in. There are the features of formation disposal in that the disposal is in the state of confining extremely large amount of radioactivity, and that the assessment of long term safety exceeding tens of thousands years is demanded. The amount of occurrence and the main nuclides of high level radioactive waste, the disposal as seen in the Coady report and in the IAEA standard, the selection of dispersion or confinement and the selection of passive system or long term human participation, the reason why formation disposal is selected, the features of formation disposal and the way of advancing the research, the general techniques of safety assessment, artificial barriers and natural barriers for formation disposal, and the subjects of formation disposal are described. (K.I.) 57 refs

  20. The radioactive waste debate in the United States and nuclear technology for peaceful purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Terrence Norbert

    Many ethical, cultural, and economic concerns have accompanied the rapid growth of Western technology. Nuclear technology in particular has experienced considerable opposition because of its perceived dangers, especially disposal of atomic waste. While this field of science remains in its infancy, many legal, political and ecological groups oppose any further application of nuclear technology--including the significant medical, environmental, and economic benefits possible from a safe and responsible application of nuclear energy. Complete and objective knowledge of this technology is needed to balance a healthy respect for the danger of atomic power with its many advantages. This study focuses on one aspect of nuclear technology that has particularly aroused political and social controversy: nuclear waste. Finding ways of disposing safely of nuclear waste has become an extremely volatile issue because of the popular misconception that there is no permanent solution to this problem. This investigation will demonstrate that the supposedly enduring waste problem has been resolved in several industrial countries that now outstrip the United States in safe commercial applications of nuclear science. This dissertation offers a reasoned and objective contribution to the continuing national debate on the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. This debate becomes more crucial as the nation seeks a dependable substitute for the non-renewable sources of energy now rapidly being exhausted.

  1. Workshop meeting on State accounting and control system for radioactive substances and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseev, V.F.

    2012-01-01

    On 2-6 July 2012, the fifth All-Russian workshop meeting of State Accounting and Control System for Radiation Substances (RS) and Radioactive Wastes (RAW) was conducted. The objective of the workshop was to discuss development of the State Accounting and Control System for RS and RAW in the Russian Federation, current changes to legal acts and regulations that pertain to management of RS and RAW, as well as other issues related to organisation of RS and RAW management activities and promotion of international cooperation [ru

  2. Public and state responses to high-level nuclear waste disposal: Learning from policy failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear waste policy in the United States has faded in large part because of public and state opposition to repository siting. However, that outcome was not inevitable. This paper argues that better policy design and greater attention to the crucial tasks of policy legitimation both by the U.S. Congress and by the Department of Energy might have significantly increased the chances for successful implementation. Even though the program now has a highly uncertain future, suggestions are offered for policy learning and change that may increase the probability of success

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  5. Relaxation of atomic state multipoles by radiation re-absorption: Neon 2p2 atoms in a discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimura, M.; Imagawa, T.; Hasuo, M.; Fujimoto, T.

    2005-01-01

    In a positive column of a glow discharge in the magnetic field of 36.4G, a linearly polarized laser pulse or a circularly polarized laser pulse has produced polarized neon atoms (alignment or orientation) in the 2p 2 (Paschen notation) level from the 1s 3 level. The subsequent fluorescence to the 1s 2 level was observed with its polarized components resolved. Depopulation, disorientation and disalignment rates of the 2p 2 atom were measured and their discharge current dependences were examined for a discharge current from 0.4 to 2.0mA. The degrees of radiation re-absorption, or the optical thickness, of the transition lines from the 2p 2 level to the 1s 2 -1s 5 levels were measured as functions of the discharge current. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed by which the depopulation, disorientation and disalignment rates by the radiation re-absorption for these transitions were determined. The calculated rates were compared with the observed ones and found to reproduce the their discharge current dependences. D'Yankonov and Perel's analytical expression for these rates was quantified from comparison with the Monte Carlo results

  6. The siting dilemma: Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act ushered in a new era in low-level waste disposal; one with vastly increased state responsibilities. By a 1985 amendment, states were given until January 1993 to fulfill their mandate. In this dissertation, their progress is reviewed. The focus then turns to one particularly intractable problem: that of finding technically and socially acceptable sites for new disposal facilities. Many lament the difficulty of siting facilities that are intended to benefit the public at large but are often locally unwanted. Many label local opposition as purely self-interested; as simply a function of the NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) syndrome. Here, it is argued that epithets such as NIMBY are unhelpful. Instead, to lay the groundwork for widely acceptable solutions to siting conflicts, deeper understanding is needed of differing values on issues concerning authority, trust, risk, and justice. This dissertation provides a theoretical and practical analysis of those issues as they pertain to siting low-level waste disposal facilities and, by extension, other locally unwanted facilities

