WorldWideScience

Sample records for state taxation

  1. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  2. INDIRECT TAXATION TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS CRISTIAN MILOŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to outline the recent dynamics of the indirect taxation in the European Union member states, with a special focus on the Romanian case. We could notice that indirect taxation continues to play an important role for all the member states, in their attempt to recover from the global economic crisis. Morover, we have presented some of the recent changes in the legislative frameworks, which happened with a rather rapid pace, and contributed to a rather challenging business climate.

  3. STATE TAXATION OF MINERAL DEPOSITS AND PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of energy resources in the more rural western states is likely to create severe financial problems for some state and local governments. This new economic activity, with population in-migration and greater demand for public services, will generate a need for more gove...

  4. Mass Taxation and State-Society Relations in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Therkildsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Poll (‘head'''') tax has been the most common form of direct mass taxation in many sub-Saharan African countries since colonial times. Until very recently it was a dominant source of revenue for local governments. It has been a source of tension and conflict between state authorities and rural people from the colonial period until today, and a major catalyst for many rural rebellions. By tracing the history of poll taxes in Tanzania and Uganda, the chapter examines how these taxes have impact...

  5. 20 CFR 638.812 - State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers. 638.812 Section 638.812 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 638.812 State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers. The Act provides that transactions conducted...

  6. 26 CFR 1.897-1 - Taxation of foreign investment in United States real property interests, definition of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of foreign investment in United States... Provisions § 1.897-1 Taxation of foreign investment in United States real property interests, definition of... respect to the taxation of foreign investments in U.S. real property interests and related matters. This...

  7. SEVERAL COORDINATES REGARDING CIVISM TAXATION

    OpenAIRE

    COMANICIU Carmen; BUNESCU Liliana

    2012-01-01

    A real partnership between the state and taxpayers determine civism taxation development. What is civism taxation? Which are the bases of civism taxation? What is evolution of civism taxation? Are just some of the questions this article may provide answers. Thus, from the definition of civism taxation, we try to offer shares by the tax administration to increase civism taxation, strengthening the role of taxation in the life of any nation.

  8. Report on the Audit of DoD Immunity From State Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-15

    This is our final report on the audit of DOD Immunity from State Taxation for your information and use. We made the audit from July to September 1990...The objective of the audit was to determine whether DoD was unnecessarily paying state sales taxes. We also determined if sales taxes were being

  9. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Körbl, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  10. The debate over weight- versus price-based taxation of snuff in the United States' state legislatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, David S; Sami, Mojgan; Patel, Sonam; Thiagarajan, Shamili; Badiyan, Ramin; Willard, Shay

    2014-08-01

    Discount snuff, known for its cheap price, high nicotine content, and popularity among youth, has increased substantially in market share in the United States. As a likely result, the leading manufacturer of premium snuff has supported legislation changing the basis for taxing snuff from price to weight. To determine which public health issues arose in legislative debates, we transcribed 17 of 52 bills from US state legislatures and coded for arguments broadly categorized into public health, fair taxation, tax revenue, tax efficiency, and anti-competitiveness. State legislators expressed frustration that equitable taxation, revenue generation, and prevention of youth tobacco use were frequently conflated in the debates. Public health advocates expressed concerns over youths' incentives to purchase low-weight snuff, but seldom discussed youths' growing preference for discount snuff. The evolving market of moist snuff is a critical consideration for US state legislators as well as policy makers from other countries who may evaluate taxation methods for alternate tobacco products.

  11. Flexible outsourcing and the impacts of labour taxation in European welfare states

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Erkki; Poutvaara, Panu

    2008-01-01

    In European Welfare States, low-skilled workers are typically unionized, while the wage formation of high-skilled workers is more competitive. To focus on this aspect, we analyze how flexible international outsourcing and labour taxation affect wage formation, employment and welfare in dual domestic labour markets. Higher productivity of outsourcing, lower cost of outsourcing and lower factor price of outsourcing increase wage dispersion between the high-skilled and low-skilled workers. Incre...

  12. Pre–Emption: Federal Statutory Intervention in State Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Wildasin, David E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of Federal statutory restrictions on state government taxing powers. Such pre-emption can prevent states from pursuing policies that are best adapted to their economic circumstances and objectives, inefficiently constraining decentralized state tax policymaking. States policy choices may, however, harm the efficient operation of the US federation as a whole; in such cases, the “visible hand” of Federal pre-emption may lead to improved policy outcomes. Exis...

  13. Financing the Welfare State and the Politics of Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Morel , Nathalie; Palme , Joakim

    2012-01-01

    In an era of 'permanent austerity' (Pierson, 2001) and financial crisis, the issue of financing welfare state provision is topical. Moreover, the future of welfare state funding in countries with ageing populations is no doubt raising increasing interest in scholarly as well as policy circles. Yet the financing side of welfare provision has traditionally been given little attention and remains somewhat of a black box of the welfare state. The fact that some of the financing mechanisms have re...

  14. Taxation in the Sovereign State of Tolima, 1863 – 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pinto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sovereign State of Tolima was one of the poorest and most conflictive of Federalist Colombia 1863-1886. Its main sources of wealth were the exports of tobacco and indigo which had short periods of prosperity, complimented by the Antioqueño colonization that introduced a growth dynamic to the north of the State. Its geographical diversity and of its regional elites created frequent armed conflicts, compounded by the contagion of Colombian civil wars, since its territory was right in the middle of the country and besides the main river that communicated most of it. All these factors weighed heavily and made it difficult for state building at the regional level; in spite of them, as we will show, Tolima achieved some advances in its political organization, in its finances and, above all, in the coverage of its public educational system.

  15. Reasons for energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, T.

    1991-01-01

    The role of energy taxation as an instrument for a realistic pricing of energy, taking optimal consumption of resources and other external influences into consideration, must also be thought of in relation to the role these taxes have as part of the state's income. The paper discusses the connection between energy taxes, the public revenue they give and the eventual allocation losses that will arise as a result of taxation or lack of taxation. (AB)

  16. The polity and politics of carbon-dioxide taxation in small European states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    to the adoption of carbon dioxide taxation in only smaller countries in Europe. The research questions addressed by the present paper are how and why is it that small countries that in terms of emissions are virtually irrelevant to climate change and which are more open to forces of international competition...... are more susceptible to introduce carbon dioxide taxes ? It is hypothesized that features of the institutionalized patterns of policy-making, the polity of small states, can provide explanations for their climate politics, and ultimately the outcome policy in question....

  17. Common state mechanisms regulating tribal tobacco taxation and sales, the USA, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Hillary; Chriqui, Jamie; Leider, Julien; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-10-01

    Native American tribes, as sovereign nations, are exempt from state tobacco excise taxation, and self-govern on-reservation activity in the USA. Under Federal law, state excise taxes are owed by non-members purchasing tobacco on tribal land, but states are limited in how they enforce or collect these taxes. This study highlights the various policy approaches that states have taken to regulate tobacco sales on tribal lands given jurisdictional challenges. State laws (statutes, regulations and case law), Attorney General opinions, and revenue notices and rulings effective as of 1 January 2015 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia were compiled using Boolean searches in Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw. Laws were limited to those addressing taxation compacts or tobacco sales involving tribal entities. Master Settlement Agreement laws and non-codified tribal codes/compacts were excluded. Twenty of the 34 states with tribal lands address tribal tobacco sales. Fourteen states address intergovernmental compacts: 11 are tobacco specific, and suggest or require specific provisions. Fifteen states address tribal tax stamps: 2 explicitly prohibit stamping tribally sold products, 9 stamp all products, and 4 stamp some. Prepayment of excise tax is required in 12 states: 6 on all products, 4 on products in excess of quota, and 2 on products sold by non-tribal retailers. 6 states use quotas to limit tax-free tobacco available to tribes. Many states with a tribal presence have no formal strategies for non-members purchasing tobacco on tribal lands. Formalising policies and harmonising tax rates may assist states in collecting tax revenue from non-tribal consumers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Energy taxation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Energy taxation in Finland is described in addition to plans for reforms in this respect. It is stated that taxation on energy has primarily a fiscal motive, and it can also be used as a means of steering of energy and environmental policy. Numerical data illustrate the text. (AB)

  19. Currency Exchange Results - What If Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation Whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe author, in this article, examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption with regard to how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of

  20. Currency Exchange Results - What If Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation Whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe author, in this article, examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption with regard to how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of currency exchange results.

  1. Intra-Firm Transactions: What if Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption from the perspective of how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of intra-firm transactions.

  2. Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation captures the state of the art of research on environmental taxation. Written by 36 specialists in environmental taxation from 16 countries, it takes an interdisciplinary and international approach, focusing on issues that are universal to using taxation to achieve environmental goals.The Handbook explores the conceptual foundations of environmental taxation, essential elements for designing environmental tax measures, factors that influence t...

  3. STUDYING TAXATION - NECESSITY AND OPPORTUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen, COMANICIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taxation - a set of laws, regulations and methods of establishing taxes - is, was and will always be present in the life of every individual and every company because of the existence of the State with the tasks and functions, through its influence on the economic and social. Most persons understand the necessity of taxation, but how many people can provide relevant answer to questions such as: What is taxation and which are its characteristics? What is the significance of taxation? What are the tax effects at the micro level? How important is the ratio between direct taxation and indirect taxation? What are the principles of taxation? How are taxes determined? What are the rights and obligations of taxpayers? How taxation can become a stimulating factor? Through this article we will try to emphasize the necessity of studying taxation, in order to be a real partnership between the taxpayer and the state, with appropriate action. Without claiming an exhaustive approach we believe that the aspects presented can be points of reflection for each individual, so that it to be open at any time to study taxation, realizing the importance of skills and abilities that can be acquired.

  4. Energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This study presents the energy taxation, as an energy policy tool, applied to the fossil fuels and to the electric power. Taxes, tax revenue and taxation in function of the energy content or the carbon content are discussed. Many tables and statistical data illustrate this analysis and allow the comparison with other countries in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  5. 31 CFR 342.6 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 342.6 Section 342.6 Money... OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.6 Taxation..., whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all other taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal...

  6. Informal Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica

    2011-10-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.

  7. Informal Taxation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this “informal taxation.” Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts. PMID:22199993

  8. International and domestic aspects of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Murgáčová, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    International and local aspects of double taxation Abstract The purpose of my thesis is to analyze international double taxation taking into account both local legislation and international aspects. Double taxation is the situation, where the same income (or capital) is subject to the same tax more than once. Mostly, the international double taxation appears when the state of the source of income implies taxes on the income of the non-residents and the state of residence of the income receive...

  9. The current state of taxation and regulation of land plot size of industrial areas in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.А. Malashevskyy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the domestic legal and regulatory framework for land taxation has been performed. The ratio of industry land within the land resources of Ukraine has been investigated. The legal basis for determination of land plot areas necessary for implementation of industrial activities has been considered. The legal regime of industry land has been investigated. The conclusion of the need for improvement of methods for determining excess areas for taxation purposes has been made and optimization of land use in populated areas.

  10. Public choice and environmental regulation. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO{sub 2} taxation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G [The Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO{sub 2} abatement. A `grandfather` permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO{sub 2} tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO{sub 2} taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO{sub 2} tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO{sub 2} market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs.

  11. Public choice and environmental regulation. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1996-05-01

    The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO 2 abatement. A 'grandfather' permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO 2 tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO 2 taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO 2 tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO 2 market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs

  12. 31 CFR 346.13 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 346.13 Section 346.13 Money... BONDS § 346.13 Taxation. The tax treatment provided under section 409 of the Internal Revenue Code of..., inheritance, or other excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or...

  13. 31 CFR 340.3 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 340.3 Section 340.3 Money... COMPETITIVE BIDDING § 340.3 Taxation. The income derived from the bonds will be subject to all taxes imposed... excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but will be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on...

  14. 31 CFR 341.13 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 341.13 Section 341.13 Money... § 341.13 Taxation. The tax treatment provided under section 405 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954... taxes whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the...

  15. 31 CFR 352.10 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 352.10 Section 352.10 Money... Taxation. The interest paid on Series HH bonds is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue..., whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal or...

  16. 31 CFR 316.9 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 316.9 Section 316.9 Money... Taxation. (a) General. For the purpose of determining taxes and tax exemptions, the increment in value..., whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all other taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal...

  17. 31 CFR 345.5 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 345.5 Section 345.5 Money... INDEBTEDNESS-R.E.A. SERIES § 345.5 Taxation. The income derived from the certificates is subject to all taxes... or other excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter...

  18. 31 CFR 343.5 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 343.5 Section 343.5 Money... MORTGAGE GUARANTY INSURANCE COMPANY TAX AND LOSS BONDS Tax and Loss Bonds § 343.5 Taxation. Tax and loss bonds will be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal by any state or any...

  19. 31 CFR 309.4 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 309.4 Section 309.4 Money... OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.4 Taxation. The... taxes, whether Federal or State, but shall be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the...

  20. 31 CFR 332.9 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 332.9 Section 332.9 Money... Taxation. The income derived from Series H bonds is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue..., whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all other taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal...

  1. Differentiated taxation - a requirement of fiscal equity

    OpenAIRE

    Ionut-Catalin CROITORU; Coralia Emilia POPA

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal policy is a central concern of each State and one of the direct ways to influence economic and social development by using taxes. This paper aims to make an analysis on the two currently used methods of taxation: differentiated progressive taxation, according to the size of income, and the proportional taxation by using a single tax rate. The basic idea of this paper is that progressive taxation can reduce inequality and increase social benefits. There are also considered the tax syste...

  2. Uniformity of Taxation and Illinois School Funding: A State Constitutional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    The Illinois Supreme Court has permitted the General Assembly to create a system of public school funding that is widely disparate and disadvantageous to students in school districts with low-property wealth. In this Article, I argue that the court has not adequately considered the nexus between the Uniformity of Taxation provision and the…

  3. Taxation and the unequal reach of the state: mapping state capacity in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, I.

    2015-01-01

    Even though the unequal reach of the state has become an important concern in the literature on developing democracies in Latin America, empirical measures of intracountry variation in state capacity are scarce. So far, attempts to develop valid measures of the reach of the state have often been

  4. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  5. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO{sub 2} taxation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G

    1996-05-01

    The European Union and USA plan to stabilize the emission of carbon dioxide by the year 2000 in comparison to the 1990 level. Denmark aims to reduce CO{sub 2} emission by 20% by 2005 in comparison to 1988 levels. The question of how these goals can be achieved at the least cost is addressed, taking into consideration political, economic and administrative constraints. The analysis of political barriers is based on the public choice theory and the neo-classical theory of economics is used to analyse economic and administrative impediments. The author concludes that the combination of taxation and the permit market would be the most cost-effective with regard to CO{sub 2} reduction. If a country can develop permit markets that do not damage industrial competitiveness, industry may increase exports and the following increase in production will subsequently increase the tax revenue. Green taxation of households and the transportation sector could provide a revenue that may be used to reduce distorted income taxes and so also increase production. CO{sub 2} taxation may be economically rational for Denmark. (AB) 239 refs.

  6. Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , their environmental and economic impact and, finally, the larger question of the role of taxation among other policy approaches to environmental protection. Intermixing theory with case studies, the Handbook offers readers lessons that can be applied around the world. It identifies key bodies of research for people......The Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation captures the state of the art of research on environmental taxation. Written by 36 specialists in environmental taxation from 16 countries, it takes an interdisciplinary and international approach, focusing on issues that are universal to using...... taxation to achieve environmental goals. The Handbook explores the conceptual foundations of environmental taxation, essential elements for designing environmental tax measures, factors that influence the acceptance of environmental taxation, the variety of ways to implement environmental taxes...

  7. What if Member States Subjected Non-Resident Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax

  8. Intra-Firm Transactions: What if Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption from the perspective of how such an approach would affect the cross-border

  9. What if Member States Subjected Non-Resident Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption method.

  10. A quantitative description of state-level taxation of oil and gas production in the continental U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Jeremy G.; Wang, Yongsheng; Chomas, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description of state-level taxation of oil and gas production in the continental U.S. for 2004–2013. Aggregate revenues from production taxes nearly doubled in real terms over the period, reaching $10.3 billion and accounting for 20% of tax receipts in the top ten revenue states. The average state had a tax rate of 3.6%; nationally, the average dollar of production was taxed at 4.2%. The oil-specific rate estimated for the study period is $2.4 per barrel or $5.5 per ton of carbon. Lastly, state-level tax rates are two-thirds higher in states excluding oil and gas wells from local property taxes, suggesting that the policies are substitutes for one another. - Highlights: •State tax revenue from oil and gas production nearly doubled from 2004 to 2013. •Nationally, the typical dollar of production is taxed at 4.2%. •The rate applied to the typical dollar of production did not increase over time. •On average oil is taxed at $2.4 per barrel or $5.5 per ton of carbon. •State tax rates are two-thirds higher where oil and gas are not taxed as property.

  11. MODERN TAXATION SYSTEM FORMATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Aleksandrovna Tsokova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Russian taxation system was formed in the beginning of 90-s and experienced the evolution and sometimes revolution transformations. The state taxation system was created on the basis of the foreign countries’ experience nowever the research testifies the trends of the progressive development of the Russian taxation system elements including the national peculiarities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-63

  12. Property Taxation. National Education Association Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    The first of a series on school finance and the role of the state/local community, this document examines recent trends and developments in property taxation. The setting for property taxation and the state and local share of tax revenues for financing education are discussed. Two charts illustrate: (1) school district property tax collections…

  13. DOUBLE TAXATION CONVENTIONS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail ANTONESCU; Ligia ANTONESCU

    2011-01-01

    The need to conclude bilateral agreements on avoidance of double taxation is determined by the fact that national tax regulations differ from state to state. In the same time unilateral tax measures adopted by national law to avoid double taxation don’t correspond to tax legislation of all countries with which Romania has economic relations. To avoid double taxation, our country uses both the national rules and conventions for the avoidance of double taxation concluded with partner countrie...

  14. Energy taxation difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses what may be the underlying reasons for the Clinton administration's recent failure to pass the Btu Tax on energy sources and the current difficulties that this Administration is experiencing in acquiring nation wide consensus on a gasoline tax proposal. Two difficulties stand out - regional differences in climate and thus winter heating requirements, and the differences from state to state in transportation system preferences. The paper cites the positive aspects of energy taxation by noting the petroleum industry's efforts to develop a new less polluting reformulated gasoline

  15. Taxation in Public Education. Analysis and Bibliography Series, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Larry L.

    Intended for both researchers and practitioners, this analysis and bibliography cites approximately 100 publications on educational taxation, including general texts and reports, statistical reports, taxation guidelines, and alternative proposals for taxation. Topics covered in the analysis section include State and Federal aid, urban and suburban…

  16. 7 CFR 400.710 - Preemption and premium taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption and premium taxation. 400.710 Section 400... of Policies and Rates of Premium § 400.710 Preemption and premium taxation. A policy or plan of insurance that is approved by the Board for FCIC reinsurance is preempted from state and local taxation. ...

  17. 26 CFR 509.120 - Double taxation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Double taxation claims. 509.120 Section 509.120... CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.120 Double taxation claims. (a) General. Under Article XVII... United States or Switzerland has resulted, or will result, in double taxation contrary to the provisions...

  18. Taxation, Risk-Taking, and Household Portfolio Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Poterba

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of research on how taxation affects household decisions with respect to portfolio structure and asset trading. It discusses long-standing issues, such as the impact of differential taxation of income flows from stocks and bonds on the incentives for households to invest in these assets, and the effect of capital gains taxation on asset sales. It also addresses a range of emerging issues, such as the impact of taxation on the behavior of mutual funds and...

  19. EU citizenship and direct taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Ros (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main question addressed in this study is: _How has the concept of EU citizenship influenced the legal autonomy of Member States; most notably in the field of direct taxation and are the implications of that influence on the tax autonomy of Member States acceptable?_

  20. Taxation in Romania during transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, as fundamental element of budgetary revenue, represents the subject of newest utilization. Budget revenues through importance they hold, exercises a direct influence on the behavior of people being used by natural and legal persons as modeling tools in the economic and social life. Using the generic concept of taxation we can obtain a plurality of components, it’s defining elements, such as expression level of tax levies by various reports, the legal framework on tax revenue, financial institutions with responsibility for budgetary and fiscal powers, mandatory sampling methods, techniques and procedures used in the settlement and settlement revenue collection and budget. Performance of the economy at a time, effective use of public spending financed by taxes, public needs set by government policy and approved by Parliament, taxpayers, understanding of the budgetary needs, state of democracy in that country reached the level of taxation this one being determined by mentioned factors.

  1. The International Double Taxation – causes and avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The politics and tax legislation being a manifestation of strict sovereignty of the State, the phenomenon of double taxation occursfrequently representing a difficult poison for the foreign trade activity, especially hindering investments abroad, technology transfer or proliferationoutside of the state of the companies’ branches. Therefore, international legal double taxation, by the repeated taxation of the income, it is anobstacle to the development of economic relations between states, reducing the revenue of the international operators and their interests in makinginvestment abroad. This paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economic double taxation and theinternational legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation and avoidance methods.

  2. Report on the Audit of DoD Immunity From State Taxation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    .... We also determined if sales taxes were being applied to direct purchases by DoD, and if contracting officers were ensuring that contactors were taking full advantage of existing immunity from state taxes...

  3. Citizens and taxation : Sweden in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Jonas

    1999-01-01

    In the contemporary critique of the welfare state a common target is taxation. The consequences of the high levels of taxes collected by the modern state, the critics argue, are slowdown in economic growth, high unemployment, and declining public legitimacy for taxes and state provided welfare. This thesis explores the political support for taxation in Sweden, the epitome of high-tax-society. The thesis consists of one introductory chapter and five journal articles. The first objective of the...

  4. The International Double Taxation – causes and avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu; Florin Tudor

    2009-01-01

    The politics and tax legislation being a manifestation of strict sovereignty of the State, the phenomenon of double taxation occurs frequently representing a difficult poison for the foreign trade activity, especially hindering investments abroad, technology transfer or proliferation outside of the state of the companies’ branches. Therefore, international legal double taxation, by the repeated taxation of the income, it is an obstacle to the development of economic relations between states, ...

  5. Progressive taxation, income inequality, and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kushlev, Kostadin; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Income inequality has become one of the more widely debated social issues today. The current article explores the role of progressive taxation in income inequality and happiness. Using historical data in the United States from 1962 to 2014, we found that income inequality was substantially smaller in years when the income tax was more progressive (i.e., a higher tax rate for higher income brackets), even when controlling for variables like stock market performance and unemployment rate. Time lag analyses further showed that higher progressive taxation predicted increasingly lower income inequality up to 5 years later. Data from the General Social Survey (1972-2014; N = 59,599) with U.S. residents (hereafter referred to as "Americans") showed that during years with higher progressive taxation rates, less wealthy Americans-those in the lowest 40% of the income distribution-tended to be happier, whereas the richest 20% were not significantly less happy. Mediational analyses confirmed that the association of progressive taxation with the happiness of less wealthy Americans can be explained by lower income inequality in years with higher progressive taxation. A separate sample of Americans polled online (N = 373) correctly predicted the positive association between progressive taxation and the happiness of poorer Americans but incorrectly expected a strong negative association between progressive taxation and the happiness of richer Americans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...

  7. Taxation on environmental pollution and energy consumption 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The document gives statistics on taxation of pollution caused to the environment and on energy consumption in Denmark. These forms of taxation are rapidly increasing in Denmark as a consequence of the country's environmental policy. In 1995 the total state revenue from these sources was 23.5 billion Danish kroner which comprises 7.1% (compared to 6.5% for 1994) of the total revenue from all forms of taxation. Revenues in 1995 are 8.2 billion Danish kroner higher than in 1986. The State's revenue from taxation of energy consumption was 18.4 billion Danish kroner, which is 78% of revenues from taxation on both environmental pollution and on energy consumption. Revenues from taxation on pollution of the environment was 5.2 billion Danish kroner. The contribution of the taxation of environmental pollution has increased from 2% in 1986 to 22% in 1995 of the total revenue from taxation of both environmental pollution and energy consumption. Statistics include revenues from taxation on petrol, electric power, the use of gas and diesel oil and fuel oils, on kerosone and tar fuels for heating, on autogas and bottled gas, and on pit coal and lignite. Details are given on taxation revenues from the taxation of the different forms of environmental pollution such as carbon dioxide and rubbish etc. and on the taxation on carbon dioxide emission from the use of energy products such as electricity and various fuels. Information is given on grants given to projects for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide from 1993-1996 and on the phasing of taxation on environmental pollution in accordance with the Danish tax reforms. (AB)

  8. Optimal Energy Taxation for Environment and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Main purpose of this research is to investigate about how to use energy tax system to reconcile environmental protection and economic growth, and promote sustainable development with the emphasis of double dividend hypothesis. As preliminary work to attain this target, in this limited study I will investigate the specific conditions under which double dividend hypothesis can be valid, and set up the model for optimal energy taxation. The model will be used in the simulation process in the next project. As the beginning part in this research, I provide a brief review about energy taxation policies in Sweden, Netherlands, and the United States. From this review it can be asserted that European countries are more aggressive in the application of environmental taxes like energy taxes for a cleaner environment than the United States. In next part I examined the rationale for optimal environmental taxation in the first-best and the second-best setting. Then I investigated energy taxation how it can provoke various distortions in markets and be connected to the marginal environmental damages and environmental taxation. In the next chapter, I examined the environmentally motivated taxation in the point of optimal commodity taxation view. Also I identified the impacts of environmental taxation in various circumstances intensively to find out when the environment tax can yield double dividend after taking into account of even tax-interaction effects. Then it can be found that even though in general the environmental tax exacerbates the distortion in the market rather than alleviates, it can also improve the welfare and the employment under several specific circumstances which are classified as various inefficiencies in the existing tax system. (author). 30 refs.

  9. 22 CFR 40.105 - Former citizens who renounced citizenship to avoid taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... avoid taxation. 40.105 Section 40.105 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING... Miscellaneous § 40.105 Former citizens who renounced citizenship to avoid taxation. An alien who is a former... avoid United States taxation, is ineligible for a visa under INA 212(a)(10)(E). [62 FR 67568, Dec. 29...

  10. Environmental taxation. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Vincent; Duboucher, Peggy; Ben Maid, Atika; Devaux, Jeremy; Nicklaus, Doris; Calvet, Melanie; Poupard, Christophe; Pourquier, Francois-Xavier; Vicard, Augustin; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    This official publication proposes a detailed overview of the situation of environmental taxation in France. It first gives a general overview by discussing some key figures, by recalling the chronology of the main environmental taxation arrangements, and by discussing lessons learned from French and foreign experiments for an efficient, acceptable and consistent taxation. The second part proposes a detailed presentation of environmental taxation by distinguishing its main themes and objectives: struggle against climate change, reduction of air pollution and water pollution, and wastes, preservations and development of resources from biodiversity (soil artificialization, sustainable management of fauna and flora), efficient use of non renewable resources and of water (water resources, energetic and mineral raw materials). For each of these themes, the report presents the environmental problematic, and the existing arrangements, and proposes some elements of international comparison. The last part proposes a list of all environmental taxes

  11. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...... and much in favour of industry. In fact, CO2 tax rates for industry are, on average, six times lower than those for households. We argue that the reason for this tax differentiation is that industry, in contrast to households, has a strong capability to lobby. Therefore, green taxation is effectively...... blocked and the desired environmental results are not being achieved. Why then is green taxation persistently applied in relation to industry? We argue that strong fiscal incentives drive this policy choice at the expense of environmental concerns because it allows environmental bureaucracies to budget-maximize....

  12. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  13. Taxation, innovation, and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Schetter, Ulrich; Schneider, Maik T.

    2014-01-01

    We explore optimal and politically feasible growth policies in the form of basic research investments and taxation. Basic research is a public good that benefits innovating entrepreneurs, but its provision and financing also affect the entire economy -- in particular, occupational choices of potential entrepreneurs, wages, dividends, and aggregate output. We show that the impact of basic research on the general economy rationalizes a taxation pecking order to finance basic research. More spec...

  14. Taxation and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Common, Mick S.

    1992-01-01

    Clearly, the question which is the workshop title permits of no single simple answer. This paper addresses it in the particular context of taxation. The argument is that in this context the sustainability debate seems to have had rather little effect on economists' thinking and policy advice. While it is true that taxation is looked upon more favourably than some alternative instruments for environmental policy implementation, there does not appear to have been much in the way of thinking abo...

  15. Capital taxation : principles , properties and optimal taxation issues

    OpenAIRE

    Antonin, Céline; Touze, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capital taxation relying on three levels of analysis. The first level deals with the multiple ways to tax capital (income or value, proportional or progressive taxation, and the temporality of the taxation) and presents some of France's particular features within a heterogeneous European context. The second area of investigation focuses on the main dynamic properties generated by capital taxation: the principle of equivalence with a tax on consu...

  16. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the 2007 income tax declaration forms sent out by the cantonal tax administrations. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Re...