  7. United States high-level radioactive waste management program: Current status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    1992-01-01

    The inventory of spent fuel in storage at reactor sites in the United States is approximately 20,000 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM). It is increasing at a rate of 1700 to 2100 MTHM per year. According to current projections, by the time the last license for the current generation of nuclear reactors expires, there will be an estimated total of 84,000 MTHm. No commercial reprocessing capacity exists or is planned in the US. Therefore, the continued storage of spent fuel is required. The majority of spent fuel remains in the spent fuel pools of the utilities that generated it. Three utilities are presently supplementing pool capacity with on-site dry storage technologies, and four others are planning dry storage. Commercial utilities are responsible for managing their spent fuel until the Federal waste management system, now under development, accepts spent fuel for storage and disposal. Federal legislation charges the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) with responsibility for developing a system to permanently dispose of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. We are developing a waste management system consisting for three components: a mined geologic repository, with a projected start date of 2010; a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS), scheduled to begin waste acceptance in 1998; and a transportation system to support MRS and repository operations. This paper discusses the background and framework for the program, as well as the current status and plans for management of spent nuclear fuel at commercial utilities; the OCRWM's development of a permanent geologic repository, an MRS, and a transportation system; the OCRWM's safety approach; the OCRWM's program management initiatives; and the OCRWM's external relations activities

  8. Low level radioactive waste management in New York State all the pieces of the puzzle, but

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike many other states and compacts, New York not only has a volunteer community, but that community has over three thousand acres of state owned land that was intended for commercial nuclear use. A poll conducted by the Siting Commission indicates that the citizens of New York understand the need for a central monitored disposal facility for LLRW. Hundreds of widely dispersed storage sites are unacceptable to the majority of New Yorkers. New York State has a law requiring the siting and construction of a facility for the permanent disposal of LLRW. The regulations are in place and the Siting Commission has gone through the siting process forward, and should be about finished doing it backwards as the amended state law required. The State Health Department has authorized a $800,000 contract to the National Academy of Science to review the process. The representatives of the Cortland County opponents went on record and already stated that the NAS Study is unacceptable. After fifty million dollars the results are catastrophic. The generators in the state will be forced to store their waste because of the failure by the state to obey it's own law. According to the law, the facility was to be in operation no later than January 1, 1993. While New York State has all the pieces of the LLRW management puzzle on the table, there are many people with political and social agendas ready to knock the pieces onto the floor

  9. The State of the Art of the Borehole Disposal Concept for High Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Sung Hoon; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative of the high-level radioactive waste disposal in the subsurface repository, a deep borehole disposal is reviewed by several nuclear advanced countries. In this study, the state of the art on the borehole disposal researches was reviewed, and the possibility of borehole disposal in Korean peninsula was discussed. In the deep borehole disposal concept radioactive waste is disposed at the section of 3 - 5 km depth in a deep borehole, and it has known that it has advantages in performance and cost due to the layered structure of deep groundwater and small surface disposal facility. The results show that it is necessary to acquisite data on deep geologic conditions of Korean peninsula, and to research the engineering barrier system, numerical modeling tools and disposal techniques for deep borehole disposal.

  10. United States Program on Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.

    2004-01-01

    The President signed the Congressional Joint Resolution on July 23, 2002, that designated the Yucca Mountain site for a proposed geologic repository to dispose of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is currently focusing its efforts on submitting a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in December 2004 for construction of the proposed repository. The legislative framework underpinning the U.S. repository program is the basis for its continuity and success. The repository development program has significantly benefited from international collaborations with other nations in the Americas

  11. Problems in shallow land disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste in the united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, P.R.; DeBuchananne, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    Disposal of solid low-level wastes containing radionuclides by burial in shallow trenches was initiated during World War II at several sites as a method of protecting personnel from radiation and isolating the radionuclides from the hydrosphere and biosphere. Today, there are 11 principal shallow-land burial sites in the United States that contain a total of more than 1.4 million cubic meters of solid wastes contaminated with a wide variety of radionuclides. Criteria for burial sites have been few and generalized and have contained only minimal hydrogeologic considerations. Waste-management practices have included the burial of small quantities of long-lived radionuclides with large volumes of wastes contaminated with shorter-lived nuclides at the same site, thereby requiring an assurance of extremely long-time containment for the entire disposal site. Studies at 4 of the 11 sites have documented the migration of radionuclides. Other sites are being studied for evidence of containment failure. Conditions at the 4 sites are summarized. In each documented instance of containment failure, ground water has probably been the medium of transport. Migrating radionuclides that have been identified include90Sr,137Cs,106Ru,239Pu,125Sb,60Co, and3H. Shallow land burial of solid wastes containing radionuclides can be a viable practice only if a specific site satisfies adequate hydrogeologic criteria. Suggested hydrogeologic criteria and the types of hydrogeologic data necessary for an adequate evaluation of proposed burial sites are given. It is mandatory that a concomitant inventory and classification be made of the longevity, and the physical and chemical form of the waste nuclides to be buried, in order that the anticipated waste types can be matched to the containment capability of the proposed sites. Ongoing field investigations at existing sites will provide data needed to improve containment at these sites and help develop hydrogeologic criteria for new sites. These