  17. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  18. Green throughput taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvoll, A.; Ibenholt, K.

    1998-01-01

    According to optimal taxation theory, raw materials should be taxed to capture the embedded scarcity rent in their value. To reduce both natural resource use and the corresponding emissions, or the throughput in the economic system, the best policy may be a tax on material inputs. As a first approach to throughput taxation, this paper considers a tax on intermediates in the framework of a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with environmental feedbacks. To balance the budget, payroll taxes are reduced. As a result, welfare indicators as material consumption and leisure time consumption are reduced, while on the other hand all the environmental indicators improve. 27 refs

  19. Energy taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg, E.

    1991-01-01

    A rough survey is given of the most important areas of Norwegian taxation and tariff policy within the energy sector. Planning is still in progress for regulations on taxing and duties on electric power and fossil fuels. This comprises part of the work on improving the economy and resource consumption, partly through giving higher priority to environmental issues. It is suggested that it could take some time before national goals for the development of an energy taxation system can be reached. There must be a balance between short and long-time issues. Norway will look to experiences gained in other countries. (AB)

  20. The global prospects of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the process of establishing international economic and financial relations between national economies is on the rise, many states encounter substantial difficulties in the process of collecting their tax claims. The most powerful countries in the world try to overcome this controversy by changing the international tax rules. The turning point was the financial-economic crisis of2008-2009, when the international community more vigorously embarked on resolving international tax issues. The OECD, the G20, the UN, the EU and a number of other powerful international organizations continued their activities on establishing a stronger framework of the international tax system. Global tax initiatives embodied in the soft law regulations have changed (to a varied extent the structure of national tax systems as well as the direction of national policies, and ultimately undermined the financial foundations of the social welfare state. The world's 'taxation landscape' is indisputably dominated by two major processes embodied in the concepts of tax harmonization and tax competition. The global crisis in financing contemporary states has weakened their resistance towards more extensive international tax cooperation. As a result, they increasingly accept global tax standards and are more vigorously involved in the international exchange of tax information for the purpose of counteracting international tax fraud. Changes in national tax systems are necessarily accompanied by changing relations between tax administrations and multinational companies as large taxpayers. The traditional public law relations are gradually changed by introducing some elements of 'negotiations and mutual agreement', which are aimed at strengthening mutual trust and avoiding unnecessary disputes and costs. Although they are currently no more than theoretical assumptions and political considerations, there are proposals for introducing global taxes and establishing the world tax

  1. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  2. The theory of optimal taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  3. Taxation of the energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.

    1995-01-01

    Taxation of the energy industries is an issue of major importance for each energy sector. This has always been the situation for the primary fossil fuel sectors but, with corporatization and privatization, is now also an issue for the electricity supply industry. This article examines the most significant forms of taxation affecting the major industry sectors, namely secondary taxation, corporate taxation and, as a consequence of the corporatization and privatization of the electricity supply industry, surrogate taxation as it affects that industry. While essentially considering secondary taxation, the paper also reviews corporate and surrogate taxes. Tax exemptions for various energy sector activities such as mining operations, exploration and rehabilitation related activities are outlined. It is considered that there is insufficient evidence of the influence of taxation and other factors on electricity pricing. 2 tabs

  4. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2009 internal taxation certificate and the 2009 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2009 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2009, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, will be available from 1st March 2010. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. You can also access your annual certificate via http://hrt.cern.ch (open “Pay info” in the menu &...

  5. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2014 internal taxation certificate and the 2014 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits that it pays to the members of its personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2014 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2014, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 20 February 2015. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to acce...

  6. TAXATION IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2011 internal taxation certificate and the 2011 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2011 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2011, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available as of 1 March 2012. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. 1. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. 2. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access ...

  7. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2010 internal taxation certificate and the 2010 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2010 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2010, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, will be available from 1st March 2011. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above,...

  8. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2013 internal taxation certificate and the 2013 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of its personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2013 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2013, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 21 February 2014. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access yo...

  9. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2015 internal taxation certificate and the 2015 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2015 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2015, issued by the Finance and Administrative Processes department, will be available on 19 February 2016. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual cer...

  10. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2012 internal taxation certificate and the 2012 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2012 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2012, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 25 February 2013. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access y...

  11. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2008 internal taxation certificate and the 2008 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations and CERN Bulletin Nos. 17 and 24 of 24 March 2008) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, has been available since 1st March 2009. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out ...

  12. Taxation in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2010 You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2010 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2010, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, has been available since 1st March 2011. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at the follo...

  13. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  14. The greening of taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barde, J.P.; Owens, J.

    1993-01-01

    How do tax measures affect the environment. And what tax regime can best promote environmental protection without damaging production. The OECD has just published a report on taxation and the environment, prepared by a special task force which united both tax and environment experts. 4 refs., 4 photos

  15. Studying Alcohol Pricing and Taxation Policies in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will study trends in alcohol taxation and pricing policies across 10 ... Sample Survey Office of India and the 10 state excise tax departments. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  16. ICT and international corporate taxation: tax attributes and scope of taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Anne; Spengel, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an outline of the consequences of the increased use of ICT on international corporate taxation, namely on the tax attributes and the scope of taxation, is given. It is argued that the concept of capital export neutrality shall prevail, as it is deemed to be the most appropriate to the changed economic structure. With regard to the tax attributes in the source state, an enlargement of the notion of a permanent establishment in order to shift tax revenues to the source state is n...

  17. A Theory of Top Income Taxation and Social Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. Gonzalez; Jean-Francois Wen

    2014-01-01

    The development of the welfare state in the Western economies between 1930 and 1990 coincided with a puzzling pattern in the taxation of top incomes. Effective tax rates at the top increased sharply but then gradually decreased, even as social transfers continued rising. We propose a new theory of the development of the welfare state to explain these facts. Our main insight is that social insurance and top income taxation are substitutes for averting social confl?ict. We emphasize the role of...

  18. MODERN FEATURES OF TAXATION OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkovskaya A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Permanent changes in tax legislation and a significant share of the cost structure of agricultural enterprises for taxes on payment of taxes determine the special importance of the correct decision while choosing a system of taxation. Today, for Ukraine, the issue of developing a mechanism that would define new and more effective principles of taxation of agricultural producers is particularly relevant. Purpose. The purpose of the article is to study changes in taxation of agricultural producers over the last few years, to identify the peculiarities and problems of taxation of agricultural enterprises in Ukraine, and to determine how the state supports agriculture. Results. In this article, the system of tax burden on agricultural enterprises of Ukraine is considered: tax rates, mechanisms and types of taxes to be paid by agrarian enterprises. The methods and instruments of tax regulation in the agrarian sector and their gradual change over the last few years have been analyzed. A schematic diagram of the changes of the special regime in taxation in 2016-2017 years has been constructed. The alternative ways of supporting agricultural commodity producers by means of subsidy programs are presented. The flaws of tax innovations in agriculture are substantiated. The importance of state regulation of the agrarian sector of the economy through the tax mechanisms has been confirmed. Conclusion. Conclusions are made regarding to the modern state of the system of taxation of agrarian enterprises and the consequences of increasing the tax burden for taxpayers of the IV group of the single tax. Taking into account changes in the agrarian sector and the economy as a whole, the agricultural taxation system requires serious reforms, including in terms of eliminating tax problems for different categories of agricultural producers. However, taxation in agriculture, where there are specific economic conditions, should stimulate producers, which

  19. Taxation of library publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Razboršek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to stimulate the unified practice of the settlement of value added tax. This article draws from international and domestic law sources, which are fundamental for the taxation in Slovenia. As a rule, library publications are taxed with a 20% rate of value added tax, for imports into the European Union as well as within the European Union. The exception are printed publications which are, in the European Union, taxed with the lower, 8,5% rate and are tax exempt for imports from non-member countries of the European Union. The interlibrary loan is still entirely tax exempt,regulated as in the rest of Europe and abroad. If the purchases are made from other European Union countries or from countries outside the EU, from the perspective of the nacional economy, the so called self-taxation in the country receiving library publications is strongly supported.

  20. Budget institutions and taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  1. Taxation and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Besley; Torsten Persson

    2013-01-01

    The central question in taxation and development is: "how does a government go from raising around 10% of GDP in taxes to raising around 40%"? This paper looks at the economic and political forces that shape the way that fiscal capacity is created and sustained. As well as reviewing the literature and evidence, it builds an overarching framework to help structure thinking on the topic.

  2. Corporate Taxation and Multinational Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Simon Loretz; Michael Pfaffermayr; Hannes Winner

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of corporate taxation on multinational activity. A numerically solvable general equilibrium model of trade and multinational firms is used to incorporate the following components of corporate taxation: parent and host country statutory corporate tax rates, withholding tax rates, and parent and host country depreciation allowances. We account for their differential impact under alternative methods of double taxation relief (i.e., credit, exemption, and deduction)...

  3. Double taxation conventions in Romania Case: DSSs Râşnov vs. ANAf braşov

    OpenAIRE

    Dumiter Florin; Jimon Ștefania; Boiță Marius

    2017-01-01

    Conventions to avoid double taxation are the panacea of tax law, lato sensu, and direct taxation, stricto sensu. Although the current network of double taxation conventions has over 2500 tax treaties concluded by the world’s states, there are still issues that need to be addressed in their application: the anti-abuse provisions to be found in conventions, the practices of the type treaty shopping, LOB clauses, use of arbitration in the application of double taxation avoidance conventions. The...

  4. Cross Border Inheritances and European Community Law : Juridical double taxation of inheritances and the free movement of capital

    OpenAIRE

    Wiberg, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Double taxation is known as restricting the free flow of capital and accordingly results in a limited access of the internal market. Although, not many Member States have entered into double taxation conventions in order to avoid juridical double taxation of inheritances. The question then arises whether this failure to eliminate juridical double taxation is restricting the free movement of capital. The ECJ‟s case law regarding inheritance taxes are very varying. In its initial case law, the ...

  5. Tax systems of EU countries and agreements to avoid double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Zbytovská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Tax systems of the states in the European Union and double taxation avoidance agreements The purpose of this Master thesis on the theme "Tax systems of the states in the European Union and double taxation avoidance agreements" is to provide a complete description and an analysis of the actual situation of tax harmonization in the European Union and of the progress made in this field. Simultaneously the Master thesis presents the reasons for concluding the double taxation avoidance agreements ...

  6. Avoidance of international double taxation. Taxation of business profits in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumiter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we wanted to achieve a comprehensive analysis of corporate profit tax for non-residents, from the standpoint of the issues that it creates on the double taxation of income and capital. Taxing the corporate profits of non-residents is a particularly important aspect in terms of revenue growth, encouraging foreign investment, and strengthening cross-border trade. The “source” state will decide the legitimate right to tax the profits of businesses that operate within its jurisdiction. Tax treaties do not impose limits on these types of taxing rights, other than those stemming from the obligation to impose profits, since the issue of taxation is “satisfied”. Moreover, the source of tax revenue belongs to the source state. Thus, we can see that it is unlikely that the state of residence of a non-resident taxpayer should want to “share” such tax revenue. It can be observed that the state of residence also has the right to tax the profits, but in general it gives credit in respect of taxes of the source state or deducts them for the purpose of preventing the occurrence of double taxation. If the state of residence provides a credit for taxes paid within the source state, taxes which have not been collected and owed to the source state will constitute a tax transfer to the state of residence, from which the taxpayer will not have any benefit. As regards Romania, in terms of the treatment of enterprises, this article represents a real quid pro quo, as it tackles both the international and national taxation of corporate profits, through the provisions found in the new Fiscal Code and the Code of Fiscal Procedure, as well as the new proposals on the taxation of turnover in companies, all of this extrapolated with the new proposals for turnover tax from IT giants. The article ends with the presentation, comment and analysis of a case of international double taxation, more specifically the taxation of corporate profits, a topic of

  7. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  8. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  9. Energy taxation policy in the European Union: the hydrogen case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, L.; Gulli, F.; Lanfranconi, C.

    2006-01-01

    The paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 describes the state of art of the taxation policy on hydrogen in EU Countries. Section 3 describes the methodology used in this paper. Section 4 compares the external costs of the different motor fuel cycles. Section 5 deals with the problem of energy taxation describing a proposal for European energy tax harmonisation based on the internalisation of external costs. Finally, section 6 resumes the main results of the analysis

  10. Digital Economy: The Future of International Taxation of Business Income

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The subject of the thesis is to make an assessment on the situation of the international taxation of business income in a digitalized economy. It has long been obvious that existing international tax rules, especially the Permanent Establishment, is outdated and unfit to allocate taxation right between states in the digital economic era. As economic development has continued, tax development has stagnated. The question of the thesis becomes: what are the possible solutions to this issue? The ...

  11. European Administrative Cooperation in the Field of Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Florin TUDOR

    2012-01-01

    The operation of different taxation systems in EU member states appears to promote more increasingly the appearance of double taxation entailing fraud and tax evasion. The phenomenon is amplified by the remaining control competences at the national level, and the lack of administrative cooperation in tax matters at EU level is being a decisive factor in delaying the causes with the consequence of prescription of the facts which brings serious damage enhanced EU budget. This study aims to exam...

  12. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  13. Taxation in Cesee Countries – Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comaniciu Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fiscal revenues are the ones that demonstrate their importance for the formation of public financial resources, being considered as a product of historical development of the state. Numerous studies and researches on the taxes action in financial, economic and social level emphasized the link between fiscal policy, growth and level of development of a country. In this context, through this article, by presenting some general coordinates of taxation in countries of Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe (CESEE countries we will identify the similarities and differences concerning the taxation system and the impact of taxation on the socio-economic development. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, we consider that issues outlined highlight in which country taxation is a stimulating factor for economic growth and development, so that good practice be elements worthy of consideration.

  14. SOME COORDINATES CONCERNING TAXATION IN THE EU CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COMANICIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For accession to European Union, tax area is of particular importance, because it recognizes the impact of taxation on economic growth and development, and indirect taxation significantly contributes to the formation of the EU budget resources. Without prejudice to the fiscal sovereignty of Member States, EU tax policy strategy aims establishing a framework that eliminate the tax obstacles that may affect cross-border economic activity, identify the actions on preventing and combating tax evasion, improve collaboration between tax administrations. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, through issues highlighted in this article, we will identify both the similarities and the particularities of taxation from Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey, and also manner in which taxation of the 5 EU candidate countries meets the requirements on the fiscal coordination and fiscal harmonization from EU tax policy perspective.

  15. CHOOSING BETWEEN DIRECT TAXATION OR INDIRECT TAXATION AS PRIME FISCAL TOOL WITHIN ROMANIA’S ECONOMY OF TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniu PREDESCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a central issue of fiscal policy applied anywhere in the world of market economies: the problem to determine which type of taxation, direct taxation or indirect taxation, is better suited to assure maximum efficiency for fiscal policy applied in Romania. Mathematics proves to be a very useful tool in this case too, given it is applied through a sound economic and logical reasoning, with important results. In other words, it is applied in order for this paper not only to state which type of taxation must be used preponderantly in Romania, especially today, in times of continuous economic and financial crisis, but, especially, to compute how to use it, in long term, not in the least to alleviate effects of economic crisis, and, why not, curb economic crisis itself.

  16. Basic principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Khodyreva Viktoriia Andreevna

    2015-01-01

    This research is devoted to general principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises. Development of small-scale enterprises is one of the most important lines of tax policy in Russian Federation. The development of principles of taxation is important while forming a strong state system of taxation. In this work basic principles and some specific are provided. This work is of great scientific interest to law students, graduates, teachers and other persons interested in law and particularly i...

  17. Analysis of indirect taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodyakova Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the structure and dynamics of indirect taxes for the previous five years and also the influence of indirect taxation upon formation of income of the State Budget of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of indirect taxation in Ukraine. Specific weight of the value added tax, excise tax and customs duty are considered in the structure of tax receipts of the consolidated budget of Ukraine as indirect taxes. The article shows that receipts of the State Budget of Ukraine are mostly provided by indirect taxes. The Ukrainian taxation system is mostly a factor of reduction of the level of economic growth and investment activity in the country and the existing system of administering is not completely capable of excluding the possibility of tax evasion. The prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of organisation of tax control in Ukraine and differentiation of the value added tax rates depending on the level of consumption of goods and level of income of consumers.

  18. Europe's experience with carbon-energy taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    The COMETR project is a comprehensive attempt to account ex-post for the implications of carbon-energy taxation, taking into account differences in sectoral tax burdens and within a suitable macro-economic framework capable of providing an overall assessment, the E3ME model of Cambridge...... Econometrics. The results indicate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for six member states as a result of carbon-energy taxation under revenue-neutral environmental tax reform (ETR). These effects are mirrored by reductions in total fuel consumption, with the largest reductions occurring in countries...... with the highest tax rates. Accordingly, the European environmental tax reforms had by 2004 caused reductions in greenhouse gas emissions of 3.1% on average for the six member countries examined, with the largest fall recorded for Finland (5.9%). E3ME-results also suggest that ETR-countries did not experience...

  19. Health Considerations in Regulation and Taxation of Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Mainous, Ryan W; Talbert, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is experiencing unprecedented growth. This can be contrasted to the use of conventional cigarettes which showed a decrease among adults with the current smoker prevalence dropping from 20.9% in 2005 to 17.8% in 2013. There is some data that e-cigarettes are attracting both former smokers and never smokers, and in particular, young people as users. Currently most states do not tax e-cigarettes. Taxation and regulation may have a similar overall goal of decreasing smoking but regulation tends to focus reduced availability of products. In terms of tobacco control, taxation focuses on the demand side of the equation. Taxation is a distinct strategy from regulation and has been shown to decrease new adopters of conventional cigarettes. A variety of potential taxation strategies can be considered by policymakers based on different assumptions about e-cigarettes and their utility, ranging from untaxed to taxation at moderate levels compared to conventional cigarettes to taxation equal to conventional cigarettes. Until more evidence for the benefits of e-cigarettes is presented, it seems prudent to view them as a potentially harmful and addictive product that ought to be regulated and taxed in an equivalent manner to conventional cigarettes. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  20. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The theory of optimal taxation has often been criticized for being of little practical policy relevance, due to a lack of robust theoretical results. This paper argues that recent advances in optimal tax theory has made that theory easier to apply and may help to explain some current trends...... in international tax policy. Covering the taxation of labour income and capital income as well as indirect taxation, the paper also illustrates how some of the key results in optimal tax theory may be derived in a simple, heuristic manner....

  1. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  2. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  3. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballet, Jerome [C3ED Centre of Economics and Ethics for Environment and Development, UVSQ, University of Versailles, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Bazin, Damien [EMAFI Macroeconomics and International Finance Research Centre at University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, BP 2135, 06103 Nice (France); Lioui, Abraham [Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Touahri, David [LEST Institute of Labor Econmics and Industrial Sociology and Mediterranean University Aix-Marseille II, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  4. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, Jerome; Bazin, Damien; Lioui, Abraham; Touahri, David

    2007-01-01

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  5. Carbon taxation and corporate behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Association of Chartered Certified Accountants

    2012-01-01

    This report summarises the breakfast briefing held by ACCA on 23 February 2012. The session looked at the role of carbon taxation in mitigating climate change and its value when compared with other market mechanisms. Publisher PDF

  6. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  7. Methods of Mitigating Double Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of existing methods of mitigating double taxation of corporate income within a standard cost of capital model. Two of the most well-known and most utilized methods, the imputation and the split rate systems, do not mitigate double taxation in corporations where the marginal investment is financed with retained earnings. However, all methods are effective when the marginal investment is financed with new share issues. The corporate tax rate, fiscal ...

  8. Optimal Taxation under Income Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Xianhua Dai

    2011-01-01

    Optimal taxation under income uncertainty has been extensively developed in expected utility theory, but it is still open for inseparable utility function between income and effort. As an alternative of decision-making under uncertainty, prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky (1979), Tversky and Kahneman (1992)) has been obtained empirical support, for example, Kahneman and Tversky (1979), and Camerer and Lowenstein (2003). It is beginning to explore optimal taxation in the context of prospect...

  9. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Bantekas

    2008-01-01

    It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions) of transnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two dispute settlement procedures-the OECD First Model T...

  10. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of taxation is a phenomenon long past barriers fiscal regulations and procedures, as in the contemporary period is a phenomenon with multiple implications of economic, social and political. Tax procedures also were upgraded and complicated that not only specialists but also taxpayers need the jurisdictional knowledge, informatics and especially in the economic field. Dealing over the jurisdictional and procedural measure, it seems that the other side of the relationship between tax authorities and taxpayers, the economic and psycho-behavioral was neglected. Tax authorities as part of the administrative system, whose main objective attracting tax revenues to the Exchequer in terms of data legislation, legislation that reflects the vision of the governments policy in operation. One must ask if the official fiscal policies, take into account the coordinates of the report psychobehavioral tax? The answer to this question and some comments to address this issue, this paper covered together. The tax will not ever paid with pleasure, but it is known that fiscal equity confers a degree of acceptance by payers of the tax burden. Modern fiscal policies are marked by complicated structure of tax systems, more sophisticated procedures and rush image of politicians that do not retain as little detriment to promote populism reality. Another problem is the invasion of of social security, namely the objective is also looking to be promoted on account of fiscal policy without taking into account the fact that the two policies, the fiscal and social security are still their primary objective. The combination of the two types of , the purely fiscal and social, administrative approach is undoubtedly affected, and the effectiveness of the two policies may be affected taxpayers reactions is recognized in the literature are controversial. Taxpayers are vexed not only the size of the tax burden but also its structure, especially the way the official division

  11. Decentralisation, Local Taxation and Citizenship in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    What makes people willing or unwilling to pay taxes and to whom are they willing to pay?This article examines the politics of revenue collection in a Senegalese village within a framework of decentralisation, democratisation and multi-party politics. The tranfer of tax-collection from state agent...... to local councillors has been met with neither demand for increased public services, nor for political representation. Tax compliance has plummeted, whilst non-state institutions are able to mobilise large amounts of revenue outside of normal taxation channels for service provision....

  12. Avoidance of international double taxation. Taxation of business profits in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Dumiter; Ștefania Jimon

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wanted to achieve a comprehensive analysis of corporate profit tax for non-residents, from the standpoint of the issues that it creates on the double taxation of income and capital. Taxing the corporate profits of non-residents is a particularly important aspect in terms of revenue growth, encouraging foreign investment, and strengthening cross-border trade. The “source” state will decide the legitimate right to tax the profits of businesses that operate within its juris...

  13. Taxation and Revenues for Education. Education Partners Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Faith; Whitney, Terry

    Funding education with property taxes has always been controversial. This paper examines taxation and the sources of revenue for education. The historical context in which tax and revenue sources have supported education in the United States is described. Also discussed are state tax-policy goals and education funding, and the embattled role of…

  14. Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... While taxation definitely stimulated economic activities in Igbominaland at ...

  15. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermore, such taxation is almost fully passed on into higher interest margins charged abroad. These results imply that international double taxation distorts the activities of international ban...

  16. Administrative court control in taxation matters

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Zunić Kovačević

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the current organisation of administrative court control in taxation matters, this paper, after a brief overview of the normative legal framework of control in such matters, provides an analysis of certain indicators of administrative and administrative court control implementation in taxation matters. The experience of the application of administrative control in taxation matters and an analysis of accessible indicators of recent administrative court control in taxation matters...

  17. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...

  18. Development of taxation system for oil production companies in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmina, S. V.; Sboeva, I. M.; Selivanovskaya, J. I.; Khafizova, A. R.; Fomin, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the taxation system for oil production companies in Russia. The role of oil production companies in the realization of the fiscal function of the state is shown. Tax and due receipts at the consolidated budget of the Russian Federation from major economic sectors in the years 2013-2015 are presented and analysed. An investigation of oil production taxation peculiarities is carried out. In particular, mineral extraction tax analysis is made, the said tax being one of the basic taxes paid by oil production companies. The authors come to a conclusion that mineral extraction tax in Russia needs reforming. Based on the investigation realized possible ways of taxation system development in respect of oil production companies in Russia are proposed. Thus, taking into account the fact that oil industry is very important for budget revenue formation, initially it is planned to test the new taxation system principles in a limited number of deposits, so called ‘pilot projects’. For highly profitable minefield deposits it is planned to introduce progressive and regressive index, varying depending on oil prices. Within the framework of the investigation the authors come to a conclusion that it is necessary to introduce gradually the taxation system based on the definition of surplus profit depending on the cost effectiveness and taking into account oil prices.

  19. 12 CFR 810.5 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxation. 810.5 Section 810.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.5 Taxation. All FFB bills shall be subject to Federal taxation to the same extent as obligations of private corporations are taxed. ...

  20. Influence in the car taxation system. Henkiloeautojen vermuutosten vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alppivuori, K; Kallberg, H; Pekki, M

    1986-06-01

    In Finland the car prices are exeptionally high due to car taxes included in the new car prices. The gasoline price, which is at international leve, includes also taxes. The aim of this study was to calculate the effects of reducing the car taxes and correspondingly rising fuel taxes so that the state income car taxation does not change. The study was performed in two stages: an interview and a simulation study. The interview was aimed at the general public (postal poll) and at experts in car trade (personal interview). The aim was to reveal the parameters in the economic models explaining the behaviour of the public in car purchasing and car use. The simulation study was performed to calculate quantitative changes in, e.g. car park, traffic volumes and energy consumption caused by supposed changes in the taxation. One of the main results was that unchanged taxation is leading to rapidly increasing traffic volumes and total taxes for car use.

  1. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  2. Optimal taxation with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Richter, Wolfram F.; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2000-01-01

    on consumer services even if such services are complements to leisure. Second, we find that when services and other goods are equally substitutable for leisure, so that uniform commodity taxation would be optimal in the absence of home production, the optimal tax structure will certainly involve a relatively......This paper suggests that the optimal tax system should favour market-produced services which are close substitutes for home-produced services. First, we modify the classical Corlett-Hague rule for optimal commodity taxation by showing that it may be optimal to impose a relatively low tax rate...... low tax rate on consumer services...

  3. About the petroleum taxation, evaluation at October 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This analysis provides information and data on the petroleum taxation in France at October 2004, on the excises and the additional value tax, the part of the taxes in the selling price. It presents also a comparison with the Europe and the tax revenue in the state budget. (A.L.B.)

  4. Exploring agricultural taxation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der H.B.; Meulen, van der H.A.B.; Bommel, van K.H.M.; Doorneweert, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the tax systems in ten European countries, focusing on agriculture. It not only deals with income tax, it also describes other taxes such as gift and inheritance tax and Value Added Tax. This information leads to an analysis of the impact of taxation on the competitive position

  5. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence...

  6. Information Sharing and International Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The sharing between national tax authorities of taxpayer-specific information has emerged over the last few years as a-probably "the"-central issue in the formation of international tax policy.Yet this refocusing of the debate on international taxation-away from parametric tax coordination and

  7. The feasibility of ecological taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, A.T.G.

    1995-01-01

    From an analysis of the possibilities and complexities of ecological taxation, conducted within the context of the first NRP (research project 851051E), it follows that the feasibility of ecological taxes is determined by their design, the level at which they are implemented, the taxing authority by which they are imposed and by the constitutional, institutional and fiscal framework in which they are embedded

  8. Rent taxation and its intertemporal effects in a small open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu

    2009-01-01

    Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utilit...... of the current generation provided tax revenues are earmarked to reduce wage taxes. In particular, a shift in the tax mix may yield an intergenerational Pareto-improvement when the initially prevailing tax mix is sufficiently skewed toward wage taxation....

  9. Budget 2002: business taxation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, L.; Hawkins, M.; Klemm, A.; McCrae, J.; Simpson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 2002 Budget, this Briefing Note examines some of the Chancellor's changes to business taxation. A number of Budget measures, including the research and development tax credit for large companies and the exemption of capital gains on the sale of subsidiaries, are welcome and should improve the efficiency of the UK's tax system. All of these measures were subject to extensive prior consultation. A number of other measures were not foreshadowed in the Pre-Budget Report. Three of th...

  10. Reforming Capital Taxation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Eyraud

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews capital taxation issues in Italy based on a comprehensive definition encompassing taxes on income, transactions, and ownership. It discusses options to enhance the neutrality of the capital income tax system, followed by a detailed analysis of the property tax, the inheritance tax, and various transaction taxes. The paper also examines the case for replacing the set of existing taxes on financial and real assets with a single net wealth tax.

  11. International taxation and multinational firm location decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Cobos, Salvador; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, Luc; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country taxation is estimated to be relatively large, possibly reflecting its international discriminatory nature. For the cross-section of multinational firms, we find that parent firms tend to ...

  12. Tourism: a Soft Touch for Increased Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Frank

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the changes which are taking place internationally in the taxation of the tourism industry and the reasons why tourism is especially susceptible to increased taxation. It compares VAT rates in European countries and assesses the relationship between those rates and increases in international tourism receipts, concluding that there is not the direct, negative relationship which hotel associations frequently cited in their submissions to government. The canons of taxation, fi...

  13. Capital gains taxation under different tax regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Sureth, Caren; Langeleh, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of different systems of current income and capital gains taxation on investor's decision to either carry out an investment in corporate shares or to invest funds alternatively on the capital market. Three basic tax systems are analyzed, a classical corporate tax system with double taxation of profits on corporate and personal level, a shareholder relief system, that reduces double taxation completely. It can be shown that general analytical solutions for ...

  14. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.

  15. Changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform and the fact that new trends bring about vital social changes, the research in this area could add to the understanding of economic development of these countries. In the EU with its decentralized tax policy, changes in direct and indirect taxation are permanently implemented in the process of tax system reform. Harmonization of direct and indirect taxation in the EU is conducted by means of the adopted community law regulations. In the harmonization of direct taxation there is a tendency towards an increase of the level of fiscal coordination and elimination of barriers to the common market. Thus direct taxation reforms are limited to achieving higher level of coordination and preventing evasion and double taxation. The current policy is the result of the principle according to which fiscal competition has positive effects on reducing consumption and on the EU economic development. In the harmonization process the systems of indirect taxation are aligned particularly with excise duty and value added tax. Fiscal strategies in the reform process are mostly aimed at fiscal coordination, modernization, informative cooperation, evasion reduction and elimination of malpractices in fulfilling a VAT payment liability. Within the excise tax system minimal excise rates are determined and an environmentally-friendly policy is pursued. The main priorities of taxation changes within the harmonization process are in respect of evasion reduction and irrational fiscal competition on the EU market. A study of direct and indirect taxation changes in the process of the tax system reform is highly significant both from the aspect of efficient tax-system functioning, which results in achieving EU macroeconomic goals, and from the aspect of single states' interests in the process of transition and accession.

  16. Taxation in Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    1970-01-01

    Seventeen research studies, position statements, and statistical compilations published between 1966 and 1969 are reviewed. These documents deal with such issues as (1) the effects of financial effort and property assessment practice on educational quality, (2) the role of State aid in equalizing financial resources, (3) the crisis in financing…

  17. Causes and effects of the international double taxation. Solutions of the conventions, model for avoiding the international double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Marius HERBEI; Sorin DUDAS; Aura COSTEA

    2010-01-01

    There are more frequent the situations when the same person has a political, economic or social relationship with two or more states , carrying on activities from which they obtain income or owning assets in many states. The double taxation may constitute a real barrier in the way of the economic technical-scientific cooperation, of setting-up of subsidiaries or branches abroad, of the foreign investments of capital and of the external loans, of the development of economic and financial affai...

  18. Capital Gains on the Alienation of Assets Operated in International Traffic Under Double Taxation Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Arango, José Manuel; Universidad Externado de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the taxation of capital gains on the alienation of assets, particularly vessels, ships and aircrafts operated in international traffic from the perspective of double taxation conventions. Therefore, Article 13 of the OECD Model convention is analyzed from its respective commentaries, the history of the Model and the proposed changes. The research also cover the comparison with the United States Model Convention and the treaty practice. Finally, as an auxiliary source, th...

  19. International taxation and multinational firm decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrios, S.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we examine the separate effects of host and additional parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. The impact of

  20. Optimal income taxation with endogenous human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital

  1. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  2. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  3. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Andreas Peichl

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  4. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rainier Imaña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the production of charcoal was 9.76%. There was no municipal tax for charcoal. State taxes accounted 10% of the tax burden, the rest are federal taxes. COFINS was responsible for the largest tax burden: 3%, which confirms the Brazilian tax system is very non progressive. In Minas Gerais, Brazilian tax on goods and services (ICMS is deferred, the charcoal buyer has the obligation to collect this tax. This means the steel company accounts for the total burden of ICMS.

  5. PUBLIC POLICY AND TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSIF MOLDOVAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state administration process and hence also the economy coordination effort requires the promotion of robust, consistent and transparent public policy, which must be accepted by all stakeholders of economic development. Public policy is a set of measures taken by the authorities legally constituted as public power. Under normal conditions these policy aims at improving living conditions of citizens by developing grounded strategies which are applied by measures implemented to stimulate economic development in all its complexity by harmonizing the efforts of the institutional and non-institutional bodies responsible for ensuring the overall public interest. In Romania, public policies, especially fiscal ones on which we dwell, not reached in many cases the expected effects primarily because of their superficial grounding, lack of transparency, unpredictability, poor communication and secondly as an effect of ineffective management of public financial resources.

  6. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Bantekas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions oftransnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two disputesettlement procedures-the OECD First Model Tax Convention and a similar EU Convention-with the exclusive focus on disputes relatingto the imposition of double taxation. It will look at the ways in which state roles may vary under these procedures from assisting inthe negotiation process to taking a part similar to, but with important differences from, diplomatic protection on behalf of an affected enterprise. The article will examine the situations under which the settlement procedure is required and/or available, how the procedures are triggered, the obligations and parts played bythe parties, the means by which the disputes are resolved (from negotiations to tribunals and the limitations of the procedures. Are they “taxpayer friendly”? As a result the reader may draw comparisons between the two procedures. Finally, the article will look at the proposed OECD Arbitration Clause which is intended to be incorporated into Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention as well as how thesemechanisms relate and/or conflict with bilateral tax treaties and theGATS.

  7. European Administrative Cooperation in the Field of Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin TUDOR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The operation of different taxation systems in EU member states appears to promote more increasingly the appearance of double taxation entailing fraud and tax evasion. The phenomenon is amplified by the remaining control competences at the national level, and the lack of administrative cooperation in tax matters at EU level is being a decisive factor in delaying the causes with the consequence of prescription of the facts which brings serious damage enhanced EU budget. This study aims to examine the legal ways and means to ensure that the information, reports, statements and other documents mandatory to the administrative or judicial proceedings to be legal required from the counterparts existing in other members states invoked as evidence by their competent bodies.

  8. Issues of the economic risks theory under direct taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich Slavin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to calculate and justify the probabilistic characteristics of the economic risks of the company selling goods with profit and suffering from the burden of direct taxation. The economic nature and mechanisms of tax risks are described. Methods probabilisticdynamic method based on a few mathematically formulated principles ndash probability principle the principle of measurement etc. The method allows to find the optimal distributions of the phase variables components of the decisions vector of the production system numerical characteristics of which mathematical expectation variance covariance etc. bear the necessary information about the optimal properties of the economic actorsrsquobehavior. Results the basic equation of probabilisticdynamic method ndash the SchrodingerBellman equation ndash was integratedthe function of state was found the normal distribution was obtained of the vector of economic decisions in the phase space of the firm. The phase trajectories and the effective areas of the variables dispersion phase were researched. It is shown that at the intersection of the variation areas of normal distributions corresponding to two different production conditions there is a possibility of spontaneous transitions between these states accompanied by losses of capital assets of the company. The transition probabilities and the expression for average losses of working capital were calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of weak field tax perturbation leads to the modulation of the probability curves and average losses obtained earlier in the work by V.A. Slavin and I.N. Urusova quotMarket dynamics of productioneconomic system. 2. Transitions between production conditions. Elements of risks theoryquot for the company in the absence of taxation. The author outlines the nature of modulation of the main characteristics of tax risks related to the fact that the tax field influences the production system by phase trajectories

  9. Driving the getaway car? Ireland, taxation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Killian, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Taxation is about far more than revenue-raising: it concerns power and impacts taxpayer behaviour. It is pivotal in enhancing accountability and participation in young states through the bargaining process between a government and its citizens. Very significantly, it often has unexpected consequences, and the tax system of one country can easily have an impact on economic or social behaviour in another. Since business is now international, it is important that taxes are d...

  10. Top tax system: a common taxation system for all nations

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2009-01-01

    I am suggesting new methods, and innovative and alternative policies in the areas of optimal taxation, tax collection, money supply and banking financial system to help remove corruption, tax evasion, economic recession, black money, fake currency and societal inequalities. In my opinion, the proposed TOP Tax system may usher in good governance, 100% tax compliance and corruption free environment. It suggests a single tax called “TOP Tax” (Transfer Or Purchase Tax) for both Centre and States ...

  11. TAXATION OF PERSONAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA: PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The personal income tax is not only as an important revenue instrument but also as an instrument of national policy. Taxation of personal income in European Union countries is regulated usually by a progressive rate structure. This article aims to highlight the differences between Romania and other EU member states in the field of personal income tax and to raise the issue of reforming the tax system by introducing the tax household.

  12. MODERN APPROACHES TO ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Murovana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Actual issues of accounting and taxation at enterprises of green business under the terms of realization of state environmental policy of Ukraine are investigated. Ways of improving methodology of accounting in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, legal regulation of calculation taxes and charges and control over its payment to the budget are defined and proved for the purpose of simplifying business activities and increasing investment prospects of green businesses enterprises in Ukraine.

  13. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  14. Optimal Taxation, Inequality and Top Incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrienko, Yuri; Apps, Patricia; Rees, Ray

    2014-01-01

    In a number of high-income countries over the past few decades there has been a large growth in income inequality and at the same time a shift in the burden of taxation from the top to the middle of the income distribution. This paper applies the theory of optimal piecewise linear taxation to the issue of the taxation of top incomes. Our results suggest that an appropriate response to rising inequality is a shift towards a more progressive multi-bracket income tax system, with a more differen...

  15. International and national aspects of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Doležalová, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    Veronika Doležalová Mezinárodní a vnitrostátní aspekty dvojího zdan ní 160 International and national aspects of double taxation - Resumé This thesis pays attention to the area of double taxation and its related national as well as international aspects. The reason for discussing this subject was its importance for removing the obstacles that double taxation presents to the development of economic relations between countries. The thesis is divided into five chapters. There are six annexes att...

  16. Dividends Provisions in Croatian Double Taxation Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Tomulić Vehovec

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the provisions concerning dividends in the double taxation avoidance agreements concluded by the Republic of Croatia. Since the base for taxation is necessarily laid down in domestic law, Croatian legislation is examined as well. The author primarily discusses dividends provisions in four agreements signed with Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia, in addition to analyzing the differences from and similarities with the OECD Model Convention. Second, the paper briefly explains the methods for eliminating double taxation on income from dividends. Finally, it addresses the changes necessary for accession to the European Union.

  17. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Union with a distinction between value systems and surface systems. At the practical level characteristics have been established of property taxation volvasystems in the European Union considering the range of subjective and objective methods for determining and updating the tax base, as well as the amount of tax burden. Subsequently, an analysis has been done of the fiscal functions of property tax within the European Union. It has been noted that the role of the property tax in individual Member States of the European Union is different. Results indicate that the key cause of a significant variation in effects of a fiscal nature is the adopted method of determining the so-called tax value of the property (market value or rental value of the property, as determined for the purposes of establishing the tax base as well as accepted rates. It was found that tax revenues in countries where cadastral systems exist are much greater than in the case of surface systems. It should also be noted that, in countries where the dimension of property taxes is made conditional on the data collected in cadastral records, the tax potential varies, and the reasons for this state of affairs are the specific solutions adopted in particular European countries.

  18. Agency costs and income taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmidt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes agency costs and the moral hazard problem in the presence of income taxation. As basic framework, income taxes are integrated in the hidden action model of agency theory. In the case of symmetric information no agency costs occur, i.e. optimal risk-sharing can be achieved, if and only if the tax is proportional. It is well-known that asymmetric information causes a welfare loss, termed agency costs, even if no taxes are imposed. Introducing a proportional income tax now increases (decreases these agency costs if the agent exhibits decreasing (increasing absolute risk aversion. Additionally, we show that non-proportional taxes cause higher (lower agency costs than a proportional tax if the agent’s marginal tax rate exceeds (is smaller than the marginal tax rate of the principal.

  19. Taxation and Welfare: A Revision Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Offers a revision exercise intended to remind students of some economic terminology associated with taxation and welfare. Provides a set of definitions for which students are to supply matching terms. Includes an answer list and suggests related exercises. (SG)

  20. Risk-taking under progressive taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Bamberg, Günter

    1988-01-01

    Risk-taking under progressive taxation : 3 partial effects / Günter Bamberg ; Wolfram R. Richter. - In: Measurement in economics / ed. by Wolfgang Eichhorn. - Heidelberg : Physica-Verl., 1988. - S. 479-497

  1. Double taxation conventions in Romania Case: DSSs Râşnov vs. ANAf braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventions to avoid double taxation are the panacea of tax law, lato sensu, and direct taxation, stricto sensu. Although the current network of double taxation conventions has over 2500 tax treaties concluded by the world’s states, there are still issues that need to be addressed in their application: the anti-abuse provisions to be found in conventions, the practices of the type treaty shopping, LOB clauses, use of arbitration in the application of double taxation avoidance conventions. The case of Romania is analyzed in this article, through the DSSs Râşnov cause vs. ANAF Brasov, in order to highlight the way in which the framework of the double taxation avoidance convention is applied in Romania, if there are differences and divergences between the de jure provisions of the double taxation avoidance conventions and the de facto application, in practice, a state like Romania, which is in the process of catching up with economies in developed countries. The case presented in this article suggests that there is still room for maneuver to improve the framework for double taxation avoidance conventions in Romania and how they are applied in practice, which their provisions are interpreted and respected.

  2. Public choice and environmental regulation: tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe. New Horizons in Environmental Economics series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Svendsen provides a comprehensive description and assessment of the actual experience with systems of tradable permits for environmental management. Moreover, he puts this treatment in a public-choice framework so that we can understand why policy makers in Europe have chosen green taxes, while t...... their counterparts in the United States have opted for systems of tradable permits. The book is a valuable source for a basic understanding of the theory, the and the political economy of incentive-based policy instruments....

  3. Taxation of Insolvent Companies: Empirical Evidence in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Santos Arromba Dinis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of taxation of insolvent companies in Portugal, particularly regarding the Portuguese tax on revenue of legal entities (IRC. For this purpose, first, some considerations on the legal framework of insolvent companies are woven and, second, their tax regime is analyzed. Then, a brief review of the main studies that, in the international context, analyze and debate major issues derived from the tax regime of insolvent companies is conducted, particularly in Brazil, Spain, United States, and Italy. Finally, there are the results of an empirical study conducted in Portugal, in 2013, which evaluates and compares the opinions of insolvency administrators (IA, the tax and customs authority (TA, and court magistrates (CM, in order to contribute to a better solution concerning business taxation under this regime. Respondents (IA, TA, CM demonstrate objective thinking about the fact they believe it is very important that the Portuguese Code of Insolvency and Business Recovery (CIRE and the Portuguese Code of Tax on Revenue of Legal Entities (CIRC are modified, now to make clear whether the settlement of property ownership of an insolvent estate is liable to the IRC, then to assign a chapter specifically devoted to the subject of taxation on insolvency in Portugal.

  4. Optimal Commodity Taxation and Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Benassi, Corrado; Randon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    We consider the interplay between income distribution and optimal commodity taxation, linking equity issues to optimal taxes through the effect of income distribution on market demand and its price elasticity. We find conditions to conciliate the equity and efficiency tradeoff and to assess the impact of inequality changes on the optimal taxation of necessity and luxury goods. We show that the regressivity or progressivity of the tax system is determined by the distribution of luxuries and ne...

  5. Swedish Taxation Since 1862: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Stenkula, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2013. The examination covers six key aspects of the Swedish tax system: the taxation of labor income, capital income, consumption, inheritance and gift, wealth and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes) and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security...

  6. Improving the taxation regime for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjermeros, Morten; Ilstad, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, the present taxation regime for electric power is very complex. The power companies are currently charged with ordinary tax on profits, tax on economic rent, tax on natural resources and land tax. In addition there are the rules about licence fees, yield of power due to concession conditions, and reversion. The Norwegian Electricity Industry Association (EBL), assisted by a firm of lawyers, has proposed an improvement over the current taxation regime

  7. Mitigating Double Taxation in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of various methods of mitigating economic and international double taxation of corporate source income is studied within a standard neoclassical model of firm behavior. The main purpose is to determine to what extent methods effective in mitigating economic double taxation in a closed economy remain useful in an open economy where the firm's marginal investor is a foreigner. While a cut in the statutory corporate tax rate invariably reduces the cost of capital, the impact of t...

  8. GOVERNING THE TAXATION OF DIGITIZED TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    RAHUL MUKHERJI

    2002-01-01

    The paper highlights the challenges for international taxation due to digitized trade. Digitization makes it easy to penetrate foreign markets without the need for physical presence in the buyer’s country. This phenomenon has generated debates on the salience of source versus residence-based taxation, the definition of permanent establishment, and, the administration of consumption taxes. The WTO has not been able to engage effectively in this area. The paper notes both the inadequacy of unil...

  9. The taxation of foreign exchange differences

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Taxation) One of the canons of context requires that a liability will be in 1986:para 4.47). taxation is certainty. "Certainty taxpayer be reasonably certain of what any given set of circumstances" (Margo in this his tax Report, It is submitted that, at present, there is not the desired certainty regarding the treatment of unrealised foreign exchange differences. This is proven by the internal memorandum circularised by the Commissioner of Inland Revenue, advising local Receivers o...

  10. APPLICATION OF SIMPLIFIED TAXATION SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Golubova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specificity concerning cost formation of construction work executed by  entities of small business enterprises that use a simplified taxation system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of organization activity. Dozens of business entities applying various taxation systems are involved in the execution of the construction process. For this reason an inclusion of taxes in work cost may have a decisive influence on the selection of a contractor for an object construction.  

  11. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  12. The real right of the state and municipal taxation on activities performed on the Continental Shelf; O real direito de tributacao estadual e municipal sobre atividades executadas na Plataforma Continental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belo, Heraldo da Costa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Belo, Rodrigo Marcellino da Costa

    2008-07-01

    The activity of exploration and prospector of oil it is ringed to any luck of tax incidence, because of constituting in unmistakable demonstration of wealth than since certain debit to be an object of similar taxation of what the State derives financial resources so that it practices his essential constitutional and legally distinguished functions. In this sense one does not deny that the tribute constitutes a legal duty imposed on a citizen / taxpayer and, that the same thing results from the Social Contract itself represented by the initial document of the State, the Basic Law, since from the option for the formation of the State all the citizens open hands of measured certainty of his freedoms and autonomies deprived on behalf of a central entity what will be put in charge of promoting the well-being, the security and all too many conditions for attainment of a worthy life to the society. >From that it results that one of the state-owned powers is it of taxing, I tend towards the same thing evolved in the same reason than the State itself, passing of an unlimited and absolute power for a limited power first by the legal standard, of then not only for her but also for expensive values the humanity and what are recognized, as even as out of the made positive order, since it is the case of the legal security, stability of the social relations, democracy between others. Inside this framing of limitation of the power of taxing there is recognized the existence of a Principle of the Territoriality informing that no tribute will be able to be set up, operated and collected besides the territorial limits of the Federate Being that practiced his tax constitutional competence. Of this action, it is noticed that the States and coastal Local authorities, principally the State of the Rio of January and the Local authorities of the Rio of January and Macae have been extrapolate his tax competence to continuously to look to tax, through the ICMS and of the ISSQN, activities

  13. A 2017 Update of Taxation of Oil Investments in Canada and the United States: How U.S. Tax Reform Could Affect Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Crisan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Canada could be about to lose its tax competitive advantage it currently enjoys in attracting investment to its oil sector: its low corporate tax and royalty rates compared to the U.S. While we will start to know better the details of a U.S. tax reform package in the next month or so, two reform plans provide a basis to analyze potential impacts: the tax-reform “Blueprint” put forward last year by the Republican-controlled House of Representatives, and President Donald Trump’s own reform proposals. Either one, or even a hybrid version of the two, would make tax and royalty effective tax rates on new investment in the U.S. oil industry significantly more attractive to investors. Combined with the lack of any plans for a U.S. carbon tax and the lightening U.S. regulatory environment, investing in American oil might soon look more compelling than investing in Canadian oil. And when the price of oil eventually rises again, the attractiveness of Canada to international investors will diminish even more. As an investment destination, Canada’s popularity has already been fading. One key index, measuring foreign-direct-investment confidence, shows the U.S. at the top, while Canada has slid from third place to fifth place, behind even Britain, despite so much Brexit uncertainty. Amid Canada’s rising tax burden and its growing regulatory load, however, oil-producing provinces have nevertheless managed to retain a competitive advantage against oil-producing U.S. states in attracting international capital. That is primarily due to a lower corporate tax rate in Canada, as well as competitive royalty regimes and, in most oil-producing provinces, the absence of a retail sales tax on capital equipment. Alberta, for example, which currently offers the lowest marginal effective tax and royalty rate (METRR on conventional oil investments of all the Canadian provinces based on a $50 per barrel West Texas Intermediate price, also offers a lower METRR than

  14. Obtaining your annual internal taxation certificate

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    (cf. Article R IV 2.04 of the Staff Regulations) Your annual internal taxation certificate will state the taxable amount of your CERN remuneration, payments and other financial benefits and the amount of tax levied by the Organization during the previous financial year. In France, your tax return must be accompanied by this certificate. Current Members of the Personnel (including Members of the Personnel participating in a pre-retirement programme): - You will receive an e-mail containing a link to your printable annual certificate, which will be stored together with your pay and leave statements (e-Payslips). - You can also access your annual certificate via https://hrt.cern.ch (open 'My Payslips' at the bottom of the main menu.) - If you experience any technical difficulties in accessing your annual certificate (e.g. invalid AIS login or password), please contact CERN's AIS support team at ais.support@cern.ch. Former Members of the Personnel:- If you remember your AIS login and password, you can acc...

  15. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific d...... on wealth accumulation. Our simulations show that the long-run elasticity of wealth with respect to the net-of-tax return is sizeable at the top of distribution. Our paper provides the type of evidence needed to assess optimal capital taxation.......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...... design of the wealth tax, these changes provide a compelling quasi-experiment for understanding behavioral responses among the wealthiest segments of the population. We find clear reduced-form effects of wealth taxes in the short and medium run, with larger effects on the very wealthy than...

  16. The feasibility of ecological taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, A.T.G.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of ecological taxation in general and for the Netherlands in specific was analyzed within the context of one of the NRP research projects. The analysis shows that the feasibility of ecological taxes is generally determined by the tax design, the taxing authority by which these taxes are imposed and by the constitutional, institutional and fiscal structures into which they are embedded. In order to be feasible, the analysis shows that ecologically relevant taxes have to be imposed by a taxing authority which is clearly related to relevant ecological circumstances. Since normal taxing authorities tend to be political units which most of the times do not fit this description, institutional and constitutional changes are necessary to introduce and impose (additional) feasible types of ecological taxes in practice. Within the context of the Netherlands, the analysis shows that the currently changing intergovernmental and financial relationships in this country provide important starting points for municipalities, water authorities and provinces to introduce feasible types of such taxes. 225 refs

  17. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Bantekas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions of transnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two dispute settlement procedures-the OECD First Model Tax Convention and a similar EU Convention-with the exclusive focus on disputes relating to the imposition of double taxation. It will look at the ways in which state roles may vary under these procedures from assisting in the negotiation process to taking a part similar to, but with important differences from, diplomatic protection on behalf of an affected enterprise. The article will examine the situations under which the settlement procedure is required and/or available, how the procedures are triggered, the obligations and parts played by the parties, the means by which the disputes are resolved (from negotiations to tribunals and the limitations of the procedures. Are they “taxpayer friendly”? As a result the reader may draw comparisons between the two procedures. Finally, the article will look at the proposed OECD Arbitration Clause which is intended to be incorporated into Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention as well as how these mechanisms relate and/or conflict with bilateral tax treaties and the GATS.

  18. E.U. versus O.E.C.D. Taxation – An Extended Overview for Direct Taxes and Social Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Lazar; Maria-Oana Filipescu

    2015-01-01

    In a borderless world governed by the mobility of production factors, especially of capital and work force, and characterized by the common markets, taxation/fiscal policy represents a key component of the economic reform and will have a profound impact upon the future of the global economy. For the European Union that still wishes to be seen as a unitary state/force, the complex taxation processes are leaving deep marks upon the business environment development. The OECD count...

  19. TAXATION SYSTEM AT INTRA PRODUCTION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis concerning taxation in the country at the level of an enteфrise and its structural sub-divisions in the period of transforming economy.Recommendations are given on the following aspects: modernization of income taxation system for natural persons; tax payment in case of wage computation; exclusion of tax payments and assignments fi-om production cost value which are not connected with the production process; tax computation for real property; evaluation of enterprise taxation level.The paper shows the possible cases concerning formation of tax payments and assignments of an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.Taxation system is shown at the level of enterprise structural sub-divisions (shop, department, at the level of shop structural sub-divisions (section, team, for works to be executed by an individual person of the production process (operation, product, works, services. This system promotes to efficient functioning of intra-production economical relations.The paper provides possible variants of formation of taxation payments and assignments for an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.

  20. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries ... This highly original book is essential reading for everyone concerned with equality in taxation.

  1. Dividend taxation in an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Ngoc-Sang

    2017-01-01

    We consider an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents and financial market imperfections. We investigate the role of dividend taxation on economic growth and asset price. The optimal dividend taxation is also studied.

  2. The Theory of Optimal Taxation: What is the Policy Relevance?

    OpenAIRE

    Birch Sørensen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity b...

  3. Capital Taxation Tendencies in Ukraine and in the World

    OpenAIRE

    Danilov Оleksandr D.; Denysenko Denys Ye.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article is analysis of the world and domestic tendencies of capital taxation and justification of directions of improvement of capital taxation in Ukraine. The study was carried out with division of taxation of human and material capital. Taxation of human capital in Ukraine is moderate, compared to OECD countries, however, its main load lies on employers, unlike in OECD countries, where it is distributed proportionally between employers and employees. Taking into account a hi...

  4. Taxation on energy products and fiscal harmonisation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, S.

    2000-01-01

    Taxation on energy products has represented one of the main issues in the Community Policy for many years. The object of the draft Directive 97/30, relative to the restructuring of the European set-up for taxation on energy, is the one of promoting a harmonisation process in the excise levels and of removing, in this way, one of the main obstacles towards the achievement of competition on energy markets and, more generally, the creation of the single European market. In this article the differences in energy taxation among member states are firstly analysed, considering the effects that would arise from the application of common minimum levels of taxation as foreseen by the above-mentioned Community law. The possibility of applying to the environmental taxation (based on the internalisation of external costs due to energy production and consumption) as a convergence criterion is then considered, pointing out the main obstacles to its adoption, but also the risks that seem to be concerned with a harmonisation process that were not coherent under an environmental point of view [it

  5. Latin American income tax systems and current double taxation agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espinosa Sepúlveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax systems in Latin America have played a very important role as the main, and in some cases the only, means of obtaining revenue to finance the major public expenditure that is necessary for the work of the states through time. Below is a short review of the main aspects of tax systems in the región, with emphasis on the impact of taxes on income in force in the majorLatin American countries, as well as a brief explanation of the network of agreements to avoid double taxation that are in force in each of them.

  6. Petroleum marketing in Africa. Issues in pricing, taxation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This four part book examines and compares the liberalised petroleum marketing in Kenya with petroleum marketing in Ethiopia which has just begun the transition from state control to liberalisation. The petroleum sub-sector in both countries is put into context, and petroleum pricing and taxation issues, financing, marketing issues and policy are reviewed, and policy recommendations for both countries are given. The comparative analysis of the Ethiopian and Kenyan situations presented highlights some lessons for sub-Saharan Africa. Information and statistics on petroleum, marketing, and investment in sub-Saharan Africa are given in the appendix. (UK)

  7. TAXATION INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC STABILITY IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol IBADULA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the taxation system in Romania and European Union. The first part is concentrated on the theoretical and general aspects regarding the European fiscal policies with a focus on the conditions that member states should respect. Our research continues with the comparison between the share of indirect taxes and direct taxes at the EU level. We discovered that there are some fiscal connections between countries with similar economies. At the end, we emphasized the conclusions obtained with our article.

  8. One Japanese case on taxation surrounding foreign trust

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    Taxation surrounding trust at cross-border situation is paid attention to byworldwide basis. Japan is not exception. According to recent Japanesejurisprudence, where a trust had been established in accordance with State law ofNew Jersey, the U.S., it was disputed whether or not the act settling that trust fellwithin “shintaku koui (an act of trust)” and one of the related members, who had beena minor child at that time, fell within “jyueki sha (beneficiary)” under JapaneseInheritance Tax Act....

  9. How should green taxation be designed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes...... directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous....... This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation...

  10. Are increases in cigarette taxation regressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borren, P; Sutton, M

    1992-12-01

    Using the latest published data from Tobacco Advisory Council surveys, this paper re-evaluates the question of whether or not increases in cigarette taxation are regressive in the United Kingdom. The extended data set shows no evidence of increasing price-elasticity by social class as found in a major previous study. To the contrary, there appears to be no clear pattern in the price responsiveness of smoking behaviour across different social classes. Increases in cigarette taxation, while reducing smoking levels in all groups, fall most heavily on men and women in the lowest social class. Men and women in social class five can expect to pay eight and eleven times more of a tax increase respectively, than their social class one counterparts. Taken as a proportion of relative incomes, the regressive nature of increases in cigarette taxation is even more pronounced.