  12. Density of uranium ions in the 4I0/sub 9/2/ ground state in a hollow-cathode type discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Bouchard, P.; Saint-Dizier, J.P.; Gagne, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    A hollow-cathode type discharge cell as generator of uranium ions is investigated. The 4 I 0 /sub 9/2/ ground-state ion density has been obtained by absorption spectroscopy at 5493 and 4244 A. The absorption measurements have been performed using two identical hollow-cathode lamps: one acting as a light source, the other as a reservoir of free ions. Neon and xenon have been used as discharge sustaining gases. In our experimental conditions the measured ion ground-state density is of the order of 10 12 ions cm -3 . Absorption measurements performed at 5915 and 4246 A of U i give a density of the order of 10 12 atoms cm -3 . This latter value is in excellent agreement with a previously measured value obtained by laser-absorption spectroscopy

  13. Droop-Control-Based State-of-Charge Balancing Method for Charging and Discharging Process in Autonomous DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    in the discharging process. Meanwhile, the ESU with lower SoC absorbs more power in the charging process and delivers less power in the discharging process. Eventually, the SoC and injected/output power in each ESU are equalized. The exponent n for SoC is employed to regulate the balancing speed of the So......C and injected/output power. It is demonstrated that with higher exponent n, the balancing speed is higher. Simulation model comprised of three ESUs is implemented by using MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed method is verified by the simulation results....

  14. Summary report: Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts, Volume 5, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.

    1997-01-01

    Information is given on the ten compacts and their host state, describing the governing body, member states, date established, current waste management, and siting, licensing, and projected date of a disposal facility. Reports are also given on the eight states that remain unaffiliated with a compact commission

  15. Summary report: Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts, Volume 5, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.

    1997-07-01

    Information is given on the ten compacts and their host state, describing the governing body, member states, date established, current waste management, and siting, licensing, and projected date of a disposal facility. Reports are also given on the eight states that remain unaffiliated with a compact commission

  16. A two-state citizen task force responds to Dept. of Energy on defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1990-01-01

    Successes in public involvement efforts for nuclear waste management are so few that they deserve careful documentation and analysis. This paper chronicles the goals, process, problems and outcomes of one such success, the Northwest Defense Waste Citizens Forum (CF), created by the DOE-Richland manager in 1986 to advise DOE on its plans for nuclear waste disposal and cleanup of the Hanford site in eastern Washington state. DOE under-took an extensive multi-facted public involvement program to gain advice, understanding and support on heretofore neglected defense waste (DW) cleanup problems. DOE sought broad public input for a draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) at an early stage before all characterization data were complete and before a recommended alternative was formulated. In the evolving, often-controversial, highly-visible area of agency-public interactions, citizen task forces (TFs) have been shown to be useful in developing public policy at the local level. For DOE-Richland, the high-risk gamble in undertaking a public involvement program involving reversals of long-term DOE policies of secrecy and unresponsiveness to its host area paid off handsomely in an improved EIS, better relationships with state agencies and regional businesses, and unexpected political support for DW cleanup funding. The Hanford citizen forum was highly successful in both DOE's and participant views, with significant achievements, unusual process and technical findings of its own. By the authors' criteria discussed earlier for public participation efforts, the CF effort was successful in all 3 areas. The success of this approach suggests its use as a model for other federal cleanup activities