  11. Considerations Regarding the Environmental Responsibility and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian-Marcel Nuta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The public policy tool of taxation may generate discouraging effects upon the economicagents – consumers or producers – but also could beused as incentives. High environmental taxationcould generate crowding effect in terms of responsibility. Sometimes a very sophisticated system ofenvironmental taxation is the basis for a highly regulated business environment and conformity butwith a lack of real responsible citizenship. We aretrying to see if the impact of taxation uponresponsibility is real and can affect the motivation for environmental responsible citizenship. Themain findings are related to the impact of regulating power of environmental taxes. Also there isevident the interest of entrepreneurs in environmentally responsible behavior and the less informationabout the benefits of responsible citizenship.

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-21 - Taxation of fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of fringe benefits. 1.61-21 Section 1... § 1.61-21 Taxation of fringe benefits. (a) Fringe benefits—(1) In general. Section 61(a)(1) provides... vehicle. The fact that another section of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code addresses the taxation...

  13. Consumption Taxation in a Digital World : A Primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the economic and administrative issues that arise in the taxation of electronic commerce; addresses how best to meet the criteria of an ideal tax system; and examines recent policy developments.It is argued that destination-based taxation-is presently the norm for goods taxation is

  14. The OECD Model Tax Convention. Explaining the OECD's legitimation strategies and why states adhere to the principle of exclusive rights to tax royalties in the state of residence

    OpenAIRE

    Klausen, Guro

    2014-01-01

    Although taxation matters are generally accepted to be an issue of national concern, increasing attention is paid to international efforts at conforming and standardising taxation systems internationally. In a global economy where national borders are becoming less important for economic activity, this shift in focus is only appropriate. In order to deal with double taxation as a barrier to trade and investment, taxation treaties are negotiated between states to allow for predictable taxation...

  15. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  16. Adam Smith on public expenditure and taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C. Coutinho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Adam Smith’s view on taxation and public expenditure, by means of an almost literal reading of the Wealth of Nations famous passages on the "duties of the sovereign" and on the "maxims of taxation". Contrarily to the commonest usage of these passages, we will show that their core is the preoccupation with the public expenditure soaring and the defence of decentralisation. Furthermore and also contrarily to the existing interpretations we defend the non-existence of any contradiction between Smith’s income and price theory (and the incidence hypothesis, provided due attention is paid to the guiding role of the "maxims".

  17. The Public Choice Problem of Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Hjøllund, Lene

    1998-01-01

    -best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy...... on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit...

  18. Regulatory taxation of large energy users reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannaerts, H.

    2002-01-01

    Energy policy in the Netherlands with respect to the basic industries has been restrained. National energy taxation is considered to be unsuitable for large energy users because of its international reallocation effects. However, alternative measures such as energy restrictions and marginal taxation induce low average and high marginal energy costs and consequently generate small displacement effects, together with large energy savings. A system of tradable permits not only has the advantage of low average and high marginal costs, but also keeps one firm from investing in relatively expensive energy-saving options while other firms refrain from exploiting their relatively cheap saving options

  19. A commentary on the taxation aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A commentary is given on taxation aspects of the expenditure incurred in the abandonment and reclamation of oil and gas fields. Reference is made to the taxation regime in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom and the USA. The issues addressed include: specific provisions existing within the tax code covering abandonment; the definition of abandonment costs; the year in which deduction, if available, falls; the setting of deductions against any form of income; the allowance of deductions for costs which, under general principles, are capital costs; 'claw back' from reimbursements; the precision of a deduction for abandonment costs where a country has a secondary petroleum regime. (UK)

  20. Oil and gas taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oien, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Norwegian petroleum tax system builds on the general business tax system. A reform of the petroleum tax system was therefore prompted by the reform of the ordinary company tax system in Norway. The reform of the general company taxation system made a reform of the petroleum taxation system necessary. As the petroleum tax system had to be changed, it was natural to review the incentive structure of the system to see if it could be improved. These two elements formed the foundation of the work on petroleum tax reform. (Author)

  1. E.U. versus O.E.C.D. Taxation – An Extended Overview for Direct Taxes and Social Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a borderless world governed by the mobility of production factors, especially of capital and work force, and characterized by the common markets, taxation/fiscal policy represents a key component of the economic reform and will have a profound impact upon the future of the global economy. For the European Union that still wishes to be seen as a unitary state/force, the complex taxation processes are leaving deep marks upon the business environment development. The OECD countries might not aim the complex coordination processes that define the European Union, but the taxation processes are not without effect upon the business environment development in OECD member states. This paper aims to present a detailed overview of the direct taxation systems – direct taxes and social contributions - at both European and worldwide levels by breaking it down to taxpayer level in order to underline the dynamics and complexity of the taxation process that affect the business environment development. Furthermore, the paper will highlight the impact that the financial crisis had had and still has upon the taxation systems - reducing the fiscal burden upon corporate taxpayer and shifting the burden upon the personal taxpayers.

  2. Optimal taxation of married couples with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen

    2007-01-01

    of commodity taxes, efficient taxation requires joint taxation of the family. In the presence of restricted commodity taxation, the income tax should compensate for the erroneous commodity taxes. In this case, individual taxation is typically optimal, but not necessarily with a higher rate on primary earners......The literature suggests that the concern for economic efficiency calls for individual-based taxation of married couples with a higher rate on the primary earner. This paper reconsiders the choice of tax unit in the Becker model of household production. In the absence of restrictions on the use...

  3. Introduction of a System of Internal Taxation of Salaries and Emoluments

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Pursuant to the principle of equality of States and in line with the provisions of the Protocol on the Privileges and Immunities of CERN, it is proposed to introduce at CERN the system of internal taxation of remuneration, payments and other financial benefits paid by the Organization to members of the personnel and to the Director-General described in this document.

  4. Taxation and forms of organizing business activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Srđan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes sample tax regimes and tendencies from the developed countries in the EU-15 and the USA, and uses them to analyse the influence of taxation on the choice of organizational form of profit-oriented entities in Serbia. In order to understand how the procedure of taxation affects the sphere of business decision-making it is necessary to focus on the tax status of business losses and valorization and the effects of the double taxation of dividends. The rule of successive deduction of losses ensures the fiscally transparent entity receives a tax saving in the form of a reduction of the present value of the total paid tax. Meanwhile the corporation is handicapped because it postpones loss deductions, that is, it postpones tax saving, which directly influences the level of the present value of saved tax. The global trend of gradually moving from the classical system towards shareholder relief provision, above all in the form of a reduced withholding tax rate on dividends, has two opposing features: it simplifies the tax procedure while neglecting the distributional aims (consequences of taxation. The analysis of a particular practical example from the Serbian tax context enables us to draw a conclusion in relation to the relative taxes paid by entrepreneurs versus enterprises. The developed countries favour fiscally transparent entities, whereas Serbia allocates tax privileges to enterprises.

  5. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansier, D.; Krumm, R.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  6. Multinational Taxation and R&D Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waegenaere, A.; Sansing, R.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and

  7. Multinational taxation and R&D investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Sansing, R.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and

  8. Coal economics and taxation discussed at symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Some of the highlights from the Symposium on Coal Economics and Taxation Symposium, Regina Saskatchewan May 7-9, 1978, sponsored by the Coal Association of Canada are presented. Investment, provincial policy, sources of funds, uncertainty, tax policies, and operating costs are discussed.

  9. Command-And-Control or Taxation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    an ineffective command-and-control (CAC) tool, whereas Denmark has chosen the effective tool of taxation. One main explanation for this variation in policy choice is the variation in institutional setups, namely the corporatist route in Denmark versus the pluralistic route in California....

  10. Non-linear Capital Taxation Without Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Farhi; Christopher Sleet; Iván Werning; Sevin Yeltekin

    2012-01-01

    We study efficient non-linear taxation of labour and capital in a dynamic Mirrleesian model incorporating political economy constraints. Policies are chosen sequentially over time, without commitment. Our main result is that the marginal tax on capital income is progressive, in the sense that richer agents face higher marginal tax rates. Copyright , Oxford University Press.

  11. Some means of avoiding of international juridical double taxation used by Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Lidia Roman

    2013-01-01

    Barrier to the free movement of persons, capital, goods and services, international juridical double taxation is an objective pursued by interested states in international financial flows increase, they act to eliminate or reduce it. Fiscal law and practice of world states leads, in many cases, to tax the same income or the same property in the same fiscal year by two different states. Thus, the entrepreneurs, the capital owners, residents of a state are discouraged in investing, obtaining in...

  12. The Current G20 Taxation Agenda: Compliance, Accountability and Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Lesage

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the recent G20 initiatives on taxation, more precisely on “base erosion and profit shifting” (BEPS in the area of corporate taxation and the new G20 norm of automatic exchange of information (AEoI with regard to foreign accounts. After having reflected on the special relationship between the G20 and the OECD, the discussion proceeds through the lens of compliance, accountability and legitimacy. In terms of compliance, the G20 is still in the phase of delivering as a group on recent promises with regard to global standard setting. Compliance to these standards by G20 member states (and third countries is expected to start in the coming years. As to accountability, the G20 and OECD already have ample experience with the peer-review process and public reporting on the G20/OECD standard of information exchange upon request. For AEoI and BEPS the OECD will be designated as the prime mechanism to monitor compliance as well. Both initiatives, which are attempts at universal governance, suffer from legitimacy issues, more precisely because the G20 and OECD exclude most developing countries. Moreover, the policy outputs are not necessarily adjusted to developing countries’ needs and interests. Since a few years, both G20 and OECD attempt to address this issue through institutional fixes, extensive consultations with developing countries and modifications at the level of content.

  13. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TAXATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BOROVINA (COJOCARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the economic crisis that started in the United States in 2007, economic growth has become of great importance for the countries affected by the crisis further to their confrontation with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. At national level, governments are searching for that mix of optimal economic policies that would revive economies on the upward and also sustainable trend. One of the key policies in this regard, especially for the countries in Central and Eastern Europe which intend to adopt the euro currency, is the tax policy. Its main instruments are taxes. In this paper, we pay special attention to these instruments and to the connection that they have with the economic growth. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part presents a few ideas related to the importance of taxes at national level, the second part is an analysis in terms of taxation of the Central and Eastern Europe countries, while the third part consists of a panel-type assessment of the relation between economic growth and taxation level.

  14. Taxation of petroleum companies possessing private information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    For countries having petroleum resources, a common objective of the Ministry of Energy is to maximise the net total government take from the petroleum industry. Most models of petroleum taxation, assuming symmetric information, recommended neutral taxation. A royalty is not optimal in this case as it gives disincentives for extraction, causing too much of the reservoir to remain unexploited. Through the operating activities, however, the companies obtain private information about the costs. A low cost company may conceal its information by imitating a high cost company, and must therefore be given an economic compensation (information rent) to be induced to reveal its true costs. An optimal regulatory response to asymmetric information may involve royalties, as these enable the government to capture a larger fraction of the economic rent. 17 refs., 2 figs

  15. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  16. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  17. Optimal social insurance with linear income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2009-01-01

    We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard in disab...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings.......We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...

  18. A behavioral economics perspective on tobacco taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2010-04-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally.

  19. The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Satz, Emmanuel

    This paper analyzes the optimal income tax treatment of couples. Each couple is modelled as a single rational economic agent supplying labor along two dimensions: primary and secondary earnings. We consider fully general joint income tax systems. Separate taxation is never optimal if social welfare...... that many actual redistribution systems, featuring family-based transfers combined with individually-based taxes, generate schedules with negative jointness...

  20. The Efficient Side of Progressive Income Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the allocative implications of progressive income taxation when individuals care about their relative income. It shows that tax progressivity might improve efficiency, and the more so in egalitarian economies. Introducing a progressive income tax can yield a Pareto improvement if pre-tax income is evenly distributed. Implementing undistorted choices of working hours requires a progressive tax schedule, and the optimal degree of progressivity decreases with pre-tax income i...

  1. Water Taxation and the Double Dividend Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Kilimani

    2014-01-01

    The double dividend hypothesis contends that environmental taxes have the potential to yield multiple benefits for the economy. However, empirical evidence of the potential impacts of environmental taxation in developing countries is still limited. This paper seeks to contribute to the literature by exploring the impact of a water tax in a developing country context, with Uganda as a case study. Policy makers in Uganda are exploring ways of raising revenue by taxing environmental goods such a...

  2. Indirect taxation in an integrated Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genser, Bernd; Haufler, Andreas; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the main arguments for destination- versus origin-based commodity taxation in the European Community's Internal Market. Destination-based solutions distort commodity trade in the Community because cross-border purchases by final consumers can only be taxed in the origin country......-based consumption tax. Finally, the paper addresses the administrative and political implications of a switch to the origin principle in the European Community...

  3. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of...

  4. Revealed preference for taxation and spending

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, Moore

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses some of the results of a survey of public opinion carried out in Ireland in the early Autumn of 1989. The survey itself was an innovation in the political economy of taxation and public spending in Ireland in that it was the first time a fully articulated exercise was mounted to establish the actual preferences of the population over specified areas of the economics of the public sector.[extract

  5. Modelling the impact of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy taxation in Sweden is complicated and strongly guides and governs district energy production. Consequently, there is a need for methods for accurate calculation and analysis of effects that different energy tax schemes may have on district energy utilities. Here, a practicable method to analyse influence of such governmental policy measures is demonstrated. The Swedish Government has for some years now been working on a reform of energy taxation, and during this process, several interest groups have expressed their own proposals for improving and developing the system of energy taxation. Together with the present system of taxation, four new alternatives, including the proposed directive of the European Commission, are outlined in the paper. In a case study, an analysis is made of how the different tax alternatives may influence the choice of profitable investments and use of energy carriers in a medium-sized district-heating utility. The calculations are made with a linear-programming model framework. By calculating suitable types and sizes of new investments, if any, and the operation of existing and potential plants, total energy costs are minimized. Results of the analysis include the most profitable investments, which fuel should be used, roughly when during a year plants should be in operation, and at what output. In most scenarios, the most profitable measure is to invest in a waste incineration plant. However, a crucial assumption is, with reference to the new Swedish waste disposal act, a significant income from incinerating refuse. Without this income, different tax schemes result in different technical solutions being most profitable. An investment in cogeneration seems possible in only one scenario. It is also found that particular features of some alternatives seem to oppose both main governmental policy goals, and intentions of the district heating company. (Author)

  6. Taxation of credit unions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Георгіївна Волкова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of income taxation of credit unions in Ukraine by the tax on profits of enterprises and tax of revenues of their members accrued on the interest of contributions (deposits on deposit accounts and mutual funds the tax to incomes of physical persons. The consequences of the influence of tax rules on capitalization of unions and the level of their financial support is defined

  7. Optimal Taxation in a Limited Commitment Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yena Park

    2012-01-01

    This article studies optimal Ramsey taxation when risk sharing in private insurance markets is imperfect due to limited enforcement. In a limited commitment economy, there are externalities associated with capital and labour because individuals do not take into account that their labour and saving decisions affect aggregate labour and capital supply and wages, and thus the value of autarky. Therefore, a Ramsey government has an additional goal, which is to internalize these externalities of l...

  8. Application of international double taxation conventions in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Dumiter; Ștefania Jimon

    2016-01-01

    In this article we sought to address the international double taxation phenomenon from two different standpoints. To begin with, in the first part we analysed the framework of international double taxation, and how this topic was tackled in both Romanian and international literature.International double taxation has been analyzed, mutatis mutandis, from an economic perspective, more precisely in terms of the implications that it generates on economies, on added value, on capital flows, on the...

  9. The Optimal Taxation of Dividends in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Fuest, Clemens; Huber, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the optimal taxation of dividends and other types of income from portfolio investment. We show that, in an open economy, it is not desirable to offer double taxation relief for dividends paid by domestic firms to domestic households. This result holds for fairly general utility functions. The reason is that the marginal shareholder in domestic firms is a foreign investor. This implies that the level of real investment is not affected by the taxation of domestic dividend in...

  10. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej; Chrystian Firlej

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Uni...

  11. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve...... to insure (ex ante) against skill heterogeneity as well as disability risk. Optimal disability benefits rise with previous earnings so that public transfers depend not only on current earnings but also on earnings in the past. Hence, lifetime taxation rather than annual taxation is optimal. The optimal tax...

  12. Dynamic income taxation without commitment: Comparing alternative tax systems

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, J-T; Krause, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question as to whether it is optimal to use separating or pooling nonlinear income taxation, or to use linear income taxation, when the government cannot commit to its future tax policy. We consider both two- period and inÖnite-horizon settings. Under empirically plausible parameter values, separating income taxation is optimal in the two-period model, whereas linear income taxation is optimal when the time horizon is inÖnite. The welfare e§ects of varying the di...

  13. PROSPECTS OF MORTGAGE ARE IN UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF REFORMATION OF THE TAXATION OF PROPERTY: ESTIMATION OF RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hudzynska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possible risks of taxation introduction of real estate owned by the people, for the system of bank mortgage lending in Ukraine. The current state of the mortgage market in Ukraine is reviewed. The influence of the Institute property taxation in general increase of the fiscal burden on citizens is investigated. A possible state in the contingents of households in terms of pay, including in the investment sphere is reviewed. Approaches of model property taxation, which is owned by citizens, are suggested. Proposed not to tax property (household used by a person as a primary residence. This approach is seen as prevention for loss of real estate that is used as the basis of residence by citizens, in case of loss of solvency over objective, independent reasons, and as a tool to ensure the proper fulfillment of obligations by mortgage according to real contracts.

  14. Food taxation and pricing strategies to "thin out" the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-05-01

    This article highlights characteristics of two related yet distinct economic approaches to addressing the current obesity epidemic in the United States: the general taxation of soft drinks, snack foods, and/or fast foods, and the application of pricing incentives/disincentives on foods sold in schools and worksites. The article specifically focuses on the: (1) rationale for, (2) potential barriers and limitations to, and (3) possible unintended consequences of implementing these policy interventions at the state level. Novel empirical evidence showing strong positive associations between the presence of state-level taxation on soft drinks or snack foods between 1991 and 1998 and relative changes in obesity prevalence over the same time period is further presented. The article concludes by summarizing the similarities and dissimilarities of the two approaches, and by emphasizing some of the gaps and priorities regarding these strategies that should be addressed in future research and policies to best effect obesity prevention.

  15. Taxation of Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Szeles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and development plays an unquestionably role in terms of long-term growth. According to Eurostat, almost half of all enterprises in the EU-28 reported innovation activity (48.9% during the period 2010-2012. Compared with the period 2008-2010, the share of innovative enterprises decreased by 3.9 percentage points. Among the EU Member States, the highest shares of innovative enterprises during the period 2010–2012 were observed in Germany (66.9 % of all enterprises, and the lowest share was recorded in Romania (20.7%.

  16. Does corporate income taxation affect securitization? : Evidence from OECD banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Di; Hu, Shiwei; Ligthart, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate income taxation, by affecting the after-tax cost of funding, has implications for a bank’s incentive to securitize. Using a sample of OECD banks over the period 1999–2006, we find that corporate income taxation led to more securitization at banks that are constrained in funding markets,

  17. Urban Property Taxation: II. Land and Location. Exchange Bibliography 480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anthony G.

    This is one of three related bibliographies listing publications dealing with the broad topic of property taxation. This particular volume concerns some specialized fields of study, including locational theory, land use and taxation, property markets and valuation, housing, and urban renewal and redevelopment. Citations are listed alphabetically…

  18. Does Corporate Income Taxation Affect Securitization? Evidence from OECD Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, D.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Corporate income taxation, by affecting the after-tax cost of funding, has implications for a bank's incentive to securitize. Using a sample of OECD banks over the period 1999-2006, we fi nd that corporate income taxation led to more securitization at banks that are constrained in funding

  19. Socially Optimal Taxation of Alcohol: The Case of Czech Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Mikolasek, Jakub; Netuka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The proposed paper belongs to the literature on food demand and optimal taxation and to the literature dealing with economics of alcohol production and consumption. We investigate the question of optimal taxation for the commodity whose consumption has positive and negative features both for individual consumer and for the society. The commodity we analyze is the Czech beer.

  20. 26 CFR 1.405-3 - Taxation of retirement bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of retirement bonds. 1.405-3 Section 1.405-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.405-3 Taxation of retirement...

  1. 38 CFR 6.7 - Claims of creditors, taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims of creditors, taxation. 6.7 Section 6.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED... creditors, taxation. (a) Effective January 1, 1958, payments of insurance to a beneficiary under a United...

  2. 26 CFR 1.501(a)-1 - Exemption from taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption from taxation. 1.501(a)-1 Section 1.501(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(a)-1 Exemption from taxation. (a) In...

  3. 32 CFR 643.56 - Taxation of lessee's interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Taxation of lessee's interest. 643.56 Section 643.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.56 Taxation of lessee's interest. The lessee's interest in leased...

  4. 26 CFR 26.2653-1 - Taxation of multiple skips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of multiple skips. 26.2653-1 Section 26.2653-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE...-1 Taxation of multiple skips. (a) General rule. If property is held in trust immediately after a GST...

  5. 20 CFR 243.4 - Taxation of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of benefits. 243.4 Section 243.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT TRANSFER, ASSIGNMENT, OR WAIVER OF PAYMENTS § 243.4 Taxation of benefits. (a) Annuities paid by the Board are subject...

  6. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong......This paper studies the effects of taxation on output volatility in OECD countries to shed light on the sources of observed heterogeneity over time and across countries. To this end, we derive tax effects on macro aggregates in a stochastic neoclassical model. As a result, taxes are shown to affect...... positive effects....

  7. LABOUR TAXATION: FORMAL AND INFORMAL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Maria Costea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to create a panorama of doctrinal, legal and jurisprudential solutions, which determine the heterogeneity of labour market’s fiscal hypotheses’. The study identifies a progressive series of interactions between economic and social factors, which generate at the juridical level a specific series of fiscal solutions, both traditional and innovating for the qualification and taxation of labour revenues. Heterogeneity of working forms is presently a complex, main direction in business with effects both at economic and legal level. This study provides an overview of statutory and case-law solutions for the legal classification and therefore tax classification of personal income.

  8. Taxation of entrepreneurship on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Bicanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis looks into the way of the taxation of people earning money on the internet via YouTube. Taking videos and subsequent publishing on YouTube channel is becoming increasingly popular not only among the huge number of spectators and youtubers but also among companies that see how influential and powerful youtubers are and cooperate with them. Many Czech youtubers have above-average income which is usually from three sources: directly from YouTube (more precisely from Google) fr...

  9. Carbon-energy taxation: lessons from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book examines carbon-energy taxation in detail and looks at tax shifting programmes for lowering other taxes. It offers extensive analysis on the basis of historical data and seeks to answer important questions for policy-making, such as: What was the impact of tax shifting for economic...... without CO2-abatement policy? The use of unique and original data, including sector-specific energy prices and taxes, as well as the use of advanced statistical techniques, such as co-integration analysis and panel-regression techniques along with the time-series estimated macro-economic model E3ME, make...

  10. Cost Benefit Analysis of Presumptive Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Shlomo Yitzhaki

    2007-01-01

    The general idea is the following: any tax authority that respects basic human rights has to impose taxes on a base to avoid random and arbitrary taxation. The tax base should be announced prior to the imposition of the tax and therefore, taxpayers are given an advanced warning concerning the tax base. The advanced warning enables the taxpayers to adjust the tax base to the new circumstances so that they can adjust their behavior to the existence of the tax. This adjustment of the tax base by...

  11. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  12. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  13. On the role of taxation and tax control institutions in implementation of sustainable development strategy in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir Sagirovich Yakupov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to research scientific approaches to the institution of tax control taking into account the basic theories and scientific concepts that affect the functioning of this institution. Methods logical and statistical methods were applied as well as methods of deduction and induction scientific abstraction. Results it is proved that sustainable economic development can be achieved by enhancing the financial and taxation mechanism. The institute of tax control is viewed as a softener of economic crises. Mechanisms are proposed to influence the crises and to minimize the losses of both taxpayers and the state. Scientific novelty the model is proposed of the taxation tools and mechanisms for sustainable development of Russia. Practical value the possibility to increase the value and efficiency of the taxation mechanisms for sustainable development. nbsp

  14. A typology of beverage taxation: multiple approaches for obesity prevention and obesity prevention-related revenue generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Eidson, Shelby S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a global problem. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are a leading contributor of added sugars in individual diets and thus to obesity. Governments have considered taxing SSBs to prevent obesity and generate revenue, but no 'one-size-fits-all' taxation approach exists. We describes three key considerations for governments interested in exploring beverage taxation: (i) what type of tax to apply plus how and where the tax is collected and presented to consumers; (ii) what types of beverages to tax; and (iii) the amount of tax needed to affect consumption and/or obesity prevention-related revenue generation. We offer examples of existing beverage taxes in the United States and internationally. The information will be useful to policymakers at all levels of government, as they continue to consider beverage taxation policies.

  15. The Effect of Cigarette Taxation on Prices: An Empirical Analysis Using Local-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    index (COLI) and from the Tax Burden on Tobacco ( TBT ) to measure the relative effects of city, county and state excise cigarette taxation on cigarette...Researchers Association (ACCRA) cost of living index (COLI) and from the Tax Burden on Tobacco ( TBT ) to measure the relative effects of city, county and...Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In addition to the local-level data, we utilize the Tax Burden on Tobacco ( TBT ) dataset to analyze

  16. Essays on taxation, efficiency, and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakonsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis comprises five chapters: (1) On the second order conditions for optimal taxation. Some experience from numerical models, (2) An investigation into alternative representations of the marginal cost of public funds, (3) On green tax reforms and double dividends, (4) Negative externalities, dead weight losses, and the cost of public funds, and (5) CO{sub 2} stabilisation may be a no-regrets policy. A general equilibrium analysis of the Norwegian economy. The chapters emphasises the effects of alternative tax policies on environmental quality and economic efficiency. The analysis in the CO{sub 2} chapter is based not on a stylised theoretical model, but on a detailed computable general equilibrium model of the Norwegian economy. The discussion in the CO{sub 2} chapter was in part motivated by the fact that several earlier articles on the economic consequences of CO{sub 2} reductions adopted a framework without distortionary tax rates in the benchmark equilibrium. In such a setting, a tax on CO{sub 2} emissions violates the conditions for Pareto optimality. This is not the case with the model here described. Rather, increased taxation of CO{sub 2} becomes a tax reform, where one tax is increased while one of several other taxes can be reduced accordingly in order to maintain tax revenue neutrality. The model also includes emissions of CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. All give rise to negative externalities. 86 refs., 37 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  18. The global context for public health nutrition taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Heywood, Peter; Leeder, Stephen; Burns, Lee

    2011-01-01

    To assess critically the scope for public health nutrition taxation within the framework of the global tax reform agenda. Review of the tax policy literature for global policy priorities relevant to public health nutrition taxation; critical analysis of proposals for public health nutrition taxation judged against the global agenda for tax reform. The global tax reform agenda shapes decisions of tax policy makers in all countries. By understanding this agenda, public health nutritionists can make feasible taxation proposals and thus improve the development, uptake and implementation of recommendations for nutrition-related taxation. The priorities of the global tax reform agenda relevant to public health nutrition taxation are streamlining of taxes, adoption of value-added tax (VAT), minimisation of excise taxes (except to correct for externalities) and removal of import taxes in line with trade liberalisation policies. Proposals consistent with the global tax reform agenda have included excise taxes, extension of VAT to currently exempted (unhealthy) foods and tariff reductions for healthy foods. Proposals for public health nutrition taxation should (i) use existing types and rates of taxes where possible, (ii) use excise taxes that specifically address externalities, (iii) avoid differential VAT on foods and (iv) use import taxes in ways that comply with trade liberalisation priorities.

  19. Capital Taxation Tendencies in Ukraine and in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov Оleksandr D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the world and domestic tendencies of capital taxation and justification of directions of improvement of capital taxation in Ukraine. The study was carried out with division of taxation of human and material capital. Taxation of human capital in Ukraine is moderate, compared to OECD countries, however, its main load lies on employers, unlike in OECD countries, where it is distributed proportionally between employers and employees. Taking into account a high level of shadow income of the citizens, it is too early to perform this re-distribution in Ukraine, that is why it is expedient to reduce rates of the single social contribution by employers, at the same time increasing the level of natural resources taxation, which, in Ukraine, is one of the lowest in the world. Ukraine, compared to OECD countries, is characterised with a higher level of profit taxation, which has a negative impact on increasing own capital and restoration of fixed assets. Taking into account tendencies to reduction of both standard and implicit rates of profit tax abroad, we offer to develop a mechanism of reduction of the implicit profit tax rate through improvement of the mechanism of charging depreciation and strengthening regulating effects of the profit tax on profit in the context of restoration of the fixed assets. The prospect of further studies is justification of proposals regarding changing the mechanisms of charging depreciation and profit taxation preferences.