  17. Radioactive waste management: exploratory survey among Rio de Janeiro state university students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de, E-mail: drodrigues@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ivsalati@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Social approval is a fundamental part of the site selection process of a radioactive waste repository. Such approval requires the involvement of the local community in the decision-making process and is deemed essential to the success of an enterprise of this kind. A major problem when it comes to nuclear energy is the poor knowledge on the issue among the general population. For effective participation in the decision-making process, the community of the candidate site should be well informed on nuclear issues, because efficient community interaction depends on the level of knowledge of their citizens on the subject. One way to identify this level of knowledge is through opinion polls on attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of nuclear energy and on radioactive waste. In the European Union research is carried out periodically seeking to know people's opinion about their participation in the decision-making process. In order to assess in a preliminary way the attitude on this matter of university students of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the research method used in the European Union was adapted and subsequently applied to a sample of 200 students from public and private universities within the state. The results indicate that the majority of respondents, though possessing little information on nuclear issues, would like to participate in the decision-making process for site selection of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository, if that repository was to be built close to their living area. The collected data also identifies the sources of information that are considered trustworthy by the surveyed sample. Although exploratory, this research provides guidelines for future work to be developed within the scope of the site selection for a radioactive waste repository in Brazil. (author)

  18. Siting the high level radioactive waste repository in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, J.

    1992-01-01

    For more than twenty-five years after the National Academy of Science issued its 1957 report recommending a Mined Geologic Disposal System (''MGDS'') for high level radioactive waste, no substantial progress was made in selecting and siting a repository. The United States Congress attempted to give substantive and procedural direction to the program in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Seeing that very little had been accomplished some five years later, Congress gave further direction and tentatively selected a single site, Yucca Mountain in Nevada, in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendments of 1987. Selection of the Yucca Mountain site created a political conflict between federal and state authorities. Until recently, that conflict stalled the site characterization and evaluation program. Standards development under a polycentric regulatory regime has also been slow and has created a number of technical, legal and policy controversies. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), charged with setting radiation protection rules, may be developing regulatory standards which are technically unachievable and, therefore, legally unprovable in a licensing proceeding. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), having the responsibility for licensing and setting performance objectives, may be taking an overly conservative approach. This approach could seriously impact the cost and may preclude the ability to reach an affirmative finding on license issuance. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for siting, construction and operation of the repository. In so doing, DOE must apply both EPA and NRC standards. To the extent that EPA and NRC standards are untimely, poorly defined, unrealistic, inconsistent, and technically or legally unsound, DOE may be forestalled from fulfilling its responsibilities. The US must rethink its approach to siting the high level radioactive waste repository and take realistic, timely action to preserve the nuclear option. (Author)

  19. Radioactive waste management: exploratory survey among Rio de Janeiro state university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    Social approval is a fundamental part of the site selection process of a radioactive waste repository. Such approval requires the involvement of the local community in the decision-making process and is deemed essential to the success of an enterprise of this kind. A major problem when it comes to nuclear energy is the poor knowledge on the issue among the general population. For effective participation in the decision-making process, the community of the candidate site should be well informed on nuclear issues, because efficient community interaction depends on the level of knowledge of their citizens on the subject. One way to identify this level of knowledge is through opinion polls on attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of nuclear energy and on radioactive waste. In the European Union research is carried out periodically seeking to know people's opinion about their participation in the decision-making process. In order to assess in a preliminary way the attitude on this matter of university students of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the research method used in the European Union was adapted and subsequently applied to a sample of 200 students from public and private universities within the state. The results indicate that the majority of respondents, though possessing little information on nuclear issues, would like to participate in the decision-making process for site selection of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository, if that repository was to be built close to their living area. The collected data also identifies the sources of information that are considered trustworthy by the surveyed sample. Although exploratory, this research provides guidelines for future work to be developed within the scope of the site selection for a radioactive waste repository in Brazil. (author)

  20. Development of the geologic waste disposal programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.; Ballard, W.W.; Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Although alternative concepts are being studied as future options, over at least the next few decades the United States of America is committed to the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic nuclear waste (HLW and TRU) in mined geologic repositories. A 10,000-year minimum isolation period is sought. Responsibility for the management and disposal of United States nuclear waste, in accordance with standards and regulations established, respectively, by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), resides with the Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program has been implemented to provide the facilities and develop the requisite technology for the disposal of HLW and TRU. The NWTS Program is highly structured, adequately funded, and realistically scheduled. The timely realization of its objectives is basic to the furtherance of the new national energy policy being defined by President Reagan and the United States Congress. The first NWTS repository is scheduled to be operational as early as 1998. The host-rock formation, selected on the basis of the results of at-depth investigations via exploratory shafts to be sunk in 1983-1985 at three potential sites previously extensively characterized by surface techniques, will be either basalt, volcanic tuff, or domed or bedded salt. Selection of one site in these formations will not necessarily disqualify others. Also, screening studies of granitic formations in the United States for the siting of later, regionally located repositories are currently being conducted. Each NWTS repository will be licensed by the NRC. The first application for a construction authorization will probably be submitted in 1988. The application will be submitted for a site to be selected in 1987