  20. Consumers, Industrialists and the Political Economy of Green Taxation: CO2 taxation in OECD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Daugbjerg, Carsten; Hjøllund, Lene

    2001-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a detailed analysis of the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first......-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that an important reason this is so is that industry as a group, in contrast to households, is capable of lobbying against green taxation. The paper presents empirical findings on CO2 taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical......) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. Udgivelsesdato: MAY...

  1. Impact on Sensex of Scrapping Double Taxation of Dividends

    OpenAIRE

    Ragunathan V; Varma, Jayanth R.

    1997-01-01

    The taxation of dividends has generated an active debate in recent months in the media. While the industry representatives have been critical of the double taxation of dividends, the Government seems to be questioning the very premise that dividends are double taxed in India. The argument that scrapping the double taxation of dividends will give the Sensex a much needed boost seems to have tilted the scales. What will be the impact of scrapping of dividend tax on Sensex? One finds that the st...

  2. Beyond taxation: Discourse around energy policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Takahiro; Tsuboyama, Yuki; Hara, Yoritoshi

    2016-01-01

    Energy policy literature tends to emphasise the impact of taxation on energy preference. However, the present case concerning extremely low acceptance of diesel cars in Japan could not be explained by taxation. As a possible factor, the paper sheds light upon discourse around the energy policy. The policy aimed to characterise diesel technology as emitting particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The paper contributes to extending the existing understanding of the role of public policy by embracing the linguistic interactions complemented by visualisation. - Highlights: • Taxation cannot explain extremely low acceptance of diesel fuelled cars in Japan. • Explore meaning attachment process. • Complementarity between cost-benefit evaluation and meaning attachment.

  3. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...... formulas can directly be used to indicate how Pigovian taxation of carbon NRRs should be increased in the presence of public-revenue needs, as illustrated in a numerical example. We show that NRR substitutes and complements should receive a particular tax treatment. Finally, in a NRR-importing economy...

  4. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO2 taxation in OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms' ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO 2 taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO 2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs

  5. Adam Smith on public expenditure and taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C. Coutinho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Adam Smith’s view on taxation and public expenditure, by means of an almost literal reading of the Wealth of Nations famous passages on the “duties of the sovereign” and on the “maxims of taxation”. Contrarily to the commonest usage of these passages, we will show that their core is the preoccupation with the public expenditure soaring and the defence of decentralisation. Furthermore – and also contrarily to the existing interpretations – we defend the non-existence of any contradiction between Smith’s income and price theory (and the incidence hypothesis, provided due attention is paid to the guiding role of the “maxims”.

  6. Effects of heritage taxation in Danish forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of heritage taxation rules on the economic performance of forestry and, more importantly, on decision making at the forest property level. In Denmark, when a property is handed over from one generation to the next, a heritage tax has to be paid. Apart from...... this, there is also a tax on the revenue caused by increase in property value during the ownership period. We analyse how the rotation age in model forest properties with given species composition and initial age structure is affected by these two taxes for a planned generational change every 30 years......, compared to an unplanned change and a reference model with no tax on heritage or property value increase (or no change of ownership). As the point of departure we apply model properties including 1000 ha of forest and with species compositions representative for different regions in Denmark. This allows us...

  7. Gender and Taxation : Improving Revenue Generation and Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As countries pursue the twin objectives of economic growth and poverty reduction, ... research project will investigate gender biases in taxation in six countries (Argentina, ... L'appel des bourses de recherche du CRDI pour 2018 est lancé.

  8. The petroleum taxation in France; La fiscalite petroliere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  9. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve......-transfer system does not provide full disability insurance. By offering imperfect insurance and structuring disability benefits so as to enable workers to insure against disability by working harder, social insurance is designed to offset the distortionary impact of the redistributive labor income tax on labor...... to insure (ex ante) against skill heterogeneity as well as disability risk. Optimal disability benefits rise with previous earnings so that public transfers depend not only on current earnings but also on earnings in the past. Hence, lifetime taxation rather than annual taxation is optimal. The optimal tax...

  10. Taxation, business environment and FDI location in OECD countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Dana; Nicoletti, G.; Vartia, L.; Yoo, K.-Y.

    Č. 502 (2006), s. 1-33 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : taxation * business environment * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/eco/working_papers

  11. Synthesis of Evidence for Tobacco Taxation Policy Reform in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Existing evidence shows that tobacco taxation policies, when they make tobacco ... annual conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development. ... In this ROSSA bulletin: Meet Kathryn Toure, the new regional director of ...

  12. Privacy, Time Consistent Optimal Labour Income Taxation and Education Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad, Kai A.

    1999-01-01

    Incomplete information is a commitment device for time consistency problems. In the context of time consistent labour income taxation privacy reduces welfare losses and increases the effectiveness of public education as a second best policy.

  13. Redistributive income taxation under outsourcing and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Koskela, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal income taxation under labor outsourcing and FDI. We show how the optimal income tax response to the joint effect of outsourcing and FDI depends on whether FDI is complementary with, or substitutable for, domestic labor.

  14. Introduction of a System of Internal Taxation of Salaries and Emoluments

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Pursuant to the principle of equality of States and in line with the provisions of the Protocol on the Privileges and Immunities of CERN, it is proposed to introduce at CERN the system of internal taxation of remuneration, payments and other financial benefits paid by the Organization to members of the personnel and to the Director-General described in this document. Consequently : 1) The Finance Committee is invited to: - recommend the Council to approve the introduction of the system of internal taxation described in this document and the amendments to the Staff Rules set out in the Annex (new Article IV 2.01); - approve the amendments to the Staff Regulations set out in the Annex (new Articles R IV 2.01 to R IV 2.04 and Annex R A 1 bis), subject to the approval of the proposed system by the Council. 2) The Council is invited to approve the introduction of the system of internal taxation described in this document and the amendments to the Staff Rules set out in the Annex (new Article IV 2.01). The aforemen...

  15. Approaches of Taxation under the Current Circumstances between Desiderata and Results – I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As a basic component of modern society, the taxation should combine the main objectivefor the public authority, to ensure most of the resources necessary to carry out state functions, withtargets at least as important on the country's economic development, supporting social issues,respecting the law and the financial discipline, in terms of efficiency, stability and sustainability. Forthese reasons, the level of taxation is very important for the present and future developments of acountry and the relevance of the analysis in this direction exceeds the economic, social or politicallevel. They practice different ways to understand and determine the impact of taxation in an economyand their uniform and realistic approach is important in order to succeed effective internationalcomparability and responsible actions at all levels, now and in the future. The public policy must findsolutions that can be adapted and implemented following the response that it gives the result ofanalysis that has as its starting point the economy, stimulating the private interest, which may leadimplicitly to obtaining parameters of superior quality at general level.

  16. Taxation, revenue allocation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria: Issues, challenges and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Adeleke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is one of the most important and easy sources of revenue to any government, as the government possesses inherent power to impose taxes and levies. Nigeria tax system has been weak due largely to inadequate data of the tax base and heavy reliance on oil revenue. With the volatility in oil prices and excruciating impacts of the recent global financial crisis, taxation deserves more attention now than ever before in Nigeria. One issue that is critical to domestic resource mobilization and utilization is the issue of fiscal federalism. Nigeria operates three tiers of government; Federal, State and Local Governments with separate revenue, expenditure, and assigned responsibilities each. However, all decisions including resources are controlled from the centre and the vertical revenue allocations tilt more towards the direction of federal government, contrary to the tenets of federalism the country is practicing. Both vertical and horizontal revenue in Nigeria is engulfed in controversy. The paper presents key issues, trend and challenges of taxation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria. In addition, the paper highlights a number of suggestions that would stimulate increase in tax revenue and guarantee fiscal assignment acceptable to the federal and sub-national government.

  17. On the equivalence between progressive taxation and inequality reduction

    OpenAIRE

    JU, Biung-Ghi; MORENO-TERNERO, Juan D.

    2007-01-01

    We establish the precise connections between progressive taxation and inequality reduction, in a setting where the level of tax revenue to be raised is endogenously fixed and tax schemes are balanced. We show that, in contrast with the traditional literature on taxation, the equivalence between inequality reduction and the combination of progressivity and income order preservation does not always hold in this setting. However, we show that, among rules satisfying consistency and, either reven...

  18. Lifetime income inequality with taxation and public benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kemptner, Daniel; Haan, Peter; Prowse, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how taxation, unemployment insurance, welfare, disability benefits and public pensions affect the inequality of lifetime income. Using results from a dynamic life-cycle model estimated using German panel data, we show that taxation and public benefits combined reduce the inequality of lifetime income, measured by the Gini coefficient, by 22\\%. Pensions only slightly reduce inequality in lifetime income. Welfare benefits, meanwhile, make persistent transfers to individua...

  19. Do international tax relations impede a shift towards expenditure taxation?

    OpenAIRE

    Genser, Bernd

    1990-01-01

    The paper questions the view that international tax relations had a decisive impact on the dismissal of expenditure tax scenarios as guidelines for recent national tax reforms in industrialized countries. It is argued that the introduction of consumption-type value-added tax systems must be regarded a step towards expenditure taxation favoured by international agreements and that double taxation treaties should not be regarded as a specific obstacle against a reform of national enterprise tax...

  20. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  1. Efficiency of Decoupled Farm Programs under Distortionary Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    GianCarlo Moschini; Paolo Sckokai

    1994-01-01

    When lump-sum taxation is not feasible, decoupled transfers to farmers (which require raising government revenue) will entail welfare loss somewhere in the economy. Assuming the government's objective is to assure a given welfare level for farmers, we show that when decoupling is possible, free trade is always superior to some tariff protection for a small country, even under Distortionary taxation. As expected, for a large country there is scope for an optimal tariff policy that improves the...

  2. European Union Harmonized Excise Taxation : Occasional Importation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhua, Taina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written with the intent to compile the information related to occasional importation process and European Union harmonized taxation into a single package. The process is based on European Union legislation and the aim of it is to unify the taxation within the internal market area. The national excise duties are not part of the occasional importation process but are partly linked to it. The first part of the thesis discusses the occasional importation of goods subject to ha...

  3. Taxation, Corporate Financial Policy and the Cost of Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Alan J. Auerbach

    1982-01-01

    The cost of capital plays an important role in the allocation of resources among competing uses in a decentralized market system. The purpose of this paper is to organize and present what is known and what is hypothesized about the effects of taxation on the incentive to invest, via the cost of capital,taking full account of important issues that arise independently from the question of taxation. Included in the analysis is a discussion of empirical findings about the interaction of inflation...

  4. Taxation and regulation of uranium mining in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Government taxation and regulation have a profound influence on mineral operations. In Canada, taxation occurs both on the federal and provincial levels. In addition, both federal and provincial regulations also affect mine operations, sometimes with overlapping, or conflicting, legislation and jurisdiction. Three broad areas of regulation affect the mine production of uranium in Canada: (1) mining law or mineral rights; (2) the licensing procedures; and (3) regulation of occupational health and safety

  5. Financial system and taxation: the role in the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Roshaiza

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the financial system (specifically stock market development) and economic growth has been an important issue of debate. A well-functioning financial system can affect economic growth through the improvement of capital productivity and the efficient allocation of resources. The role of taxation as a major determinant of an active financial system and strong economic growth also becomes of interest to the researcher. Taxation through policy and revenue collection seems ...

  6. Financial sector taxation: Financial activities tax or financial transaction tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.

  7. The role of the European Union in environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the European Union (EU) in environmental taxation is examined in this chapter. As is well-known, the EU has proposed a carbon/energy tax to contribute to the stabilization of CO 2 emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. The discussion is organized around the 'subsidiarity principle', which involves a presumption in favor of decentralizing policy functions to the member states. Exceptions are allowed only if economies of scale or cross-country spillover effects warrant EU involvement. The author persuasively argues that environmental policy is such an exception. In particular, in a single market such as the EU, the enforcement of taxes and regulations gives rise to important international externalities. Independent policy and administration would either interfere with free trade or lead to widespread evasion. Hence, the EU should have a substantial and legitimate interest in not only environmental targets and objectives, but also in the form of environmental policy (e.g. in the choice between environmental taxes and regulation). Furthermore, it is argued that environmental tax policies should be coordinated both with other environmental tax policies and with other fiscal policies. This implies that the decisions about environmental tax rates should be taken by the level of government responsible for other, related, environmental policies, whilst the revenues from environmental taxes should accrue in general to member states, in preference to the EU. 16 refs

  8. The influence of perception and motivation on the interest of career in the field of taxation students majoring in accounting of the faculty of economics Universitas Negeri jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Pahala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of perception and motivation to Students Career Interests in Taxation of Departement of Accounting Faculty of Economics at the State University of Jakarta. This study used 75 students S1 Departement of Accounting, State University of Jakarta which is still active academic year 2010. Data used in this study is primary data and selection of samples using a convenience sampling method. The analytical tool used is multiple linear regression analysis at a significance level of 5%. The first phase of testing the validity and reliability of the statement of each variable. The second stage, performing variable regression perception and motivation towards a career in the field of taxation the interest of students. The results of testing the feasibility of the model shows that the two independent variables, namely perception and motivation affect the career interests of students in the field of taxation Accounting Department of Economics at the State University of Jakarta simultaneously.

  9. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  10. Coordination of the EU's emissions trading, energy taxation and subsidies for energy production. Interim Report by the Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    price of an emission allowance is climbing. The current taxation structure in emissions trading somewhat increases the amount of electricity produced in cogeneration of power and heat. During the first term, emissions trading will not bring any unreasonable additional costs to operators through acquisition of emission allowances. Instead, in a slightly longer term, the development of the price of electricity will pose a considerable risk especially to the competitiveness of the energy-intensive industries. The power acquisition costs of the other sectors of economy and households may also rise notably. Energy taxation is a major source of revenue to the State. In 2002 a total of EUR 2,760 million was accrued as excise duty revenue from energy products. The return on the basic duty on fuel tax amounted to around EUR 1,990 million, the return on electricity tax to c. EUR 380 million and that on carbon dioxide tax to c. EUR 390 million. At the first stage, the Working Group has focused on studying the functioning of emissions trading and the energy taxation scheme as a whole. The prime goal was to include in the Working Group's interim report a view of the immediate needs for amending the main outlines of energy taxation because of emissions trading. Such pressures for change in the structures of energy taxation did not occur in the short term. In 2004 the Working Group will continue its work in terms of energy taxation as well. Then it will be examined in more detail as part of the set of energy policy tools. (orig.)

  11. Progressive taxation as a tool for providing the budget system stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita A. Vakhtina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the alternative additional sources of income of the state budget in the framework of the action plan of the Russian government to provide socioeconomic stability of the country in 2016. Methods comparative and dynamic analysis classification and typology description and measurements including using the tools of institutional Economics the data were interpreted using tables. Results it is shown that due to the lack of financial resources the government has to make unpopular decisions that reduce the level of social support of the population for the near future. The adopted laws stipulating the principles of address character and needs when providing regional measures of social support increase the risks of poverty and inequality. The analysis has been made of the ranking position of Russia and member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in terms of GDP per capita human development index and quality of life index. The article grounds the need for institutional change to facilitate transition to progressive taxation and redistribution of the tax burden from the poor and middle classes to the super rich. The flat personal income tax rate has not led to the desired results of growing tax revenues in the budget. Russia is still among the top ten states with the largest tax evasion losses. The weak redistributive mechanisms including a flat scale of personal income tax regressive social security contributions and low property taxes lead to stagnation inequality underfunding of education and health. Scientific novelty the article proves the conclusion about need of institutional transformations associated with changing the current tax policy priorities. The transition to a progressive scale of income and wealth taxation promotes the transfer of tax burden from the middle and poor to the rich. These measures can provide a double economic effect. On the one hand the principle of effective taxation

  12. Theoretical Aspects Regarding the Optimal Taxation of Effort With More Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dumitru MARIN PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors propose to conduct a pertinent analysis of the use of mathematical models in relation to optimal effort taxation. The effort taxation must be a balance between allocative efficiency and distribution. It is a question of determining the optimal tax level for three conditions. The theory is that the shift to a fixed amount, a single share, is not feasible for wage compensation, being important to note that this condition is one that must be considered. The mathematical model proposed by the authors regarding optimal taxation of multi-condition effort is relevant and suggestive for the analysis. It is well known that, in order to increase tax revenue, they must inevitably be based on the unobservable variant, which is the potential gain or, most importantly, on the individual productivity of labor. Solving a problem of this sensibility, such as the optimal taxation of multi-state effort, needs to be analyzed and conditioned by the establishment of a mathematical-econometric model that highlights both the aspects of a minimum expectation threshold or a situation that depends on the economic outcome. The authors consider the existing variants and establish variants based on a mathematical model that is analyzed to best answer the problem of the adverse selection ie the balance between allocation efficiency and distribution. We analyze the optimization problem from Lagrange’s function and associated multiplier, highlighting the mathematical functions that can be used. Further, the authors consider the case of adverse selection based on asymmetric information. For the objective function and budget constraint, the authors consider that they need to add incentive restrictions, especially when they are taxed on income. By analyzing this hypothesis in depth, the authors propose and demonstrate a mathematical function that best suits these adjustment needs and solve the adverse selection. The way in which the authors suggest

  13. Principles of taxation as a means of implementing fiscal function of the tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. О. Гетьман

    2015-05-01

    of the mechanisms of their creation and operation; determine whether the taxation principles for the reform of the tax system of Ukraine; forecasting the development of the industry in the areas of finance, which determine its integrity, consistency, effectiveness, stability, interconnectedness its legal institutions. The object of study is social relations that emerge and operate under the influence of legal regulation of taxation principles, as a means of implementing fiscal function of tax. Purpose of the study constitutes legal norms that reinforce the principles of taxation and provide their detailed formation mechanism of implementation through the special tax instruments (taxes, duties and other compulsory payments. Paper main body. description of  the features of the tax should be based on the effect of the significant leverage in tax regulation. Still another sustained a lively discussion about the number and nature of these functions. According to the author, the most balanced view of the tax system functions can provide three of them: adjusting, fiscal and  control. Last one, in the opinion of the author  expresses the main purpose of the tax - the formation of public funds needs funding for state and local communities.It is clear that the function of the tax system affecting the corresponding homogeneous kind of public relations should provide for a holistic effect on the ordering process receipts from taxes and duties (mandatory payments. As a particular manifestation of the sense of these features can be found at every level of the tax regulation. It is, as on general regulations affecting the behavior of tax administration and then refined and detailed rules all tax laws and regulations more narrow focus concerning certain specific elements of the tax or fee.Legislative detailing how all functions of taxes, and each of them separately, systematically done by defining principles - in the current Tax Code of Ukraine, this century 4 «Basic principles

  14. «Neutral» Profit Taxation, Risk Taking and Optimal Profit Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. MINTZ

    1982-01-01

    The object of this study is to answer two questions related to the design of profit taxes when taking into account riskiness of firms. The first question is the following: leaving aside general equilibrium effects of taxation on the interest rate and risk premia faced by firms, would a cash flow tax be neutral with respect to the investment decisions made by firms. The second question to be considered is whether profit tax rates should vary across industries because of different degrees of ri...

  15. Application of international double taxation conventions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumiter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we sought to address the international double taxation phenomenon from two different standpoints. To begin with, in the first part we analysed the framework of international double taxation, and how this topic was tackled in both Romanian and international literature.International double taxation has been analyzed, mutatis mutandis, from an economic perspective, more precisely in terms of the implications that it generates on economies, on added value, on capital flows, on the internationalisation of business. Second, I believed it was important to analyse international double taxation from a legal perspective, through the jurisdictional effects of obtaining income or holding property at the European or international level. Romania's case is carefully approached in this paper, aiming to highlight the issues Romania is facing concerning cooperation in tax matters with authorities from other countries, how the more than 80 double taxation conventions are applied and interpreted, but also other aspects that should be considered by the Romanian tax authorities, based on the provisions of the Fiscal Code and the Fiscal Procedure Code. The article ends by presenting, commenting on and analysing two test cases in international double taxation, of remarkable importance and actuality for Romanian jurisprudence to observe how complex double taxation mechanisms operate in practice. The conclusion of this article emphasises the importance ofsignificant “steps” achieved by Romania on the path to creating a true “fiscal area” in the European Union, as well as the “corridors” that should be inserted to correct economi c – legal and economic deficiencies and gaps, in order to strengthen the fiscal area.

  16. ROLE OF TAX AND ACCOUNTING MECHANISM IN TAXATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RISTI LUCIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, we look into the tax issue in its entirety, as fiscal process, so that its ongoing fiscal perimeter process was defined and structured, participants in the fiscal process were nominated, financial flows were projected as well as the accounting information through which the taxation process activities are achieved. Following the tax process perimeter structure projection, we have positioned two main participants, namely: the taxpayers (legal entities and individuals and tax administration of the state and territorial administrative units; financial flows and tax and accounting information within each participant were identified and processed, they were called internal flows and financial flows and tax and accounting information of the participants in fiscal process called external flows. The area liaison in which financial flows and tax accounting information between participants in the tax structure are developed was defined in tax process perimeter structure namely external flows, the area that we have defined using the term interface. We defined this area as interface because following the study there came off as obvious the fact that it constitutes one of the most important structures of the fiscal process by which the tax flows and basic information and communication between participants are achieved; elements that are essential for achieving a good tax act.

  17. Taxation of carbon intensive imported products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Fuente Sanchez, C.; Dubilly, A.L.; Lescal, N.

    2010-01-01

    It is one of the greatest challenges of our time to make the link between development issues and climate change actions. The EU has committed itself, throughout the Kyoto Protocol and the current negotiation mechanisms, to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gas, but the question is still pending on the possible ways to have those efforts harmonized globally, and in particular with developing countries. Why not set taxation on carbon intensive products imported, ted, in the European Union, from countries that do not provide 'green' guarantees in their fabrication process? We begin this study with a thorough analysis of the ins and outs of the carbon tax. On the one hand, it is a good way of adjusting prices and rectifying a competition distortion between those paying or their emissions and those exempted of constraints. On the other hand, one can ask oneself if it is fair to discriminate developing countries when they need growth and better living standards. After going through the legal issues in which this debate is imbricated, the third and last part of this study investigates the possible implementation issues in terms of tax level and of benefits' generation and use. This study illustrates the complexity of reuniting particular interests and global interests on global warming, as well as the complexity of sharing responsibilities on a fair way between industrialized and developing countries on climate change issues. The challenge is big and complex yet it is worth the effort. (authors)

  18. The important role of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    This is a discussion of the importance of energy taxation in EU countries. Although natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, its use may be taxed far harder in the future. The price effects of such a development are discussed. The increasing taxes on oil products which has taken place in the OECD area may come to slow down if competing economies elsewhere do not follow the same policy. The challenge is particularly coming from the new economies in Asia, included the giants China and India, which now have far larger economic growth than the OECD area with a corresponding increased energy consumption. Strong competition may develop both in the markets for products and in the market for factor inputs (energy), so that taxes within the OECD area no longer can be increased but must be lowered. This may also happen if the oil price is high over some time. As far as taxes on natural gas in the European gas market is concerned, the large industrial users will face a regional competitive situation for natural gas as an input factor, while they are globally in a competitive situation for oil as an input factor. In product markets, this industry competes globally in the same way, as does industry that uses oil. This may lead to European countries wishing to tax the use of natural gas in the consumer sector harder than gas for industry and the production of electricity

  19. The impact of taxation on Aboriginal ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranson, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper covers several key objectives including: sheltering income and assets owned by Bands from taxation; structuring businesses so that taxes are minimized at the outset; maintaining and managing business operations so as to ensure taxes continue to be minimized; and shifting permissible deductions to non-Aboriginal business partners (whenever possible) without infringing upon the rights Indians are entitled to under Section 87 of the Indian Act. The paper does not consider exploiting the rights or assets of Indians, rather it is about willing and cooperative business partners who are able to take advantage of a unique situation so that various levels of government do not get a bigger slice of the pie. It is important to remember that if one partner needs more cash to pay taxes, all partners suffer, because there is less cash available to reinvest in the business. Most First Nations and Aboriginal people maintain that taxes do not apply to them because various levels of government have no jurisdiction over them. The paper does not dispute this claim, rather while the issue of self-government and related jurisdictions issues are being resolved, it is still important to focus on using the status quo in minimizing taxes for Aboriginal businesses. The paper considers: the various taxes requiring consideration; the impact of other legislation and agreements; the various business structures and their treatment; and how to find the best structure for each business

  20. Petroleum taxation under uncertainty - contingent claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.

    1990-01-01

    A workable method for the analysis of incentive effects of petroleum taxes under uncertainty is presented. The main advantage of the method is that it concludes with a single number for the after-tax value of any development plan, and thus allows for a quantification of incentive effects for any given description of production possibilities. It is, however, not possible to describe tax effects under uncertainty by simple magnitudes independent of production possibilities, such as wedges in rates of return. The theoretical basis is the contingent claims analysis from finance theory, which is applicable in particular to companies that are owned by well-diversified shareholders. It is not obvious that the tax authorities of poorly diversified countries should value uncertain income streams by the same method. The Norwegian petroleum taxation is shown to have strongly distortionary effects compared to a no-tax situation or a cash flow tax. These distortions were reduced by the tax changes that followed the 1986 decreases in crude oil prices. A weakness of the model of the Norwegian system is that an exactly optimal financial policy for the company has not been found. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Double Taxation Conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.

  2. The law and practice of electronic taxation in Nigeria: The gains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The law and practice of electronic taxation in Nigeria: The gains and challenges. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... With e-taxation, taxpayers can conveniently pay their taxes electronically from ...

  3. International double (non-)taxation : comparative guidelines from European legal principles

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Van de, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The principle of fairness advocates against international double taxation and international double non-taxation. Countries and international organizations (OECD, G20 and EU) have taken several initiatives against such taxation. However, these initiatives are not always effective. Also, certain legal authors question the legitimacy of the OECD and its action plan on BEPS. The essential goal of this research is to find guidelines to address international double (non-) taxation. We fir...

  4. Taxation of smokeless tobacco in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, S K; Arora, M

    2014-12-01

    The role of fiscal policy, especially taxation, though has been proved to be an effective instrument of tobacco control, its application is limited in India due to several reasons. This paper examines the tax structure, price and affordability of SLT products in order to provide evidence on how to strengthen the role of fiscal policy in tobacco control. Secondary data on tax structure and revenue from tobacco products were collected from the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. In order to measure the rise of prices corresponding to the increase in tax rate, the retail price index (RPI) and Whole Price Index (WPI) of SLT products were compared with the price index for all commodities for the period 2006-2012. The affordability of tobacco products is calculated by dividing prices of tobacco products by per capita income. During the last 6 years, the tax rate on SLT has gone up leading to a rise in the prices of SLT products more than the general price rise. However, the price rise is less than the per capita income growth indicating increasing affordability. The study observed a decline in the consumption of zarda and kahini due to the price increase during 2008-2013. However, the decline in the consumption of zarda is less compared with khaini due to a very low rise in its price. The prices should be raised more than the growth in income to influence consumption. Tax administration is a major challenge for SLT products and strengthening it could enhance revenue collection from SLT products.

  5. International Double Taxation Avoidance (Domestic Legal Regulations and Fiscal Conventions Concluded by Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LEFTER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The avoidance of double taxation has been firstly introduced in the Romanian legislation in 1973. Due to the permanent development of the economic, legal, social, etc. and global environment, Romania adapted accordingly her legal tax provisions in tax law area. One of the most relevant moments is the accession of Romanian into European Union. During pre- and after accession phase Romania has adopted the mandatory European fiscal legislation. Beeing member of EU, Romania has indirectly amended many of its double tax treaties sparing the long process of legislative amendments, including individual renegotiation and amendment with each of the contracting EU member states.

  6. Preconditions of Voluntary Tax Compliance: Knowledge and Evaluation of Taxation, Norms, Fairness, and Motivation to Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Eva; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Taxpayers' willingness to cooperate with the state and its institutions in general, and their willingness to pay taxes in particular, depend on a variety of variables. While economists stress the relevance of external variables such as tax rate, income and probability of audits and severity of fines, psychological research shows that internal variables are of similar importance. We present a comprehensive review on the relevance of citizens' knowledge of tax law, their attitudes towards the government and taxation, personal norms, perceived social norms and fairness, as well as motivational tendencies to comply, and discuss possibilities for strategic intervention to increase tax compliance. PMID:22428111

  7. The distribution of the burden of taxation from the point of view of equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Langer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to clarify the basic point of view of equity from a perspective of modern finance theory. The author strives to determine whether, and if so, what role does the equity at distribution of the burden of taxation in the state. In particular, research has shown in a broader context the basic approach to get the point of equity, and innovative conceptuality as a reflex of the values and postulates of law. The material in this article is an interdisciplinary investigation of equity as a quite important and complex issue of theory, philosophy and practice of law.

  8. THE REFORM OF PERSONAL INCOME TAXATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nosova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes that were made to the taxation of income of individuals are considered; impact of changes in taxation on the salary to be paid is calculated; has been demonstrated that the personal income taxation in Ukraine has progressive-regressive character; It revealed that the burden on a single hryvnia to pay was dropped; the validity of the application of the tax social benefits is examined; has been revealed that the application of a tax social benefits leads to discrimination against individuals whose income slightly exceeds the cutoff amount for the use of tax incentives; the tax burden on wages and its dynamics are analyzed; enterprise savings by reducing the rate of the single social contribution are defined; the possible increase in wages while maintaining enterprise-level costs is calculated.

  9. Who bears the burden of international taxation? Evidence from cross-border M&As

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-border M&As can trigger additional taxation of the target's income in the form of non-resident dividend withholding taxes and acquirer-country corporate income taxation. This paper finds that this additional international taxation is fully capitalized into lower takeover premiums. In contrast,

  10. 26 CFR 1.852-2 - Method of taxation of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of regulated investment... Trusts § 1.852-2 Method of taxation of regulated investment companies. (a) Imposition of normal tax and... for partially tax-exempt interest provided by section 242. (b) Taxation of capital gains—(1) In...

  11. 26 CFR 1.468B-2 - Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of qualified settlement funds and... Taken § 1.468B-2 Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements. (a) In...) of this section is in lieu of any other taxation of the income of a qualified settlement fund under...

  12. 26 CFR 25.2701-5 - Adjustments to mitigate double taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments to mitigate double taxation. 25....2701-5 Adjustments to mitigate double taxation. (a) Reduction of transfer tax base—(1) In general. This... − $187,500). (g) Double taxation otherwise avoided. No reduction is available under this section if— (1...

  13. 26 CFR 1.995-1 - Taxation of DISC income to shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of DISC income to shareholders. 1.995...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.995-1 Taxation of DISC... to taxation on the earnings and profits of the DISC in accordance with the provisions of chapter 1 of...

  14. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In general. This section provides rules for the taxation of a split-dollar life insurance arrangement for...

  15. 26 CFR 521.117 - Claims in cases of double taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims in cases of double taxation. 521.117...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.117 Claims in cases of double taxation. Under Article XX...

  16. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-7 - Taxation of distributions and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of distributions and benefits. 1.403(b... Taxation of distributions and benefits. (a) General rules for when amounts are included in gross income... arrangements and other eligible retirement plans—(1) Timing of taxation of rollovers. In accordance with...

  17. A Model for a State Income Tax in Australia: Historical Considerations, Key Design Issues and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Mellor, Peter Warren

    2017-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question, would the reintroduction of income taxation at the State level in Australia be feasible at the present time? The States levied income taxes from the late nineteenth century until 1942, when the Commonwealth unilaterally enacted legislation for its ‘uniform tax’ scheme for centralised income taxation which made it effectively impossible for State income taxation to continue. As the States also face a significant constitutional restrictions ...

  18. Quasi-experimental taxation elasticities of US gasoline demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Taxation elasticities provide inputs in public policy aimed at raising revenues. Using the quasi-experimental method, this paper calculates gasoline taxation elasticities for the USA over 1952-86. The medium (mean) elasticity over this period is found to be -0.075 (-0.122). However, the elasticity following the oil shock of 1973 is found to be statistically different from the pre-shock elasticity. Reasons for this change in elasticity are discussed. The implication of this analysis is that tax policies based on price elasticities, rather than on tax elasticities, might be using an inappropriate elasticity estimate and consequently misinterpreting the government's ability to raise tax revenues. (author)

  19. Carbon taxation reform in the European Union. The options involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' may be out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place in the EU. In this paper, we detail and discuss the different options available for such European carbon taxation. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 116

  20. The Current G20 Taxation Agenda: Compliance, Accountability and Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dries Lesage

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the recent G20 initiatives on taxation, more precisely on “base erosion and profit shifting” (BEPS) in the area of corporate taxation and the new G20 norm of automatic exchange of information (AEoI) with regard to foreign accounts. After having reflected on the special relationship between the G20 and the OECD, the discussion proceeds through the lens of compliance, accountability and legitimacy. In terms of compliance, the G20 is still in the phase of delivering as a gr...

  1. Notes on Ricardo’s theory of value and taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoulfidis, Lefteris

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: on the one hand is to discuss Ricardo’s version of the labour theory of value; and on the other hand, is to analyse some crucial aspects of Ricardo’s theory of taxation as an extension and further elaboration of his theory of value. This discussion is illustrated with the use of a formal model based on a generalisation of Ricardo’s numerical examples. The claim that the paper raises is that Ricardo’s analysis of taxation is a kind of a comparative statics...

  2. Taxation of income of natural persons resulting from emloyment

    OpenAIRE

    Lísková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    in English Taxation of individual income tax My diploma thesis contents three major parts, which is divided into smaller articles. In the first part I am trying to present individual income tax in general. Place of income tax in system of taxation and concept of income tax , its function and definition. In another article I described historical evolution of individual income tax and distribution of taxes. To tax is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer (an individual or l...

  3. THE IMPACT OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS ON TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU CRISTIAN DRAGOS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic crisis that began in 2007 and deeply felt in Romania from 2008 affected the real economy and had a profound impact on the whole society. This study seeks the impact of the crisis on the evolution of taxes in Romania and in the European Union. The main fiscal evolutions are analyzed from the point of view of the personal and corporate taxes, social contributions, taxes on property, related with the development of national and European macroeconomic indicators. Based on official data for 2008-2012, I processed and interpreted the data, reaching conclusions on taxation in our country and in Europe. Thus I concluded that Romania has a low rate on incomes, profit or dividend tax. At European level the progressive taxation is used by most states, to the detriment of the flat one. The taxes and fees quotas vary from state to state, but are subject to Community and national legal regulations. In terms of revenue structure, Romania follows the European trend in that indirect revenues is the primarily budgetary resource.

  4. Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information; a monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, P

    1994-12-01

    The report relates to the taxation and regulation of petroleum companies. The main topics of this report are as follow: Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A discussion of incentive problems and the principles for applying principal-agent analysis; taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A static adverse selection model; Petroleum Taxation with adverse selection. Interactions of dynamics in costs and information; Adverse selection and moral hazard in the petroleum industry, repeated auctions of incentive contracts; Petroleum taxation and regulation. Policy implications from principal-agent theory, and a comparison with the current Norwegian system. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information; a monograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1994-12-01

    The report relates to the taxation and regulation of petroleum companies. The main topics of this report are as follow: Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A discussion of incentive problems and the principles for applying principal-agent analysis; taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A static adverse selection model; Petroleum Taxation with adverse selection. Interactions of dynamics in costs and information; Adverse selection and moral hazard in the petroleum industry, repeated auctions of incentive contracts; Petroleum taxation and regulation. Policy implications from principal-agent theory, and a comparison with the current Norwegian system. 54 refs., 7 figs

  6. PRECONDITIONS FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION OF CRYPTOCURRENCIES TRANSACTIONS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyuchenko V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The worldwide expansion of digital technologies and the development of the cyber economy led to emergence of a new digital assets – the cryptographic currency that rapidly growing popularity. The phenomenon of cryptocurrency is relatively new and little investigated. Purpose. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the preconditions for the introduction of accounting and taxation of transactions with cryptic currencies in Ukraine. Results. The article considers the economic preconditions for the introduction of accounting and taxation of cryptocurrencies transactions in Ukraine. The definition of the economic content of cryptocurrency has been researched. On the basis of the definitions analysis, an author’s definition of cryptocurrency is proposed. In particular, the cryptocurrency is understood as the digital (virtual currency, with the unit “coin”, which is emitted in the network according to certain principles of cryptography to provide transactions and control the creation of new coins. The advantages and disadvantages of cryptocurrency as a digital currency have been analyzed. The common and distinctive characteristics of cryptocurrencies and gold were determined. The mechanism of cryptocurrencies functioning was disclosed and a glossary of terms used in cryptocurrencies transactions was provided. The cryptocurrencies development in the world and in Ukraine was investigated. Legal and tax bases for the cryptocurrencies introduction into the activities of small business entities was given. Conclusions. The cryptocurrency exists outside the jurisdiction of Ukraine and in the majority world countries. The state should adopt it, acknowledge either as a digital (virtual currency or as another digital asset, to regulate the taxation system and introduce an accounting methodology of cryptocurrencies transactions for integration into the global economic environment.

  7. Capital income taxation and the Atkinson-Stiglitz theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Gahvari, F.; Micheletto, L.

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for the role of financial system and money holdings in an optimal nonlinear income tax model, we argue that capital income taxation is a non-redundant policy tool even if individual preferences are separable between leisure and other goods.

  8. Taxation and the Preservation of Tribal Political and Geographical Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, Richmond L.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the complexities of the taxation issue in Indian affairs, both for American Indian reservations and adjacent local governments. Demonstrates the role of statutes and case law in the recurring struggle to balance tribal immunities guaranteed by the federal government with the expectations of non-Indian taxpayers. (SV)

  9. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  10. OFFSHORIZATION AS MAIN PROBLEM OF HOLDING GROUPS TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Petlenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At this article, we have analyzed and systematized the conditions of holdings' activity to reduce the taxation level in countries and on the territory of special, so-called offshore, jurisdiction. In addition, we have made a suggestionhow to regulatean offshore capital flows inorder to prevent from tax frauds.

  11. Taxation of petroleum products: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Mahler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. This paper surveys different considerations advanced for taxing petroleum and presents petroleum tax rate data in 120countries. (author)

  12. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  13. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  14. International Taxation of Philanthropy : Removing tax obstacles for international charities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koele, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-profit organizations are increasingly subjected to the forces of globalization. Although this should not come as a surprise, it is curious to note that the taxation of international philanthropy is an area where discrimination as to residence is still very obvious. Whereas domestic philanthropic

  15. Danish Taxation of Pensions in the Perspective of EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønfeldt, Thomas; Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses Danish law on pension taxation, as implemented after the ECJ convicted Denmark in the case C-150/04, Commission v. Denmark, and the article concludes that Danish legislation still is in conflict with EU law, as it favours Danish pension and insurance companies to the detrimen...

  16. Self-Selection, Optimal Income Taxation, and Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2009-01-01

    The author makes a pedagogical contribution to optimal income taxation. Using a very simple model adapted from George A. Akerlof (1978), he demonstrates a key result in the approach to public economics and welfare economics pioneered by Nobel laureate James Mirrlees. He shows how incomplete information, in addition to the need to preserve…

  17. First Nations Communities and Tobacco Taxation: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely used strategy that promotes smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. First Nations (FN) populations' tobacco use is estimated to be 2-3 times that of other Canadians and, in part, a reflection that tobacco products purchased on reserve by FN people are tax exempt.…

  18. Taxation and Skills. OECD Tax Policy Studies. No. 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This Tax Policy Study on Taxation and Skills examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries. This study also assesses the returns to tertiary and adult education and examines how these returns are shared between governments and students. The study builds indicators that examine incentives for individuals and governments…

  19. The incorporation of double taxation agreements into South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are different opinions as to the process whereby double taxation agreements (DTAs) are incorporated into South African law. This contribution aims to discuss some of the existing opinions and to offer a further perspective on the matter. At the heart of the debate lies the interpretation of two provisions, namely section ...

  20. Taxation of Tobacco Products in West Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 déc. 2011 ... Taxation of Tobacco Products in West Africa. In December 2007, Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) undertook an ... Dans ce bulletin du BRAS: Faites connaissance avec Kathryn Touré, la nouvelle directrice ...

  1. Influence of transaction costs on controlling activity of territorial taxation bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to disclose and justify transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies and their impact on tax control under the need for effective functioning and optimal decision making with a view of reducing the state expenditures on tax control. Methods general scientific synthesis deduction induction generalization testing interviewing observation forecasting scientific abstraction statistical analysis logic and methods of grouping and classification expert assessment. Results the analysis and grouping of transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies have been carried out. It was found that the most time and resource consuming are onsite tax inspections. The factors that have a significant impact on the efficiency of tax control were revealed. It is proved that the release of material and time resources contributes to the transformation of the tax bodies. Scientific novelty the main problem of implementation of the onsite tax control is its costs. The existing studies do not give a systematic list of tax control costs of the territorial tax bodies in general and transaction costs of tax control in particular. The author shows that the reduction of transaction costs as factors of influence on the tax control will free up the working time of the inspectors and will bring economic benefits and also will allow to consolidate territorial tax bodies and change the status of a tax inspector. Practical significance reducing the cost of tax control is becoming increasingly important in terms of saving financial resources of the state.

  2. Tamgha and the Struggle against It: On the History of Medieval Turkic-mongol Taxation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Yu. Pochekaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Turkic-Mongol taxation institute of tamgha widely used in the Mongol Empire since the first half of the 13th century. Author characterizes the etymology of this term, its meanings, legal regulation of levy and rates, evolution of the tax in different states – successors of the Mongol Empire (the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, etc. as well as in these states even after fall of Chinggisid dynasties (such as Iran under Safavids, Central Asia under Timurids. As the author supposes, the long-term use of tamgha allows us to talk about the vitality and effectiveness of Chinggisid legal tradition, which survived after the end of “Chinggisid age”. Even the rulers and dynasties, which positioned themselves as rivals of Chinggisids, used tamgha in their taxation system. This tax was also borrowed by the Russians and was used for a long time becoming a base for custom system in Russia. Other subjects of the research are the struggle of Islamic theologians and jurists against tamgha in different countries of Inner Asia and reasons for this struggle. The author attempts to clarify reasons of this struggle, strict position of clergy against tamgha and measures of rulers who did not want to be in trouble with clergy, but at the same time tried to save tamgha as effective and profitable tax.

  3. Taxation records as a source of information for the study of historical floods in Southern Moravia, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert; Chromá, Kateřina; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2014-05-01

    The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrometeorological extremes. Firstly, the owners of land or individual farmers sent basic information about what had taken place, together with a detailed description of the damage, to the state executive (regional offices). After this, commissioners appointed by the regional administrator were obliged to inspect the places affected personally (in situ) and make records. Finally, the state executive made its decision as to whether to allow or reject the tax relief requested. The whole process was reflected in various surviving archival documents which contain information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. Taxation documents of 201 estates in Southern Moravia, Czech Republic, prevailingly located in Moravian Land Archives in Brno, were studied to find information about hydrometeorological extremes. Such information is included for 84 of them. These data covering mainly the 18th-19th centuries were used for the study of historical floods (flash floods) complemented by other documentary sources and systematic hydrological observations (water stages, discharges) in the instrumental period (from the 1880s). Obtained flood data are analysed with respect to their temporal (frequency, seasonality) and spatial changes. Finally, uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance) are discussed with respect to results obtained. Taxation records constitute an important source of data for the study of historical floods with a great potential to be used in many European countries.

  4. Taxation of Capital Gains in Spanish Tax Treaties: The Belgium-Spain Double Taxation Convention on Income and Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2004-01-01

    This paper is intended to analyse the treatment of capital gains in Spanish tax treaties. In particular, the author focuses on the new provision on the taxation of capital gains as a consequence of the alienation of shares in the Belgium-Spain double tax treaty.

  5. Towards higher transparency and efficiency in energy taxation. Energy taxation and environmental policy in a small open economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, Goeran

    2002-01-01

    The accrual of energy taxation has led to a complex structure of taxes and charges that are characterized by instability and low efficiency. Other reasons for analyzing the system is the pressure from our contractual responsibilities within the European Union and the raised ambitions in the environmental policy. The report leads to the conclusion that it would be motivated to separate fiscal energy taxation from measures to internalize environmental costs that the market does not register. This separation would make it possible to create a more transparent and rational energy taxation. The fiscal energy taxation ought to be a broad, value-based tax, equal for all energy sources. Value-based means, besides the energy content in kWh, also properties such as conversion and distribution costs. Two alternatives are suggested for the fiscal energy taxation: A separate consumption tax on energy. Such a tax would amount to 48% to produce the same income as the fiscal elements of today's energy taxes. Another alternative would be to include the fiscal energy tax in the value added tax. This would raise the standard VAT level to 30%, if the lower VAT levels are kept unchanged. With this model, consumption of energy would be treated as any other consumption. The environmental policy measures against greenhouse gases should be delt with through a system with international trade with emission quotas for such gases. Measures against other external effects from energy use are not suggested in this report, except for the opinion that economic incentives are preferable to regulations. The initial allocation of quotas ought to be done through an auction, since this method would give lower national costs than the alternatives. The system should cover all greenhouse gases and (almost) all sources which indicates that an upstream solution would be best with low administrative costs. A safety vent should be considered, so that extreme costs for CO 2 -emissions are avoided, if e.g. the

  6. E.U. VERSUS O.E.C.D. - MIGRATION FLOW UNDER THE LABOUR TAXATION IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAR PAULA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a world governed by the freedom of movement, production factors – capital, labour and consumption – can “run” from on territory to another bringing along positive and negative effects, just as well. Labour, the second in line of “run away” production factors, has a great impact upon a state economy generating sustainable growth or increasing budgetary revenues This paper presents for a period of 7 years, for both European (UE-28 and international (OECD level, the migration flow under the labour taxation impact (it is well known that more than 75% of the migration flow is work force related. The authors found that even if both areas are attracting labour force the reasons for doing that are completely different – while for the OECD member states and non-EU member states there will always be the “occident fascination” in the Europeans are “voting with their feet”.

  7. The Commission's proposal for a Directive on Double Taxation Dispute Resolution Mechanisms:Overcoming the final hurdle of juridical double taxation within the European Union?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerioni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the Commission’s proposal for a Directive on Double Taxation Dispute Resolution Mechanisms, by highlighting interpretative issues that its wording may arise and by discussing the conditions under which it could manage to lead to the elimination of (juridical) double taxation within the EU.

  8. Transition to an aging Japan: public pension, savings, and capital taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, R

    1998-09-01

    This study examined options for compensating for the shortages of money for public pensions due to population aging in Japan: increases in pension contributions, consumption pension taxes, interest income pension taxes, and inheritance pension taxes. The analysis relied on simulation in an expanded life cycle growth model. Data were obtained from 1992 estimations of population by the Institute of Population Problems of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. This study is unique in its use of real population data for the simulations and in its use of transition states. The analysis begins with a description of the altered Overlapping Generations Model by Auerback and Kotlikoff (1983). The model accounts for the inaccuracy of lifetime and liquidity constraints and ordinary budget constraints and reproduces the consumption-savings profiles of older people and incorporates wage income taxation and other forms of taxation. Income includes wage and interest income. The analysis includes a description of the method of simulation, assumptions, and evaluation of the effects of population aging. It is assumed that narrower government sector spending on general expenditures per worker will increase by 1% every year. It is concluded that national saving rates will probably decrease due to population aging. The lowest levels of capital stock and savings will result from higher pension contributions. The highest level of capital stock will result from higher consumption pension taxes during 1990-2015. Preferred policies should focus on increasing interest income rates.

  9. Economic Impact of Tobacco Price Increases Through Taxation: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreary, Kara A; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Hopkins, David P; Chaloupka, Frank J; Forster, Jean L; Grimshaw, Victoria; Holmes, Carissa B; Goetzel, Ron Z; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and around the world. Increasing tobacco price through higher taxes is an effective intervention both to reduce tobacco use in the population and generate government revenues. The goal of this paper is to review evidence on the economic impact of tobacco price increases through taxation with a focus on the likely healthcare cost savings and improvements in employee productivity. The search covered studies published in English from January 2000 to July 2012 and included evaluations of national, state, and local policies to increase the price of any type of tobacco product by raising taxes in high-income countries. Economic review methods developed for The Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to screen and abstract included studies. Economic impact estimates were standardized to summarize the available evidence. Analyses were conducted in 2012. The review included eight modeling studies, with seven providing estimates of the impact on healthcare costs and three providing estimates of the value of productivity gains. Only one study provided an estimate of intervention costs. The economic merit of tobacco product price increases through taxation was determined from the overall body of evidence on per capita annual cost savings from a conservative 20% price increase. The evidence indicates that interventions that raise the unit price of tobacco products through taxes generate substantial healthcare cost savings and can generate additional gains from improved productivity in the workplace. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents: Policies, Taxation, and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yilin; Simoes, Eduardo J

    2018-04-18

    Obesity has grown at an alarming rate in children and adolescents. Concurrently, consumption on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) also rose significantly. This review provides an overview of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) related to SSBs and current policies restricting SSBs in schools, school-based interventions, and taxation on reducing SSB intake and obesity. We also discuss challenges of and future steps for these initiatives. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest a strong association between SSB intake and obesity and T2DM. School food policies have been initiated at federal, state, and local levels. School-based interventions have shown positive effects on SSB intake and obesity reduction. Taxation on SSBs is promising in combating obesity and in generating revenue. Challenges towards compliance and implementation of the policies and programs exist. The relationship between SSB and obesity and T2DM is a complex problem which requires comprehensive solutions. Continued efforts in restricting SSBs in schools are needed. Intervention programs should be tailored to age, gender, language, and culture and involve participation from families and local communities. Taxation can reduce SSB consumption by direct economic incentive, earmarking revenues to support healthy foods, and sending negative message. However, a higher tax rate may be necessary to have a measurable effect on weight.

  11. Energy taxation in Southern Europe: The case of Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modesto, L.

    1993-01-01

    It is investigated whether or not the imposition of a common EC energy tax will penalize more the poorer Southern European economies and if this will harm convergence at the EC level. The existing studies and empirical evidence are briefly surveyed. Then the results obtained when using the macroeconometric HERMES models to stimulate the introduction of an energy tax are exploited. The conclusions, however, have limited value, since the authors only have HERMES results for one Southern European economy: Portugal. Finally, the convergence in Europe and the effects of energy taxation on convergence are investigated. It is concluded that energy taxation will harm growth all over the EC, penalizing more one of the less developed countries (in this case Portugal), and having most probably adverse effects on convergence. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 22 refs

  12. Taxation of the economical activities developed in the sea regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcio Branco de

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the power of taxation is straightly connected to the idea of territory. It is important to establish the limits of tax jurisdiction not only for taxes in view of which territoriality is part of the taxable event as defined in legislation - import tax (I.I.) and excise tax (IPI) -, but also for those the location of a possession - property tax (IPTU) - or the place in which services are rendered - service occupation tax (ISS) and sales tax (ICMS) - appear as the main component of the taxable event. According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, and the Brazilian internal legislation as well, Federal Government has full sovereignty over its territorial sea -12 mile zone. In other areas (contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and brazilian continental shelf), sovereignty is restricted to the supervision of some activities, not involving power of taxation. (author)

  13. Development of Ad Valorem Real Property Taxation System in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Buzu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes key aspects of the new ad valorem property taxation (AVT system which is currently implemented in the Republic of Moldova and outlines ways of its further potential development. The author uses both systemic and synergistic approaches to develop a methodology for the assessment of the AVT system efficiency based on the multipurpose cadastre data. The study identifies key characteristics of the AVT system, as well as main problems associated with the implementation of the new property taxation system and with the compatibility of the fiscal and the real property cadastre data, and makes suggestions for further development of the AVT system in the country. The study allows to identify and maximize the benefits of the AVT system.

  14. Registered indians and tobacco taxation: a culturally-appropriate strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardman, A E Dennis; Khan, Nadia A

    2005-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely-used strategy that prompts smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. Registered Indian tobacco use prevalence is at least double that of the rest of Canadians and is in part due to the lower cost of tobacco products purchased on reserve by Registered Indians (RIs) as they are tax exempt. Although registered Indian communities have the ability to collect tax on tobacco products and direct the use of these revenues, this strategy is rarely utilized. Tobacco taxation could have substantial health and economic benefits to RI communities, but perhaps is not culturally-appropriate. In order to better support RI communities, governments and other organizations need to examine this policy instrument in the context of RI populations.

  15. THE COST OF DIRECT TAXATION ON INVESTMENT IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Leitão Paes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper analyzed the impact of taxation on the investment in Brazil, focusing on the taxation of corporate income. Following the literature, it was used an economic model to calculate two indicators of effective tax rates - Effective Marginal Tax Rate (EMTR and Effective Average Tax Rate (EATR. The EMTR measures the increase of the cost of capital due to corporate income tax. The EATR represents a measure of the average tax rate levied on an investment that has a pre-defined economic profit. The results suggest Brazil may face some difficulties to attract foreign investment. The country presents high rates for EATR and EMTR, higher than the average of the rich countries and well above the figures of development countries like Chile, Mexico, South Africa, Russia and China, potential competitors in attracting investments.

  16. An equilibrium-conserving taxation scheme for income from capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempere, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Under conditions of market equilibrium, the distribution of capital income follows a Pareto power law, with an exponent that characterizes the given equilibrium. Here, a simple taxation scheme is proposed such that the post-tax capital income distribution remains an equilibrium distribution, albeit with a different exponent. This taxation scheme is shown to be progressive, and its parameters can be simply derived from (i) the total amount of tax that will be levied, (ii) the threshold selected above which capital income will be taxed and (iii) the total amount of capital income. The latter can be obtained either by using Piketty's estimates of the capital/labor income ratio or by fitting the initial Pareto exponent. Both ways moreover provide a check on the amount of declared income from capital.

  17. Mining agreements in developing countries: issues of finance and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, M; Stockmayer, A

    1978-04-01

    This article continues a Forum series on recent trends in mining contracts between host countries and foreign investors begun in the April 1977 issue. Based on intensive research carried out for the preparation of a book on Mining Ventures in Developing Countries, published recently in the Federal Republic of Germany, the authors discuss sources of finance, institutions, exchange controls and special accounts, royalties, income taxation, and equity participation. They conclude that taxation is most likely to remain the principal source of income; equity participation should be evaluated carefully as it does not automatically guarantee maximum benefits. The combination of taxes and royalties provide a steady flow of income. An increase of the total tax burden beyond a certain percentage may be counterproductive for the host country, as it encourages the investor to look for less controllable means of shifting profits or discourages investment for exploration and development. 21 notes and refs.

  18. Corporate Income Taxation: Selected Problems and Decisions. The Case of Ukraine 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Proskura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine and finding ways to resolve them in the context of European integration. The aim of this paper is demonstrate ways to improve corpo- rate income taxation on the basis of balancing the interests of taxpayers against those of the government. The paper will highlight the key issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine with its large share of unprofitable enterprises, unequal regulations for different corporate taxpayers and the requirement to pay tax advances even where there is an absence of taxable income. Based on our analysis, the causes of the origin and deepening problems of corporate income taxation in Ukraine will be demonstrated. A compar- ative analysis of income taxation in Poland and Ukraine was performed. It is believed that some elements of the Polish experience in the taxation of income can be applied to Ukraine.

  19. Taxation of uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the nature of the taxation schemes facing uranium mine operators in Australia's Northern Territory and in Canada's Province of Saskatchewan. The findings demonstrate that, although the Canadian system appropriates up to 85% of incremental sales revenue, it is extremely sensitive to industry profitability. Its Australian counterpart is, in contrast, a regressive scheme which, at the current selling price of yellowcake, captures a significantly larger proportion of available economic rent. (author)

  20. Responsibility and Redistribution: The Case of First Best Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertil Tungodden

    2001-01-01

    It is not straightforward to define the ethics of responsibility in cases where the consequences of changes in factors within our control are partly determined by factors beyond our control. In this paper, we suggest that one plausible view is to keep us responsible for the parts of the consequences that are independent of the factors beyond our control. Within the framework of a first best taxation problem, we present and characterise a redistributive mechanism that both satisfies this inter...

  1. Teach a man to fish? Education vs. optimal taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Stephens

    2012-01-01

    In models of redistribution, diff erences in human capital are often the relevant source of heterogeneity amongst individuals. Presumably, the distribution of human capital can be manipulated through education spending. This paper examines the use of education as a redistributive tool when there is a nonlinear tax system in place. The results show that taxation, whether under full or asymmetric information, substantially reduces the redistributive role of education spending in maximizing soci...

  2. Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorz, Jens Oliver

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...

  3. Macroeconomic and sectoral effects of energy taxation in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppl, A.; Kratena, K.; Pichl, C.; Schebeck, F.; Wueger, M.; Schleicher, S.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of energy taxation on the Austrian economy are analyzed. Simulations are carried out with a linked input output macromodel. The macroeconomic effects of an energy tax on economic growth, employment, the rate of inflation (change in the consumer price index), the budget deficit and the current account will be explained, as well as the sectoral impact on differenT industries. 7 tabs., 7 refs

  4. Corporate income taxation uncertainty and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zagler, Martin; Zanzottera, Cristiana

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of legal uncertainty around corporate income taxation on foreign direct investment (FDI). Legal uncertainty can take many forms: double tax agreements, different types of legal systems and corruption. We test the effect of legal uncertainty on foreign direct investment with an international panel. We find that an increase in the ratio of the statutory corporate income tax rate of the destination relative to the source country exhibits a negati...

  5. Taxation – Charges to stamp duty as consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Shardlow, Janice B.

    1998-01-01

    The author examines issues, illustrated by relevant case law, relating to the imposition of a charge to taxation at a fixed point in time by reference to consideration. Article by Janice B. Shardlow (Lecturer, University of Wolverhampton) published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  6. On Noncooperative Capital Income Taxation in Open Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Kletzer

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic use of capital income taxation and lump-sum fiscal policies for gaining national advantage in an integrated world capital market. Each fiscal authority seeks to maximize a social welfare function defined over the utilities of home country residents incorporating national redistributing objectives. A national optimum policy is to impose a non-discriminatory source-based capital income tax or subsidy along with an optimal lump-sum tax and transfer plan. Reside...

  7. Petroleum taxation: a comparison between Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Salata, D. V.; Drebot, V. V.; Vorozheykina, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper compares mineral resource recovery taxes for oil to be paid in Kazakhstan and the RF. It provides a case study on an average Kazakh oil and gas company and presents tax calculations as an example. To compare the taxation systems in Kazakhstan and the RF, the situation is modelled as if the field was located in the RF and the relevant calculations are carried out in compliance with national laws and regulations.

  8. Marginal versus Average Beta of Equity under Corporate Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Diderik

    2009-01-01

    Even for fully equity-financed firms there may be substantial effects of taxation on the after-tax cost of capital. Among the few studies of these effects, even fewer identify all effects correctly. When marginal investment is taxed together with inframarginal, marginal beta differs from average if there are investment-related deductions like depreciation. To calculate asset betas, one should not only 'unlever observed equity betas, but 'untax' and 'unaverage' them. Risky tax claims are value...

  9. Optimal income taxation with endogenous participation and search unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Etienne; Parmentier, Alexis; van der Linden, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This paper characterizes the optimal redistributive taxation when individuals are hetero- geneous in two exogenous dimensions: their skills and their values of non-market activities. Search-matching frictions on the labor markets create unemployment. Wages, labor demand and participation are endogenous. The government only observes wage levels. Under a Max- imin objective, if the elasticity of participation decreases along the distribution of skills, at the optimum, the average tax rate is in...

  10. Optimal taxation and public provision for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kanbur, Ravi; Paukkeri, Tuuli; Pirttilä, Jukka; Tuomala, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The existing literature on optimal taxation typically assumes there exists a capacity to implement complex tax schemes, which is not necessarily the case for many developing countries. We examine the determinants of optimal redistributive policies in the context of a developing country that can only implement linear tax policies due to administrative reasons. Further, the reduction of poverty is typically the expressed goal of such countries, and this feature is also taken into account in our...

  11. Reforming Family Taxation in Germany - Labor Supply vs. Insurance Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Fehr; Manuel Kallweit; Fabian Kindermann

    2013-01-01

    The present paper quantifies the economic consequences of eliminating the system of income splitting in Germany. We apply a dynamic simulation model with overlapping generations where single and married agents have to decide on labor supply and homework facing income and lifespan risk. The numerical exercise computes the resulting welfare changes across households and isolates aggregate efficiency effects of a move towards either individual taxation or family splitting. Our results indicate s...

  12. The future of personal wealth and inheritance taxation in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Pekala, Maciek

    2013-01-01

    Many countries have recently abandoned or experienced significant reduction in tax rates and revenues from personal wealth and inheritance taxation. Today, Norway remains one of the few countries that still tax annual wealth and intergenerational wealth transfers. Both taxes however face a substantial opposition and their future remains uncertain. In this paper, a dynamic microsimulation model MOSART developed by Statistics Norway is used to project and discuss future revenues and distributio...

  13. Cost-effectiveness of volumetric alcohol taxation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Joshua M; Cobiac, Linda J; Doran, Christopher M; Vos, Theo; Shakeshaft, Anthony P

    2010-04-19

    To estimate the potential health benefits and cost savings of an alcohol tax rate that applies equally to all alcoholic beverages based on their alcohol content (volumetric tax) and to compare the cost savings with the cost of implementation. Mathematical modelling of three scenarios of volumetric alcohol taxation for the population of Australia: (i) no change in deadweight loss, (ii) no change in tax revenue, and (iii) all alcoholic beverages taxed at the same rate as spirits. Estimated change in alcohol consumption, tax revenue and health benefit. The estimated cost of changing to a volumetric tax rate is $18 million. A volumetric tax that is deadweight loss-neutral would increase the cost of beer and wine and reduce the cost of spirits, resulting in an estimated annual increase in taxation revenue of $492 million and a 2.77% reduction in annual consumption of pure alcohol. The estimated net health gain would be 21 000 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), with potential cost offsets of $110 million per annum. A tax revenue-neutral scenario would result in an 0.05% decrease in consumption, and a tax on all alcohol at a spirits rate would reduce consumption by 23.85% and increase revenue by $3094 million [corrected]. All volumetric tax scenarios would provide greater health benefits and cost savings to the health sector than the existing taxation system, based on current understandings of alcohol-related health effects. An equalized volumetric tax that would reduce beer and wine consumption while increasing the consumption of spirits would need to be approached with caution. Further research is required to examine whether alcohol-related health effects vary by type of alcoholic beverage independent of the amount of alcohol consumed to provide a strong evidence platform for alcohol taxation policies.

  14. Centralized versus decentralized taxation of mobile polluting firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguay, Georges A.; Marceau, Nicolas

    2001-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation

  15. Employee benefits in terms of accounting and taxation system

    OpenAIRE

    ŠÍMA, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The theme of this bachelor thesis is Employee benefits in terms of accounting and taxation system. Some companies also include non-monetary bonuses as a way of rewarding their employees. Employee benefits substantially affect satisfaction, loyalty and motivation of all employees. The popularity of employee benefits is also supported by the effort of the companies to optimise taxes, which is the outcome of employee benefits. The main goal was to characterise employee benefits and to explain it...

  16. The Swedish Inheritance and Gift Taxation, 1885–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Du Rietz, Gunnar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of the modern Swedish inheritance taxation from its introduction in 1885 to its abolishment in 2004. A thorough description is offered of the basic principles of the tax, including underlying ideas and ambitions, tax schedules, and rules concerning valuation of assets, liability matters and deduction opportunities. Using these rules, we calculate inheritance tax rates for the whole period for a number of differently endowed family firms and individuals. The ov...

  17. Swedish Inheritance and Gift Taxation (1885–2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Du Rietz, Gunnar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of the modern Swedish inheritance taxation from its introduction in 1885 to its abolishment in 2004. A thorough description is offered of the basic principles of the tax, including underlying ideas and ambitions, tax schedules, and rules concerning valuation of assets, liability matters and deduction opportunities. Using these rules, we calculate inheritance tax rates for the whole period for a number of differently endowed family firms and individuals. The ov...

  18. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO x emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO x emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects

  19. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.dubois@kuleuven.be

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO{sub x} emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO{sub x} emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.

  20. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-08-01

    Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO(x) emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Abraham, Hrvoje

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI) are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA) is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund.

  2. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Zlatić

    Full Text Available We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund.

  3. International Taxation and FDI Strategies: Evidence From US Cross-Border Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Herger; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston

    2011-01-01

    While there is a well-established body of empirical research documenting the negative effect of taxation on foreign direct investment (FDI), there is scant evidence on the extent to which international tax considerations (double taxation, international tax relief stipulated in bilateral tax treaties and the effect of withholding taxes) affect the role of taxation for FDI, and how tax issues differ according to the investment strategies—‘horizontal’ and ‘vertical’—pursued by %multinational fir...

  4. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER; Adnan GERÇEK

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added tax...

  5. Taxing Pensions of an Internationally Mobile Labor Force: Portability Issues and Taxation Options

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising share of individuals spending at least some part of their working life abroad and acquiring pension rights. While the portability of pensions and other social benefits has received some analytical attention over the recent decade there is currently limited analytical guidance on the taxation of retirement provisions within a country, and there is virtually none for the taxation of internationally portable pensions. For both national and international taxation of pensions, th...

  6. Taxation of Outbound Direct Investment: Economic Principles and Tax Policy Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P Devereux

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews economic principles for optimality of the taxation of international profit, from both a global and national perspective. It argues that for traditional systems based on the residence of the investor or the source of the income, nothing less than full harmonization across countries can achieve global optimality. The conditions for national optimality are more difficult to identify, but are most likely to imply source-based taxation. However, source-based taxation requires an...

  7. International Taxation and the Direction and Volume of Cross-Border M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, Harry; Voget, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In an international merger or acquisition, the national residences of the acquirer and the target determine to what extent the newly created multinational firm is subject to international double taxation. This paper presents evidence that the parent-subsidiary structure of newly created multinational firms reflects the prospect of international double taxation. The number of acquiring firms at the national level similarly reflects international double taxation. The evidence suggests that tax ...

  8. The taxation installment in Romania . Between mass - media’'s ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Mihail Papuc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay brings out into relief the situation of Romanian taxation in contrast with taxation level from European Union. To this end there are used a series of statistical data in relation to major category of tax, in the way how Eurostat presences. At the same time the research brings into relief a certain option as regards of pressure taxation assignment on some categories of tax payer.

  9. Double Dividend Taxation Relief: A New View From The Corporate Income Tax Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Lazar

    2010-01-01

    Double taxation of dividends is a matter of great interest in the actual context of globalization and free movement of capital and persons. As the classical system is more and more abandoned, new solutions for the relief of double taxation are put into practice as a mean to reduce the fiscal burden on shareholders. With few exceptions, all these solutions are based on dividend tax relief. The paper aims at providing alternative solutions for double dividend taxation relief by taking some acti...

  10. 31 CFR 285.8 - Offset of tax refund payments to collect state income tax obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... state taxation by reason of being an enrolled member of an Indian tribe who lives on a reservation and... the minimum debt amount. (3)(i) Advance notification to the debtor of the State's intent to collect by... enforceable. In those cases where a debtor claims that he or she is immune from State taxation by reason of...

  11. Taxation in France - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2015 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2015, issued by the Finance and Administration Processes Department, is available since 19 February 2016. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your an...

  12. TAXATION IN FRANCE - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2011 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2011, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 1st March 2012. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at the following link: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/Impots/proc_impot_attestation_interne.asp. ...

  13. Taxation in France | Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2012 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2012, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 15 February 2013. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at this link. In case of difficulty in obtaining your annual certificate, send an e-mail ex...

  14. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2014

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2014 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2014, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, has been available since 20 February 2015. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. 1. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel, you will have received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. 2. If you are no longer a member of the CERN pers...

  15. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules).   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2013 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2013, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 21 February 2014. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are ...

  16. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G

    1998-07-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms' ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs.

  17. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1998-12-31

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms` ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs.

  18. Non-execution of laws or decisions of a taxation body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Shestakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the protection of both the state and the taxpayer in order to improve the implementation of laws and decisions of tax bodies basing on the fact that the central problem of tax legislation is the problem of nonexecution of the Taxation Code and judicial acts. Methods general and specific scientific methods of research were used including systematic and structured problemtheoretical formallegal logical methods etc. Results the reasons are analyzed of nonexecution or improper execution of legislative acts and court decisions by taxpayers. It is concluded that the taxpayer has fewer possibilities to force the tax body to execute the court decision while these possibilities of the taxpayer are hidden in the Taxation Code. Recommendations are given to increase the opportunities for taxpayers to protect their rights from the arbitrariness of bureaucratic bodies means of taxpayersrsquo rights protection are systematized. Scientific novelty the main problem of nonexecution of the laws and decisions of tax bodies is the presence of persons who do not fulfill their responsibilities as taxpayers. In addition the reasons of nonexecution of laws and decisions of tax authorities are not systematized as well as the issues of combating these trends and the statutory possibilities of the taxpayerrsquos nonexecution of the laws and decisions of tax bodies as a means of protecting their interests. However the development of the law enforcement system can be achieved by improving the taxpayersrsquo rights protection. The author proposes specific measures to improve the taxpayer protection which will increase the citizens awareness and the budget replenishment. Practical significance of the study is to protect the state by improving the protection of every citizen and legal entity. The taxpayer should know that the state is not only a punitive mechanism but a mechanism that can protect a particular taxpayer. nbsp

  19. THE ROLE OF THE TAX BURDEN IN THE TAXATION OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Melnyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to underline and present the important of the tax burden in the taxation of Ukraine and to show its influence on the profit of the enterprises. The problem of the optimization of the taxes is closely connected with two factors. The first factor is that the aim of the tax system is to fill the state budget. The second factor is to make fovourible conditions for business to prosper. Also, the aim of the research is еру development of scientific and methodological foundations of practical recommendations on the management of the tax burden with an economic entity on the basis of more efficient use of production resources. To achieve this aim the amendments of the Tax Code and the introduction of new rates and taxes were considered, which affects the activities of the company. also the main criteria of the indicators for assessing the tax burden on the company were formed. The object of research is the process of management of the tax burden on the basis of increase of efficiency of use of industrial resources of the enterprise. The subject of the study is the theoretical and methodological and practical aspects of the tax burden, and its calculation methods for reduction and increase, based on the characteristics of business administration. Methodology. The theoretical base of the issue is taken from the economic bases, the works of the native and foreign scientists on the topic of the influence of the taxation on the work of the enterprises, their profit, the analysis of the statistic data during the last few years. To achieve these goals the following methods were used: a method of system analysis and synthesis, methods of statistical groupings, economic and mathematical, logical and comparative analysis. The information base for writing articles constitutes a legal and regulatory acts of Ukraine, the statistical data of the State Committee of Statistics of Ukraine, the reporting enterprises in Ukraine. Results. The

  20. Assessment of Consequences of Replacement of System of the Uniform Tax on Imputed Income Patent System of the Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Manokhina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the main questions concerning possible consequences of replacement of nowadays operating system in the form of a single tax in reference to imputed income with patent system of the taxation. The main advantages and drawbacks of new system of the taxation are shown, including the opinion that not the replacement of one special mode of the taxation with another is more effective, but the introduction of patent a taxation system as an auxilary system.

  1. Taxation of Income in Foreign Trusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Peter Koerver

    2016-01-01

    Denmark has introduced a new provision that states that Danish settlors of foreign trusts, under certain circumstances, must include the trust’s income in their own taxable income. The provision forms part of the Danish legislator’s recent attempts to prevent international tax evasion/ avoidance...... of foreign (family) trusts for tax evasion/avoidance purposes. However, it is also concluded that there is reason to question whether the new provision is sufficiently precise and whether the aim could have been reached in a more expedient way...

  2. U.S. Taxation of Business: Relevance of the European Experience. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, Charles E., Jr.

    American and European business taxation policies are compared in this booklet. Topics discussed in the paper include effects of the corporation income tax, integration of income taxation, and the value added tax. Two major differences between the American and European systems are noted. First, European countries derive substantial portions of…

  3. Taxation of Public Owned Land for Real Estate Reconstruction in Kiev, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.А. Malashevskyy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Researched of plots and fences used during the reconstruction of real estate in the city Kiev and proposed taxation on public owned land for a period of reconstruction of the real estate. On the base of these calculations, demonstrate the feasibility of such a land taxation.

  4. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of

  5. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    these policy recommendations are second best in strict economic terms, they are the best economic designs given that they must be politically feasible. Understanding the politics of green taxation is the prerequisite for the development of effective green taxation models which have a chance of being...

  6. On the effect of taxation in the online sports betting market

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the effect of taxation in the online sport betting market. This market is characterized by its negligible marginal costs. Taxation can be on volume (General Betting Duty) or on gross profit (Gross Profit Tax). We model the two most popular online sport betting bets: fixed-odds and spread, as compared with another traditional sport betting: parimutuel.

  7. 26 CFR 1.61-2T - Taxation of fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.61-2T Section 1.61-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-2T Taxation of fringe benefits—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) Fringe...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1293-1 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. 1.1293-1 Section 1.1293-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Losses § 1.1293-1 Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. (a) In general. [Reserved] (1...

  9. 26 CFR 1.852-4 - Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies. 1.852-4 Section 1.852-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Investment Trusts § 1.852-4 Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies. (a...

  10. 26 CFR 1.991-1 - Taxation of a domestic international sales corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of a domestic international sales corporation. 1.991-1 Section 1.991-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.991-1 Taxation...

  11. 48 CFR 229.170 - Reporting of foreign taxation on U.S. assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of foreign taxation on U.S. assistance programs. 229.170 Section 229.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... General 229.170 Reporting of foreign taxation on U.S. assistance programs. ...

  12. 26 CFR 1.522-2 - Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522. 1.522-2 Section 1.522-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-2 Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522. (a) In general. Farmers...

  13. 26 CFR 1.857-6 - Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts. 1.857-6 Section 1.857-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...-6 Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts. (a) Ordinary income. Except...

  14. 20 CFR 209.14 - Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. 209.14 Section 209.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. For any employee who is paid a separation payment, the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.852-1 - Taxation of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of regulated investment companies. 1.852-1 Section 1.852-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....852-1 Taxation of regulated investment companies. (a) Requirements applicable thereto—(1) In general...

  16. 26 CFR 1.857-1 - Taxation of real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of real estate investment trusts. 1.857-1 Section 1.857-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-1 Taxation of real estate...

  17. 26 CFR 1.457-7 - Taxation of Distributions Under Eligible Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of Distributions Under Eligible Plans. 1.457-7 Section 1.457-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...-7 Taxation of Distributions Under Eligible Plans. (a) General rules for when amounts are included in...

  18. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of holders...

  19. 26 CFR 1.83-7 - Taxation of nonqualified stock options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of nonqualified stock options. 1.83-7 Section 1.83-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.83-7 Taxation...

  20. 26 CFR 1.597-2 - Taxation of Federal financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Taxation of Federal financial assistance. 1.597-2 Section 1.597-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.597-2 Taxation of Federal...

  1. The Optimal Taxation of UnskilIed Labor with Job Search and Social Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    In order to explore the optimal taxation of low-skilled labor, we extend the standard model of optimal non-linear income taxation in the presence of quasi-linear preferences in leisure by allowing for involuntary unemployment, job search, an exogenous welfare benefit, and a non-utilitarian social

  2. The decline and revival of environmentally-related taxation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2013-01-01

    The EU Energy Taxation Directive's low minimum tax rate for diesel along with a general dieselisation of Europe's vehicle fleet explains why revenues from environmentally-related taxes gradually declined from 1999-2008. After the financial crisis environmentally-related taxation is resuming its...

  3. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is immune, however, is a legal question requiring advice and assistance of the agency-designated counsel. (b) When it... from State and local taxation that may be available. If appropriate, the contracting officer shall...

  4. Political effects of different types of CO2 taxation: A comparison of different taxation patterns in the field of public utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, H.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel-specific and performance-dependent CO 2 taxation of the power plant sector is compared with a standardized taxation under the aspects of directive effect and efficiency. In addition, the author compares the tax level required in both cases for a 25% reduction of CO 2 emissions by power plants by 2005. This does not imply that the Federal Government intends only a sectoral reduction of emissions; the power plant sector is to serve as an example for assessing the cost and the necessary taxation level. For reasons of data availability, the investigation is limited to the field of public utilities. After an outline of the methodology applied, the directive effect of the two taxation models is analyzed verbally. The simulation model used is then described, and the quantitative results achieved are presented. The article closes on an interpretation of the results in comparison with the available literature in this field. (orig.) [de

  5. 24 CFR 1000.242 - When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.242 When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? The requirement for exemption from taxation applies only to rental...

  6. Income- and energy-taxation for redistribution in general equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzRoy, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a 3-factor General Equilibrium (GE)-model with a continuum of ability, the employed choose optimal labour supply, and equilibrium unemployment is determined by benefits funded by wage- and energy-taxes. Aggregate labour and the net wage may increase or decrease with taxation (and unemployment), and conditions for a reduction in redistributive wage-taxes to be Pareto-improving are derived. A small energy tax always raises the net wage, providing the wage tax is reduced to maintain constant employment and a balanced budget. High ability households prefer higher energy taxes when externalities are uniformly distributed and non-distorting. (author)

  7. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    ) pointed to, is weakened and might even be reversed in this context. Also, the median voter may choose a negative tax rate, even if he is poorer than the mean, in order to stimulate public goods production. The relevance of the model is illustrated with an application to the finance of higher education.......The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965...

  8. Centralized versus Decentralized Taxation of Mobile Polluting Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Georges A. Tanguay; Nicolas Marceau

    2000-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation. Nous é...

  9. Dividend Taxation and the Cost of New Share Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias; Södersten, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how the effects of dividend taxation on the cost of new equity funds depend on whether or not shareholders can recover their original equity injections without being subject to the dividend tax. We point out the alternative assumptions in the literature on this, and we compare two different tax regimes, one where it is impossible for the firm to pay cash to its shareholders that is not taxed as dividends, the other where the shareholders are allowed a tax-free return of th...

  10. Dividend taxation, share repurchases and the equity trap

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias; Södersten, Jan

    2009-01-01

      This paper reconsiders the effects of dividend taxation. Particular attention is paid to the form of the “equity trap”, that is, the extent to which cash paid to the shareholders must be taxed as dividends. Our analysis shows that Sinn’s (1991) criticism of the well-known King and Fullerton (1984) methodology for underestimating the cost of new share issues amounts to a misleading comparison across two different regimes for the equity trap. Contrary to Sinn, we find that when dividends are ...

  11. Effect of energy taxation on fuel choice and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leino, P.; Kosunen, P.; Rauhamaeki, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project was to study how various tax models for power plant fuels affect the fuel consumption and emissions of particles, sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). First, the development of Finnish energy taxation is discussed, followed by a survey of the energy production structure for 1994. For this purpose, it was necessary to prepare a large boiler database, which covers about 95 % of the fuel consumption of Finnish energy production. The boiler database was used to calculate the emissions of particles, SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 in 1994. The year 2010 selected under review is the year by which the Ministry of Trade and Industry has prepared their primary energy consumption estimates. Four different alternatives were studied as future tax models. In the first alternative taxation would be as it in years 1995-1996 and in the second alternative taxation would be as in January 1997. In the third alternative the Finnish application of EU taxes would be in force in full, i.e., the tax on heavy fuel oil would be 10 US dollars a barrel. In the fourth alternative there would be no taxes on fuels. The boiler database was used to find out how the consumption distribution of the fuels used in 2010 would change in the various tax models. The tax models affect most the position of fuel peat and natural gas in Finland. If the EU alternative, which is favourable for fuel peat and natural gas, comes true, the consumption of fuel peat will grow by two thirds and the consumption of natural gas will more than double from the present level. If the taxation is as 1 January 1997, the consumption of peat will remain the same as today and the consumption of natural gas will grow by about 50 %. However, if there are no taxes on fuels, the consumption of fuel peat will fall by almost a third and the consumption of natural gas will remain the same as expected at the existing and planned plants. The effect of the various tax models on emissions

  12. THE TAXATION AND THE COUNTRIES COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor CSŐSZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the OECD, competitiveness is a measure of a country's advantage or disadvantage in selling its products on international markets. While economists consider productivity and growth rate as basic indicators of competitiveness, those dealing with economic- and social policy - including the OECD and various bodies of the EU - also emphasize the importance of high level employment rates. The regional policy of the EU,which is targeting balanced territorial development, considers the improvement of the competitiveness of its regions as the most effective tool achieving cohesion. The study contains an analysis of the GDP of the 12 member states that joined the Union in 2004 (Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovak Republic, Slovenia and those in 2007 (Romania and Bulgaria in relation with the employment rate, corporate tax, personal income tax values, imports and exports value.

  13. Taxation in Romania - News and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The constant motion in which the economic environment is found, the financial implications of the economic crisis on it, the need to correlate the existing legislative provisions in functional structures, the increasing need of the state for financial resources are just a few factors that require a permanent adaptation of the tax system in our country. The reform started in the transition to a market economy and continued in the various steps taken in the long and difficult road to economic development. In this paper are presented the fundamental aspects of the tax system in Romania as well as the measures necessary to ensure a correlation between the fiscal and economic objectives.

  14. A Study on the establishment of environmental friendly taxation system II - concentrated on calculation of environmental friendly subsidy and taxation reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan; Lim, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Establishing an environmental friendly taxation system, designing to have a sustainable development and environmental conservation simultaneously, is an important problem to be solved. Following the study on calculation of water and energy subsidy in previous year, the amount of environmental unfriendly subsidy in transportation and agriculture was calculated. Based on the introduction plan of new environmental tax, such as carbon tax and product share, a scheme of environmental friendly taxation reform was proposed. 48 refs., 5 figs., 88 tabs.

  15. Alcohol taxation policy in Thailand: implications for other low- to middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

      Prevention of drinking initiation is a significant challenge in low- and middle-income countries that have a high prevalence of abstainers, including life-time abstainers. This paper aims to encourage a debate on an alternative alcohol taxation approach used currently in Thailand, which aims specifically to prevent drinking initiation in addition to reduce alcohol-attributable harms.   Theoretical evaluation, simulation and empirical analysis.   The taxation method of Thailand, 'Two-Chosen-One' (2C1) combines specific taxation (as a function of the alcohol content) and ad valorem taxation (as a function of the price), resulting in an effective tax rate that puts a higher tax both on beverages which are preferred by heavy drinkers and on beverages which are preferred by potential alcohol consumption neophytes, compared to either taxation system alone. As a result of these unique properties of the 2C1 taxation system, our simulations indicate that 2C1 taxation leads to a lower overall consumption than ad valorem or specific taxation alone. In addition, it puts a relatively high tax on beverages attractive to young people, the majority of whom are currently abstaining. Currently, the abstention rates in Thailand are higher than expected based on its economic wealth, which could be taken as an indication that the taxation strategy is successful.   'Two-chosen-one' (2C1) taxation has the potential to simultaneously reduce alcohol consumption and prevent drinking initiation among youth; however, additional empirical evidence is needed to assess its effectiveness in terms of the public health impact in low- and middle-income countries. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Taxation of nuclear rents: Benefits, drawbacks, and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbee, J.; Himpens, P.; Proost, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the taxation of nuclear energy using a stylized model of the electricity sector, with one dominant nuclear producer and a competitive fringe of non-nuclear plants. First, we find that the optimal nuclear tax is different depending on the time horizon: the optimal short-run tax has the same order of magnitude as the nuclear taxes imposed in Belgium and Germany, while in the long run the optimal tax may be negative, i.e. a subsidy. Second, government credibility is important: when a government cannot credibly commit, the mere possibility of a short-run tax could severely harm incentives for future investments in lifetime-extending refurbishment or new plants. Third, when there is natural scarcity in nuclear potential, other policies like inviting multiple competitive bidders for lifetime extension franchises or for investments in new plants, may be more efficient ways to increase government revenue. - Highlights: • Taxation of nuclear rents is studied using a dominant firm–competitive fringe model. • The optimal tax can be large in the short run, but possibly negative in the long run. • When a government cannot credibly commit, the tax harms investment incentives. • Other policies like auctioning of nuclear franchises can be more efficient than taxes. • The analytical results are numerically illustrated for the case of Belgium.

  17. Demand – Supply – Taxation in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconasu Delia Elena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The confrontation of the two doctrines, the Keynesianism and the Supply-side economics highlight that the Laffer perspective is the way to achieve solid economic growth on the long way and aims the core of an “exit from crisis” policy. Therefore, this article aims to analyze the hypothesis that a high level of taxation and public spending deters productive behavior and reduces economic growth during recessions. In other words, an easy taxation and low unproductive public spending are desirable for both, the enterprising investor and the consumer. Using the example of Romanian fiscal policy, on one side, we validated within a Vector Error Correction framework that an increase in government revenues harms consumption, investment and the level of employment, in conjunction with a procyclical behavior of fiscal authorities. On the other side, our results showed some positive effects of an increased government expenditures on consumption and employment, which can be explained by the accelerate deterioration of primary balance deficit and the Central Bank’s low interest rate. Moreover, even though the initial positive response of investment to a government spending shock is positive, this is ephemeral and nonsignificant. Our findings highlight that, in order to reach growth on the long-run in times of crisis, the Romanian economy should adopt the fiscal policy and measures suggested by the Supply-side Economics.

  18. Corporate taxation in Iceland and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnarsdóttir Fjóla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the development in the field of corporate tax law in Iceland, from both legal and economic point of view, with a focus on measures taken to protect the tax base and in order to try to make Iceland an attractive place for investment and establishment companies. First, there will be a brief general description of the development of the corporate tax rate in Iceland since 2004 and an overview of new taxes that have been introduced for companies over the past ten years. Second, there will be an analysis of how the Icelandic legal framework provides for incentives for investment and establishment of companies in Iceland. Third, this discussion is to be followed by a section on the steps Iceland has taken in order to combat tax avoidance. Fourth, there is a general description of the economic development for the corporate taxation in Iceland since 1990 and fifth, there is brief discussion of the development of revenues from the corporate tax. Sixth, a short overview of the real investment in the Icelandic economy is given, and finally, the main conclusions of this article will be summed up with a short discussion on the main challenges Iceland is currently facing in the field of corporate taxation in today’s globalised economy.

  19. The economic consequences of carbon taxation in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Common, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies; Hamilton, C. [Australia Institute, Deakin, ACT (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Global warming is an international problem. Multilateral actions agreed to under international treaties would be the most effective means of limiting global carbon dioxide emissions. Each country, however, would have some discretion in deciding how best to meet its obligations. In this paper, a potentially important `unilateral` action on the part of Australia, a carbon tax, is examined. When combined with a package of other measures, it may be argued that carbon taxation might be a beneficial policy measure even though actions by Australia would have only a small impact on global emissions. While the arguments may be developed in the Australian context they are relevant to industrial countries more generally. After considering Australia`s current situation with respect the emissions and international greenhouse obligations, the advantages and disadvantages of a carbon tax are reviewed. Based on some modelling work on the effects of introducing a carbon tax in Australia, including projections of impacts on carbon emissions, economic growth and employment, it is concluded that, with appropriate use of carbon tax revenues, there is a prima facie case for the unilateral introduction of carbon taxation in Australia. (author). 7 tabs., refs.

  20. The taxation of diesel cars in Belgium – revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO 2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way

  1. The Limits of Conditionality: Turkey – EU Taxation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Cavlak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conditionality is mostly defined as the EU policy engendered for candidate countries. However, the mere use of conditionality by the EU does not essentially explain transferring of policies and EU rules towards the candidate countries. EU conditionality may be considered as a comprising approach but in certain policy areas or countries it might not be as successful as it was on other ones. The EU conditionality basically defined as a bargaining policy of affecting through reward, under which the EU provides inducements to candidate or neighbor countries to aligning with the conditions of the EU. In this study the explanatory power of conditionality would be questioned; so the main question will be “to what extent does the EU have influence on policy convergence in a candidate country that does not have a clear membership perspective? Taxation chapter in accession negotiations between Turkey and the EU has been chosen as the case of this research as providing to have an answer on this question. The main objective of this paper is ‘analyzing the extent of EU conditionality on Turkish taxation policy.’ Furthermore, it is argued in this study that “without a concrete incentive, European Union’s impact on a candidate country would be limited.”  

  2. IS TAXATION AFFECTING THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES FOR FDI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovici Oana Cristina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of this paper is to determine whether taxation affects the attractiveness of Central and EasternEurope (CEE countries for foreign investors. In this scope, the paper analyzes the impact of taxation for thelocation decision of foreign direct investment (FDI in CEE countries both in 2007 and 2010. A taxation indexinvesting the effect of multiple host country taxes is developed in order to draw the attractiveness matrix for thecountries taken into account. The taxation level comprises the corporate income tax rate, representing directtaxation, the value-added tax (VAT and the social security contributions expressing indirect taxation and finally theease of paying taxes, as provided in Doing Business report. The results indicate that relieving the burden of payingtaxes by tackling the taxation issue is a mean for improving the FDI attractiveness of a country. Still, there are otherfactors that have higher influence on FDI inflows. The main finding is that there is no perfect correspondencebetween the shifts in taxation rankings and the FDI inflows performance.

  3. Bifurcation and Control in a Singular Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Fish Model with Nonlinear Fish Harvesting and Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin-You; Wu, Yu-Qian

    In this paper, a delayed differential algebraic phytoplankton-zooplankton-fish model with taxation and nonlinear fish harvesting is proposed. In the absence of time delay, the existence of singularity induced bifurcation is discussed by regarding economic interest as bifurcation parameter. A state feedback controller is designed to eliminate singularity induced bifurcation. Based on Liu’s criterion, Hopf bifurcation occurs at the interior equilibrium when taxation is taken as bifurcation parameter and is more than its corresponding critical value. In the presence of time delay, by analyzing the associated characteristic transcendental equation, the interior equilibrium loses local stability when time delay crosses its critical value. What’s more, the direction of Hopf bifurcation and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are investigated based on normal form theory and center manifold theorem, and nonlinear state feedback controller is designed to eliminate Hopf bifurcation. Furthermore, Pontryagin’s maximum principle has been used to obtain optimal tax policy to maximize the benefit as well as the conservation of the ecosystem. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to demonstrate our theoretical analysis.

  4. Policy options for carbon taxation in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2010-06-01

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' are probably out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place. First, the EU is not as 'virtuous' as it may seem, and shows signs of a 'fatigue' in mitigating climate change; this is explained by the weak incentive structure of current climate institutions, due to both narrow coverage and insufficient stringency of the European 'Emission Trading Scheme' (ETS) - the European 'carbon market'-, and to excessive reliance on emission standards combined with weak energy taxation. Fears of losing competitiveness are a major argument against imposing a higher carbon price on industries, feeding tax competition both within the EU and vis-a-vis the rest of the world. Though not fully satisfactory, the Commission's recent proposal (a revision of the 2003 energy taxation directive introducing floors on national excises based on carbon content) would help solving the intra-EU conundrum. Alternatively, an extension of the EU ETS to households and the transport sector via the 'upstream' inclusion of fossil fuel dealers would also be a feasible solution. In order to answer the 'carbon leakage' argument and to send appropriate price signals to European consumers on extra-EU imports, a border adjustment mechanism - carbon levy or inclusion of importers into the EU ETS - is also necessary. Ultimately though, in order to make sure that economic agents face a uniform carbon price, a generalized carbon tax, in the form of a European 'Carbon Added Tax' (ECAT), would be the most effective instrument in the fight against climate change, as well as the pillar of a thorough tax

  5. Individual Income Taxation in the World and Russian Practice: Modern Tendencies and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorletskiy Alexander I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article speaks about tendencies in individual income taxation in the leading countries of the world at the modern stage of development, marks out the contribution of the individual income tax into formation of the income base of authorities of all levels and emphasises its role in smoothing social consequences in the post-crisis period. Moreover, the article considers specific features of the individual income taxation in the Russian Federation including possibilities of modification of the existing system of levying this tax through increase of tax rates and introduction of the progressive scale of taxation.

  6. Lessons from the Polder. Is Dutch CO2-Taxation Optimal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates energy tax reform in the Netherlands between 1988 and 2002 from a climate change perspective. A tax on fuels and the so-called regulatory energy tax since 1996 are examples of indirect and non-uniform taxation of emissions. The overall tax base and rate structure corroborates recent theoretical findings that heterogeneity in production processes and transaction costs may justify optimal departures from the Pigovian corrective tax rule. Surprisingly, the Dutch revenue-raising tax matches the (modified) Pigovian policy prescription rather well, whereas the regulatory energy tax mainly follows the revenue raising Ramsey logic. Further improvements of the energy tax structure are also discussed, such as targeting the energy tax base and linking the tax rate more precisely to fuel characteristics

  7. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1991-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...... of a (low) corporate income tax will not affect consumption in the long run, but will simply lead to a replacement of shares by foreign financial assets in household portfolios. It is also found that an anticipated investment tax credit can have and that an anticipated dividend tax will have contractionary...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy...

  8. Optimal Taxation with On-the-Job Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Moen, Espen R.; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the optimal taxation of labor income in the presence of search frictions. Heterogeneous workers undertake costly search off- and on-the-job in order to locate more productive jobs that pay higher wages. More productive workers search harder, resulting in equilibrium sorting where low......-type workers are overrepresented in low-wage jobs while high-type workers are overrepresented in high-wage jobs. Absent taxes, worker search effort is efficient, because the social and private gains from search coincide. The optimal tax system balance efficiency and equity concerns at the margin. Equity...... concerns make it desirable to levy low taxes on (or indeed, subsidize) low-wage jobs including unemployment, and levy high taxes on high-wage jobs. Efficiency concerns limit how much taxes an optimal tax system levy on high-paid jobs, as high taxes distort the workers' incentives to search. The model...

  9. TANGIBLE ASSETS IN TERMS OF DISCONNECTION BETWEEN ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana GURĂU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to make a summary of the accounting and tax provisions of the tangible assets, regarding the current trend of disconnection between tax and accounting. Also, we are going to put together both tax and accounting provisions and we highlight which are the necessary and compulsory tax documents for fixed assets. In taxation, the principle "guilty until proven innocent" is applyng. That means that responsibility to know the Fiscal Code is an obligation "sine qua non" for taxpayers. Thus, there is in low the principle that "no one can excuse invoking ignorance of the law" ("Nemo censetur ignore legem". Based on these considerations, we found it necessary to make a summary of the fiscal obligations that have economic entities on fixed assets. This synthesis can provide to a company a basis for strong arguments in discussions with tax authorities that can prevent an aggressive approach of them.

  10. Direct crowding out, optimal taxation and pollution abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick [FEE, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bovenberg, A. Lans [CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    1993-05-01

    The interactions between direct crowding out, the provision of public goods, optimal taxation and environmental policy are explored. Greener preferences induce a larger tax rate by raising the non-distortionary level of the tax rate. If the marginal productivity of public abatement diminishes rapidly environmental quality improves mainly through a fall in economic activity and emissions. In this case, public consumption increases which crowds out labour supply and private consumption. However, if environmental policy is very effective public consumption falls in order to make room for public abatement. In this case, if labour supply is inelastic with respect to the after-tax wage and direct crowding in is strong, labour supply and economic activity may expand. 1 fig., 7 refs.

  11. Receivables impairment comparison – accounting and taxation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Receivables are the significant area of assets in the entrepreneurs reporting system and in the banks reporting system as well. It is necessary to pay attention to this area and to be flexible in the reaction to changes in the risk of bad debts. Impairment of the bad debts is the reaction to these changes. The impairment is based on the prudence principle and the true and fair view principle. There are quite different rules for impairment application for taxation purposes in the Czech Republic than for financial reporting are set up by Income Tax Act. The paper is concerned with the comparison of ways of bad debts impairment reporting in the entrepreneurs’ financial reporting system and in the banks financial reporting system.The receivables definitions are similar for entrepreneurs and for banks. There are some differences in their classification and in the way of prudent principle application in this area.

  12. Regulatory taxation of fossil fuels. Theory and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfson, Dirk J.; Koopmans, Carl C.

    1996-01-01

    Research on energy taxation is often based on purely theoretical deductions. This paper stays closer to the real world, using empirical data and interpreting results in a political-economic setting of risk and uncertainty. Economic growth in developing countries will boost energy demand, increasing the risk of shortages of oil and natural gas half-way through the next century, and of coal towards the year 2100. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that emissions of CO 2 trigger harmful climate changes. A timely introduction of regulatory taxes will reduce demand for fossil fuels and accelerate the introduction of sustainable technology. The empirical results presented show, moreover, that such taxes may claim a substantial part of the rent on energy extraction for the energy-importing countries. It is argued that optimal control and the avoidance of displacement effects require a tax affecting marginal use, with exceptions to safeguard competitive positions. Exceptions may be scaled down as the jurisdiction is enlarged

  13. From microscopic taxation and redistribution models to macroscopic income distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    We present here a general framework, expressed by a system of nonlinear differential equations, suitable for the modeling of taxation and redistribution in a closed society. This framework allows one to describe the evolution of income distribution over the population and to explain the emergence of collective features based on knowledge of the individual interactions. By making different choices of the framework parameters, we construct different models, whose long-time behavior is then investigated. Asymptotic stationary distributions are found, which enjoy similar properties as those observed in empirical distributions. In particular, they exhibit power law tails of Pareto type and their Lorenz curves and Gini indices are consistent with some real world ones.

  14. A trade based view on casino taxation: market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Wu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a trade based theory of casino taxation along with empirical evidence found from Macao as a typical tourism resort. We prove that there is a unique optimum gaming tax in a particular market for casino gambling, argue that any change in this tax is engendered by external demand shifts, and suggest that the economic rent from gambling legalization should be shared through such optimal tax between the public and private sectors. Our work also studies the tradeoff between economic benefits and social costs arising from casino tourism, and provides some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of gaming-led economies. The theoretical arguments in this article turn out to be consistent with empirical observations on Macao realities over the recent decade.

  15. IBN KHALDUN’S THEORY OF TAXATION AND ITS RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul AZIM ISLAHI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Khaldun, the North African versatile genius scholar of fourteenth century produced his famous work ‘al-Muqaddimah’ (the Introduction which is considered as one of the most sublime and intellectual achievements of the Middle Ages. It is a treasury of many sciences like history, psychology, sociology, geography, economics, political sciences,etc. He strongly argued in this book for low tax rate so that incentive to work is not killed and taxes are paid happily. His theory of taxation is an important contribution to economic thought. He is forerunner of the idea that high tax rates shrink the tax base because they reduce the economic activity. He is considered as the forerunner of Laffer’s curve. His ideas are comparable with those of supply-side economics that emphasized incentives and tax cuts as a means of economic growth.

  16. An Initial Design of ISO 19152:2012 LADM Based Valuation and Taxation Data Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cagdas, V; Kara, A; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Lemmen, CHJ; Isikdag, U; Kathmann, R; Stubkjaer, E

    2016-01-01

    A fiscal registry or database is supposed to record geometric, legal, physical, economic, and environmental characteristics in relation to property units, which are subject to immovable property valuation and taxation. Apart from procedural standards, there is no internationally accepted data

  17. Justification of the concept of mathematical methods and models in making decisions on taxation

    OpenAIRE

    KORKUNA NATALIA MIKHAYLOVNA

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of the application of mathematical methods and models in making decisions on taxation in Ukraine as a phased process. Its performance result is the selection of an effective decision based on regression and optimization models.

  18. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the development mechanism of fiscal and taxation policies in the geothermal industry. The effect of the fiscal and taxation policy on the development of the geothermal industry is analyzed. In order to promote sustainable development of the geothermal industry in China, the government should pay more attention to subsidies for the geothermal industry in the life-cycle stage of the geothermal industry. Furthermore, a plan is necessary to provide a reasonable system of fiscal and taxation policies.

  19. THE IMPACT OF DISCONNECTION OF ACCOUNTANCY FROM TAXATION ON THE SHARE RESULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERINDE SORIN ROMULUS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The opinions regarding the optimum of accounting-taxation ratio are divided between the supporters of the disconnection between accountancy and taxation, on the one hand, and those of the connection between accountancy and taxation, on the other hand. A great number of scientists points of view converge to the idea that the emergence of the accounting science was determined by fiscal reasons. During those days the single reason of accountancy was indeed that of determining the taxable base and starting from these premises the hypothesis that relates accountancy to taxation does not seem so old-fashioned. But along with the general development of economy we observe the coming forth of new and important participants to the economical activity, these being directly interested in the growth of the activity of the enterprise in question and providing them with information could no longer be overlooked.

  20. Changes in the taxation of personal and corporate income in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoš Vítek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years, the tax policies have responded in two stages: for the period of a swift economic growth by 2008, and during the rapid economic recession over the period of 2009–2010. In the first part of the paper, we summarise changes in the businesses environment in developed countries. In its second part, the paper discuses changes of the personal and corporate taxation in developed countries, their structure and impacts of the economic crisis on the tax revenues and tax structures. The last part analyses and discusses changes in the tax policy in the field of business and labour taxation. Our results show that the business taxation, compared to the personal taxation, depends stronger on the economic cycle. Although the structure of tax revenues in the developed countries has not changed significantly over the past ten years, decreasing of the personal and corporate tax rates has stopped.

  1. Harmonization efforts within the area of EEC energy taxation, what opportunities will remain for national freedom of action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, M.

    1991-01-01

    The representative from the Danish Ministry of Energy generally describes the Single Market within the European Communities, especially with regard to the energy market. The harmonization of taxation within the EEC is discussed in relation to the various directive-proposals in this field. The abolishment of fiscal boundaries, the problem of cross-border trade, loss of provenue and the disadvantages of energy taxation with regard to the commercial sector are considered. The views of the Danish government are explained and short descriptions of reports and recommendations sent out by the Commission on this subject are briefly dealt with. It is stated that the European Commission's harmonization proposals poses significant problems for the Danish government. Attention is drawn to the fact that Denmark can exercise its right of veto. Denmark gives high priority to environmental protection. The country does not see the necessity of harmonizing energy taxes in the case of private consumers, and stresses the influence of tariffs on the goals related to energy and the protection of the environment. (AB)

  2. Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual certificate of internal taxation for 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This memorandum follows on from the one published in Bulletin No. 10-11/2007 on 5 March 2007. Pursuant to the Staff Rules and Regulations in force in 2006 (Article R IV 2.04), an annual certificate of internal taxation for the 2006 financial year has been drawn up for members of the personnel. This certificate notably states the total amount of remuneration, payments and other financial benefits received by the member of the personnel concerned, as well as the amount of internal tax levied by the Organization for the same period. The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2006 is now available. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will have received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you may print, if necessary*. You can also access your annual certificate via http://hrt.cern.ch (open 'My Payslips' at the bottom of the main menu.) If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate in the manner indicate...

  3. TAXATION OF EMPLOYEES IN ROMANIA IN 2018. CHANGES AND ITS RESULTS ON THE COUNTRY’S ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ionuț Hușman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The politico-economic context has a significant influence on the development of a country and the visions of the decision-makers together with the economic policies implemented are key elements in a country’s economic welfare. A decisive aspect of the economic policy is the fiscal framework, and when it is not at least stable, the entire economy suffers. In the recent period, in Romania, there have been various tax changes. The present paper analyses perhaps the most controversial tax change, namely, the shifting of social security contributions from the employer’s burden to the employee, along with the reduction of their rate and the reduction of the income tax rate. Implementation of such measures should be examined in terms of economic impact. One can notice that these changes have impact on three stakeholder categories: employees, employers and the state budget. Moreover, these changes must be correlated with other measures that are not directly related to the fiscal framework. At the same time, seeing an overview, one can analyze whether these changes could actually represent a starting point for moving from proportional taxation to progressive taxation. Through several impact assessments, this paper aims to analyze both from a micro and macroeconomic perspectives this tax changes and to offer a clear overview of the economic issues arisen. Such analyses will demonstrate the economic instability created through these measures.

  4. Specific features of taxation of in-dividuals in relationships with foreign elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.9Subject. The issues of taxation of residents and non-residents under Russian tax law are considered in the article. The problems of realization of non-discrimination principle under Russian tax law are brought into light. The important role of judicial practice in development of mechanisms of taxation of non-residents is brought into light.Aim. The aim of this paper is the design of the legal framework of taxation of residents and nonresidents under Russian tax law in the scope of implementation of OECD mechanisms in the legal regulation of income taxation.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and comparative law.Results, scope. The personal income tax under Russian tax law is a direct federal income tax. It occupies a special place in the tax system, affects the interests of almost all citizens, is fairly simple in administration, and the share of its receipt in the budget is high.The leading element of the legal construction of the tax considered in the article is the subject of taxation, and namely the peculiarities of the taxation regime, depending on whether the taxpayer has the status of a resident or non-resident. The main differences of the taxation of tax residents and non-residents in the Russian Federation are the following ones:the object of taxation for tax residents of the Russian Federation is income received from sources in the Russian Federation and (or from sources outside the Russian Federation; for non-residents it is the income they received only from sources in the Russian Federation;the tax rate for tax residents of the Russian Federation is 13 percent; the tax rate for nonresidents is 30 percent.When determining the tax base, all incomes of the taxpayer, received by him in cash or in kind, or the right to dispose of which he has arisen, as well as income in the form of

  5. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins; Jackeline Lucas Souza

    2014-01-01

    To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied t...

  6. The tax system and agreements on the avoidance of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohoutová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    1 Abstract: The tax system and agreements on the avoidance of double taxation This diploma thesis "The tax system and agreements on the avoidance of double taxation" is focused on practical issues in the field of using international corporate structure in order to decrease the tax liability applicable on entrepreneurs. The diploma thesis includes the basic description of the legal rules applicable in the Czech Republic, such as acts and also international treaties. In the field of EU law, the...

  7. Inheritance Taxation in Sweden, 1885-2004: The Role of Ideology, Family Firms and Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Waldenström, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of Swedish inheritance taxation since the late nineteenth century to its abolition in 2004. Our contribution is twofold. First, we compute the annual effective inheritance tax rates for different sizes of bequests, if the inherited assets were family firm equity or not, accounting for all relevant exemptions, deductions and valuation discounts. Second, we attempt to explain changes in inheritance taxation over time. Ideology appears to be the main driver of th...

  8. Dissecting dividend decisions: some clues about the effects of dividend taxation from recent UK reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bond; Michael Devereux; Alexander Klemm

    2005-01-01

    We present empirical evidence which suggests that a big increase in dividend taxation for UK pension funds in July 1997 affected the form in which some UK companies chose to make dividend payments, but otherwise had limited effects on both the level of dividend payments and the level of investment. These findings are consistent with a version of the 'new view' of dividend taxation. We also identify a group of firms whose dividend choices are difficult to reconcile with (stock market) value ma...

  9. Biofuel mandate versus favourable taxation of electric cars. The case of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Geir H. Bjertnæs

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether biofuel policies or favourable taxation of electric cars should be employed to satisfy a green house gas emission target connected to private transport within the Norwegian economy. The study shows that implementation of biofuel generates a welfare gain in the presence of the current favourable taxation of electric cars in Norway. Implementation of biofuels, however, generates a welfare loss when the tax rate on purchase of electric cars is increased to the ave...

  10. Towards an International Tax Order for the Taxation of Retirement Income

    OpenAIRE

    Genser, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades all over the world pension policy reforms have tried to account for the changing demographic and socio-economic framework. An excellent starting point for economic analyses of reform strategies is the Mirrlees Review which argues that pension policy should simultaneously address pension benefit design and the taxation of pensions. We focus on old-age pension taxation and address policy conflicts which come along with international migration of citizens as employees and pen...

  11. Estimated impacts of alternative Australian alcohol taxation structures on consumption, public health and government revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Byrnes, Joshua M; Cobiac, Linda J; Vandenberg, Brian; Vos, Theo

    2013-11-04

    To examine health and economic implications of modifying taxation of alcohol in Australia. Economic and epidemiological modelling of four scenarios for changing the current taxation of alcohol products, including: replacing the wine equalisation tax (WET) with a volumetric tax; applying an equal tax rate to all beverages equivalent to a 10% increase in the current excise applicable to spirits and ready-to-drink products; applying an excise tax rate that increases exponentially by 3% for every 1% increase in alcohol content above 3.2%; and applying a two-tiered volumetric tax. We used annual sales data and taxation rates for 2010 as the base case. Alcohol consumption, taxation revenue, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted and health care costs averted. In 2010, the Australian Government collected close to $8.6 billion from alcohol taxation. All four of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise were shown to save money and more effectively reduce alcohol-related harm compared with the 2010 base case. Abolishing the WET and replacing it with a volumetric tax on wine would increase taxation revenue by $1.3 billion per year, reduce alcohol consumption by 1.3%, save $820 million in health care costs and avert 59 000 DALYs. The alternative scenarios would lead to even higher taxation receipts and greater reductions in alcohol use and harm. Our research findings suggest that any of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise would be a cost-effective health care intervention; they thus reinforce the evidence that taxation is a cost-effective strategy. Of all the scenarios, perhaps the most politically feasible policy option at this point in time is to abolish the WET and replace it with a volumetric tax on wine. This analysis supports the recommendation of the National Preventative Health Taskforce and the Henry Review towards taxing alcohol according to alcohol content.

  12. Reform of Income Splitting for Married Couples: Only Individual Taxation Significantly Increases Working Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Bach; Johannes Geyer; Peter Haan; Katharina Wrohlich

    2011-01-01

    The joint taxation of married couples in Germany with full income splitting is still a major hindrance to the participation of married women in the labor market. In their current financial proposals, the SPD (Social Democratic Party) is calling for income splitting for married couples to be replaced by individual taxation with maintenance deductions, in accordance with existing schemes for divorced spouses. Simulations implemented by DIW Berlin show that such a reform would only have limited ...

  13. Incidence of the WTO Anti-Discrimination Rules on Corporation Income Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Jenkins; Glenn Jenkins

    2007-01-01

    Many countries with free trade zones or export processing zones now exempt from corporate income taxation the income of firms exporting from these areas. The WTO has attempted to eliminate this exemption through its rules to promote the non-discrimination of fiscal systems with respect to export production. In particular, these rules do not allow countries to exempt the income of firms exporting from Free Trade Zones from corporate income taxation. This paper examines both theoretically as we...

  14. Cross-border Intra-group Hybrid Finance and International Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhartinger, Eva; Pummerer, Erich; Göritzer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In intra-group finance hybrid instruments allow for tailor-made form of finance. Hence hybrid finance is often used for international tax planning in multinational groups. Due to a lack of international tax harmonization or tax coordination qualification conflict can arise. A specific hybrid instrument is classified as debt in one country, and as equity in the other country. This may lead to double taxation. In the reverse case, double non-taxation can arise. Against this legal background one...

  15. Why Some Double Taxation Might Make Sense: The Special Case of Inter-corporate Dividends

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck

    2003-01-01

    Arguments for eliminating the double taxation of dividends apply only to dividends paid by corporations to individuals. The double (and multiple) taxation of dividends paid by one firm to another intercorporate dividends - was explicitly included in the 1930s to eliminate pyramidal corporate groups. These structures exist elsewhere, and are associated with corporate governance problems, corporate tax avoidance, and a greater concentration of economic power than is currently possible in the Un...

  16. The Tax Controversy or, Should We Forsake Indirect Taxation? A Survey of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Micheletto Luca

    2004-01-01

    We revise the more recent advances in the literature about the so called "direct versus indirect controversy". In particular, we show how the result of "uniform commodity tax under non-linear income taxation" by Atkinson and Stiglitz (1976) has been amended in some contributions that recovers a role for in direct taxation as an instrument of optimal tax policy even in the case where agents' preferences are weakly separable between leisure and other goods.

  17. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added taxes too. In this paper, we are trying to analyze the development of e-commerce in the world and e-taxation regulations and problems in the European Union (EU and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. The EU and OECD countries are making regulations in this issue. The last regulation is Base Erosion and Profit Shifting 15 point action plan in 2014. Taxation of the digital economy is the first action plan. In addition this, some regulations about taxation of digital economy are being done in Turkey in the case of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting action plan.

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PHENOMENON OF DOUBLE TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE CRISTINA MARIA ZDANOVSCHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the general context of economic globalization, international economic cooperation, the liberalization movement of goods, services, capital and persons, and the effect of the exercise of fiscal sovereignty, appears the phenomenon of double or multiple international taxation of income and assets, following the vocation of several legal systems, which contain legislative differences and can generate tax obstacles, such as, the laws of the country of origin of the revenue and the legislation of the country of destination of income. Thus, more interesting becomes the study of the phenomenon of double taxation at EU level given the distinct presence of 27 sovereignties in full process of European integration So, this paper aims to identify how the European Union handles the phenomenon of double taxation, making a shift from defining this phenomenon to identifying the legislation designed to avoid or eliminate the phenomenon of double taxation in the field of EU direct taxation.Also, this paper deems necessary to stop a moment upon the fiscal harmonization and integration in the indirect taxation field of the European Union.

  19. Taxation and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Position of Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Dietitians of Canada recommends that an excise tax of at least 10-20% be applied to sugar-sweetened beverages sold in Canada given the negative impact of these products on the health of the population and the viability of taxation as a means to reduce consumption. For the greatest impact, taxation measures should be combined with other policy interventions such as increasing access to healthy foods while decreasing access to unhealthy foods in schools, daycares, and recreation facilities; restrictions on the marketing of foods and beverages to children; and effective, long-term educational initiatives. This position is based on a comprehensive review of the literature. The Canadian population is experiencing high rates of obesity and excess weight. There is moderate quality evidence linking consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to excess weight, obesity, and chronic disease onset in children and adults. Taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages holds substantiated potential for decreasing its consumption. Based on economic models and results from recent taxation efforts, an excise tax can lead to a decline in sugar-sweetened beverage purchase and consumption. Taxation of up to 20% can lead to a consumption decrease by approximately 10% in the first year of its implementation, with a postulated 2.6% decrease in weight per person on average. Revenue generated from taxation can be used to fund other obesity reduction initiatives. A number of influential national organizations support a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

  20. Taxation, depletion, and welfare: A simulation study of the US petroleum resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaustible resources in the United States are subject to taxes on property value, production, and corporate income. As applied in practice each tax can cause high-grading - the elimination of incentives to explore, develop, and produce marginal resources - and each can tilt the time path of production toward the present or the future. The potential for such tax-induced distortions has been shown in the theoretical literature. Due to the dynamic nature of resource exploitation and the resulting complexity of models developed to study it, however, purely theoretical exercises have been unable to provide detailed results of a sort that could help guide tax policy. The present paper develops a simulation model of the US petroleum resource and uses it to study the effects of taxation on exploration and production. The model is partial equilibrium in scope and views the industry as a present value maximizing representative firm. Given expectations on the future time path of price, and a function that relates reserve additions to exploratory effort, the industry chooses time paths for exploration and production. Parameters of relevant functions are estimated with data for US petroleum operations in the onshore region of the lower 48 states. The simulated outcomes indicate that property and production (severance) taxes cause substantial deadweight losses, a tax on corporate income from extraction imposes a very small deadweight loss, and the property tax significantly biases utilization of the resource away from the future and toward the present. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs