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Sample records for state systems approach

  1. Prospects for regional safeguards systems - State-level Approach

    Peixoto, O.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The increased co-operation with Regional Safeguard's System (RSAC) is a relevant tool for strengthening effectiveness and improving the efficiency of the international safeguard. The new safeguards system that emerges from the application of the Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540) and the full use of State-level Concept is a challenge and an opportunity for effectively incorporate RSAC into the international safeguards scheme. The challenge is to determine how the co-operation and coordination will be implemented on this new safeguards scheme. This paper presents some discussions and prospects on the issues to be faced by RSAC and IAEA during the implementation of State-level Approach (SLA) using all information available. It is also discussed how different levels of co-operation could be achieved when SLA is applied by IAEA safeguards. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  2. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems – Part I: A linear graph approach

    Uren, K.R.; Schoor, G. van

    2013-01-01

    Thermohydraulic simulation codes are increasingly making use of graphical design interfaces. The user can quickly and easily design a thermohydraulic system by placing symbols on the screen resembling system components. These components can then be connected to form a system representation. Such system models may then be used to obtain detailed simulations of the physical system. Usually this kind of simulation models are too complex and not ideal for control system design. Therefore, a need exists for automated techniques to extract lumped parameter models useful for control system design. The goal of this first paper, in a two part series, is to propose a method that utilises a graphical representation of a thermohydraulic system, and a lumped parameter modelling approach, to extract state space models. In this methodology each physical domain of the thermohydraulic system is represented by a linear graph. These linear graphs capture the interaction between all components within and across energy domains – hydraulic, thermal and mechanical. These linear graphs are analysed using a graph-theoretic approach to derive reduced order state space models. These models capture the dominant dynamics of the thermohydraulic system and are ideal for control system design purposes. The proposed state space model extraction method is demonstrated by considering a U-tube system. A non-linear state space model is extracted representing both the hydraulic and thermal domain dynamics of the system. The simulated state space model is compared with a Flownex ® model of the U-tube. Flownex ® is a validated systems thermal-fluid simulation software package. - Highlights: • A state space model extraction methodology based on graph-theoretic concepts. • An energy-based approach to consider multi-domain systems in a common framework. • Allow extraction of transparent (white-box) state space models automatically. • Reduced order models containing only independent state

  3. An Approach for State Observation in Dynamical Systems Based on the Twisting Algorithm

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach for state estimation in dynamical systems, with the special focus on hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed observer structure is based on the framework of the so-called twisting algorithm. This algorithm utilizes the sign of the state being the target...

  4. A hybrid load flow and event driven simulation approach to multi-state system reliability evaluation

    George-Williams, Hindolo; Patelli, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Structural complexity of systems, coupled with their multi-state characteristics, renders their reliability and availability evaluation difficult. Notwithstanding the emergence of various techniques dedicated to complex multi-state system analysis, simulation remains the only approach applicable to realistic systems. However, most simulation algorithms are either system specific or limited to simple systems since they require enumerating all possible system states, defining the cut-sets associated with each state and monitoring their occurrence. In addition to being extremely tedious for large complex systems, state enumeration and cut-set definition require a detailed understanding of the system's failure mechanism. In this paper, a simple and generally applicable simulation approach, enhanced for multi-state systems of any topology is presented. Here, each component is defined as a Semi-Markov stochastic process and via discrete-event simulation, the operation of the system is mimicked. The principles of flow conservation are invoked to determine flow across the system for every performance level change of its components using the interior-point algorithm. This eliminates the need for cut-set definition and overcomes the limitations of existing techniques. The methodology can also be exploited to account for effects of transmission efficiency and loading restrictions of components on system reliability and performance. The principles and algorithms developed are applied to two numerical examples to demonstrate their applicability. - Highlights: • A discrete event simulation model based on load flow principles. • Model does not require system path or cut sets. • Applicable to binary and multi-state systems of any topology. • Supports multiple output systems with competing demand. • Model is intuitive and generally applicable.

  5. State-space approach for evaluating the soil-plant-atmosphere system

    Timm, L.C.; Reichardt, K.; Cassaro, F.A.M.; Tominaga, T.T.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Oliveira, J.C.M.; Dourado-Neto, D.

    2004-01-01

    Using as examples one sugarcane and one forage oat experiment, both carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, this chapter presents recent state-space approaches used to evaluate the relation between soil and plant properties. A contrast is made between classical statistics methodologies that do not take into account the sampling position coordinates, and the more recently used methodologies which include the position coordinates, and allow a better interpretation of the field-sampled data. Classical concepts are first introduced, followed by spatially referenced methodologies like the autocorrelation function, the cross correlation function, and the state-space approach. Two variations of the state-space approach are given: one emphasizes the evolution of the state system while the other based on the bayesian formulation emphasizes the evolution of the estimated observations. It is concluded that these state-space analyses using dynamic regression models improve data analyses and are therefore recommended for analyzing time and space data series related to the performance of a given soil-plant-atmosphere system. (author)

  6. Robust control of uncertain dynamic systems a linear state space approach

    Yedavalli, Rama K

    2014-01-01

    This textbook aims to provide a clear understanding of the various tools of analysis and design for robust stability and performance of uncertain dynamic systems. In model-based control design and analysis, mathematical models can never completely represent the “real world” system that is being modeled, and thus it is imperative to incorporate and accommodate a level of uncertainty into the models. This book directly addresses these issues from a deterministic uncertainty viewpoint and focuses on the interval parameter characterization of uncertain systems. Various tools of analysis and design are presented in a consolidated manner. This volume fills a current gap in published works by explicitly addressing the subject of control of dynamic systems from linear state space framework, namely using a time-domain, matrix-theory based approach. This book also: Presents and formulates the robustness problem in a linear state space model framework Illustrates various systems level methodologies with examples and...

  7. Principles of Forming the State Budget of Ukraine: Process and System Approach

    Zakhozhay Kostyantyn V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is considering the theoretical and methodological instruments of the State Budget of Ukraine and in view of this providing a more extended characteristic of the principles of the budget system, taking into account the role of the country’s main financial plan at five classical levels of economy. As a result of the research, there determined the necessity of supplementing the legislatively approved principles of the State Budget of Ukraine with the newly introduced principles of economic security and social protection of the population. In order to improve the theoretical and methodological instruments of the State Budget of Ukraine and the visibility of its impact on socio-economic processes under current conditions of the society development as well as to determine its role in the socio-economic space, it is suggested to consider the role of the main financial plan for mega-, macro-, meso-, micro- and nano-levels. Further practical application of the introduced principles of forming the State Budget of Ukraine on the basis of the process and system approach will enable development of many sectors of the national economy; increase the flow of investment; promote political stability; reduce the inflation, unemployment; increase production and exports; reduce the budget deficit and public debt; affect the increase in the financial potential and gold reserves of the state.

  8. Chaos control for a class of chaotic systems using PI-type state observer approach

    Jiang Guoping; Zheng Weixing

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, by using the PI-type state observer design approach and the characteristic of ergodicity of chaos, a new method is presented for controlling chaos, including the stabilization of unstable equilibrium points and set-point tracking, for a class of chaotic systems. Based on the theory of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, a simple criterion is derived for designing the controller gains for stabilization and tracking, in which control parameters can be selected via the pole placement technique of linear control theory. More importantly, this control method has a simple controller structure, high robustness against system parametric variations, and strong rejection of external constant disturbances. The method is applied to the chaotic Lorenz system for demonstration

  9. Cluster Mean-Field Approach to the Steady-State Phase Diagram of Dissipative Spin Systems

    Jiasen Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that short-range correlations have a dramatic impact on the steady-state phase diagram of quantum driven-dissipative systems. This effect, never observed in equilibrium, follows from the fact that ordering in the steady state is of dynamical origin, and is established only at very long times, whereas in thermodynamic equilibrium it arises from the properties of the (free energy. To this end, by combining the cluster methods extensively used in equilibrium phase transitions to quantum trajectories and tensor-network techniques, we extend them to nonequilibrium phase transitions in dissipative many-body systems. We analyze in detail a model of spin-1/2 on a lattice interacting through an XYZ Hamiltonian, each of them coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. In the steady-state phase diagram derived from our cluster approach, the location of the phase boundaries and even its topology radically change, introducing reentrance of the paramagnetic phase as compared to the single-site mean field where correlations are neglected. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the cluster mean field indicates a susceptibility towards a possible incommensurate ordering, not present if short-range correlations are ignored.

  10. A state variable approach to the BESSY II local beam-position-feedback system

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Khan, S.; Kraemer, D.

    1996-01-01

    At the BESSY II facility, stability of the electron beam position and angle near insertion devices (IDs) is of utmost importance. Disturbances due to ground motion could result in unwanted broad-bandwidth beam-jitter which decreases the electron (and resultant photon) beam's effective brightness. Therefore, feedback techniques must be used. Operating over a frequency range of 100-Hz, a local feedback system will correct these beam-trajectory errors using the four bumps around IDs. This paper reviews how the state-variable feedback approach can be applied to real-time correction of these beam position and angle errors. A frequency-domain solution showing beam jitter reduction is presented. Finally, this paper reports results of a beam-feedback test at BESSY I

  11. A Quantised State Systems Approach for Jacobian Free Extended Kalman Filtering

    Alminde, Lars; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Model based methods for control of intelligent autonomous systems rely on a state estimate being available. One of the most common methods to obtain a state estimate for non-linear systems is the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm. In order to apply the EKF an expression must be available...

  12. Stabilization of (state, input)-disturbed CSTRs through the port-Hamiltonian systems approach

    Lu, Yafei; Fang, Zhou; Gao, Chuanhou

    2017-01-01

    It is a universal phenomenon that the state and input of the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) systems are both disturbed. This paper proposes a (state, input)-disturbed port-Hamiltonian framework that can be used to model and further designs a stochastic passivity based controller to asymptotically stabilize in probability the (state, input)-disturbed CSTR (sidCSTR) systems. The opposite entropy function and the availability function are selected as the Hamiltonian for the model and con...

  13. Homogeneous Stabilizer by State Feedback for Switched Nonlinear Systems Using Multiple Lyapunov Functions’ Approach

    Hui Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of global stabilization for a class of switched nonlinear systems using multiple Lyapunov functions (MLFs. The restrictions on nonlinearities are neither linear growth condition nor Lipschitz condition with respect to system states. Based on adding a power integrator technique, we design homogeneous state feedback controllers of all subsystems and a switching law to guarantee that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the validity of the proposed control scheme.

  14. Theoretical and methodological approaches to the diagnosis of the region's state material reservation system status

    Aleksandr Anatol'evich Kuklin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the structural components of the state reserve theory with elements of decomposition and tools for studies in separate directions. The system of state material reserve, which includes the following components: economy - people - natural environment - is a necessary and sufficient reserve for their operation and development which is having the ability to respond to short-, medium- and long-term fluctuations in the economy and consider the risks of adverse factors appliance. It was determined that a necessary and sufficient reserve for the operation and development of the region is a major factor in ensuring its economic security. A method of diagnostics for the state material reserve system within the economic security of the region is presented and described. The approbation of the methodological apparatus for the assessment of the state material reserve by the example on the Ural Federal District was done.

  15. A Multi-State Physics Modeling approach for the reliability assessment of Nuclear Power Plants piping systems

    Di Maio, Francesco; Colli, Davide; Zio, Enrico; Tao, Liu; Tong, Jiejuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We model piping systems degradation of Nuclear Power Plants under uncertainty. • We use Multi-State Physics Modeling (MSPM) to describe a continuous degradation process. • We propose a Monte Carlo (MC) method for calculating time-dependent transition rates. • We apply MSPM to a piping system undergoing thermal fatigue. - Abstract: A Multi-State Physics Modeling (MSPM) approach is here proposed for degradation modeling and failure probability quantification of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) piping systems. This approach integrates multi-state modeling to describe the degradation process by transitions among discrete states (e.g., no damage, micro-crack, flaw, rupture, etc.), with physics modeling by (physic) equations to describe the continuous degradation process within the states. We propose a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method for the evaluation of the time-dependent transition rates between the states of the MSPM. Accountancy is given for the uncertainty in the parameters and external factors influencing the degradation process. The proposed modeling approach is applied to a benchmark problem of a piping system of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) undergoing thermal fatigue. The results are compared with those obtained by a continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chain Model

  16. Pechukas-Yukawa approach to the evolution of the quantum state of a parametrically perturbed system

    Qureshi, Mumnuna A.; Zhong, Johnny; Qureshi, Zihad; Mason, Peter; Betouras, Joseph J.; Zagoskin, Alexandre M.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the evolution of the quantum states of a Hamiltonian that is parametrically perturbed via a term proportional to the adiabatic parameter λ (t ) . Starting with the Pechukas-Yukawa mapping of the energy eigenvalue evolution in a generalized Calogero-Sutherland model of a one-dimensional classical gas, we consider the adiabatic approximation with two different expansions of the quantum state in powers of d λ /d t and compare them with a direct numerical simulation. We show that one of these expansions (Magnus series) is especially convenient for the description of nonadiabatic evolution of the system. Applying the expansion to the exact cover 3-satisfiability problem, we obtain the occupation dynamics, which provides insight into the population of states and sources of decoherence in a quantum system.

  17. On irreversible evolutions of two-level systems approaching coherent and squeezed states

    Jurco, B.; Tolar, J.

    1988-01-01

    The concepts of completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups and SU(2)-related generalized coherence and squeezing are used to investigate conditions for Markovian evolutions leading to coherent, intelligent, minimum-uncertainty and squeezed asymptotic stationary states in a 2-level system. (author). 10 refs

  18. Remote operations and interactions for systems of arbitrary-dimensional Hilbert space: State-operator approach

    Reznik, Benni; Groisman, Berry; Aharonov, Yakir

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic simple method for constructing deterministic remote operations on single and multiple systems of arbitrary discrete dimensionality. These operations include remote rotations, remote interactions, and measurements. The resources needed for an operation on a two-level system are one ebit and a bidirectional communication of two cbits, and for an n-level system, a pair of entangled n-level particles and two classical 'nits'. In the latter case, there are n-1 possible distinct operations per n-level entangled pair. Similar results apply for generating interaction between a pair of remote systems, while for remote measurements only one-directional classical communication is needed. We further consider remote operations on N spatially distributed systems, and show that the number of possible distinct operations increases here exponentially, with the available number of entangled pairs that are initially distributed between the systems. Our results follow from the properties of a hybrid state-operator object (stator), which describes quantum correlations between states and operations

  19. Lie algebraic approach to valence bond theory of π-electron systems: a preliminary study of excited states

    Paldus, J.; Li, X.

    1992-10-01

    Following a brief outline of various developments and exploitations of the unitary group approach (UGA), and its extension referred to as Clifford algebra UGA (CAUGA), in molecular electronic structure calculations, we present a summary of a recently introduced implementation of CAUGA for the valence bond (VB) method based on the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP)-type Hamiltonian. The existing applications of this PPP-VB approach have been limited to groundstates of various π-electron systems or, at any rate, to the lowest states of a given multiplicity. In this paper the method is applied to the low-lying excited states of several archetypal models, namely cyclobutadiene and benzene, representing antiaromatic and aromatic systems, hexatriene, representing linear polyenic systems and, finally, naphthalene, representing polyacenes.

  20. Ambulatory Healthcare Utilization in the United States: A System Dynamics Approach

    Diaz, Rafael; Behr, Joshua G.; Tulpule, Mandar

    2011-01-01

    Ambulatory health care needs within the United States are served by a wide range of hospitals, clinics, and private practices. The Emergency Department (ED) functions as an important point of supply for ambulatory healthcare services. Growth in our aging populations as well as changes stemming from broader healthcare reform are expected to continue trend in congestion and increasing demand for ED services. While congestion is, in part, a manifestation of unmatched demand, the state of the alignment between the demand for, and supply of, emergency department services affects quality of care and profitability. The central focus of this research is to provide an explanation of the salient factors at play within the dynamic demand-supply tensions within which ambulatory care is provided within an Emergency Department. A System Dynamics (SO) simulation model is used to capture the complexities among the intricate balance and conditional effects at play within the demand-supply emergency department environment. Conceptual clarification of the forces driving the elements within the system , quantifying these elements, and empirically capturing the interaction among these elements provides actionable knowledge for operational and strategic decision-making.

  1. An adaptive state of charge estimation approach for lithium-ion series-connected battery system

    Peng, Simin; Zhu, Xuelai; Xing, Yinjiao; Shi, Hongbing; Cai, Xu; Pecht, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Due to the incorrect or unknown noise statistics of a battery system and its cell-to-cell variations, state of charge (SOC) estimation of a lithium-ion series-connected battery system is usually inaccurate or even divergent using model-based methods, such as extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). To resolve this problem, an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) based on a noise statistics estimator and a model parameter regulator is developed to accurately estimate the SOC of a series-connected battery system. An equivalent circuit model is first built based on the model parameter regulator that illustrates the influence of cell-to-cell variation on the battery system. A noise statistics estimator is then used to attain adaptively the estimated noise statistics for the AUKF when its prior noise statistics are not accurate or exactly Gaussian. The accuracy and effectiveness of the SOC estimation method is validated by comparing the developed AUKF and UKF when model and measurement statistics noises are inaccurate, respectively. Compared with the UKF and EKF, the developed method shows the highest SOC estimation accuracy.

  2. Identifying niche-mediated regulatory factors of stem cell phenotypic state: a systems biology approach.

    Ravichandran, Srikanth; Del Sol, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Understanding how the cellular niche controls the stem cell phenotype is often hampered due to the complexity of variegated niche composition, its dynamics, and nonlinear stem cell-niche interactions. Here, we propose a systems biology view that considers stem cell-niche interactions as a many-body problem amenable to simplification by the concept of mean field approximation. This enables approximation of the niche effect on stem cells as a constant field that induces sustained activation/inhibition of specific stem cell signaling pathways in all stem cells within heterogeneous populations exhibiting the same phenotype (niche determinants). This view offers a new basis for the development of single cell-based computational approaches for identifying niche determinants, which has potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Information systems development of analysis company financial state based on the expert-statistical approach

    M. N. Ivliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to methods of analysis the company financial condition, including aggregated ratings. It is proposed to use the generalized solvency and liquidity indicator and the capital structure composite index. Mathematically, the generalized index is a sum of variables-characteristics and weighting factors characterizing the relative importance of individual characteristics composition. It is offered to select the significant features from a set of standard financial ratios, calculated according to enterprises balance sheets. To obtain the weighting factors values it is proposed to use one of the expert statistical approaches, the analytic hierarchy process. The method is as follows: we choose the most important characteristic and after the experts determine the degree of preference for the main feature based on the linguistic scale. Further, matrix of pairwise comparisons based on the assigned ranks is compiled, which characterizes the relative importance of attributes. The required coefficients are determined as elements of a vector of priorities, which is the first vector of the matrix of paired comparisons. The paper proposes a mechanism for finding the fields for rating numbers analysis. In addition, the paper proposes a method for the statistical evaluation of the balance sheets of various companies by calculating the mutual correlation matrices. Based on the considered mathematical methods to determine quantitative characteristics of technical objects financial and economic activities, was developed algorithms, information and software allowing to realize of different systems economic analysis.

  4. Design of polynomial fuzzy observer-controller for nonlinear systems with state delay: sum of squares approach

    Gassara, H.; El Hajjaji, A.; Chaabane, M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of observer-based control for two classes of polynomial fuzzy systems with time-varying delay. The first class concerns a special case where the polynomial matrices do not depend on the estimated state variables. The second one is the general case where the polynomial matrices could depend on unmeasurable system states that will be estimated. For the last case, two design procedures are proposed. The first one gives the polynomial fuzzy controller and observer gains in two steps. In the second procedure, the designed gains are obtained using a single-step approach to overcome the drawback of a two-step procedure. The obtained conditions are presented in terms of sum of squares (SOS) which can be solved via the SOSTOOLS and a semi-definite program solver. Illustrative examples show the validity and applicability of the proposed results.

  5. Variable Structure Disturbance Rejection Control for Nonlinear Uncertain Systems with State and Control Delays via Optimal Sliding Mode Surface Approach

    Jing Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of variable structure control for nonlinear systems with uncertainty and time delays under persistent disturbance by using the optimal sliding mode surface approach. Through functional transformation, the original time-delay system is transformed into a delay-free one. The approximating sequence method is applied to solve the nonlinear optimal sliding mode surface problem which is reduced to a linear two-point boundary value problem of approximating sequences. The optimal sliding mode surface is obtained from the convergent solutions by solving a Riccati equation, a Sylvester equation, and the state and adjoint vector differential equations of approximating sequences. Then, the variable structure disturbance rejection control is presented by adopting an exponential trending law, where the state and control memory terms are designed to compensate the state and control delays, a feedforward control term is designed to reject the disturbance, and an adjoint compensator is designed to compensate the effects generated by the nonlinearity and the uncertainty. Furthermore, an observer is constructed to make the feedforward term physically realizable, and thus the dynamical observer-based dynamical variable structure disturbance rejection control law is produced. Finally, simulations are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the presented controller and the simplicity of the proposed approach.

  6. Towards Reengineering the United States Navy Enlisted Manpower and Personnel Systems - A Data Warehouse Approach

    Conde, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    .... Over time, attempts to increase the usefulness of these systems often involved adding layers of additional programming and data structures, resulting in complex and difficult to maintain legacy-based systems...

  7. Systemic Approach in Latino Families Surviving Domestic Violence in the United States

    Claudia Beatriz Garcia-Leeds

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to attempt to create a more effective treatment model by leveraging the knowledge and skill sets of those who work most closely with these families in crisis. The participants, who consisted of the direct care staff of the Latino Domestic Violence Program (LDVP in Philadelphia, were interviewed individually, and the data was analyzed in accordance with grounded theory methodology. The participants' responses served to bring to the fore a number of important issues. The participants helped identify two main elements that needed to be part of an ideal program. 1: The program must be equipped to address all the biopsychosocial needs experienced by the family (financial, occupational, educational and mental health needs. Undocumented and non-English speaking clients’ needs must be also considered when developing a program for Latino families. 2: We should avoid utilizing a model based on mainstream (United States culture that does not respond to the needs of the community. It is important that the staff be trained in various theories/models that would help in the understanding of the clients’ culture.

  8. Different systems and approaches to treat municipal solid waste. A state-of the art assessment

    Krieg, A; Euler, H; Klopotek, F; Kellner, C [TBW GmbH, Sustainable Techno-logies Building and Business Consultants, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion is still a fairly new technology in the area of utilisation of organic residues, in particular as far as treatment of household wastes and integration of agricultural production is concerned. In the last few years, a number of different processes and concepts, with a variety of different intentions, have been developed and established on the European market, in particular in Germany. Actual categories and parameters, used to analyse, structure and compare available treatment systems, are not yet fully satisfying. The presentation will consist of the following elements: 1. Factors influencing the market of the technology in the recent past. 2. Brief comparison of features of anaerobic solid waste digestion with land filling, composting and incineration. 3. Brief comparison between some European and Non-European countries, concerning municipal solid waste digestion. 4. Main topics in the actual German Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Treatment (AMSWT) debate. 5. Comparison of some existing AMSWT systems and concepts. 6. Presentation of a comprehensive structure, covering the main technical elements of any of the different technologies available. 7. Outlook. (au)

  9. Supercoherent states and physical systems

    Fatyga, B.W.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Truax, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining coherent states of a system admitting a supersymmetry. These states are called supercoherent states. The approach presented in this talk is based on an extension to supergroups of the usual group-theoretic approach. The example of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is discussed, thereby illustrating some of the attractive features of the method. Supercoherent states of an electron moving in a constant magnetic field are also described. 35 refs

  10. Bounding approaches to system identification

    Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric

    1996-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

  11. Polysubjective Approach to the Management of the Higher Education System of the State: The Experience of Kazakhstan

    Bakhtizin, Ramil; Ignatova, Yelena; Sagitov, Salavat; Ustinova, Oksana; Gaisina, Lyutsiya

    2016-01-01

    The higher education system is the sphere of interaction between the state and the interests of society via their institutions and citizens, which involves the compulsory participation of the subjects of the educational relations in the management and the ability to influence the functioning and development of the higher education system, as well…

  12. Introducing Systems Approaches

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  13. Developing State Level Approaches under the State Level Concept

    Budlong Sylvester, K.; Murphy, C.L.; Boyer, B.; Pilat, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    With the pursuit of the State-Level Concept (SLC), the IAEA has sought to further evolve the international safeguards system in a manner which maintains (or improves) the effectiveness of the system in an environment of expanding demands and limited resources. The IAEA must not remain static and should continuously examine its practices to ensure it can capture opportunities for cost reductions while adapting to, and staying ahead of, emerging proliferation challenges. Contemporary safeguards have been focused on assessing the nuclear programme of the State as a whole, rather than on the basis of individual facilities. Since the IAEA's integrated safeguards program, State-level Approaches (SLAs) have been developed that seek to optimally combine the measures provided for by the Additional Protocol with those of traditional safeguards. This process resulted in facility specific approaches that, while making use of a State's broader conclusion, were nonetheless prescriptive. Designing SLAs on a State-by-State basis would avoid the shortcomings of a one-size-fits-all system. It would also enable the effective use of the Agency's information analysis and State evaluation efforts by linking this analysis to safeguards planning efforts. Acquisition Path Analysis (APA), along with the State Evaluation process, can be used to prioritize paths in a State in terms of their attractiveness for proliferation. While taking advantage of all safeguards relevant information, and tailoring safeguards to individual characteristics of the State, paths of the highest priority in all States will necessarily meet the same standard of coverage. Similarly, lower priority paths will have lower performance targets, thereby promoting nondiscrimination. Such an approach would improve understanding of safeguards implementation under the SLC and the rational for safeguards resource allocation. The potential roles for APA and performance targets in SLA development will be reviewed

  14. Approaches for Improving Earth System Science Education in Middle Schools and High Schools in the United States (Invited)

    Adams, P. E.

    2009-12-01

    Earth system science is an often neglected subject in the US science curriculum. The state of Kansas State Department of Education, for example, has provided teachers with a curriculum guide for incorporating earth system science as an ancillary topic within the subjects of physics, chemistry, and the biological sciences. While this does provide a means to have earth system science within the curriculum, it relegates earth system science topics to a secondary status. In practice, earth system science topics are considered optional or only taught if there is time within an already an overly crowded curriculum. Given the importance of developing an educated citizenry that is capable of understanding, coping, and deciding how to live in a world where climate change is a reality requires a deeper understanding of earth system science. The de-emphasis of earth system science in favor of other science disciplines makes it imperative to seek opportunities to provide teachers, whose primary subject is not earth system science, with professional development opportunities to develop content knowledge understanding of earth system science, and pedagogical content knowledge (i.e. effective strategies for teaching earth system science). This is a noble goal, but there is no single method. At Fort Hays State University we have developed multiple strategies from face-to-face workshops, on-line coursework, and academic year virtual and face-to-face consultations with in-service and pre-service teachers. A review of the techniques and measures of effectiveness (based on teacher and student performance), and strengths and limitations of each method will be presented as an aid to other institutions and programs seeking to improve the teaching and learning of earth system science in their region.

  15. Spatiotemporal Pattern of Crime Using Geographic Information System (GIS) Approach in Dala L.G.A of Kano State, Nigeria

    M. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial database of crime characteristics which helps in the determination of hotspots in Dala LGA of Kano State and also it identifies the challenges facing police departments that seek to implement computerized crime mapping systems. Different data sources were used, data from the Nigerian Police Force ( Dala and Jakara Division) of 2008 – 2010. For this study, the crime was divided into four categories: offence against...

  16. A kernel-based approach to MIMO LPV state-space identification and application to a nonlinear process system

    Rizvi, S.Z.; Mohammadpour, J.; Toth, R.; Meskin, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper first describes the development of a nonparametric identification method for linear parameter-varying (LPV) state-space models and then applies it to a nonlinear process system. The proposed method uses kernel-based least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM). While parametric

  17. A State-Based Modeling Approach for Efficient Performance Evaluation of Embedded System Architectures at Transaction Level

    Anthony Barreteau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract models are necessary to assist system architects in the evaluation process of hardware/software architectures and to cope with the still increasing complexity of embedded systems. Efficient methods are required to create reliable models of system architectures and to allow early performance evaluation and fast exploration of the design space. In this paper, we present a specific transaction level modeling approach for performance evaluation of hardware/software architectures. This approach relies on a generic execution model that exhibits light modeling effort. Created models are used to evaluate by simulation expected processing and memory resources according to various architectures. The proposed execution model relies on a specific computation method defined to improve the simulation speed of transaction level models. The benefits of the proposed approach are highlighted through two case studies. The first case study is a didactic example illustrating the modeling approach. In this example, a simulation speed-up by a factor of 7,62 is achieved by using the proposed computation method. The second case study concerns the analysis of a communication receiver supporting part of the physical layer of the LTE protocol. In this case study, architecture exploration is led in order to improve the allocation of processing functions.

  18. New Approaches for Very Short-term Steady-State Analysis of An Electrical Distribution System with Wind Farms

    Antonio Bracale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution networks are undergoing radical changes due to the high level of penetration of dispersed generation. Dispersed generation systems require particular attention due to their incorporation of uncertain energy sources, such as wind farms, and due to the impacts that such sources have on the planning and operation of distribution networks. In particular, the foreseeable, extensive use of wind turbine generator units in the future requires that distribution system engineers properly account for their impacts on the system. Many new technical considerations must be addressed, including protection coordination, steady-state analysis, and power quality issues. This paper deals with the very short-term, steady-state analysis of a distribution system with wind farms, for which the time horizon of interest ranges from one hour to a few hours ahead. Several wind-forecasting methods are presented in order to obtain reliable input data for the steady-state analysis. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods were considered and used in performing deterministic and probabilistic load-flow analyses. Numerical applications on a 17-bus, medium-voltage, electrical distribution system with various wind farms connected at different busbars are presented and discussed.

  19. The Problem-Oriented Approach to Organization of the Functioning of the State Control System in Ukraine

    Ivanova Olga Yu.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There conducted an analysis of the number of inspections of business entities that were carried out by controlling bodies in Ukraine in 2015. As a result, it is justified that the issue of reducing the number of inspections of business entities is of primary importance for improving the business climate in Ukraine. The control functions of some central bodies of executive power that are similar or identical are singled out, the cases of dividing one sphere of control between several bodies are considered. By analyzing the organization of the functioning of the state control system in Ukraine, there revealed its main problems and directions for their solution, among which: the depriving of the State Forest Resource Agency of Ukraine and the State Agency of Fisheries of Ukraine of the duplicating control functions; the depriving of the State Service of Ukraine for Labor of functions of control over business entities delegating these functions to the above bodies. As a result, the State Service of Ukraine for Labor will only perform functions of control over activities of the Funds. These changes will make it possible not only to simplify the system of central bodies of executive power that have the right to conduct inspections of business entities by reducing the number of such bodies but also ensure the conducting of the inspections by special bodies.

  20. STATE_SYSTEM

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline highway network representation of the 10,000 miles Kansas State Highway System (Interstate, U.S., and Kansas routes). The state...

  1. Random Fuzzy Extension of the Universal Generating Function Approach for the Reliability Assessment of Multi-State Systems Under Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties

    Li, Yan-Fu; Ding, Yi; Zio, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    . In this work, we extend the traditional universal generating function (UGF) approach for multi-state system (MSS) availability and reliability assessment to account for both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. First, a theoretical extension, named hybrid UGF (HUGF), is made to introduce the use of random...... fuzzy variables (RFVs) in the approach. Second, the composition operator of HUGF is defined by considering simultaneously the probabilistic convolution and the fuzzy extension principle. Finally, an efficient algorithm is designed to extract probability boxes ($p$ -boxes) from the system HUGF, which...

  2. Child protection systems within the Danish, Finnish and Norwegian welfare states - time for a child centric approach?,

    Pösö, Tarja; Skivenes, Marit; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the child protection systems and the Nordic welfare state in Denmark, Finland and Norway. Despite an ideological focus on prevention and provision of a fair amount of universal services and in-home child protection services for families and children...... protection and related services. Consequently, many principles of the present child protection systems are – and will remain – challenged by a child-centric orientation, in which valuing children's needs, rights and voice in situ are central....

  3. Characterisation of ictal and interictal states of epilepsy: A system dynamic approach of principal dynamic modes analysis.

    Zabit Hameed

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterised by the recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, called epileptic seizures. The present study attempts to derive new diagnostic indices which may delineate between ictal and interictal states of epilepsy. To achieve this, the nonlinear modeling approach of global principal dynamic modes (PDMs is adopted to examine the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal lobes with the occipital brain segment using an ensemble of paediatric EEGs having the presence of epileptic seizure. The distinct spectral characteristics of global PDMs are found to be in line with the neural rhythms of brain dynamics. Moreover, we find that the linear trends of associated nonlinear functions (ANFs associated with the 2nd and 4th global PDMs (representing delta, theta and alpha bands of Fp1-F3 may differentiate between ictal and interictal states of epilepsy. These findings suggest that global PDMs and their associated ANFs may offer potential utility as diagnostic neural measures for ictal and interictal states of epilepsy.

  4. Possible State Approaches to Cryptocurrencies

    Jan Lansky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrencies are a type of digital currencies that are relying on cryptographic proofs for confirmation of transactions. Cryptocurrencies usually achieve a unique combination of three features: ensuring limited anonymity, independence from central authority and double spending attack protection. No other group of currencies, including fiat currencies, has this combination of features. We will define cryptocurrency ownership and account anonymity. We will define cryptocurrency ownership and account anonymity. We will introduce a classification of the types of approaches to regulation of cryptocurrencies by various individual countries. We will present the risks that the use of cryptocurrencies involves and the possibilities of prevention of those risks. We will present the possible use of cryptocurrencies for the benefit of the state. The conclusion addresses the implications of adoption of a cryptocurrency as a national currency.

  5. An input-to-state stability approach to verify almost global stability of a synchronous-machine-infinite-bus system.

    Schiffer, Johannes; Efimov, Denis; Ortega, Romeo; Barabanov, Nikita

    2017-08-13

    Conditions for almost global stability of an operating point of a realistic model of a synchronous generator with constant field current connected to an infinite bus are derived. The analysis is conducted by employing the recently proposed concept of input-to-state stability (ISS)-Leonov functions, which is an extension of the powerful cell structure principle developed by Leonov and Noldus to the ISS framework. Compared with the original ideas of Leonov and Noldus, the ISS-Leonov approach has the advantage of providing additional robustness guarantees. The efficiency of the derived sufficient conditions is illustrated via numerical experiments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. State-space approaches for modelling and control in financial engineering systems theory and machine learning methods

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2017-01-01

    The book conclusively solves problems associated with the control and estimation of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics in financial systems when these are described in the form of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It then addresses problems associated with the control and estimation of financial systems governed by partial differential equations (e.g. the Black–Scholes partial differential equation (PDE) and its variants). Lastly it an offers optimal solution to the problem of statistical validation of computational models and tools used to support financial engineers in decision making. The application of state-space models in financial engineering means that the heuristics and empirical methods currently in use in decision-making procedures for finance can be eliminated. It also allows methods of fault-free performance and optimality in the management of assets and capitals and methods assuring stability in the functioning of financial systems to be established. Covering the following key are...

  7. United States and Canadian approaches to justice in health care: a comparative analysis of health care systems and values.

    Jecker, N S; Meslin, E M

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the basic ethical values underpinning national health care policies in the United States and Canada. We use the framework of ethical theory to name and elaborate ethical values and to facilitate moral reflection about health care reform. Section one describes historical and contemporary social contract theories and clarifies the ethical values associated with them. Sections two and three show that health care debates and health care systems in both countries reflect the values of this tradition; however, each nation interprets the tradition differently. In the U.S., standards of justice for health care are conceived as a voluntary agreement reached by self-interested parties. Canadians, by contrast, interpret the same justice tradition as placing greater emphasis on concern for others and for the community. The final section draws out the implications of these differences for future U.S. and Canadian health care reforms.

  8. The MSINDO-sCIS and MSINDO-UCIS methods. Procedures for the calculation of properties of excited states in molecules and periodic systems by a semiempirical approach

    Gadaczek, Immanuel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical background, parameterization and performance of the newly developed semiempirical configuration interaction singles (CIS) method MSINDO-sCIS (scaled configuration interaction singles) are presented. The CIS Hamiltonian is modified by scaling of the Coulomb and exchange integrals and a semiempirical correction of the diagonal elements. For a recently proposed benchmark set of 28 medium-sized organic molecules, vertical excitation energies for singlet and triplet states have been calculated and statistically evaluated. A full reparameterization of the MSINDO method for both ground and excited state properties was performed. The results of the reparameterized MSINDO-sCIS method are compared to the currently best semiempirical method for excited states, OM3-CISDTQ by Thiel et al., and to other standard methods, such as time-dependent density- functional theory. The mean absolute deviation with respect to the theoretical best estimates (TBEs) for MSINDO-sCIS is 0.44 eV, comparable to the OM3 method but significantly smaller than for Zerner's INDO/S. The computational effort is strongly reduced compared to OM3-CISDTQ and OM3-MRCISD, since only single excitations are taken into account. Higher excitations are implicitly included by parameterization and the empirical correction term. By application of the Davidson-Liu block diagonalization method high computational efficiency is achieved. Furthermore it is demonstrated, that the MSINDO-sCIS method correctly describes charge-transfer (CT) states, that represent a crucial problem for time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. Additionally this method is extended to open-shell systems by the UCIS (unrestricted CIS) approach. MSINDO allows the calculation of periodic systems via the cyclic cluster model (CCM) which is a direct-space approach and therefore can be in principle combined with all molecular quantum-chemical techniques. The sCIS/UCIS equations are solved for a cluster with periodic

  9. Rail transport systems approach

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  10. Electronics a systems approach

    Storey, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Electronics plays a central role in our everyday lives. It is at the heart of almost all of today's essential technology, from mobile phones to computers and from cars to power stations. As such, all engineers, scientists and technologists need to have a fundamental understanding of this exciting subject, and for many this will just be the beginning. Now in its sixth edition, Electronics: A Systems Approach provides an outstanding introduction to this fast-moving and important field. Comprehensively revised and updated to cover the latest developments in the world of electronics, the text continues to use Neil Storey's established and well-respected systems approach. It introduces the basic concepts first before progressing to a more advanced analysis, enabling you to contextualise what a system is designed to achieve before tackling the intricacies of designing or analysing its various components with confidence. This book is accompanied by a website which contains over 100 video tutorials to help explain ke...

  11. An Online Causal Inference Framework for Modeling and Designing Systems Involving User Preferences: A State-Space Approach

    Ibrahim Delibalta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a causal inference framework to model the effects of machine learning algorithms on user preferences. We then use this mathematical model to prove that the overall system can be tuned to alter those preferences in a desired manner. A user can be an online shopper or a social media user, exposed to digital interventions produced by machine learning algorithms. A user preference can be anything from inclination towards a product to a political party affiliation. Our framework uses a state-space model to represent user preferences as latent system parameters which can only be observed indirectly via online user actions such as a purchase activity or social media status updates, shares, blogs, or tweets. Based on these observations, machine learning algorithms produce digital interventions such as targeted advertisements or tweets. We model the effects of these interventions through a causal feedback loop, which alters the corresponding preferences of the user. We then introduce algorithms in order to estimate and later tune the user preferences to a particular desired form. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms through experiments in different scenarios.

  12. Component- and system-level degradation modeling of digital Instrumentation and Control systems based on a Multi-State Physics Modeling Approach

    Wang, Wei; Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Multi-State Physics Modeling (MSPM) framework for reliability assessment is proposed. • Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is utilized to estimate the degradation state probability. • Due account is given to stochastic uncertainty and deterministic degradation progression. • The MSPM framework is applied to the reliability assessment of a digital I&C system. • Results are compared with the results obtained with a Markov Chain Model (MCM). - Abstract: A system-level degradation modeling is proposed for the reliability assessment of digital Instrumentation and Control (I&C) systems in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). At the component level, we focus on the reliability assessment of a Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD), which is an important digital I&C component used to guarantee the safe operation of NPPs. A Multi-State Physics Model (MSPM) is built to describe this component degradation progression towards failure and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to estimate the probability of sojourn in any of the previously defined degradation states, by accounting for both stochastic and deterministic processes that affect the degradation progression. The MC simulation relies on an integrated modeling of stochastic processes with deterministic aging of components that results to be fundamental for estimating the joint cumulative probability distribution of finding the component in any of the possible degradation states. The results of the application of the proposed degradation model to a digital I&C system of literature are compared with the results obtained by a Markov Chain Model (MCM). The integrated stochastic-deterministic process here proposed to drive the MC simulation is viable to integrate component-level models into a system-level model that would consider inter-system or/and inter-component dependencies and uncertainties.

  13. Using fuzzy cognitive mapping as a participatory approach to analyze change, preferred states, and perceived resilience of social-ecological systems

    Steven A. Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the use of fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM as a participatory method for understanding social-ecological systems (SESs. In recent years, FCM has been used in a diverse set of contexts ranging from fisheries management to agricultural development, in an effort to generate transparent graphical models of complex systems that are useful for decision making, illuminate the core presumptions of environmental stakeholders, and structure environmental problems for scenario development. This increase in popularity is because of FCM's bottom-up approach and its ability to incorporate a range of individual, community-level, and expert knowledge into an accessible and standardized format. Although there has been an increase in the use of FCM as an environmental planning and learning tool, limited progress has been made with regard to the method's relationship to existing resilience frameworks and how the use of FCM compares with other participatory modeling/approaches available. Using case study data developed from community-driven models of the bushmeat trade in Tanzania, we examine the usefulness of FCM for promoting resilience analysis among stakeholders in terms of identifying key state variables that comprise an SES, evaluating alternative SES equilibrium states, and defining desirable or undesirable state outcomes through scenario analysis.

  14. Systemic approaches to biodegradation.

    Trigo, Almudena; Valencia, Alfonso; Cases, Ildefonso

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradation, the ability of microorganisms to remove complex chemicals from the environment, is a multifaceted process in which many biotic and abiotic factors are implicated. The recent accumulation of knowledge about the biochemistry and genetics of the biodegradation process, and its categorization and formalization in structured databases, has recently opened the door to systems biology approaches, where the interactions of the involved parts are the main subject of study, and the system is analysed as a whole. The global analysis of the biodegradation metabolic network is beginning to produce knowledge about its structure, behaviour and evolution, such as its free-scale structure or its intrinsic robustness. Moreover, these approaches are also developing into useful tools such as predictors for compounds' degradability or the assisted design of artificial pathways. However, it is the environmental application of high-throughput technologies from the genomics, metagenomics, proteomics and metabolomics that harbours the most promising opportunities to understand the biodegradation process, and at the same time poses tremendous challenges from the data management and data mining point of view.

  15. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Wintec

    Department of Mechanical Engineering,. † ... A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for ... and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, ...

  16. Binary interaction parameters for nonpolar systems with cubic equations of state: a theoretical approach 1. CO2/hydrocarbons using SRK equation of state

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Stenby, Erling H.

    1994-01-01

    This work shows that, when suitable theoretically based combining rules are used for the cross energy and cross co-volume parameters, cubic equations of state (EoS) with the van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules can adequately represent phase equilibria for the asymmetric CO2/hydrocarbon mixtures...... for the prediction of phase behavior of petroleum fluids. A brief theoretical analysis on the temperature dependency of the Kij interaction parameter is also presented....

  17. Information in the system of state administration

    Kalytych, G.; Litosh, G.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the approaches to the notions of "information", "state administration system", "administrative information". The article considers the importance of of information for the whole state administration system and reveals the criteria which provide the information with administrative status. Special attention is paid to making of administrative decisions on the level of the sate which are based on effective information management.

  18. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  19. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems – Part II: A linear graph approach applied to a Brayton cycle-based power conversion unit

    Uren, Kenneth Richard; Schoor, George van

    2013-01-01

    This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space representation was extracted for a U-tube system to illustrate the concept. In this paper a 25th order nonlinear state space representation in terms of the different energy domains is extracted. This state space representation is solved and the responses of a number of important states are compared with results obtained from a PBMR PCU Flownex ® model. Flownex ® is a validated thermo fluid simulation software package. The results show that the state space model closely resembles the dynamics of the PBMR PCU. This kind of model may be used for nonlinear MIMO (multi-input, multi-output) type of control strategies. However, there is still a need for linear state space models since many control system design and analysis techniques require a linear state space model. This issue is also addressed in this paper by showing how a linear state space model can be derived from the extracted nonlinear state space model. The linearised state space model is also validated by comparing the state space model to an existing linear Simulink ® model of the PBMR PCU system. - Highlights: • State space model extraction of a pebble bed modular reactor PCU (power conversion unit). • A 25th order nonlinear time varying state space model is obtained. • Linearisation of a nonlinear state space model for use in power output control. • Non-minimum phase characteristic that is challenging in terms of control. • Models derived are useful for MIMO control strategies

  20. An Approach for Implementing State Machines with Online Testability

    P. K. Lala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, significant amount of research has been performed to simplify the detection of transient or soft errors in VLSI-based digital systems. This paper proposes an approach for implementing state machines that uses 2-hot code for state encoding. State machines designed using this approach allow online detection of soft errors in registers and output logic. The 2-hot code considerably reduces the number of required flip-flops and leads to relatively straightforward implementation of next state and output logic. A new way of designing output logic for online fault detection has also been presented.

  1. An algorithmic approach for the dynamic reliability analysis of non-repairable multi-state weighted k-out-of-n:G system

    Eryilmaz, Serkan; Rıza Bozbulut, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a multi-state weighted k-out-of-n:G system model in a dynamic setup. In particular, we study the random time spent by the system with a minimum performance level of k. Our method is based on ordering the lifetimes of the system's components in different state subsets. Using this ordering along with the Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm, we obtain estimates of the mean and survival function of the time spent by the system in state k or above. We present illustrative computational results when the degradation in the components follows a Markov process. - Highlights: • A multi-state weighted k-out-of-n:G system is studied. • A Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm is provided for the dynamic analysis. • Numerics are presented when the components' degradation follow the Markov process

  2. APE (state-oriented approach) centralized control procedures

    Astier, D.; Depont, G.; Van Dermarliere, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the progressive implementation of the state-oriented approach (APE) for centralized control procedures in French nuclear power plants. The implementation began in the years 1982-83 and it concerned only the circuits involved in engineered safeguard systems such IS (safety injection), EAS (containment spray system) and GMPP (reactor coolant pump set). In 2003 the last PWR unit switched from the event oriented approach to APE for post-accidental situations

  3. MOBILITY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Mykola I. Striuk; Serhiy O. Semerikov; Andrii M. Striuk

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the problem of mobility in the socio-educational and technical systems was carried out: the evolution of the concept of mobility in scientific sources of XIX–XXI centuries was analyzed and the new sources on the issue of mobility introduced into scientific circulation, the interrelation of the types of mobility in the socio-pedagogical and technical systems are theoretically grounded, an integrative model of mobility in the information society is proposed. The major t...

  4. A systems approach to obesity

    Bartsch, Sarah M.; Mui, Yeeli; Haidari, Leila A.; Spiker, Marie L.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has become a truly global epidemic, affecting all age groups, all populations, and countries of all income levels. To date, existing policies and interventions have not reversed these trends, suggesting that innovative approaches are needed to transform obesity prevention and control. There are a number of indications that the obesity epidemic is a systems problem, as opposed to a simple problem with a linear cause-and-effect relationship. What may be needed to successfully address obesity is an approach that considers the entire system when making any important decision, observation, or change. A systems approach to obesity prevention and control has many benefits, including the potential to further understand indirect effects or to test policies virtually before implementing them in the real world. Discussed here are 5 key efforts to implement a systems approach for obesity prevention: 1) utilize more global approaches; 2) bring new experts from disciplines that do not traditionally work with obesity to share experiences and ideas with obesity experts; 3) utilize systems methods, such as systems mapping and modeling; 4) modify and combine traditional approaches to achieve a stronger systems orientation; and 5) bridge existing gaps between research, education, policy, and action. This article also provides an example of how a systems approach has been used to convene a multidisciplinary team and conduct systems mapping and modeling as part of an obesity prevention program in Baltimore, Maryland. PMID:28049754

  5. State estimation in networked systems

    Sijs, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers state estimation strategies for networked systems. State estimation refers to a method for computing the unknown state of a dynamic process by combining sensor measurements with predictions from a process model. The most well known method for state estimation is the Kalman

  6. MOBILITY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Mykola I. Striuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the problem of mobility in the socio-educational and technical systems was carried out: the evolution of the concept of mobility in scientific sources of XIX–XXI centuries was analyzed and the new sources on the issue of mobility introduced into scientific circulation, the interrelation of the types of mobility in the socio-pedagogical and technical systems are theoretically grounded, an integrative model of mobility in the information society is proposed. The major trends in academic mobility are identified (the transition from student mobility to mobility programs and educational services providers, the new mobility programs (franchising, double/joint degrees, combinations, nostrification etc. are characterized. The new types of mobility providers are reviewed and attention is focused on virtual universities that are now the basis of virtual mobility of students and activities which are based on the use of new ICT in higher education, especially – the Internet and mobile learning environments.

  7. Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.

  8. System approach to chemistry course

    Lorina E. Kruglova; Valentina G. Derendyaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

  9. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  10. Architecture Approach in System Development

    Ladislav Burita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a practical solution of architecture approach in system development. The software application is the system which optimizes the transport service. The first part of the paper defines the enterprise architecture, its parts and frameworks. Next is explained the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF, a tool for command and control systems development in military environment. The NAF is used for architecture design of the system for optimization of the transport service.

  11. Excited states in biological systems

    Cilento, G.; Zinner, K.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Duran, N.; Baptista, R.C. de; Shimizu, Y.; Augusto, O.; Faljoni-Alario, A.; Vidigal, C.C.C.; Oliveira, O.M.M.F.; Haun, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of bioluminescence related to bioenergetics are discussed: 1. chemical generation of excited species, by means of two general processes: electron transference and cyclic - and linear peroxide cleavage; 2. biological systems capable of generating excited states and 3. biological functions of these states, specially the non-emissive ones (tripletes). The production and the role of non-emissive excited states in biological systems are analysed, the main purpose of the study being the search for non-emissive states. Experiences carried out in biological systems are described; results and conclusions are given. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Future approaches to digital systems

    Woodrough, R.E.; Beckmann, E.; Jenkins, D.; Belcher, D.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of the first digital imaging systems has led to the concept of a totally digital imaging department - the 'filmless department'. This concept and its associated network system for digital departments are briefly considered. A transducer system of scanned projection radiography with solid state detectors used in digital chest imaging is described. The principles of this transducer system are applicable to other forms of digital radiography. (U.K.)

  13. Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244

    Ling, Lawrence T. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2205, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Chew, David P. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2426, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance

  14. Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244

    Ling, Lawrence T.; Chew, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance

  15. Reconsidering harmonic and anharmonic coherent states: Partial differential equations approach

    Toutounji, Mohamad, E-mail: Mtoutounji@uaeu.ac.ae

    2015-02-15

    This article presents a new approach to dealing with time dependent quantities such as autocorrelation function of harmonic and anharmonic systems using coherent states and partial differential equations. The approach that is normally used to evaluate dynamical quantities involves formidable operator algebra. That operator algebra becomes insurmountable when employing Morse oscillator coherent states. This problem becomes even more complicated in case of Morse oscillator as it tends to exhibit divergent dynamics. This approach employs linear partial differential equations, some of which may be solved exactly and analytically, thereby avoiding the cumbersome noncommutative algebra required to manipulate coherent states of Morse oscillator. Additionally, the arising integrals while using the herein presented method feature stability and high numerical efficiency. The correctness, applicability, and utility of the above approach are tested by reproducing the partition and optical autocorrelation function of the harmonic oscillator. A closed-form expression for the equilibrium canonical partition function of the Morse oscillator is derived using its coherent states and partial differential equations. Also, a nonequilibrium autocorrelation function expression for weak electron–phonon coupling in condensed systems is derived for displaced Morse oscillator in electronic state. Finally, the utility of the method is demonstrated through further simplifying the Morse oscillator partition function or autocorrelation function expressions reported by other researchers in unevaluated form of second-order derivative exponential. Comparison with exact dynamics shows identical results.

  16. The coordinate coherent states approach revisited

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the coordinate coherent states approach through two different quantization procedures in the quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski plane. The first procedure, which is based on the normal commutation relation between an annihilation and creation operators, deduces that a point mass can be described by a Gaussian function instead of the usual Dirac delta function. However, we argue this specific quantization by adopting the canonical one (based on the canonical commutation relation between a field and its conjugate momentum) and show that a point mass should still be described by the Dirac delta function, which implies that the concept of point particles is still valid when we deal with the noncommutativity by following the coordinate coherent states approach. In order to investigate the dependence on quantization procedures, we apply the two quantization procedures to the Unruh effect and Hawking radiation and find that they give rise to significantly different results. Under the first quantization procedure, the Unruh temperature and Unruh spectrum are not deformed by noncommutativity, but the Hawking temperature is deformed by noncommutativity while the radiation specturm is untack. However, under the second quantization procedure, the Unruh temperature and Hawking temperature are untack but the both spectra are modified by an effective greybody (deformed) factor. - Highlights: ► Suggest a canonical quantization in the coordinate coherent states approach. ► Prove the validity of the concept of point particles. ► Apply the canonical quantization to the Unruh effect and Hawking radiation. ► Find no deformations in the Unruh temperature and Hawking temperature. ► Provide the modified spectra of the Unruh effect and Hawking radiation.

  17. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  18. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  19. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  20. Spent fuel management systems, burnup credit approach experience in expert activity of State Scientific and Technical Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    Kovbasenko, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Implementing new devices and mechanisms, including those developed and manufactured abroad, at enterprises of the Ukrainian power industry makes it necessary to license them in advance by the Ukrainian Regulatory Authority. From time to time, situations occur when these systems or their close analogues have been already used in some countries and have successively passed licensing by the relevant Regulatory Authorities; however, they do not meet the regulatory requirements in force in Ukraine. Preliminary analysis of the regulations in Ukraine concerning nuclear safety of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management systems shows that some regulatory requirements in force are too conservative in view of current international practice. The extent of conservatism can be reduced, if necessary, only on the base of improving our level of understanding the processes occurring in nuclear dangerous systems and improving our capabilities as regards accuracy, correctness, and reliability in numerical modeling these processes. Such activity is consistent with the state-of-the-art production requirements. This work was intended to demonstrate that the excessive conservatism laid previously into the requirements on nuclear safety in Ukraine due to insufficient development of tools for modeling processes in nuclear fuel can be considerably decreased through using more modern and real modeling fuel systems. If such modeling is performed with the use of state-of-the-art methods, based on more complete understanding the processes in fuel systems, then removal of the excessive conservatism will not reduce the safety of nuclear dangerous systems

  1. Adaptive Control of the Chaotic System via Singular System Approach

    Yudong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control problem of the chaotic system subject to disturbance. The sliding mode surface is designed by singular system approach, and sufficient condition for convergence is given. Then, the adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to make the state arrive at the sliding mode surface in finite time. Finally, Lorenz system is considered as an example to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  3. THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    David Suriñach Fernández

    2017-01-01

    The United States educational system is very complex. Due to the fact a big number of agents take play of its regulation, the differences between the education from one State compared to the education from another, or even between school districts, might be considerable. The last two largest federal education initiatives, No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, have had a huge impact on the American education system. The escalation of the standardized test throughout the whole country as a ...

  4. Environmental management: A system approach

    Petak, William J.

    1981-05-01

    This paper presents a system framework whose purpose is to improve understanding of environmental management. By analyzing the links between elements of the environmental management system, it is possible to construct a model that aids thinking systematically about the decision-making subsystem, and other subsystems, of the entire environmental management system. Through a multidisciplinary environmental approach, each of the individual subsystems is able to adapt to threats and opportunities. The fields of government, market economics, social responsibility and ecology, for example, are so complex that it is extremely difficult to develop a framework that gives full consideration to all aspects. This paper, through the application of a highly idealized system framework, attempts to show the general relationships that exist between complex system elements.

  5. Systems approach in energy management

    Dutta-Choudhury, K.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago when the author was working in the chemicals division of a paper company in Instrumentation and Controls, one experience had a lasting impact on his work approach which is systems approach. The maintenance manager told the author that a very important piece of boiler instrument of the power plant had broken down and delivery of the replacement needed to be expedited. The instrument was ordered over the phone in another city. The purchase order was personally delivered at the supplier's office and arrangements were made so the instrument was put on the next flight. A week later the maintenance manager indicated that the particular instrument still had not arrived in the plant and he could not run the power plant. Thus the company incurred substantial losses. Further inquiries showed that the instrument did indeed arrive at the plant stores on time. But, in the absence of any instructions thereon, the instrument was not delivered to the power plant. The sense of urgency was lost in the existing delivery process. In other words, the process or system failed. The whole process from requisitioning to delivery of ordered items was analyzed and corrective procedures were incorporated to prevent future repetitions. This brings up the subject of systems approach in engineering management in general and energy management in particular. This involves defining an objective and designing a system for an effective way of getting there

  6. Operator approach to linear control systems

    Cheremensky, A

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the optimization problem for linear control systems with quadratic performance index (LQP), the operator approach allows the construction of a systems theory including a number of particular infinite-dimensional optimization problems with hardly visible concreteness. This approach yields interesting interpretations of these problems and more effective feedback design methods. This book is unique in its emphasis on developing methods for solving a sufficiently general LQP. Although this is complex material, the theory developed here is built on transparent and relatively simple principles, and readers with less experience in the field of operator theory will find enough material to give them a good overview of the current state of LQP theory and its applications. Audience: Graduate students and researchers in the fields of mathematical systems theory, operator theory, cybernetics, and control systems.

  7. Computer Networks A Systems Approach

    Peterson, Larry L

    2011-01-01

    This best-selling and classic book teaches you the key principles of computer networks with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design. Using the Internet as the primary example, the authors explain various protocols and networking technologies. Their systems-oriented approach encourages you to think about how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. Whatever your perspective, whether it be that of an application developer, network administrator, or a designer of network equipment or protocols, you will come away with a "big pictur

  8. Quantum Monte Carlo approaches for correlated systems

    Becca, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, computational approaches to studying strongly-interacting systems have become increasingly varied and sophisticated. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo techniques relevant for applications in correlated systems. Providing a clear overview of variational wave functions, and featuring a detailed presentation of stochastic samplings including Markov chains and Langevin dynamics, which are developed into a discussion of Monte Carlo methods. The variational technique is described, from foundations to a detailed description of its algorithms. Further topics discussed include optimisation techniques, real-time dynamics and projection methods, including Green's function, reptation and auxiliary-field Monte Carlo, from basic definitions to advanced algorithms for efficient codes, and the book concludes with recent developments on the continuum space. Quantum Monte Carlo Approaches for Correlated Systems provides an extensive reference ...

  9. The baltic states' energy system

    Nikitaravičius, Martynas

    2006-01-01

    THE BALTIC STATES’ ENERGY SYSTEM SUMMARY The goal of paper – the comparative analysis of Baltic states‘ (i.e. of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) energy systems in 1990-2004. The main causes that affected the development of Baltic states’ energetics are indicated in this work. By the method of statistical analysis, the comparative advantages of Baltic states‘ energetics are detected. Moreover, the main trends of further development of integration of Baltic states ‘ energetics into the energetics o...

  10. Application of a geographical information system approach for risk analysis of fascioliasis in southern Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire; de Avelar, Barbara Rauta; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim; da Fonseca, Adevair Henrique

    2012-09-01

    A model based on geographical information systems for mapping the risk of fascioliasis was developed for the southern part of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The determinants investigated were precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope, soil type and land use. Weightings and grades were assigned to determinants and their categories according to their relevance with respect to fascioliasis. Theme maps depicting the spatial distribution of risk areas indicate that over 50% of southern Espírito Santo is either at high or at very high risk for fascioliasis. These areas were found to be characterized by comparatively high temperature but relatively low slope, low precipitation and low elevation corresponding to periodically flooded grasslands or soils that promote water retention.

  11. DOE systems approach and integration

    Logan, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Six sites are now disposing of most of DOE's currently generated waste. These are: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Within DOE, experience with disposal of solid LLW has been that arid site disposal facilities (first four) appear to have performed well, while humid site disposal facilities (last two) have experienced some waste migration. DOE's intent, of course, is to operate all its waste disposal facilities so that public health and safety are not adversely affected. To ensure that this continues to be the case, activities are underway to increase use of waste form stabilization and engineered barriers where appropriate. For the sake of overall economy, these measures are to be applied as and where needed, through use of the systems approach. In this paper the author discusses two topics: the system approach, which DOE has decided to use for resolving waste disposal problems in the management of DOE's low-level wastes; and DOE's intended integration of activities underway at the waste management systems throughout DOE facilities. 2 figures

  12. Thermospheric dynamics - A system theory approach

    Codrescu, M.; Forbes, J. M.; Roble, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    A system theory approach to thermospheric modeling is developed, based upon a linearization method which is capable of preserving nonlinear features of a dynamical system. The method is tested using a large, nonlinear, time-varying system, namely the thermospheric general circulation model (TGCM) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. In the linearized version an equivalent system, defined for one of the desired TGCM output variables, is characterized by a set of response functions that is constructed from corresponding quasi-steady state and unit sample response functions. The linearized version of the system runs on a personal computer and produces an approximation of the desired TGCM output field height profile at a given geographic location.

  13. Coherent states approach to Penning trap

    Fernandez, David J; Velazquez, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    By using a matrix technique, which allows us to identify directly the ladder operators, the Penning trap coherent states are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. These states are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator. The associated wavefunctions and mean values for some relevant operators in these states are also evaluated. It turns out that the Penning trap coherent states minimize the Heisenberg uncertainty relation

  14. Physical approach to complex systems

    Kwapień, Jarosław; Drożdż, Stanisław

    2012-06-01

    Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but

  15. Sudden switching in two-state systems

    Shakov, Kh Kh; McGuire, J H; Kaplan, L; Uskov, D; Chalastaras, A

    2006-01-01

    Analytic solutions are developed for two-state systems (e.g. qubits) strongly perturbed by a series of rapidly changing pulses, called 'kicks'. The evolution matrix may be expressed as a time-ordered product of evolution matrices for single kicks. Single, double and triple kicks are explicitly considered, and the onset of observability of time ordering is examined. The effects of different order of kicks on the dynamics of the system are studied and compared with effects of time ordering in general. To determine the range of validity of this approach, the effect of using pulses of finite widths for 2s-2p transitions in atomic hydrogen is examined numerically

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE System...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  19. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)

    1995-05-21

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  20. Advancing research opportunities and promoting pathways in graduate education: a systemic approach to BUILD training at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB).

    Urizar, Guido G; Henriques, Laura; Chun, Chi-Ah; Buonora, Paul; Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Galvez, Gino; Kingsford, Laura

    2017-01-01

    First-generation college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, and those from disadvantaged backgrounds are gravely underrepresented in the health research workforce representing behavioral health sciences and biomedical sciences and engineering (BHS/BSE). Furthermore, relative to their peers, very few students from these underrepresented groups (URGs) earn scientific bachelor's degrees with even fewer earning doctorate degrees. Therefore, programs that engage and retain URGs in health-related research careers early on in their career path are imperative to promote the diversity of well-trained research scientists who have the ability to address the nation's complex health challenges in an interdisciplinary way. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges, lessons learned, and sustainability of implementing a large-scale, multidisciplinary research infrastructure at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) - a minority-serving institution - through federal funding received by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD) Initiative. The CSULB BUILD initiative consists of developing a research infrastructure designed to engage and retain URGs on the research career path by providing them with the research training and skills needed to make them highly competitive for doctoral programs and entry into the research workforce. This initiative unites many research disciplines using basic, applied, and translational approaches to offer insights and develop technologies addressing prominent community and national health issues from a multidisciplinary perspective. Additionally, this initiative brings together local (e.g., high school, community college, doctoral research institutions) and national (e.g., National Research Mentoring Network) collaborative partners to alter how we identify, develop, and implement resources to enhance student and faculty research. Finally, this

  1. Policy and System Approach (PSA: A primer

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of public health challenges have emerged at global and national level in the last two decades. The response to these challenges has rarely been swift and often “knee-jerk.” The national and state level program officials responsible for the activities often apportion the blame on weak health systems or fragmented health service delivery mechanisms, amongst other. In India, the viral illnesses (including those due to dengue and chikungunya are becoming the increasing realities. The Public health response of early identification, disease surveillance, reporting and the preventive and curative measures, remains suboptimal. The health challenges which require multidimensional interventions are usuallyattempted to be resolved through piece meal solutions. This article proposes “policy and system approach (PSA,” combining concepts of “Health in all policies” for intersectoral coordination and “health system approach” for intra-sectoral tackling of the emerging and existing health challenges.

  2. Systems Biology-an interdisciplinary approach.

    Friboulet, Alain; Thomas, Daniel

    2005-06-15

    System-level approaches in biology are not new but foundations of "Systems Biology" are achieved only now at the beginning of the 21st century [Kitano, H., 2001. Foundations of Systems Biology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA]. The renewed interest for a system-level approach is linked to the progress in collecting experimental data and to the limits of the "reductionist" approach. System-level understanding of native biological and pathological systems is needed to provide potential therapeutic targets. Examples of interdisciplinary approach in Systems Biology are described in U.S., Japan and Europe. Robustness in biology, metabolic engineering and idiotypic networks are discussed in the framework of Systems Biology.

  3. Unmanned Maritime Systems Incremental Acquisition Approach

    2016-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH 5. FUNDING...Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH Thomas Driscoll, Lieutenant...UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH ABSTRACT The purpose of this MBA report is to explore and understand the issues

  4. Model validation: a systemic and systematic approach

    Sheng, G.; Elzas, M.S.; Cronhjort, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    The term 'validation' is used ubiquitously in association with the modelling activities of numerous disciplines including social, political natural, physical sciences, and engineering. There is however, a wide range of definitions which give rise to very different interpretations of what activities the process involves. Analyses of results from the present large international effort in modelling radioactive waste disposal systems illustrate the urgent need to develop a common approach to model validation. Some possible explanations are offered to account for the present state of affairs. The methodology developed treats model validation and code verification in a systematic fashion. In fact, this approach may be regarded as a comprehensive framework to assess the adequacy of any simulation study. (author)

  5. Coherent states in constrained systems

    Nakamura, M.; Kojima, K.

    2001-01-01

    When quantizing the constrained systems, there often arise the quantum corrections due to the non-commutativity in the re-ordering of constraint operators in the products of operators. In the bosonic second-class constraints, furthermore, the quantum corrections caused by the uncertainty principle should be taken into account. In order to treat these corrections simultaneously, the alternative projection technique of operators is proposed by introducing the available minimal uncertainty states of the constraint operators. Using this projection technique together with the projection operator method (POM), these two kinds of quantum corrections were investigated

  6. State distribution and reliability of some multi- state systems with ...

    mn : G series systems and second, the multi-state consecutive kn-out-of-mn : G parallel systems (see denitions 1 and 2).We begin by giving a non recursive formula which calculates the state distribution and the reliability of multi-state ...

  7. Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance

    Marie Davidova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available First-hand experiences in several design projects that were based on media richness and collaboration are described in this article. Although complex design processes are merely considered as socio-technical systems, they are deeply involved with natural systems. My collaborative research in the field of performance-oriented design combines digital and physical conceptual sketches, simulations and prototyping. GIGA-mapping - is applied to organise the data. The design process uses the most suitable tools, for the subtasks at hand, and the use of media is mixed according to particular requirements. These tools include digital and physical GIGA-mapping, parametric computer aided design (CAD, digital simulation of analyses, as well as sampling and 1:1 prototyping. Also discussed in this article are the methodologies used in several design projects to strategize these tools and the developments and trends in the tools employed.  The paper argues that the digital tools tend to produce similar results through given pre-sets that often do not correspond to real needs. Thus, there is a significant need for mixed methods including prototyping in the creative design process. Media mixing and cooperation across disciplines is unavoidable in the holistic approach to contemporary design. This includes the consideration of diverse biotic and abiotic agents. I argue that physical and digital GIGA-mapping is a crucial tool to use in coping with this complexity. Furthermore, I propose the integration of physical and digital outputs in one GIGA-map and the participation and co-design of biotic and abiotic agents into one rich design research space, which is resulting in an ever-evolving research-design process-result time-based design.

  8. State Synchronization Approaches in Web-based Applications

    Grocevs Aleksejs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to provide insight into technologies and approaches available to maintain consistent state on both client and server sides. The article describes basic RIA application state persistence difficulties and offers approaches to overcoming such problems using asynchronous data transmission synchronization channels and other user-available browser abilities.

  9. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  10. New approach to calculate bound state eigenvalues

    Gerck, E.; Gallas, J.A.C.

    1983-01-01

    A method of solving the radial Schrodinger equation for bound states is discussed. The method is based on a new piecewise representation of the second derivative operator on a set of functions that obey the boundary conditions. This representation is trivially diagonalised and leads to closed form expressions of the type E sub(n)=E(ab+b+c/n+...) for the eigenvalues. Examples are given for the power-law and logarithmic potentials. (Author) [pt

  11. The state-level approach: moving beyond integrated safeguards

    Tape, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a State-Level Approach (SLA) for international safeguards planning, implementation, and evaluation was contained in the Conceptual Framework for Integrated Safeguards (IS) agreed in 2002. This paper describes briefly the key elements of the SLA, including State-level factors and high-level safeguards objectives, and considers different cases in which application of the SLA methodology could address safeguards for 'suspect' States, 'good' States, and Nuclear Weapons States hosting fuel cycle centers. The continued use and further development of the SLA to customize safeguards for each State, including for States already under IS, is seen as central to effective and efficient safeguards for an expanding nuclear world.

  12. Solid state radiation detector system

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  15. Loss energy states of nonstationary quantum systems

    Dodonov, V.V.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of loss energy states is introduced. The loss energy states of the quantum harmonic damping oscillator are considered in detail. The method of constructing the loss energy states for general multidimensional quadratic nonstationary quantum systems is briefly discussed

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  19. Allergic asthma biomarkers using systems approaches

    Gaurab eSircar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by lung inflammation caused by complex interaction between the immune system and environmental factors such as allergens and inorganic pollutants. Recent research in this field is focused on discovering new biomarkers associated with asthma pathogenesis. This review illustrates updated research associating biomarkers of allergic asthma and their potential use in systems biology of the disease. We focus on biomolecules with altered expression, which may serve as inflammatory, diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of asthma discovered in human or experimental asthma model using genomic, proteomic and epigenomic approaches for gene and protein expression profiling. These include high-throughput technologies such as state of the art microarray and proteomics Mass Spectrometry (MS platforms. Emerging concepts of molecular interactions and pathways may provide new insights in searching potential clinical biomarkers. We summarized certain pathways with significant linkage to asthma pathophysiology by analyzing the compiled biomarkers. Systems approaches with this data can identify the regulating networks, which will eventually identify the key biomarkers to be used for diagnostics and drug discovery.

  20. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....

  1. State Online Query System (SOLQ)

    Social Security Administration — Designed specifically for State Human Service agencies, SOLQ allows States real-time online access to SSA's SSN verification service and, if permitted, retrieval of...

  2. Systems approach to tamper protection

    Myre, W.C.; Eaton, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Tamper-protection is a fundamental requirement of effective containment and surveillance systems. Cost effective designs require that the tamper protection requirements be considered early in the design phase and at the system level. A discussion of tamper protection alternatives as well as an illustrative example system is presented

  3. A statistical state dynamics approach to wall turbulence.

    Farrell, B F; Gayme, D F; Ioannou, P J

    2017-03-13

    This paper reviews results obtained using statistical state dynamics (SSD) that demonstrate the benefits of adopting this perspective for understanding turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows. The SSD approach used in this work employs a second-order closure that retains only the interaction between the streamwise mean flow and the streamwise mean perturbation covariance. This closure restricts nonlinearity in the SSD to that explicitly retained in the streamwise constant mean flow together with nonlinear interactions between the mean flow and the perturbation covariance. This dynamical restriction, in which explicit perturbation-perturbation nonlinearity is removed from the perturbation equation, results in a simplified dynamics referred to as the restricted nonlinear (RNL) dynamics. RNL systems, in which a finite ensemble of realizations of the perturbation equation share the same mean flow, provide tractable approximations to the SSD, which is equivalent to an infinite ensemble RNL system. This infinite ensemble system, referred to as the stochastic structural stability theory system, introduces new analysis tools for studying turbulence. RNL systems provide computationally efficient means to approximate the SSD and produce self-sustaining turbulence exhibiting qualitative features similar to those observed in direct numerical simulations despite greatly simplified dynamics. The results presented show that RNL turbulence can be supported by as few as a single streamwise varying component interacting with the streamwise constant mean flow and that judicious selection of this truncated support or 'band-limiting' can be used to improve quantitative accuracy of RNL turbulence. These results suggest that the SSD approach provides new analytical and computational tools that allow new insights into wall turbulence.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. The Management and Demonstration System at Murray State University.

    Schroeder, Gary G.

    The management system in use at the Murray State University Teacher Corps Project is described. The system uses management by objectives and the demonstration approach, and encourages managers to focus on the development and demonstration of ideas, processes, and structures. The system's operating concepts of time management and human resources…

  5. Systems approach to nuclear waste glass development

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Development of a host solid for the immobilization of nuclear waste has focused on various vitreous wasteforms. The systems approach requires that parameters affecting product performance and processing be considered simultaneously. Application of the systems approach indicates that borosilicate glasses are, overall, the most suitable glasses for the immobilization of nuclear waste. Phosphate glasses are highly durable; but the glass melts are highly corrosive and the glasses have poor thermal stability and low solubility for many waste components. High-silica glasses have good chemical durability, thermal stability, and mechanical stability, but the associated high melting temperatures increase volatilization of hazardous species in the waste. Borosilicate glasses are chemically durable and are stable both thermally and mechanically. The borosilicate melts are generally less corrosive than commercial glasses, and the melt temperature miimizes excessive volatility of hazardous species. Optimization of borosilicate waste glass formulations has led to their acceptance as the reference nuclear wasteform in the United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, and Japan

  6. A systems approach to nuclear facility monitoring

    Argo, P.E.; Doak, J.E.; Howse, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Sensor technology for use in nuclear facility monitoring has reached an advanced stage of development. Research on where to place these sensors in a facility and how to combine their outputs in a meaningful fashion does not appear to be keeping pace. In this paper, the authors take a global view of the problem where sensor technology is viewed as only one piece of a large puzzle. Other pieces of this puzzle include the optimal location and type of sensors used in a specific facility, the rate at which sensors record information, and the risk associated with the materials/processes at a facility. If the data are analyzed off-site, how will they be transmitted? Is real-time analysis necessary? Is one monitoring only the facility itself, or might one also monitor the processing that occurs there (e.g., tank levels and concentrations)? How is one going to combine the outputs from the various sensors to give us an accurate picture of the state of the facility? This paper will not try to answer all these questions, but rather it will attempt to stimulate thought in this area by formulating a systems approach to the problem demonstrated by a prototype system and a system proposed for an actual facility. The focus will be on the data analysis aspect of the problem. Future work in this area should focus on recommendations and guidelines for a monitoring system based upon the type of facility and processing that occurs there

  7. Plant operation state monitoring system

    Sakai, Masanori; Babuchi, Katsumi; Arato, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    The system of the present invention accurately monitors a plant operation state of a plant, such as a nuclear power plant and a thermal power plant by using high temperature water, based on water quality informations. That is, water quality informations for the objective portion by using an electrochemical water quality sensor disposed in the objective portion to be monitored in the plant are continuously extracted for a predetermined period of time. Water quality is evaluated based on the extracted information. Obtained results for water quality evaluation and predetermined reference values of the plant operation handling are compared. Necessary part among the results of the measurement is displayed or recorded. The predetermined period of time described above is a period that the water quality information reaches at least a predetermined value or a period that the predetermined value is estimated by the water quality information, and it is defined as a period capable of measuring the information for three months continuously. The measurement is preferably conducted continuously in a period up to each periodical inspection on about every one year. (I.S.)

  8. Variational Approach in the Theory of Liquid-Crystal State

    Gevorkyan, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    The variational calculus by Leonhard Euler is the basis for modern mathematics and theoretical physics. The efficiency of variational approach in statistical theory of liquid-crystal state and in general case in condensed state theory is shown. The developed approach in particular allows us to introduce correctly effective pair interactions and optimize the simple models of liquid crystals with help of realistic intermolecular potentials.

  9. ESDIS DOI System, Approach, and Future Direction

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project began investigating the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) in 2010 with the goal of assigning DOIs to various data products. These data products are archived and distributed by various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located across the United States. Each data center has a unique approach and process for generating and archiving a variety of data products that are used for global change research. These varied approaches present a challenge for developing a DOI solution that fits all the possible variations. To address this challenge, ESDIS developed processes, guidelines, and several models for creating and assigning DOIs. Initially the system was started as a prototype approach and now it is fully operational. In February 2012, ESDIS joined the California Digital Library (CDL) EZID for registering the EOSDIS-related DOIs. ESDIS's DOI operational process allows for reserving DOIs while data providers are finalizing the DOIs and its associated elements. This flexibility allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. Data providers can change any DOI metadata, including the DOI name as long as it has not been registered or reserved by another data provider. ESDIS assures the uniqueness of the DOI names before it is registered. Currently, ESDIS has 146 data product DOIs registered with EZID and data providers have reserved an additional 93 DOIs with ESDIS. A semi-automated approach is being developed for processing and validating the DOI information provided by the data providers and will cover all the steps from the collection to the registration of DOIs. ESDIS's DOI concept utilizes a few mandatory metadata elements that effectively identify the data products and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page

  10. Marketing in Admissions: The Information System Approach.

    Wofford, O. Douglas; Timmerman, Ed

    1982-01-01

    A marketing information system approach for college admissions is outlined that includes objectives, information needs and sources, a data collection format, and information evaluation. Coordination with other institutional information systems is recommended. (MSE)

  11. Dynamical System Approaches to Combinatorial Optimization

    Starke, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of large times as an asymptotically stable point of the dynamics. The obtained solutions are often not globally optimal but good approximations of it. Dynamical system and neural network approaches are appropriate methods for distributed and parallel processing. Because of the parallelization......Several dynamical system approaches to combinatorial optimization problems are described and compared. These include dynamical systems derived from penalty methods; the approach of Hopfield and Tank; self-organizing maps, that is, Kohonen networks; coupled selection equations; and hybrid methods...... thereof can be used as models for many industrial problems like manufacturing planning and optimization of flexible manufacturing systems. This is illustrated for an example in distributed robotic systems....

  12. Features of monitoring system of physical state of urban bridges.

    A.V. Bilchenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract, the main features of urban bridge, structure are presented. The proposals concerning specialized management creation for exploitation, maintenance and reconstruction of bridges are developed. The essence of the new approach designed for the change of urban bridge structures physical state assessment system is stated.

  13. Activity System Theory Approach to Healthcare Information System

    Bai, Guohua

    2004-01-01

    Healthcare information system is a very complex system and has to be approached from systematic perspectives. This paper presents an Activity System Theory (ATS) approach by integrating system thinking and social psychology. First part of the paper, the activity system theory is presented, especially a recursive model of human activity system is introduced. A project ‘Integrated Mobile Information System for Diabetic Healthcare (IMIS)’ is then used to demonstrate a practical application of th...

  14. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy micro-haemorrhage and giant capillary counting as an accurate approach for a steady state definition of disease activity in systemic sclerosis.

    Sambataro, Domenico; Sambataro, Gianluca; Zaccara, Eleonora; Maglione, Wanda; Polosa, Riccardo; Afeltra, Antonella M V; Vitali, Claudio; Del Papa, Nicoletta

    2014-10-09

    Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a procedure commonly used for patient classification and subsetting, but not to define disease activity (DA). This study aimed to evaluate whether the number of micro-haemorrhages (MHE), micro-thrombosis (MT), giant capillaries (GC), and normal/dilated capillaries (Cs) in NVC could predict DA in SSc. Eight-finger NVC was performed in 107 patients with SSc, and the total number of MHE/MT, GC, and the mean number of Cs were counted and defined as number of micro-haemorrhages (NEMO), GC and Cs scores, respectively. The European Scleroderma Study Group (ESSG) index constituted the gold standard for DA assessment, and scores ≥ 3.5 and = 3 were considered indicative of high and moderate activity, respectively. NEMO and GC scores were positively correlated with ESSG index (R = 0.65, P < 0.0001, and R = 0.47, P <0.0001, respectively), whilst Cs score showed a negative correlation with that DA index (R = -0.30, P <0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic plots, obtained by NEMO score sensitivity and specificity values in classifying patients with ESSG index ≥ 3.5, was significantly higher than the corresponding AUC derived from either GC or Cs scores (P <0.03 and P <0.0006, respectively). A modified score, defined by the presence of a given number of MHE/MT and GC, had a good performance in classifying active patients (ESSG index ≥ 3, sensitivity 95.1%, specificity 84.8%, accuracy 88.7%). MHE/MT and GC appear to be good indicators of DA in SSc, and enhances the role of NVC as an easy technique to identify active patients.

  15. Dynamical system approach to phyllotaxis

    D'ovidio, Francesco; Mosekilde, Erik

    2000-01-01

    and not a dynamical system, mainly because new active elements are added at each step, and thus the dimension of the "natural" phase space is not conserved. Here a construction is presented by which a well defined dynamical system can be obtained, and a bifurcation analysis can be carried out. Stable and unstable...... of the Jacobian, and thus the eigenvalues, is given. It is likely that problems of the above type often arise in biology, and especially in morphogenesis, where growing systems are modeled....

  16. Collision detection and prediction using a mutual configuration state approach

    Schoute, Albert L.; Weiss, N.; Jesse, N.; Reusch, B.

    A configuration state approach is presented that simplifies the mutual collision analysis of objects with known shapes that move along known paths. Accurate and fast prediction of contact situations in games such as robot soccer enables improved anticipatory and corrective actions of the state

  17. Book Review: Organizations: A Systems Approach

    Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413.......Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413....

  18. A system approach to nuclear facility monitoring

    Argo, P.E.; Doak, J.E.; Howse, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    Sensor technology for use in nuclear facility monitoring has reached and advanced stage of development. Research on where to place these sensors in a facility and how to combine their outputs in a meaningful fashion does not appear to be keeping pace. In this paper, we take a global view of the problem where sensor technology is viewed as only one piece of a large puzzle. Other pieces of this puzzle include the optimal location and type of sensors used in a specific facility, the rate at which sensors record information, and the risk associated with the materials/processes at a facility. If the data are analyzed off-site, how will they be transmitted? Is real-time analysis necessary? Are we monitoring only the facility itself, or might we also monitor the processing that occurs there? How are we going to combine the output from the various sensors to give us an accurate picture of the state of the facility? This paper will not try to answer all these questions, but rather it will attempt to stimulate thought in this area by formulating a systems approach to the problem demonstrated by a prototype system and a systems proposed for an actual facility. Our focus will be on the data analysis aspect of the problem.

  19. State, power, and domination. An approach on its mechanisms

    Paola García Reyes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an approach to the interactions between State and social actors, based on the analysis of three cases in which opportunistic or violent actors were associated with policies to promote growing of palm oil in Colombia. We move away from other approaches which describe these interactions as cooptation and suggest they can be better understood as processes associated with the exercise of indirect domination by the State. To this end, we present an overall framework of analysis, review relevant policies, offer a description of the cases, and propose three mechanisms of indirect state domination: privateers, friends and Gullivers.

  20. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-23

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  1. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-17

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  2. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  3. Covert Action: A Systems Approach

    2014-12-01

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION...21st Century Problems (Boca Rotan, FL: CRC Press, 2008), xix. 21 cognizing, analyzing, and synthesizing to ruminate on the systems that confront us...took great interest in their content .122 The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 made BSC’s

  4. Ground states of quantum spin systems

    Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  6. From Hamiltonian chaos to complex systems a nonlinear physics approach

    Leonetti, Marc

    2013-01-01

    From Hamiltonian Chaos to Complex Systems: A Nonlinear Physics Approach collects contributions on recent developments in non-linear dynamics and statistical physics with an emphasis on complex systems. This book provides a wide range of state-of-the-art research in these fields. The unifying aspect of this book is a demonstration of how similar tools coming from dynamical systems, nonlinear physics, and statistical dynamics can lead to a large panorama of  research in various fields of physics and beyond, most notably with the perspective of application in complex systems. This book also: Illustrates the broad research influence of tools coming from dynamical systems, nonlinear physics, and statistical dynamics Adopts a pedagogic approach to facilitate understanding by non-specialists and students Presents applications in complex systems Includes 150 illustrations From Hamiltonian Chaos to Complex Systems: A Nonlinear Physics Approach is an ideal book for graduate students and researchers working in applied...

  7. STATE AND ECONOMY IN BOURGEOISIES ECONOMIC THEORIES: A CRITICAL APPROACH

    Verena Hernández-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of state-economy relationship has been present throughout the history of bourgeois economic thought. In the bourgeois liberal tradition the distinction between civil society and state has been presented as total and necessary, reserving to the first one the monopoly of economic activity, based on the principle of self-regulating market. From Keynes bourgeois economists were divided into two sides, one side those who still deny the state capacity to intervene right in the economy, and the other those who recognize the need for their participation. This paper proposes a critical approach to the major bourgeois theoretical positions on the relationship state-economy. 

  8. An excited-state approach within full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    Blunt, N. S.; Smart, Simon D.; Booth, George H.; Alavi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to calculate excited states with the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) method. The approach uses a Gram-Schmidt procedure, instantaneously applied to the stochastically evolving distributions of walkers, to orthogonalize higher energy states against lower energy ones. It can thus be used to study several of the lowest-energy states of a system within the same symmetry. This additional step is particularly simple and computationally inexpensive, requiring only a small change to the underlying FCIQMC algorithm. No trial wave functions or partitioning of the space is needed. The approach should allow excited states to be studied for systems similar to those accessible to the ground-state method due to a comparable computational cost. As a first application, we consider the carbon dimer in basis sets up to quadruple-zeta quality and compare to existing results where available

  9. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  10. Probabilistic Approaches to Energy Systems

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    of renewable energy generation. Particularly we focus on producing forecasting models that can predict renewable energy generation, single user demand, and provide advanced forecast products that are needed for an efficient integration of renewable energy into the power generation mix. Such forecasts can...... integration of renewable energy.Thus forecast products should be developed in unison with the decision making tool as they are two sides of the same overall challenge.......Energy generation from wind and sun is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world. This presents new challenges on how to integrate this uncertain, intermittent and non-dispatchable energy source. This thesis deals with forecasting and decision making in energy systems with a large proportion...

  11. Estimating the state of large spatio-temporally chaotic systems

    Ott, E.; Hunt, B.R.; Szunyogh, I.; Zimin, A.V.; Kostelich, E.J.; Corazza, M.; Kalnay, E.; Patil, D.J.; Yorke, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the estimation of the state of a large spatio-temporally chaotic system from noisy observations and knowledge of a system model. Standard state estimation techniques using the Kalman filter approach are not computationally feasible for systems with very many effective degrees of freedom. We present and test a new technique (called a Local Ensemble Kalman Filter), generally applicable to large spatio-temporally chaotic systems for which correlations between system variables evaluated at different points become small at large separation between the points

  12. Mechatronic System Design Based On An Optimisation Approach

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    The envisaged objective of this paper project is to extend the current state of the art regarding the design of complex mechatronic systems utilizing an optimisation approach. We propose to investigate a novel framework for mechatronic system design. The novelty and originality being the use...... of optimisation techniques. The methods used to optimise/design within the classical disciplines will be identified and extended to mechatronic system design....

  13. State space approach to mixed boundary value problems.

    Chen, C. F.; Chen, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A state-space procedure for the formulation and solution of mixed boundary value problems is established. This procedure is a natural extension of the method used in initial value problems; however, certain special theorems and rules must be developed. The scope of the applications of the approach includes beam, arch, and axisymmetric shell problems in structural analysis, boundary layer problems in fluid mechanics, and eigenvalue problems for deformable bodies. Many classical methods in these fields developed by Holzer, Prohl, Myklestad, Thomson, Love-Meissner, and others can be either simplified or unified under new light shed by the state-variable approach. A beam problem is included as an illustration.

  14. systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry

    unesco

    2National Core Group in Chemistry, H.E.J Research Institute of Chemistry,. University of ... innovative way of teaching and learning through systemic approach (SATL) has been .... available to do useful work in a thermodynamic process.

  15. Coordination Approaches for Complex Software Systems

    Bosse, T.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the results of a collaboration between the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Artificial Intelligence and Force Vision to investigate coordination approaches for complex software systems. The project was funded by Force Vision.

  16. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING:

    Rita Wilkinson

    applied and evaluated in many different knowledge domains at all levels of education (pre- ... sciences, agricultural sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, engineering ..... The success of the systemic approach to teaching organic chemistry was ...

  17. Stochastic Thermodynamics: A Dynamical Systems Approach

    Tanmay Rajpurohit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an energy-based, large-scale dynamical system model driven by Markov diffusion processes to present a unified framework for statistical thermodynamics predicated on a stochastic dynamical systems formalism. Specifically, using a stochastic state space formulation, we develop a nonlinear stochastic compartmental dynamical system model characterized by energy conservation laws that is consistent with statistical thermodynamic principles. In particular, we show that the difference between the average supplied system energy and the average stored system energy for our stochastic thermodynamic model is a martingale with respect to the system filtration. In addition, we show that the average stored system energy is equal to the mean energy that can be extracted from the system and the mean energy that can be delivered to the system in order to transfer it from a zero energy level to an arbitrary nonempty subset in the state space over a finite stopping time.

  18. Efimov states and bound state properties in selected nuclear and molecular three-body systems

    Huber, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    The search is made among selected three-body systems for possible Efimov state behavior. In order to carry out this analysis of phenomenological potentials a new mathematical approach, the FCM (Faddeev-coordinate-momentum) technique, is developed. The analysis then proceeds through the framework of the Faddeev equations by employing the UPE (unitary pole expansion) to reduce these equations to numerically feasible form. The systems chosen for analysis are the 4 He trimer and the three-α model of 12 C. Efimov states are not found in 12 C, thus answering speculation among nuclear theorists. The 4 He trimer, on the other hand, manifests Efimov states for each potential considered and the characteristics of these states are extensively analyzed. Since Efimov states are predicted by all of the phenomenological potentials considered, these states would seem to be a realistically fundamental property of the 4 He trimer system

  19. The State Public Health Laboratory System.

    Inhorn, Stanley L; Astles, J Rex; Gradus, Stephen; Malmberg, Veronica; Snippes, Paula M; Wilcke, Burton W; White, Vanessa A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development since 2000 of the State Public Health Laboratory System in the United States. These state systems collectively are related to several other recent public health laboratory (PHL) initiatives. The first is the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, a white paper that defined the basic responsibilities of the state PHL. Another is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Laboratory System (NLS) initiative, the goal of which is to promote public-private collaboration to assure quality laboratory services and public health surveillance. To enhance the realization of the NLS, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) launched in 2004 a State Public Health Laboratory System Improvement Program. In the same year, APHL developed a Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey, a tool to measure improvement through the decade to assure that essential PHL services are provided.

  20. State system experience with safeguarding power reactors

    Roehnsch, W.

    1982-01-01

    This session describes the development and operation of the State System of Accountancy and Control in the German Democratic Republic, and summarizes operating experience with safeguards at power reactor facilities. Overall organization and responsibilities, containment and surveillance measures, materials accounting, and inspection procedures will be outlined. Cooperation between the IAEA, State system, facility, and supplier authorities will also be addressed

  1. The flow equation approach to many-particle systems

    Kehrein, Stefan; Fujimori, A; Varma, C; Steiner, F

    2006-01-01

    This self-contained monograph addresses the flow equation approach to many-particle systems. The flow equation approach consists of a sequence of infinitesimal unitary transformations and is conceptually similar to renormalization and scaling methods. Flow equations provide a framework for analyzing Hamiltonian systems where these conventional many-body techniques fail. The text first discusses the general ideas and concepts of the flow equation method. In a second part these concepts are illustrated with various applications in condensed matter theory including strong-coupling problems and non-equilibrium systems. The monograph is accessible to readers familiar with graduate- level solid-state theory.

  2. Algorithm of the managing systems state estimation

    Skubilin M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of an electronic estimation of automatic and automated managing systems state is analyzed. An estimation of a current state (functional readiness of technical equipment and person-operator as integrated system allows to take operatively adequate measures on an exception and-or minimisation of consequences of system’s transition in a supernumerary state. The offered method is universal enough and can be recommended for normalisation of situations on transport, mainly in aircraft.

  3. Approaches for Intelligent Traffic System: A Survey

    Pratishtha Gupta; G.N Purohit; Amrita Dadhich

    2012-01-01

    This survey presents various approaches for intelligent traffic systems. The potential research fields in which Intelligent Traffic System emerges as an important application area are highlighted andvarious issues have been identified which need to be handled while developing such a system for an urban area, where an efficient traffic management has become the need of hour.A model is also proposed capable of managing intelligent traffic system using CCTV cameras and WAN. The proposed model wi...

  4. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  5. APE (state-oriented approach) centralized control procedures; Procedures de conduite APE (Approche Par Etats)

    Astier, D. [FRAMATOME ANP, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Depont, G. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Van Dermarliere, Y. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This article presents the progressive implementation of the state-oriented approach (APE) for centralized control procedures in French nuclear power plants. The implementation began in the years 1982-83 and it concerned only the circuits involved in engineered safeguard systems such IS (safety injection), EAS (containment spray system) and GMPP (reactor coolant pump set). In 2003 the last PWR unit switched from the event oriented approach to APE for post-accidental situations.

  6. Ostwald ripening: an approach with dynamical systems

    F.S. Lameiras

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This approach assumes three functions independently acting on a set of microparticles. The first one, w1, concerns re-distribution of mass to decrease the surface energy. The second one, w2, concerns re-distribution of mass to increase the entropy of the microparticle set. The third one, w3, is a further re-distribution of mass that vanishes a microparticle. Once vanished, its mass is distributed among its neighbors. w1 and w3 release energy, whereas w2 absorbs energy. Part of the energy released should be available to sustain w2. The action frequency of w1, w2, and w3, the amount of mass exchanged in each iteraction, the fraction of released energy available to sustain w2, and the size of a vanishing microparticle can be varied. As the dynamical system formed by w1, w2, and w3 act on an initial microparticle set, it is observed an evolution resembling the Ostwald ripening concerning steady-state size distribution and microparticle growth.

  7. Steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: FEA approach

    This paper deals with the steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor using finite element analysis (FEA) approach. The motor has aluminum rotor bars and is designed for direct-on-line operation at 50 Hz. A study of the losses occurring in the motor performed at operating frequency of 50Hz showed that stator ...

  8. Regulating the Relationship between State and Religion: An Economic Approach

    A.M.I.B. Vandenberghe (Ann-Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In defining its relationship towards religion, the Dutch government is committed to the values of freedom of religion and neutrality. This article uses the economic approach to freedom of religion and state neutrality as a tool for looking at the existing Dutch policy

  9. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    (87 percent). Less often used are tolerance values for metals (28 percent). Benthic data are infrequently modified (34 percent) prior to analysis. Fixed-count subsampling is used widely (83 percent), with the number of organisms sorted ranging from 100 to 600 specimens. Most programs include a step during sample processing to acquire rare taxa (79 percent). Programs calculate from 2 to more than100 different metrics (mean 20), and most formulate a multimetric index (87 percent). Eleven of the 112 metrics reported represent 50 percent of all metrics considered to be useful, and most of these are based on richness or percent composition. Biotic indices and tolerance metrics are most oftenused in the eastern U.S., and functional and habitat-type metrics are most often used in the western U.S. Sixty-nine percent of programs analyze their data in-house, typically performing correlations and regressions, and few use any form of data transformation (34 percent). Fifty-one percent of the programs use multivariate analyses, typically non-metric multi-dimensional scaling. All programs have electronic data storage. Most programs use the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (75 percent) for nomenclature and to update historical data (78 percent). State procedures represent a diversity of biomonitoring approaches which likely compromises comparability among programs. A national-state consensus is needed for: (1) developing methods for the identification of reference conditions and reference sites, (2) standardization in determining and reporting species richness, (3) testing and documenting both the theoretical and mechanistic basis of often-used metrics, (4) development of properly replicated point-source study designs, and (5) curation of benthic macroinvertebrate data, including reference and voucher collections, for successful evaluation of future environmental changes.

  10. Collaborative Systems – Finite State Machines

    Ion IVAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the finite state machines are defined and formalized. There are presented the collaborative banking systems and their correspondence is done with finite state machines. It highlights the role of finite state machines in the complexity analysis and performs operations on very large virtual databases as finite state machines. It builds the state diagram and presents the commands and documents transition between the collaborative systems states. The paper analyzes the data sets from Collaborative Multicash Servicedesk application and performs a combined analysis in order to determine certain statistics. Indicators are obtained, such as the number of requests by category and the load degree of an agent in the collaborative system.

  11. A contemporary view of systems engineering. [definition of system and discussion of systems approach

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a 'system' is defined, and the 'systems approach' is discussed. Four contemporary examples of the systems approach are presented: an operations research project, the planning-programming-budgeting system, an information processing system, and aerospace programs.

  12. System theoretic approach to sustainable development problems

    Batanović Vladan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the concepts and methodology contained in the system theory and operations research are suitable for application in the planning and control of the sustainable development. The sustainable development problems can be represented using the state space concepts, such as the transition of system, from the given initial state to the final state. It is shown that sustainable development represents a specific control problem. The peculiarity of the sustainable development is that the target is to keep the system in the prescribed feasible region of the state space. The analysis of planning and control problems of sustainable development has also shown that methods developed in the operations research area, such as multicriteria optimization, dynamic processes simulation, non-conventional treatment of uncertainty etc. are adequate, exact base, suitable for resolution of these problems.

  13. System Identification A Frequency Domain Approach

    Pintelon, Rik

    2012-01-01

    System identification is a general term used to describe mathematical tools and algorithms that build dynamical models from measured data. Used for prediction, control, physical interpretation, and the designing of any electrical systems, they are vital in the fields of electrical, mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering. Focusing mainly on frequency domain techniques, System Identification: A Frequency Domain Approach, Second Edition also studies in detail the similarities and differences with the classical time domain approach. It high??lights many of the important steps in the identi

  14. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  15. Past Quantum States of a Monitored System

    Gammelmark, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    A density matrix ρ(t) yields probabilistic information about the outcome of measurements on a quantum system. We introduce here the past quantum state, which, at time T, accounts for the state of a quantum system at earlier times t...(t) and E(t), conditioned on the dynamics and the probing of the system until t and in the time interval [t, T], respectively. The past quantum state is characterized by its ability to make better predictions for the unknown outcome of any measurement at t than the conventional quantum state at that time....... On the one hand, our formalism shows how smoothing procedures for estimation of past classical signals by a quantum probe [M. Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 250403 (2009)] apply also to describe the past state of the quantum system itself. On the other hand, it generalizes theories of pre- and postselected...

  16. A System Approach to Environmental Education

    Z. Kostova

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A system approach to environmental education (EE is developed. By making use of it the educators will be able to introduce successfully ecological principles and global environmental problems in the educational system for the development of environmental culture, consciousness and behavior. It embraces a long period of thinking, designing, experimenting and rethinking in the light of the new ideas, concerning humanity-nature relationships. The core of the system approach is represented by environmental consciousness, which is the driving force of environmentally responsible behavior. The system approach is concerned with constructing an innovative model of EE, which consists of three elements: didactical, conceptual and technological and six integrating concepts, uniting the studies of the different school subjects under the global movement for sustainable development. EE is regarded to be an essential part of the education for sustainable development (ESD.

  17. Views of the state customs committee of Russian Federation to system approach to threat evaluation and development of a national system of counteraction of the illicit trafficking of nuclear and/or radioactive materials (nuclear facility - territory - border)

    Vasiliev, I.; Kravchenko, N.; Babich, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that until recently the efforts of the national structures and international organizations were focused on nuclear objects to provide conditions preventing non-proliferation of nuclear materials. However, various countries possess plenty of radioactive materials (nuclear and other kind of radioactive materials) used in different areas (medicine, crack detection, oil and gas production, mining, science, etc.). Those materials are used and stored within the objects, which lack a strict monitoring system of non-proliferation control. Therefore, for every country three areas of threat of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (ITRM) can be pointed out: an object containing radioactive materials, the territory of the country, the border. Each area must have the bodies responsible for ITRM prevention, which are appointed by the national legislation. Within the first area: competent body in the field of atomic power application; owners of enterprises (not only state structures); the structure of the Ministry of Defense; police; intelligence services. Within the second area: police; intelligence services. Within the third area: customs; border guards. Analyzing possible threat of ITRM within these three interrelated areas, one can specify a number of specific threats for each responsibility area: at an object, on the territory of the country, at the border. (author)

  18. A rule-based approach to model checking of UML state machines

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał; Stefanowicz, Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    In the paper a new approach to formal verification of control process specification expressed by means of UML state machines in version 2.x is proposed. In contrast to other approaches from the literature, we use the abstract and universal rule-based logical model suitable both for model checking (using the nuXmv model checker), but also for logical synthesis in form of rapid prototyping. Hence, a prototype implementation in hardware description language VHDL can be obtained that fully reflects the primary, already formally verified specification in form of UML state machines. Presented approach allows to increase the assurance that implemented system meets the user-defined requirements.

  19. Isolation contactor state control system

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-05-16

    A controller area network (CAN) installed on a hybrid electric vehicle provides one node with control of high voltage power distribution system isolation contactors and the capacity to energize a secondary electro-mechanical relay device. The output of the secondary relay provides a redundant and persistent backup signal to the output of the node. The secondary relay is relatively immune to CAN message traffic interruptions and, as a result, the high voltage isolation contactor(s) are less likely to transition open in the event that the intelligent output driver should fail.

  20. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  1. Assessing the Approaches to Classification of the State Financial Control

    Baraniuk Yurii R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at assessing the approaches to classification of the State financial control, as well as disclosing the relationship and differences between its forms, types and methods. The results of comparative analysis of existing classifications of the State financial control have been covered. The substantiation of its identification by forms, types and methods of control was explored. Clarification of the interpretation of the concepts of «form of control», «type of control», «subtype of control», «method of control», «methodical reception of control» has been provided. It has been determined that the form of the State financial control is a manifestation of the internal organization of control and the methods of its carrying out; a model of classification of the State financial control has been substantiated; attributes of the first and second order have been allocated; substantiation of methods and techniques has been improved; their composition and structure have been identified. This approach allows to divide general questions of the State financial control into theoretical and practical and, taking into consideration the expansion of the list of objects of the State financial control, will help to improve its methodology.

  2. A Distributed Approach to System-Level Prognostics

    2012-09-01

    the end of (useful) life ( EOL ) and/or the remaining useful life (RUL) of components, subsystems, or systems. The prognostics problem itself can be...system state estimate, computes EOL and/or RUL. In this paper, we focus on a model-based prognostics approach (Orchard & Vachtse- vanos, 2009; Daigle...been focused on individual components, and determining their EOL and RUL, e.g., (Orchard & Vachtsevanos, 2009; Saha & Goebel, 2009; Daigle & Goebel

  3. Multidimensional poverty: an alternative measurement approach for the United States?

    Waglé, Udaya R

    2008-06-01

    International poverty research has increasingly underscored the need to use multidimensional approaches to measure poverty. Largely embraced in Europe and elsewhere, this has not had much impact on the way poverty is measured in the United States. In this paper, I use a comprehensive multidimensional framework including economic well-being, capability, and social inclusion to examine poverty in the US. Data from the 2004 General Social Survey support the interconnectedness among these poverty dimensions, indicating that the multidimensional framework utilizing a comprehensive set of information provides a compelling value added to poverty measurement. The suggested demographic characteristics of the various categories of the poor are somewhat similar between this approach and other traditional approaches. But the more comprehensive and accurate measurement outcomes from this approach help policymakers target resources at the specific groups.

  4. A partial Hamiltonian approach for current value Hamiltonian systems

    Naz, R.; Mahomed, F. M.; Chaudhry, Azam

    2014-10-01

    We develop a partial Hamiltonian framework to obtain reductions and closed-form solutions via first integrals of current value Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The approach is algorithmic and applies to many state and costate variables of the current value Hamiltonian. However, we apply the method to models with one control, one state and one costate variable to illustrate its effectiveness. The current value Hamiltonian systems arise in economic growth theory and other economic models. We explain our approach with the help of a simple illustrative example and then apply it to two widely used economic growth models: the Ramsey model with a constant relative risk aversion (CRRA) utility function and Cobb Douglas technology and a one-sector AK model of endogenous growth are considered. We show that our newly developed systematic approach can be used to deduce results given in the literature and also to find new solutions.

  5. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  6. Full State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    This paper presents the design of a state estimator system for a generic helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to deliver full rigid body state information for both helicopter and load and is based on the unscented Kalman filter. Two different approaches are investigated......: One based on a parameter free kinematic model and one based on a full aerodynamic helicopter and slung load model. The kinematic model approach uses acceleration and rate information from two Inertial Measurement Units, one on the helicopter and one on the load, to drive a simple kinematic model....... A simple and effective virtual sensor method is developed to maintain the constraints imposed by the wires in the system. The full model based approach uses a complex aerodynamical model to describe the helicopter together with a generic rigid body model. This rigid body model is based on a redundant...

  7. Full State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a state estimator system for a generic helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to deliver full rigid body state information for both helicopter and load and is based on the unscented Kalman filter. Two different approaches are investigated......: One based on a parameter free kinematic model and one based on a full aerodynamic helicopter and slung load model. The kinematic model approach uses acceleration and rate information from two Inertial Measurement Units, one on the helicopter and one on the load, to drive a simple kinematic model....... A simple and effective virtual sensor method is developed to maintain the constraints imposed by the wires in the system. The full model based approach uses a complex aerodynamical model to describe the helicopter together with a generic rigid body model. This rigid body model is based on a redundant...

  8. Power system dynamic state estimation using prediction based evolutionary technique

    Basetti, Vedik; Chandel, Ashwani K.; Chandel, Rajeevan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new robust LWS (least winsorized square) estimator is proposed for dynamic state estimation of a power system. One of the main advantages of this estimator is that it has an inbuilt bad data rejection property and is less sensitive to bad data measurements. In the proposed approach, Brown's double exponential smoothing technique has been utilised for its reliable performance at the prediction step. The state estimation problem is solved as an optimisation problem using a new jDE-self adaptive differential evolution with prediction based population re-initialisation technique at the filtering step. This new stochastic search technique has been embedded with different state scenarios using the predicted state. The effectiveness of the proposed LWS technique is validated under different conditions, namely normal operation, bad data, sudden load change, and loss of transmission line conditions on three different IEEE test bus systems. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with the conventional extended Kalman filter. On the basis of various performance indices, the results thus obtained show that the proposed technique increases the accuracy and robustness of power system dynamic state estimation performance. - Highlights: • To estimate the states of the power system under dynamic environment. • The performance of the EKF method is degraded during anomaly conditions. • The proposed method remains robust towards anomalies. • The proposed method provides precise state estimates even in the presence of anomalies. • The results show that prediction accuracy is enhanced by using the proposed model.

  9. Thermal states of anyonic systems

    Iblisdir, S., E-mail: iblisdir@ecm.ub.e [Dpt. Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Universitat Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Garcia, D. [Dpt. Analisis Matematico, Universitad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Aguado, M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching D-85748 (Germany); Pachos, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-21

    A study of the thermal properties of two-dimensional topological lattice models is presented. This work is relevant to assess the usefulness of these systems as a quantum memory. For our purposes, we use the topological mutual information I{sub topo} as a 'topological order parameter'. For Abelian models, we show how I{sub topo} depends on the thermal topological charge probability distribution. More generally, we present a conjecture that I{sub topo} can (asymptotically) be written as a Kullback-Leitner distance between this probability distribution and that induced by the quantum dimensions of the model at hand. We also explain why I{sub topo} is more suitable for our purposes than the more familiar entanglement entropy S{sub topo}. A scaling law, encoding the interplay of volume and temperature effects, as well as different limit procedures, are derived in detail. A non-Abelian model is next analyzed and similar results are found. Finally, we also consider, in the case of a one-plaquette toric code, an environment model giving rise to a simulation of thermal effects in time.

  10. Systemic-Functional Approach to Utilities Supplys

    Nikolay I. Komkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of the article consists in statement of management approach to development of utilities supply processes based on conflict situations decision – making search. It had appeared in the period of the transition from the planned and directive management to market development. Methods: the research methodology is based on the system analysis of full life cycle processes functioning, forecasting of complex systems development, mathematical modeling of processes of services supply and innovative and investment projects modeling as well as development of supplying services processes. Results: the results of the work are concentrated in the presentation of systemic-functional approach to managing the development of processes of municipal services, able to resolve conflict situations in this sphere. Conclusions and Relevance: the traditional management approach on the basis of elimination of "bottlenecks" and emergencies prevailing within planned and directive system at its transformation in the market conditions has led to accumulation of conflict situations and unsolvable problems. The offered systemic-functional approach based on forecasting of full life cycle of the modernized processes and the services providing systems allows to consider costs of modernization, prime cost and quality of the rendered services. 

  11. Stepwise approach to myopathy in systemic disease.

    Chawla, Jasvinder

    2011-01-01

    Muscle diseases can constitute a large variety of both acquired and hereditary disorders. Myopathies in systemic disease results from several different disease processes including endocrine, inflammatory, paraneoplastic, infectious, drug- and toxin-induced, critical illness myopathy, metabolic, and myopathies with other systemic disorders. Patients with systemic myopathies often present acutely or sub acutely. On the other hand, familial myopathies or dystrophies generally present in a chronic fashion with exceptions of metabolic myopathies where symptoms on occasion can be precipitated acutely. Most of the inflammatory myopathies can have a chance association with malignant lesions; the incidence appears to be specifically increased only in patients with dermatomyositis. In dealing with myopathies associated with systemic illnesses, the focus will be on the acquired causes. Management is beyond the scope of this chapter. Prognosis is based upon the underlying cause and, most of the time, carries a good prognosis. In order to approach a patient with suspected myopathy from systemic disease, a stepwise approach is utilized.

  12. Toward a Cooperative Experimental System Development Approach

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis....../design activities of development projects. In contrast, the CESD approach is characterized by its focus on: active user involvement throughout the entire development process; prototyping experiments closely coupled to work-situations and use-scenarios; transforming results from early cooperative analysis...

  13. Hierarchical structure of biological systems: a bioengineering approach.

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and functioning of the biological system. Our thermodynamical approach of hierarchical character can be applied to biological systems of varying sizes through some general principles, based on the exchange of energy information and/or mass from and within the systems.

  14. On dynamical systems approaches and methods in f ( R ) cosmology

    Alho, Artur [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Carloni, Sante [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica – CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Uggla, Claes, E-mail: aalho@math.ist.utl.pt, E-mail: sante.carloni@tecnico.ulisboa.pt, E-mail: claes.uggla@kau.se [Department of Physics, Karlstad University, S-65188 Karlstad (Sweden)

    2016-08-01

    We discuss dynamical systems approaches and methods applied to flat Robertson-Walker models in f ( R )-gravity. We argue that a complete description of the solution space of a model requires a global state space analysis that motivates globally covering state space adapted variables. This is shown explicitly by an illustrative example, f ( R ) = R + α R {sup 2}, α > 0, for which we introduce new regular dynamical systems on global compactly extended state spaces for the Jordan and Einstein frames. This example also allows us to illustrate several local and global dynamical systems techniques involving, e.g., blow ups of nilpotent fixed points, center manifold analysis, averaging, and use of monotone functions. As a result of applying dynamical systems methods to globally state space adapted dynamical systems formulations, we obtain pictures of the entire solution spaces in both the Jordan and the Einstein frames. This shows, e.g., that due to the domain of the conformal transformation between the Jordan and Einstein frames, not all the solutions in the Jordan frame are completely contained in the Einstein frame. We also make comparisons with previous dynamical systems approaches to f ( R ) cosmology and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Linear systems a measurement based approach

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.

  16. Conditional flood frequency and catchment state: a simulation approach

    Brettschneider, Marco; Bourgin, François; Merz, Bruno; Andreassian, Vazken; Blaquiere, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Catchments have memory and the conditional flood frequency distribution for a time period ahead can be seen as non-stationary: it varies with the catchment state and climatic factors. From a risk management perspective, understanding the link of conditional flood frequency to catchment state is a key to anticipate potential periods of higher flood risk. Here, we adopt a simulation approach to explore the link between flood frequency obtained by continuous rainfall-runoff simulation and the initial state of the catchment. The simulation chain is based on i) a three state rainfall generator applied at the catchment scale, whose parameters are estimated for each month, and ii) the GR4J lumped rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters are calibrated with all available data. For each month, a large number of stochastic realizations of the continuous rainfall generator for the next 12 months are used as inputs for the GR4J model in order to obtain a large number of stochastic realizations for the next 12 months. This process is then repeated for 50 different initial states of the soil moisture reservoir of the GR4J model and for all the catchments. Thus, 50 different conditional flood frequency curves are obtained for the 50 different initial catchment states. We will present an analysis of the link between the catchment states, the period of the year and the strength of the conditioning of the flood frequency compared to the unconditional flood frequency. A large sample of diverse catchments in France will be used.

  17. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  18. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  19. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  20. Kansas Non-State Road System

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline road network representation of 120,000 miles of the Kansas non-state highway system with limited attribution. It includes rural...

  1. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  2. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  3. State dynamics of a double sandbar system

    Price, T.D.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    A 9.3-year dataset of low-tide time-exposure images from Surfers Paradise, Northern Gold Coast, Australia was used to characterise the state dynamics of a double sandbar system. The morphology of the nearshore sandbars was described by means of the sequential bar state classification scheme of

  4. Assessing the Approaches to Classification of the State Financial Control

    Baraniuk Yurii R.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at assessing the approaches to classification of the State financial control, as well as disclosing the relationship and differences between its forms, types and methods. The results of comparative analysis of existing classifications of the State financial control have been covered. The substantiation of its identification by forms, types and methods of control was explored. Clarification of the interpretation of the concepts of «form of control», «type of control», «sub...

  5. Systems approach to project risk management

    Kindinger, J. P. (John P.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the need for better performance in the planning and execution of projects and examines the capabilities of two different project risk analysis methods for improving project performance. A quantitative approach based on concepts and tools adopted from the disciplines of systems analysis, probabilistic risk analysis, and other fields is advocated for managing risk in large and complex research & development projects. This paper also provides an overview of how this system analysis approach for project risk management is being used at Los Alamos National Laboratory along with examples of quantitative risk analysis results and their application to improve project performance.

  6. Towards a Provotyping Approach in Systems Development

    Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of ‘provocation through concrete experience’ towards a provotyping approach. It addresses the question: How do we on the one hand, devise qualitatively new systems, and on the other hand, ensure their usability in a given practice? The notion of provocation through...... practice and a lack of mutual understanding, usually conceived of as hindrances to successful systems development, are used constructively. These ideas are compared to four related approaches: Future Workshops, Metaphorical Design, Cooperative Prototyping, and Organizational Games. The comparison serves...

  7. Engineering quantum hyperentangled states in atomic systems

    Nawaz, Mehwish; -Islam, Rameez-ul; Abbas, Tasawar; Ikram, Manzoor

    2017-11-01

    Hyperentangled states have boosted many quantum informatics tasks tremendously due to their high information content per quantum entity. Until now, however, the engineering and manipulation of such states were limited to photonic systems only. In present article, we propose generating atomic hyperentanglement involving atomic internal states as well as atomic external momenta states. Hypersuperposition, hyperentangled cluster, Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states are engineered deterministically through resonant and off-resonant Bragg diffraction of neutral two-level atoms. Based on the characteristic parameters of the atomic Bragg diffraction, such as comparatively large interaction times and spatially well-separated outputs, such decoherence resistant states are expected to exhibit good overall fidelities and offer the evident benefits of full controllability, along with extremely high detection efficiency, over the counterpart photonic states comprised entirely of flying qubits.

  8. Magnetic properties of singlet ground state systems

    Diederix, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described determining the properties of a magnetic system consisting of a singlet ground state. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .2 1/2H 2 O has been studied which is a system of S = 1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains. The static properties, spin lattice relaxation time and field-induced antiferromagnetically ordered state measurements are presented. Susceptibility and magnetic cooling measurements of other compounds are summarised. (Auth.)

  9. A systems approach framework for coastal zones

    Hopkins, Tom Sawyer; Bailly, Denis; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical...... application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods....... The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations...

  10. Music Genre Classification Systems - A Computational Approach

    Ahrendt, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Automatic music genre classification is the classification of a piece of music into its corresponding genre (such as jazz or rock) by a computer. It is considered to be a cornerstone of the research area Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and closely linked to the other areas in MIR. It is thought...... that MIR will be a key element in the processing, searching and retrieval of digital music in the near future. This dissertation is concerned with music genre classification systems and in particular systems which use the raw audio signal as input to estimate the corresponding genre. This is in contrast...... to systems which use e.g. a symbolic representation or textual information about the music. The approach to music genre classification systems has here been system-oriented. In other words, all the different aspects of the systems have been considered and it is emphasized that the systems should...

  11. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  12. System identification: a frequency domain approach

    Pintelon, R; Schoukens, J

    2001-01-01

    ... in the Identification Process 17 1.4.1 Collect Information about the System 17 1.4.2 Select a Model Structure to Represent the System 17 1.4.3 Match the Selected Model Structure to the Measurements 19 1.4.4 Validate the Selected Model 19 1.4.5 Conclusion 19 A Statistical Approach to the Estimation Problem 1.5.1 Least Squares Estimation 20 1.5.2 Weighted Least Squar...

  13. An Agent Based Software Approach towards Building Complex Systems

    Latika Kharb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting new means of analyzing, designing and building complex software systems. They have the potential to significantly improve current practice in software engineering and to extend the range of applications that can feasibly be tackled. Yet, to date, there have been few serious attempts to cast agent systems as a software engineering paradigm. This paper seeks to rectify this omission. Specifically, points to be argued include:firstly, the conceptual apparatus of agent-oriented systems is well-suited to building software solutions for complex systems and secondly, agent-oriented approaches represent a genuine advance over the current state of the art for engineering complex systems. Following on from this view, the major issues raised by adopting an agentoriented approach to software engineering are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  14. To the question about the states of workability for automatic control systems with complicated structure

    Kuznetsov, P. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Losev, V. V.; Kalinin, A. O.; Murygin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The article discusses the reliability of automated control systems. Analyzes the approach to the classification systems for health States. This approach can be as traditional binary approach, operating with the concept of "serviceability", and other variants of estimation of the system state. This article provides one such option, providing selective evaluation of components for the reliability of the entire system. Introduced description of various automatic control systems and their elements from the point of view of health and risk, mathematical method of determining the transition object from state to state, they differ from each other in the implementation of the objective function. Explores the interplay of elements in different States, the aggregate state of the elements connected in series or in parallel. Are the tables of various logic States and the principles of their calculation in series and parallel connection. Through simulation the proposed approach is illustrated by finding the probability of getting into the system state data in parallel and serially connected elements, with their different probabilities of moving from state to state. In general, the materials of article will be useful for analyzing of the reliability the automated control systems and engineering of the highly-reliable systems. Thus, this mechanism to determine the State of the system provides more detailed information about it and allows a selective approach to the reliability of the system as a whole. Detailed results when assessing the reliability of the automated control systems allows the engineer to make an informed decision when designing means of improving reliability.

  15. Dynamical Systems Approaches to Emotional Development

    Camras, Linda A.; Witherington, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, transitions in the conceptualization of emotion and its development have given rise to calls for an explanatory framework that captures emotional development in all its organizational complexity and variability. Recent attempts have been made to couch emotional development in terms of a dynamical systems approach through…

  16. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  17. Economic Systems: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module uses a systems approach to allow students to see the connections and similarities which most cultural groups share on the basis of the type of economic organization that they exhibit. The module begins with a general discussion of…

  18. System learning approach to assess sustainability and ...

    This paper presents a methodology that combines the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to forecast variables describing the condition of a regional system. The novelty and strength of this approach is in the application of Fisher information, a key method in Information Theory, to preserve trends in the historical data and prevent over fitting projections. The methodology was applied to demographic, environmental, food and energy consumption, and agricultural production in the San Luis Basin regional system in Colorado, U.S.A. These variables are important for tracking conditions in human and natural systems. However, available data are often so far out of date that they limit the ability to manage these systems. Results indicate that the approaches developed provide viable tools for forecasting outcomes with the aim of assisting management toward sustainable trends. This methodology is also applicable for modeling different scenarios in other dynamic systems. Indicators are indispensable for tracking conditions in human and natural systems, however, available data is sometimes far out of date and limit the ability to gauge system status. Techniques like regression and simulation are not sufficient because system characteristics have to be modeled ensuring over simplification of complex dynamics. This work presents a methodology combining the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to capture patterns in a real dyna

  19. Transport modeling: An artificial immune system approach

    Teodorović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an artificial immune system approach (AIS to modeling time-dependent (dynamic, real time transportation phenomenon characterized by uncertainty. The basic idea behind this research is to develop the Artificial Immune System, which generates a set of antibodies (decisions, control actions that altogether can successfully cover a wide range of potential situations. The proposed artificial immune system develops antibodies (the best control strategies for different antigens (different traffic "scenarios". This task is performed using some of the optimization or heuristics techniques. Then a set of antibodies is combined to create Artificial Immune System. The developed Artificial Immune transportation systems are able to generalize, adapt, and learn based on new knowledge and new information. Applications of the systems are considered for airline yield management, the stochastic vehicle routing, and real-time traffic control at the isolated intersection. The preliminary research results are very promising.

  20. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  1. A Systems Approach to Rapid School Improvement

    McCauley, Carlas

    2018-01-01

    To support systemic thinking about school improvement, the Center on School Turnaround at WestEd developed a framework to assist states, districts, and schools in leading and managing rapid improvement efforts. The framework, which is presented in this article, has four domains that have proved central to rapid, significant improvement: (1)…

  2. Exact combinatorial approach to finite coagulating systems

    Fronczak, Agata; Chmiel, Anna; Fronczak, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    This paper outlines an exact combinatorial approach to finite coagulating systems. In this approach, cluster sizes and time are discrete and the binary aggregation alone governs the time evolution of the systems. By considering the growth histories of all possible clusters, an exact expression is derived for the probability of a coagulating system with an arbitrary kernel being found in a given cluster configuration when monodisperse initial conditions are applied. Then this probability is used to calculate the time-dependent distribution for the number of clusters of a given size, the average number of such clusters, and that average's standard deviation. The correctness of our general expressions is proved based on the (analytical and numerical) results obtained for systems with the constant kernel. In addition, the results obtained are compared with the results arising from the solutions to the mean-field Smoluchowski coagulation equation, indicating its weak points. The paper closes with a brief discussion on the extensibility to other systems of the approach presented herein, emphasizing the issue of arbitrary initial conditions.

  3. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    Pwani, Henry; Kamanja, Florah; Zolkaffly, Zulfakar; Jung, J. C. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper.

  4. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    Pwani, Henry; Kamanja, Florah; Zolkaffly, Zulfakar; Jung, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper

  5. Dimerization of Carboxylic Acids: An Equation of State Approach

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Panayiotou, Costas

    2017-01-01

    The association term of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding theory, which is an equation of state model, is extended to describe the dimerization of carboxylic acids in binary mixtures with inert solvents and in systems of two different acids. Subsequently, the model is applied to describe the excess...

  6. How IAEA NKM Approaches Support the Building and Sustaining Nuclear Capacity in Member States

    Grosbois, John de

    2014-01-01

    Implementing NKM in nuclear organizations by helping Member State organizations to: • develop policy and programmes; • identify critical knowledge; • evaluate knowledge gaps, knowledge loss risks; • implement effective approaches to prevent knowledge gaps and loss; • Integrate KM thinking and practices into the management system

  7. Dual fermion approach to disordered correlated systems

    Haase, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Disorder is ubiquitous in real materials and influences the physical properties like the conductivity to varying degrees. If electron-electron interactions are strong, theoretical and numerical treatment of these systems becomes challenging. In this thesis a numerical approach is developed to address these systems, treating both interactions and disorder on equal footing. The approach is based on the dual fermion approach for interacting systems developed by Rubtsov et al. Terletska et al. applied the ideas of the dual fermion approach to disordered non-interacting systems. In this approach, the replica trick is used to integrate out the disorder in favor of an effective electron-electron interaction. We extended the approach from Terletska et al. to treat disordered interacting systems. Dual Fermions allow to take into account non-local fluctuations by means of a perturbative expansion around an impurity problem. The impurity reference system is determined self-consistently, analogously to the dynamical mean-field theory. The perturbative expansion is expected to yield good results for small and large values of interaction strength and disorder. A priori, it is not clear what to expect for intermediate values, but experience shows that oftentimes good results are obtained for this region. An advantage of the dual fermion approach is that there is no sign-problem for a single orbital model if quantum Monte Carlo is used to solve the interacting reference system. Additionally, perturbation theory is usually numerically much cheaper than fully solving an interacting lattice or cluster problem. Thus, the dual fermion approach allows to address regions of parameter space that are not accessible to lattice quantum Monte Carlo calculations or cluster extension of dynamical mean-field theory. Cluster extensions of the dynamical mean-field theory are for example the dynamical cluster approximation or the cellular dynamical mean-field theory. The new approach is benchmarked

  8. Cardiovascular system state of the first year students

    Kosynskyi E. О.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to definition of a level of state of health of students are shown. 94 students (48 girls and 46 youths of basic medical group took part in an experiment. The state of the cardiovascular system was probed on indexes by frequencies of heart-throbs, arteriotony, index of Robinson, adaptation potential of circulation of blood. It is marked that at the beginning of school year students have a low level of functioning of the cardiovascular system. At 73,5 % girls and 62,2 % youth is expose tachycardia. At 8,2 % girls and 26,7 % youth is expose the enhanceable norm of systole arteriotony.

  9. Overcoming state within the Friedrich Nietzsche’s irrational approach

    A. F. Zakharchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the views of Nietzsche on the nature and significance of the state in the context of socio-political issues. Examines how the criticism of Nietzsche for the state’s phenomenon is related to his irrational approach to the socio-political sphere, and therefore also raises the question of the possibility of attracting these Friedrich Nietzsche’s ideas regarding the institution of the state to understanding contemporary socio-political processes. For the disclosure of the above tasks in the work undertaken analysis of the Friedrich Nietzsche’s ideas in terms of their correlation with some general philosophical ideas of the German philosopher. In particular understanding of Nietzsche role of the state has been analyzed in the context of ideas like the idea of a hierarchical society, the idea of the superman, the idea of true morality. These ideas go beyond the purely social and philosophical beliefs of the thinker, but they are essential for understanding the logic and purposes of the consideration of the Nietzschean idea of the state. These ideas have been analyzed in the study mainly critically, in particular given the Nietzsche’s controversial assessment of state as a negative phenomenon and situational positive assessment of the state’s role. It is noted that this duality of Nietzsche in this issue is just due to the formulation of more general philosophical problems then was stated above. At the same time, the work focuses on the possibility of positive reading Nietzsche’s position on the state, which is associated with the idea of the free will of the individual opposed to the dictates of the enslaved majority.

  10. An engineering design approach to systems biology.

    Janes, Kevin A; Chandran, Preethi L; Ford, Roseanne M; Lazzara, Matthew J; Papin, Jason A; Peirce, Shayn M; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2017-07-17

    Measuring and modeling the integrated behavior of biomolecular-cellular networks is central to systems biology. Over several decades, systems biology has been shaped by quantitative biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and engineers in different ways. However, the basic and applied versions of systems biology are not typically distinguished, which blurs the separate aspirations of the field and its potential for real-world impact. Here, we articulate an engineering approach to systems biology, which applies educational philosophy, engineering design, and predictive models to solve contemporary problems in an age of biomedical Big Data. A concerted effort to train systems bioengineers will provide a versatile workforce capable of tackling the diverse challenges faced by the biotechnological and pharmaceutical sectors in a modern, information-dense economy.

  11. System approach to modeling of industrial technologies

    Toropov, V. S.; Toropov, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    The authors presented a system of methods for modeling and improving industrial technologies. The system consists of information and software. The information part is structured information about industrial technologies. The structure has its template. The template has several essential categories used to improve the technological process and eliminate weaknesses in the process chain. The base category is the physical effect that takes place when the technical process proceeds. The programming part of the system can apply various methods of creative search to the content stored in the information part of the system. These methods pay particular attention to energy transformations in the technological process. The system application will allow us to systematize the approach to improving technologies and obtaining new technical solutions.

  12. Distributed design approach in persistent identifiers systems

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Car, Nicholas; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID) systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementations, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, persistence, and trustworthiness, regardless of the identifier's application domain, the scope of which has expanded significantly in the past two decades. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by small communities, or even a single organisation, they have faced challenges in gaining widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. This has left a legacy of identifiers that still exist and are being used but which have lost their resolution service. We believe that one of the causes of once successful PID systems fading is their reliance on a centralised technical infrastructure or a governing authority. Golodoniuc et al. (2016) proposed an approach to the development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system, as a distributed system for the registration and first-degree resolution of persistent identifiers, and (b) the PID Service (Golodoniuc et al., 2015), to enable fine-grained resolution to different information object representations. The proposed approach solved the problem of guaranteed first-degree resolution of identifiers, but left fine-grained resolution and information delivery under the control of a single authoritative source, posing risk to the long-term availability of information resources. Herein, we develop these approaches further and explore the potential of large-scale decentralisation at all levels: (i) persistent identifiers and information resources registration; (ii) identifier resolution; and (iii) data delivery. To achieve large-scale decentralisation

  13. Nonlinear dynamical system approaches towards neural prosthesis

    Torikai, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Sho

    2011-01-01

    An asynchronous discrete-state spiking neurons is a wired system of shift registers that can mimic nonlinear dynamics of an ODE-based neuron model. The control parameter of the neuron is the wiring pattern among the registers and thus they are suitable for on-chip learning. In this paper an asynchronous discrete-state spiking neuron is introduced and its typical nonlinear phenomena are demonstrated. Also, a learning algorithm for a set of neurons is presented and it is demonstrated that the algorithm enables the set of neurons to reconstruct nonlinear dynamics of another set of neurons with unknown parameter values. The learning function is validated by FPGA experiments.

  14. Chapter 16 - Predictive Analytics for Comprehensive Energy Systems State Estimation

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Jie [University of Texas at Dallas; Weng, Yang [Arizona State University

    2017-12-01

    Energy sustainability is a subject of concern to many nations in the modern world. It is critical for electric power systems to diversify energy supply to include systems with different physical characteristics, such as wind energy, solar energy, electrochemical energy storage, thermal storage, bio-energy systems, geothermal, and ocean energy. Each system has its own range of control variables and targets. To be able to operate such a complex energy system, big-data analytics become critical to achieve the goal of predicting energy supplies and consumption patterns, assessing system operation conditions, and estimating system states - all providing situational awareness to power system operators. This chapter presents data analytics and machine learning-based approaches to enable predictive situational awareness of the power systems.

  15. An Approach for the Assessment of System Upset Resilience

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2013-01-01

    This report describes an approach for the assessment of upset resilience that is applicable to systems in general, including safety-critical, real-time systems. For this work, resilience is defined as the ability to preserve and restore service availability and integrity under stated conditions of configuration, functional inputs and environmental conditions. To enable a quantitative approach, we define novel system service degradation metrics and propose a new mathematical definition of resilience. These behavioral-level metrics are based on the fundamental service classification criteria of correctness, detectability, symmetry and persistence. This approach consists of a Monte-Carlo-based stimulus injection experiment, on a physical implementation or an error-propagation model of a system, to generate a system response set that can be characterized in terms of dimensional error metrics and integrated to form an overall measure of resilience. We expect this approach to be helpful in gaining insight into the error containment and repair capabilities of systems for a wide range of conditions.

  16. An efficient algebraic approach to observability analysis in state estimation

    Pruneda, R.E.; Solares, C.; Conejo, A.J. [University of Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Castillo, E. [University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    An efficient and compact algebraic approach to state estimation observability is proposed. It is based on transferring rows to columns and vice versa in the Jacobian measurement matrix. The proposed methodology provides a unified approach to observability checking, critical measurement identification, determination of observable islands, and selection of pseudo-measurements to restore observability. Additionally, the observability information obtained from a given set of measurements can provide directly the observability obtained from any subset of measurements of the given set. Several examples are used to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed methodology, and results from a large case study are presented to demonstrate the appropriate computational behavior of the proposed algorithms. Finally, some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  17. Quality assessment of state land internal audit agency of Ukraine based on risk-oriented approach

    N.G. Vugovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article stipulates that in modern conditions of development and reform of the national system of state financial control to the fore the issue of quality, which is an integral part of - or the provision of a service or product produced. In the context of our study on the evaluation of the quality of the internal audit system of the State Land Agency, is the efficiency of its operation. The authors have developed scientific and methodical approach to assessing the quality of the internal audit system of the State Land Agency of Ukraine by specifying the list of evaluation criteria and the implementation of risk-based model selection controlled entities, which allowed to determine the potential risk of financial irregularities and frequency of inspections by the State Financial Inspection. Determined that the planned inspections of the state Land Agency should be not less than once every two years. Applying the above approach will reduce the number of violations in budgetary institutions, improve the quality control organization by the internal audit work, increase the responsibility of the head of an effective, legitimate and proper use of funds. The authors were asked to form a report on the results of the internal audit quality in budgetary institutions and determined that for the cooperation of internal audit bodies of the State financial inspection need to be able to use the latest internal audit report to provide recommendations to improve the functioning of the internal control systems in controlled entities.

  18. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  19. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  20. Australian Strategic Approaches to Managing National and State Diversity

    Lesleyanne Hawthorne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a global exemplar of nation-building through government planned and administered skilled, family and humanitarian migration programs. By 2011 26% of the population were immigrants, at a time when extraordinary linguistic, religious, racial and cultural diversity were evident. The federal government’s role since the 1901 establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia has spanned migration policy formation, selection, admission, compliance and naturalization functions. The settlement responsibilities of the eight state and territory governments have also grown – a process facilitated by generally amicable federal – subnational relations. Within this context this article describes contemporary Australian approaches to managing linguistic, religious and artistic diversity, comparing federal and state government roles in a period associated with significant multicultural challenges.

  1. Metallic stereostructured layer: An approach for broadband polarization state manipulation

    Xiong, Xiang; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Fan, Ren-Hao; Ma, Guo-Bin; Shu, Da-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report a full-metallic broadband wave plate assembled by standing metallic L-shaped stereostructures (LSSs). We show that with an array of LSSs, high polarization conversion ratio is achieved within a broad frequency band. Moreover, by rotating the orientation of the array of LSSs, the electric components of the reflection beam in two orthogonal directions and their phase difference can be independently tuned. In this way, all the polarization states on the Poincaré sphere can be realized. As examples, the functionalities of a quarter wave plate and a half wave plate are experimentally demonstrated with both reflection spectra and focal-plane-array imaging. Our designing provides a unique approach in realizing the broadband wave plate to manipulate the polarization state of light

  2. E-Learning Systems, Environments and Approaches

    Isaias, P.; Spector, J.M.; Ifenthaler, D.; Sampson, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    The volume consists of twenty-five chapters selected from among peer-reviewed papers presented at the CELDA (Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age) 2013 Conference held in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, in October 2013 and also from world class scholars in e-learning systems, environments and approaches. The following sub-topics are included: Exploratory Learning Technologies (Part I), e-Learning social web design (Part II), Learner communities through e-Learning implementations (Par...

  3. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  4. Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation

    Morsch H.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.

  5. Learning Approach on the Ground State Energy Calculation of Helium Atom

    Shah, Syed Naseem Hussain

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of learning approach on the ground state energy calculation of Helium atom in improving the concepts of science teachers at university level. As the exact solution of several particles is not possible here we used approximation methods. Using this method one can understand easily the calculation of ground state energy of any given function. Variation Method is one of the most useful approximation methods in estimating the energy eigen values of the ground state and the first few excited states of a system, which we only have a qualitative idea about the wave function.The objective of this approach is to introduce and involve university teacher in new research, to improve their class room practices and to enable teachers to foster critical thinking in students.

  6. Exploring a United States Maize Cellulose Biofuel Scenario Using an Integrated Energy and Agricultural Markets Solution Approach

    Biofuel feedstock production in the United States (US) is an emergent environmental nutrient management issue, whose exploration can benefit from a multi-scale and multimedia systems modeling approach that explicitly addresses diverging stakeholder interests. In the present anal...

  7. Systems engineering: A formal approach. Part 1: System concepts

    Vanhee, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    Engineering is the scientific discipline focused on the creation of new artifacts that are supposed to be of some use to our society. Different types of artifacts require different engineering approaches. However, in all these disciplines the development of a new artifact is divided into stages. Three stages can always be recognized: Analysis, Design, and Realization. The book considers only the first two stages of the development process. It focuses on a specific type of artifacts, called discrete dynamic systems. These systems consist of active components of actors that consume and produce passive components or tokens. Three subtypes are studied in more detail: business systems (like a factory or restaurant), information systems (whether automated or not), and automated systems (systems that are controlled by an automated information system). The first subtype is studied by industrial engineers, the last by software engineers and electrical engineers, whereas the second is a battlefield for all three disciplines. The union of these disciplines is called systems engineering.

  8. Approaches for increasing the cooperation between Member States and IAEA under SSS

    Rheem, Karp-Soon; Park, Wan-Sou; Kim, Byung-Koo

    1997-01-01

    With introduction of the Strengthened Safeguards System (SSS), both the IAEA and Member States are concerned about the limited resources to carry out the SSS activity and the potential increase of additional cost and burdens. Even though the IAEA has recently prepared a procedure of the generalized New Partnership Approach (NPA), its wider application to the general Member States is difficult at the present time. For the generalized NPA necessitates that SSACs of the Member States have sufficient technical capability in safeguards to carry out the necessary activities. Unfortunately a few Member States seem to be qualified to have the sufficient technical capability that the IAEA desires. In this topic, a new approach to increase the cooperation between Member States and IAEA under SSS is proposed such that effective supports can be provided to all of its Member States that are not technically competent in terms of safeguards experience. This is realized by so called 'tunneling effort', meaning that desired goals are accomplished by efforts from both Member States and the IAEA. The Member States having high technical competence in safeguards provide technical assistance to the Member States that are not competent until they attain to a certain level in technical capability, while the IAEA provides the guidelines, and coordinates the process. The formal introduction of the Quality Control concept to the safeguards management is proposed as well so as to efficiently reduce burdens from the implementation of the SSS. (author)

  9. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  10. System engineering approach to GPM retrieval algorithms

    Rose, C. R. (Chris R.); Chandrasekar, V.

    2004-01-01

    System engineering principles and methods are very useful in large-scale complex systems for developing the engineering requirements from end-user needs. Integrating research into system engineering is a challenging task. The proposed Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellite will use a dual-wavelength precipitation radar to measure and map global precipitation with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and areal coverage. The satellite vehicle, precipitation radars, retrieval algorithms, and ground validation (GV) functions are all critical subsystems of the overall GPM system and each contributes to the success of the mission. Errors in the radar measurements and models can adversely affect the retrieved output values. Ground validation (GV) systems are intended to provide timely feedback to the satellite and retrieval algorithms based on measured data. These GV sites will consist of radars and DSD measurement systems and also have intrinsic constraints. One of the retrieval algorithms being studied for use with GPM is the dual-wavelength DSD algorithm that does not use the surface reference technique (SRT). The underlying microphysics of precipitation structures and drop-size distributions (DSDs) dictate the types of models and retrieval algorithms that can be used to estimate precipitation. Many types of dual-wavelength algorithms have been studied. Meneghini (2002) analyzed the performance of single-pass dual-wavelength surface-reference-technique (SRT) based algorithms. Mardiana (2003) demonstrated that a dual-wavelength retrieval algorithm could be successfully used without the use of the SRT. It uses an iterative approach based on measured reflectivities at both wavelengths and complex microphysical models to estimate both No and Do at each range bin. More recently, Liao (2004) proposed a solution to the Do ambiguity problem in rain within the dual-wavelength algorithm and showed a possible melting layer model based on stratified spheres. With the No and Do

  11. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models

    Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.

  12. A Systems Approach Framework for Coastal Zones

    Tom S. Hopkins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical application to coastal zone systems (CZSs was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods. The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations appropriate to a selected policy issue and to the social-environmental conditions of each Study Site Application. Their findings are not the result of funded research projects; instead, they are by-products of pilot applications conducted to develop and improve the SAF methodology. The final article of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management.

  13. Using hybrid expert system approaches for engineering applications

    Allen, R. H.; Boarnet, M. G.; Culbert, C. J.; Savely, R. T.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the use of hybrid expert system shells and hybrid (i.e., algorithmic and heuristic) approaches for solving engineering problems is reported. Aspects of various engineering problem domains are reviewed for a number of examples with specific applications made to recently developed prototype expert systems. Based on this prototyping experience, critical evaluations of and comparisons between commercially available tools, and some research tools, in the United States and Australia, and their underlying problem-solving paradigms are made. Characteristics of the implementation tool and the engineering domain are compared and practical software engineering issues are discussed with respect to hybrid tools and approaches. Finally, guidelines are offered with the hope that expert system development will be less time consuming, more effective, and more cost-effective than it has been in the past.

  14. Fuzzy filter for state estimation of a glucoregulatory system.

    Trajanoski, Z; Wach, P

    1996-08-01

    A filter based on fuzzy logic for state estimation of a glucoregulatory system is presented. A published non-linear model for the dynamics of glucose and its hormonal control including a single glucose compartment, five insulin compartments and a glucagon compartment was used for simulation. The simulated data were corrupted by an additive white noise with zero mean and a coefficient of variation (CV) of between 2 and 20% and then submitted to the state estimation procedure using a fuzzy filter (FF). The performance of the FF was compared with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for state estimation. Both the FF and the EKF were evaluated in the following cases: (a) five state variables are measurable; three plasma variables are measurable; only plasma glucose is measurable; (b) for different measurement noise levels (CV of 2-20%); and (c) a mismatch between the glucoregulatory system and the given mathematical model (uncertain or approximate model). In contrast to the FF, in the case of approximate model of the glucose system, the EKF failed to achieve useful state estimation. Moreover, the performance of the FF was independent of the noise level. In conclusion, the FF approach is a viable alternative for state estimation in a noisy environment and with an uncertain mathematical model of the glucoregulatory system.

  15. Beyond reliability, multi-state failure analysis of satellite subsystems: A statistical approach

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Reliability is widely recognized as a critical design attribute for space systems. In recent articles, we conducted nonparametric analyses and Weibull fits of satellite and satellite subsystems reliability for 1584 Earth-orbiting satellites launched between January 1990 and October 2008. In this paper, we extend our investigation of failures of satellites and satellite subsystems beyond the binary concept of reliability to the analysis of their anomalies and multi-state failures. In reliability analysis, the system or subsystem under study is considered to be either in an operational or failed state; multi-state failure analysis introduces 'degraded states' or partial failures, and thus provides more insights through finer resolution into the degradation behavior of an item and its progression towards complete failure. The database used for the statistical analysis in the present work identifies five states for each satellite subsystem: three degraded states, one fully operational state, and one failed state (complete failure). Because our dataset is right-censored, we calculate the nonparametric probability of transitioning between states for each satellite subsystem with the Kaplan-Meier estimator, and we derive confidence intervals for each probability of transitioning between states. We then conduct parametric Weibull fits of these probabilities using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) approach. After validating the results, we compare the reliability versus multi-state failure analyses of three satellite subsystems: the thruster/fuel; the telemetry, tracking, and control (TTC); and the gyro/sensor/reaction wheel subsystems. The results are particularly revealing of the insights that can be gleaned from multi-state failure analysis and the deficiencies, or blind spots, of the traditional reliability analysis. In addition to the specific results provided here, which should prove particularly useful to the space industry, this work highlights the importance

  16. 34 CFR 200.12 - Single State accountability system.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single State accountability system. 200.12 Section 200... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies State Accountability System § 200.12 Single State accountability system. (a)(1) Each State must demonstrate in its State plan that the State has...

  17. Effects of globalization on state budgeting system in Ukraine

    Bobukh S.О.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When writing the scientific article the scientific approaches of scientists concerning the essence of budgeting have been described. The paper deals with the principles of budgeting on the basis of which three main methodological components are singled out. It also analyzes the budgeting goals. The author investigates the impact of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine, its positive and negative effects. Despite significant achievements it is necessary to explore the effects of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine. Budgeting is the management technology that provides the formation of budgets for the selected objects and their use to ensure optimal structure and correlation of profits and expenses, income and expenditure, assets and liabilities of the organization or its components to achieve the set goals taking into account the influence of the environment. It should be emphasized that budgeting in no way replaces the control system, but only creates a new approach to management from the standpoint of the balance of incomes and expenditures, profits and expenses, assets and liabilities of the organization as a whole or its components. The state budgeting of the country as the part of the financial system is the channel through which economic globalization, namely financial globalization, affects economic development of the state. Favorable global effect occurs, in particular, in terms of the impact on financial development. Therefore, it is necessary to + the nature of the relationship between these two processes.

  18. Solution of generalized control system equations at steady state

    Vilim, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Although a number of reactor systems codes feature generalized control system models, none of the models offer a steady-state solution finder. Indeed, if a transient is to begin from steady-state conditions, the user must provide estimates for the control system initial conditions and run a null transient until the plant converges to steady state. Several such transients may have to be run before values for control system demand signals are found that produce the desired plant steady state. The intent of this paper is (a) to present the control system equations assumed in the SASSYS reactor systems code and to identify the appropriate set of initial conditions, (b) to describe the generalized block diagram approach used to represent these equations, and (c) to describe a solution method and algorithm for computing these initial conditions from the block diagram. The algorithm has been installed in the SASSYS code for use with the code's generalized control system model. The solution finder greatly enhances the effectiveness of the code and the efficiency of the user in running it

  19. Metaheuristic Approaches for Hydropower System Scheduling

    Ieda G. Hidalgo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the short-term scheduling problem of hydropower systems. The objective is to meet the daily energy demand in an economic and safe way. The individuality of the generating units and the nonlinearity of their efficiency curves are taken into account. The mathematical model is formulated as a dynamic, mixed integer, nonlinear, nonconvex, combinatorial, and multiobjective optimization problem. We propose two solution methods using metaheuristic approaches. They combine Genetic Algorithm with Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization. Both approaches are divided into two phases. In the first one, to maximize the plant’s net generation, the problem is solved for each hour of the day (static dispatch. In the second phase, to minimize the units’ switching on-off, the day is considered as a whole (dynamic dispatch. The proposed methodology is applied to two Brazilian hydroelectric plants, in cascade, that belong to the national interconnected system. The nondominated solutions from both approaches are presented. All of them meet demand respecting the physical, electrical, and hydraulic constraints.

  20. AI systems approach in particle accelerators

    Kataria, S.K.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Kori, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    The large particle accelerators machines like pelletron accelerator at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (T.I.F.R) have several levels of controls with operators responsible for overall global control decisions and closed loop feedback controllers for relatively small subsystems of the machines. As the accelerator machines are becoming more complicated and the requirements more stringent, there is a need to provide the operators with an artificial intelligence (AI) system to aid in the tuning the machine and in failure diagnosis. There are few major areas in the pelletron operation, which can be done more efficiently using AI systems approach so that useful beam is available for much more time: 1) Accelerator Conditioning, 2) Accelerator Tuning, and 3) Maintaining the Tune beams. The feasibility study for using expert system for above areas and also for safety evaluation of the various subsystems is carried out. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  1. Systems approaches to study root architecture dynamics

    Candela eCuesta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant root system is essential for providing anchorage to the soil, supplying minerals and water, and synthesizing metabolites. It is a dynamic organ modulated by external cues such as environmental signals, water and nutrients availability, salinity and others. Lateral roots are initiated from the primary root post-embryonically, after which they progress through discrete developmental stages which can be independently controlled, providing a high level of plasticity during root system formation.Within this review, main contributions are presented, from the classical forward genetic screens to the more recent high-throughput approaches, combined with computer model predictions, dissecting how lateral roots and thereby root system architecture is established and developed.

  2. Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems

    Ruqiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature.

  3. System resiliency quantification using non-state-space and state-space analytic models

    Ghosh, Rahul; Kim, DongSeong; Trivedi, Kishor S.

    2013-01-01

    Resiliency is becoming an important service attribute for large scale distributed systems and networks. Key problems in resiliency quantification are lack of consensus on the definition of resiliency and systematic approach to quantify system resiliency. In general, resiliency is defined as the ability of (system/person/organization) to recover/defy/resist from any shock, insult, or disturbance [1]. Many researchers interpret resiliency as a synonym for fault-tolerance and reliability/availability. However, effect of failure/repair on systems is already covered by reliability/availability measures and that of on individual jobs is well covered under the umbrella of performability [2] and task completion time analysis [3]. We use Laprie [4] and Simoncini [5]'s definition in which resiliency is the persistence of service delivery that can justifiably be trusted, when facing changes. The changes we are referring to here are beyond the envelope of system configurations already considered during system design, that is, beyond fault tolerance. In this paper, we outline a general approach for system resiliency quantification. Using examples of non-state-space and state-space stochastic models, we analytically–numerically quantify the resiliency of system performance, reliability, availability and performability measures w.r.t. structural and parametric changes

  4. IBA's state of art Proton Therapy System

    Ternier, Sonja

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, IBA has developed a state-of-the-art Proton Therapy System that is currently being implemented at the Northeast Proton Therapy Center in Boston. First patient treatment is predicted for the fourth quarter of 2001. The IBA Proton Therapy System consists of a 230 MeV accelerator (a fixed energy isochronous cyclotron), an Energy Selection System that can decrease the energy down to 70 MeV and up to five treatment rooms. There are two types of treatment rooms. A gantry treatment room in which a patient can be treated from virtually any angle or a fixed horizontal beam line aimed at treatments of the of the head and neck. The system is equipped with a Therapy Control System and a Global Safety Management System. The Integrated Therapy Control System is an integrated system ensuring the control of the treatment sessions through independent but networked therapy control units and, therefore, the control of each equipment subsystem. The integrated safety management system, independent of the Therapy Control System, includes a set of hard-wired safety devices, ensuring the safety of the patient and personnel. The system will be capable of delivering proton treatments in four-treatment modes: Double Scattering, Single Scattering, Wobbling and Pencil Beam Scanning. The presentation will show the most important subsystems and treatment modes capabilities as well as the most recent advances in the technology. (author)

  5. Transparency and other State-specific factors: exploration of Ideas for evolving the system of State-evaluations and safeguards implementation of IAEA

    Everton, C.; Leslie, R.; Bayer, S.; East, M. [Craig Everton, Russell Leslie, Stephan Bayer, Michael East, Australia (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    In November 2010 the IAEA Department of Safeguards launched its Long Term Strategic Plan at the IAEA Symposium on International Safeguards: 'Preparing for Future Verification Challenges'. A key element of the Long Term Strategic Plan is the further evolution of the State-level approach for safeguards implementation away from criteria driven safeguards approaches focussed at the facility level, to a safeguards system that is objectives-based and fully information-driven. The State-level approach is a holistic approach to safeguards implementation, applicable to all States, incorporating comprehensive State evaluations and safeguards implementation approaches that make use of all information available to the IAEA. In further evolving the State-level concept State-specific factors and acquisition path analysis will become increasingly important in State evaluations and in the determination of safeguards approaches for each State. It will be important to determine objective modalities for incorporating these factors. Consideration of State-specific factors in determining safeguards approaches is not new - in fact, paragraph 81 of INFCIRC/153 (concluded June 1972) enumerates several such factors that can be considered. This paper will explore some ideas for State-specific factors that could be used in State-evaluations, and how these factors could be used for determining State-by-State safeguards approaches. Ideas for State-specific factors will include effectiveness of State Systems of Accountancy and Control (SSAC), transparency of States in their dealings with the IAEA, and characteristics of a nuclear fuel cycle of a State.

  6. Transparency and other State-specific factors: exploration of Ideas for evolving the system of State-evaluations and safeguards implementation of IAEA

    Everton, C.; Leslie, R.; Bayer, S.; East, M.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2010 the IAEA Department of Safeguards launched its Long Term Strategic Plan at the IAEA Symposium on International Safeguards: 'Preparing for Future Verification Challenges'. A key element of the Long Term Strategic Plan is the further evolution of the State-level approach for safeguards implementation away from criteria driven safeguards approaches focussed at the facility level, to a safeguards system that is objectives-based and fully information-driven. The State-level approach is a holistic approach to safeguards implementation, applicable to all States, incorporating comprehensive State evaluations and safeguards implementation approaches that make use of all information available to the IAEA. In further evolving the State-level concept State-specific factors and acquisition path analysis will become increasingly important in State evaluations and in the determination of safeguards approaches for each State. It will be important to determine objective modalities for incorporating these factors. Consideration of State-specific factors in determining safeguards approaches is not new - in fact, paragraph 81 of INFCIRC/153 (concluded June 1972) enumerates several such factors that can be considered. This paper will explore some ideas for State-specific factors that could be used in State-evaluations, and how these factors could be used for determining State-by-State safeguards approaches. Ideas for State-specific factors will include effectiveness of State Systems of Accountancy and Control (SSAC), transparency of States in their dealings with the IAEA, and characteristics of a nuclear fuel cycle of a State.

  7. An Information Retrieval Approach for Robust Prediction of Road Surface States.

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Kwanho

    2017-01-28

    Recently, due to the increasing importance of reducing severe vehicle accidents on roads (especially on highways), the automatic identification of road surface conditions, and the provisioning of such information to drivers in advance, have recently been gaining significant momentum as a proactive solution to decrease the number of vehicle accidents. In this paper, we firstly propose an information retrieval approach that aims to identify road surface states by combining conventional machine-learning techniques and moving average methods. Specifically, when signal information is received from a radar system, our approach attempts to estimate the current state of the road surface based on the similar instances observed previously based on utilizing a given similarity function. Next, the estimated state is then calibrated by using the recently estimated states to yield both effective and robust prediction results. To validate the performances of the proposed approach, we established a real-world experimental setting on a section of actual highway in South Korea and conducted a comparison with the conventional approaches in terms of accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed approach successfully outperforms the previously developed methods.

  8. A Multifaceted Mathematical Approach for Complex Systems

    Alexander, F.; Anitescu, M.; Bell, J.; Brown, D.; Ferris, M.; Luskin, M.; Mehrotra, S.; Moser, B.; Pinar, A.; Tartakovsky, A.; Willcox, K.; Wright, S.; Zavala, V.

    2012-03-07

    Applied mathematics has an important role to play in developing the tools needed for the analysis, simulation, and optimization of complex problems. These efforts require the development of the mathematical foundations for scientific discovery, engineering design, and risk analysis based on a sound integrated approach for the understanding of complex systems. However, maximizing the impact of applied mathematics on these challenges requires a novel perspective on approaching the mathematical enterprise. Previous reports that have surveyed the DOE's research needs in applied mathematics have played a key role in defining research directions with the community. Although these reports have had significant impact, accurately assessing current research needs requires an evaluation of today's challenges against the backdrop of recent advances in applied mathematics and computing. To address these needs, the DOE Applied Mathematics Program sponsored a Workshop for Mathematics for the Analysis, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Systems on September 13-14, 2011. The workshop had approximately 50 participants from both the national labs and academia. The goal of the workshop was to identify new research areas in applied mathematics that will complement and enhance the existing DOE ASCR Applied Mathematics Program efforts that are needed to address problems associated with complex systems. This report describes recommendations from the workshop and subsequent analysis of the workshop findings by the organizing committee.

  9. Automated approach to detecting behavioral states using EEG-DABS

    Zachary B. Loris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrocorticographic (ECoG signals represent cortical electrical dipoles generated by synchronous local field potentials that result from simultaneous firing of neurons at distinct frequencies (brain waves. Since different brain waves correlate to different behavioral states, ECoG signals presents a novel strategy to detect complex behaviors. We developed a program, EEG Detection Analysis for Behavioral States (EEG-DABS that advances Fast Fourier Transforms through ECoG signals time series, separating it into (user defined frequency bands and normalizes them to reduce variability. EEG-DABS determines events if segments of an experimental ECoG record have significantly different power bands than a selected control pattern of EEG. Events are identified at every epoch and frequency band and then are displayed as output graphs by the program. Certain patterns of events correspond to specific behaviors. Once a predetermined pattern was selected for a behavioral state, EEG-DABS correctly identified the desired behavioral event. The selection of frequency band combinations for detection of the behavior affects accuracy of the method. All instances of certain behaviors, such as freezing, were correctly identified from the event patterns generated with EEG-DABS. Detecting behaviors is typically achieved by visually discerning unique animal phenotypes, a process that is time consuming, unreliable, and subjective. EEG-DABS removes variability by using defined parameters of EEG/ECoG for a desired behavior over chronic recordings. EEG-DABS presents a simple and automated approach to quantify different behavioral states from ECoG signals.

  10. A novel Gaussian model based battery state estimation approach: State-of-Energy

    He, HongWen; Zhang, YongZhi; Xiong, Rui; Wang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Gaussian model is employed to construct a novel battery model. • The genetic algorithm is used to implement model parameter identification. • The AIC is used to decide the best hysteresis order of the battery model. • A novel battery SoE estimator is proposed and verified by two kinds of batteries. - Abstract: State-of-energy (SoE) is a very important index for battery management system (BMS) used in electric vehicles (EVs), it is indispensable for ensuring safety and reliable operation of batteries. For achieving battery SoE accurately, the main work can be summarized in three aspects. (1) In considering that different kinds of batteries show different open circuit voltage behaviors, the Gaussian model is employed to construct the battery model. What is more, the genetic algorithm is employed to locate the optimal parameter for the selecting battery model. (2) To determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) is used to determine the best hysteresis order of the combined battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order hysteresis battery model is thought of being the best based on the AIC values. (3) The central difference Kalman filter (CDKF) is used to estimate the real-time SoE and an erroneous initial SoE is considered to evaluate the robustness of the SoE estimator. Lastly, two kinds of lithium-ion batteries are used to verify the proposed SoE estimation approach. The results show that the maximum SoE estimation error is within 1% for both LiFePO 4 and LiMn 2 O 4 battery datasets

  11. 'System-of-systems' approach for interdependent critical infrastructures

    Eusgeld, Irene; Nan, Cen; Dietz, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The study of the interdependencies within critical infrastructures (CI) is a growing field of research as the importance of potential failure propagation among infrastructures may lead to cascades affecting all supply networks. New powerful methods are required to model and describe such 'systems-of-systems' (SoS) as a whole. An overall model is required to provide security and reliability assessment taking into account various kinds of threats and failures. A significant challenge associated with this model may be to create 'what-if' scenarios for the analysis of interdependencies. In this paper the interdependencies between industrial control systems (ICS), in particular SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), and the underlying critical infrastructures to address the vulnerabilities related to the coupling of these systems are analyzed. The modeling alternatives for system-of-systems, integrated versus coupled models, are discussed. An integrated model contains detailed low level models of (sub)systems as well as a high level model, covering all hierarchical levels. On the other hand, a coupled model aggregates different simulated outputs of the low level models as inputs at a higher level. Strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are analyzed and a model architecture for SCADA and the 'system under control' are proposed. Furthermore, the HLA simulation standard is introduced and discussed in this paper as a promising approach to represent interdependencies between infrastructures. To demonstrate the capabilities of the HLA standard for the interdependencies study, an exemplary application and some first results are also briefly presented in this paper.

  12. "ZEMSTVO STATE AFFAIR": UNIT OF ZEMSTVO IN STATE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Гульназ Булатовна Азаматова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local self-government in the Russian Empire (1864-1918 arose as a result of the bourgeois reforms and had a diversified character. This article reviews the role of zemstvo in the implementation of individual bourgeois reforms, local self-government relations with the justice of the peace, peasant authorities, the system of taxation and management of national education. The author concludes that district and executive councils complemented the administrative-bureaucratic system of local government through the district and provincial levels and human resources structure. At the same time, local authorities increased the scope of decentralization and democratization of local administration through election of magistrates, civil servants of peasant bodies as well as via representation in collegial bodies. The independent status of zemstvo promoted to emergence of a new level in the administrative and political management culture. The government used zemstvo to create a modernized system of taxation. Through district councils the Russian Empire established the valuation area of taxation and professional human resources. Thus, district councils helped to improve state administration and became the tool of implementation of the government reform programs in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries.

  13. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  14. Complexions of Iterative Information Systems Development Approaches

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    There is an abundance of methodologies and approaches of information Systems Development (ISD) Processes. We use the concept of complexions of development processes and Technology Use Mediation (TUM) from a client perspective to show how an instance of a planned project in the prehospital sector...... changes dynamically. We identify how the events in the ISD process unfold according to which actions are taken and responded to by users and management respectively. The study finds that depending on the types of actions that users take, managers will react and this can greatly change the complexion...

  15. The Systems Approach to Innovation Studies

    Karen Manley

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature, and business practice, reveals a shift in the way analysts understand innovation processes. This shift is not revealed as a cohesive trend, rather it comprises contributions from a wide range of academic disciplines and empirical evidence. Building on Edquist (1997 this paper ties together the diverse new ideas which stress a systems approach to successful innovation. The paper presents an up-to-date overview of this fast moving field, with a view to assisting public policy makers and business managers in designing more effective innovation processes.

  16. Comparative research and the business system approach

    Rocha, Robson Silva

    2003-01-01

    This paper has two distinct aims. First, I would like to present and discuss the nationalbusiness systems (NBS) framework ( Whitley, 1992,1992a,1996,1997). NBS frameworkconcerns how national variations in economic co-ordination and control systemsfacilitate and constrain organisational change....... The NBS is not widely known in the LatinAmerica countries, and this paper intends to shortly present it The second aim is toquestion, based on the NBS approach, some of the assumptions about the diffusion of anew universal template for organising work (Lean Production) and its agent, themultinational...

  17. State-feedback control of fuzzy discrete-event systems.

    Lin, Feng; Ying, Hao

    2010-06-01

    In a 2002 paper, we combined fuzzy logic with discrete-event systems (DESs) and established an automaton model of fuzzy DESs (FDESs). The model can effectively represent deterministic uncertainties and vagueness, as well as human subjective observation and judgment inherent to many real-world problems, particularly those in biomedicine. We also investigated optimal control of FDESs and applied the results to optimize HIV/AIDS treatments for individual patients. Since then, other researchers have investigated supervisory control problems in FDESs, and several results have been obtained. These results are mostly derived by extending the traditional supervisory control of (crisp) DESs, which are string based. In this paper, we develop state-feedback control of FDESs that is different from the supervisory control extensions. We use state space to describe the system behaviors and use state feedback in control. Both disablement and enforcement are allowed. Furthermore, we study controllability based on the state space and prove that a controller exists if and only if the controlled system behavior is (state-based) controllable. We discuss various properties of the state-based controllability. Aside from novelty, the proposed new framework has the advantages of being able to address a wide range of practical problems that cannot be effectively dealt with by existing approaches. We use the diabetes treatment as an example to illustrate some key aspects of our theoretical results.

  18. Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-19

    Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

  19. Integrating systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences

    Westerhoff, H.V.; Mosekilde, Erik; Noe, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    During the first week of December 2007, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) and BioSim, the major European Network of Excellence on Systems Biology, held a challenging conference on the use of mathematical models in the drug development process. More precisely, the purpose...... of the conference was to promote the ‘Integration of Systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences’ in view of optimising the development of new effective drugs. And a challenge this is, considering both the high attrition rates in the pharmaceutical industry and the failure of finding definitive drug solutions...... for many of the diseases that plague mankind today. The conference was co-sponsored by the American College of Clinical Pharmacology, the European Center for Pharmaceutical Medicine, and the Swiss Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and, besides representatives from the European Regulatory Agencies and FDA...

  20. States of Cybersecurity: Electricity Distribution System Discussions

    Pena, Ivonne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Maurice [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-16

    State and local entities that oversee the reliable, affordable provision of electricity are faced with growing and evolving threats from cybersecurity risks to our nation's electricity distribution system. All-hazards system resilience is a shared responsibility among electric utilities and their regulators or policy-setting boards of directors. Cybersecurity presents new challenges and should be a focus for states, local governments, and Native American tribes that are developing energy-assurance plans to protect critical infrastructure. This research sought to investigate the implementation of governance and policy at the distribution utility level that facilitates cybersecurity preparedness to inform the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis; states; local governments; and other stakeholders on the challenges, gaps, and opportunities that may exist for future analysis. The need is urgent to identify the challenges and inconsistencies in how cybersecurity practices are being applied across the United States to inform the development of best practices, mitigations, and future research and development investments in securing the electricity infrastructure. By examining the current practices and applications of cybersecurity preparedness, this report seeks to identify the challenges and persistent gaps between policy and execution and reflect the underlying motivations of distinct utility structures as they play out at the local level. This study aims to create an initial baseline of cybersecurity preparedness within the distribution electricity sector. The focus of this study is on distribution utilities not bound by the cybersecurity guidelines of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to examine the range of mechanisms taken by state regulators, city councils that own municipal utilities, and boards of directors of rural cooperatives.

  1. The dynamic state monitoring of bearings system

    Marek Krynke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methods of dynamic state monitoring of bearings system. A vibration signal contains important technical information about the machine condition and is currently the most frequently used in diagnostic bearings systems. One of the main ad-vantages of machine condition monitoring is identifying the cause of failure of the bearings and taking preventative measures, otherwise the operation of such a machine will lead to frequent replacement of the bearings. Monitoring changes in the course of the operation of machin-ery repair strategies allows keeping the conditioned state of dynamic failure conditioned preventive repairs and repairs after-failure time. In addition, the paper also presents the fundamental causes of bearing failure and identifies mechanisms related to the creation of any type of damage.

  2. State diagram of Pr-Bi system

    Abulkhaev, V.L.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    By means of thermal differential analysis, X-ray and microstructural analysis the state diagram of Pr-Bi system was studied. Following intermetallic compounds were defined in the system: Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 , Pr Bi, PrBi 2 , Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 and PrBi 2 . The data analysis on Ln-Bi diagram allowed to determine the regularity of change of properties of intermetallic compounds in the line of rare earth elements of cerium subgroup.

  3. Geothermal research at Oklahoma State University: An integrated approach

    Smith, M.D.

    1997-12-31

    Oklahoma State University and the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA) are active in providing technical support to government and industry through technology transfer, technology development, technical assistance, and business development support. Technology transfer includes geothermal heat pump (GHP) system training for installers and architects and engineers, national teleconferences, brochures, and other publications. Technology development encompasses design software development, GLHEPRO, in-situ thermal conductivity testing methods and verification of data reduction techniques, and specifications and standards for GHP systems. Examples of technical assistance projects are a Navy officers quarters and a NASA Visitors Center which required design assistance and supporting information in reducing the life cycle cost to make them viable projects.

  4. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  5. Comparison of Routable Control System Security Approaches

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2011-06-01

    This document is an supplement to the 'Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems.' It addressed security in routable control system communication. The control system environment that monitors and manages the power grid historically has utilized serial communication mechanisms. Leased-line serial communication environments operating at 1200 to 9600 baud rates are common. However, recent trends show that communication media such as fiber, optical carrier 3 (OC-3) speeds, mesh-based high-speed wireless, and the Internet are becoming the media of choice. In addition, a dichotomy has developed between the electrical transmission and distribution environments, with more modern communication infrastructures deployed by transmission utilities. The preceding diagram represents a typical control system. The Communication Links cloud supports all of the communication mechanisms a utility might deploy between the control center and devices in the field. Current methodologies used for security implementations are primarily led by single vendors or standards bodies. However, these entities tend to focus on individual protocols. The result is an environment that contains a mixture of security solutions that may only address some communication protocols at an increasing operational burden for the utility. A single approach is needed that meets operational requirements, is simple to operate, and provides the necessary level of security for all control system communication. The solution should be application independent (e.g., Distributed Network Protocol/Internet Protocol [DNP/IP], International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] C37.118, Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control [OPC], etc.) and focus on the transport layer. In an ideal setting, a well-designed suite of standards for control system communication will be used for vendor implementation and compliance testing. An expected outcome of this effort is an international standard.

  6. A management systems approach to pipeline integrity

    Abes, J. [CC Technologies Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    A management systems approach to pipeline integrity was discussed in terms of accident causation models, lessons from accidents, and management systems. Accident causation models include the Heinrich domino theory; epidemiological models; event chain models; and system-based models. A review of the Bellingham pipeline accident showed that if the pipeline had not been weakened by external damage, it likely would have been able to withstand the pressure that occurred on the day of the rupture, and the accident would not have happened. It was also determined that there was inadequate inspection of excavation work during the water treatment plant project and consequently, there was a failure to identify and repair the damage done to the pipeline. The presentation also addressed other findings, such as inaccurate evaluation of in-line pipeline inspection data; failure to manage and protect the supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA); and ineffective management oversight of construction and activation of products terminal. The Carlsbad pipeline explosion was also presented as another example of an accident. Several violations by El Paso were cited, including failure to ensure that qualified personnel performed internal corrosion control procedures; failure to perform necessary tests for corrosion; and failure to follow procedures for continuing surveillance of its facilities. Last, the presentation provided a definition of management systems and discussed the characteristics and elements of a management system. These elements included policy and leadership commitment; organizational structure and responsibilities; management of resources; communication plan; document and records management; operational controls; management of change; and continual improvement. 1 fig.

  7. Implementing lean manufacturing system: ISM approach

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lean Manufacturing System has emerged as an important area of research in Indian context. The requirement of Lean Manufacturing has increased due to defects in products (semi finished and finished and subsequent increase in cost. In this context, this study is an attempt to develop a structural model of the variables, important to implement Lean Manufacturing System in Indian automobile industry. Design/Methodology/Approach: Various variables of lean manufacturing system implementation have been identified from literature review and experts’ opinions. Contextual relationship among these identified variables has been set after carrying out brainstorming session. Further, classification of the variables has been carried out based upon the driving power and dependence. In addition to this, a structural model of variables to implement lean concept in Indian automobile industry has also been developed using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Questionnaire based survey has also been conducted to rank these variables. Findings: Eighteen variables have been identified from the literature and subsequent discussions with experts. Out of which, nine variables have been identified as dependent and nine variables have been identified as driver. No variable has been identified as linkage variable and autonomous variable. From the model developed, ‘Relative cost benefits’ has been identified as top level dependent variable and top management commitment as bottom level most independent variable. Research limitations/Implications: The model so developed is a hypothetical model based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation. Practical implication: Clear understanding of interactions among these variables will help organizations to prioritize and manage these variables more effectively and efficiently to draw advantage from lean manufacturing system implementation

  8. THE BPMN APPROACH OF THE UNIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Catalin STRȊMBEI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a new vision about the enterprise modelling in the context of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN and the university area. Although the flow objects, artefacts, connecting objects and swim lanes are very used in the process of Enterprise Modelling, they have specific roles in the university information systems. The paper will reveal a specific approach of BPMN in the context of university information systems based on a comparative analysis of some representative universities from United States and Central Europe. Our ideas are argued with a practical case study that includes 4 realistic and complex systems: study programs and curriculum, students’ admission, student roadmap, students’ exchange. The future directions of the article are some visions of BPMN orchestration of a SOA-based architecture for Student Record Systems.

  9. Information dynamics and open systems classical and quantum approach

    Ingarden, R S; Ohya, M

    1997-01-01

    This book aims to present an information-theoretical approach to thermodynamics and its generalisations On the one hand, it generalises the concept of `information thermodynamics' to that of `information dynamics' in order to stress applications outside thermal phenomena On the other hand, it is a synthesis of the dynamics of state change and the theory of complexity, which provide a common framework to treat both physical and nonphysical systems together Both classical and quantum systems are discussed, and two appendices are included to explain principal definitions and some important aspects of the theory of Hilbert spaces and operator algebras The concept of higher-order temperatures is explained and applied to biological and linguistic systems The theory of open systems is presented in a new, much more general form Audience This volume is intended mainly for theoretical and mathematical physicists, but also for mathematicians, experimental physicists, physical chemists, theoretical biologists, communicat...

  10. Quantum Optics with Nanomechanical and Solid State Systems

    Jaehne, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents theoretical studies in an interfacing field of quantum optics, nanomechanics and mesoscopic solid state physics and proposes new methods for the generation of particular quantum states and quantum state transfer for selected hybrid systems. The first part of this thesis focuses on the quantum limit of a macroscopic object, a nanomechanical resonator. This is studied for two different physical systems. The first one is a nanomechanical beam incorporated in a superconducting circuit, in particular a loop-shaped Cooper pair box (CPB) - circuit. We present a scheme for ground state cooling of the flexural mode of the nanomechanical beam. Via the Lorentz force coupling of the beam motion to circulating CPB-circuit currents, energy is transferred to the CPB qubit which acts as a dissipative two-level system. The cooling process is driven by a detuned gate-voltage drive acting on the CPB. We analyze the cooling force spectrum and present analytical expressions for the cooling rate and final occupation number for a wide parameter regime. In particular, we find that cooling is optimized in a strong drive regime, and we present the necessary conditions for ground-state cooling. In a second system, we investigate the creation of squeezed states of a mechanical oscillator (a vibrating membrane or a movable mirror) in an optomechanical setup. An optical cavity is driven by squeezed light and couples via radiation pressure to the mechanical oscillator, effectively providing a squeezed heat-bath for the mechanical oscillator. Under the conditions of laser cooling to the ground state, we find an efficient transfer of squeezing with roughly 60% of light squeezing conveyed to the mechanical oscillator (on a dB scale). We determine the requirements on the carrier frequency and the bandwidth of squeezed light. Beyond the conditions for ground state cooling, we predict mechanical squashing to be observable in current systems. The second part of the thesis is

  11. United States of America: health system review.

    Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline; Unruh, Lynn Y; Barnes, Andrew J; Saltman, Richard B; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it also suffers from incomplete coverage of its citizenry, health expenditure levels per person far exceeding all other countries, poor measures on many objective and subjective measures of quality and outcomes, an unequal distribution of resources and outcomes across the country and among different population groups, and lagging efforts to introduce health information technology. It is difficult to determine the extent to which deficiencies are health-system related, though it seems that at least some of the problems are a result of poor access to care. Because of the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the United States is facing a period of enormous potential change. Improving coverage is a central aim, envisaged through subsidies for the uninsured to purchase private insurance, expanded eligibility for Medicaid (in some states) and greater protection for insured persons. Furthermore, primary care and public health receive increased funding, and quality and expenditures are addressed through a range of measures. Whether the ACA will indeed be effective in addressing the challenges identified above can only be determined over time. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  12. Steady State Analysis of Stochastic Systems with Multiple Time Delays

    Xu, W.; Sun, C. Y.; Zhang, H. Q.

    In this paper, attention is focused on the steady state analysis of a class of nonlinear dynamic systems with multi-delayed feedbacks driven by multiplicative correlated Gaussian white noises. The Fokker-Planck equations for delayed variables are at first derived by Novikov's theorem. Then, under small delay assumption, the approximate stationary solutions are obtained by the probability density approach. As a special case, the effects of multidelay feedbacks and the correlated additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noises on the response of a bistable system are considered. It is shown that the obtained analytical results are in good agreement with experimental results in Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  14. Dynamics of Financial System: A System Dynamics Approach

    Girish K. Nair; Lewlyn Lester Raj Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    There are several ratios which define the financial health of an organization but the importance of Net cash flow, Gross income, Net income, Pending bills, Receivable bills, Debt, and Book value can never be undermined as they give the exact picture of the financial condition. While there are several approaches to study the dynamics of these variables, system dynamics based modelling and simulation is one of the modern techniques. The paper explores this method to simulate the before mentione...

  15. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Gernot eBodner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for plant functional type identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. We demonstrate that combining principal component and cluster analysis yields a meaningful classification of rooting types based on morphological traits. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. Biplot inspection is used to determine key traits and to ensure stability in cluster based grouping. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Three rooting types emerged from measured data, distinguished by diameter/weight, density and spatial distribution respectively. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement

  16. Strong disorder RG approach of random systems

    Igloi, Ferenc; Monthus, Cecile

    2005-01-01

    There is a large variety of quantum and classical systems in which the quenched disorder plays a dominant ro-circumflex le over quantum, thermal, or stochastic fluctuations: these systems display strong spatial heterogeneities, and many averaged observables are actually governed by rare regions. A unifying approach to treat the dynamical and/or static singularities of these systems has emerged recently, following the pioneering RG idea by Ma and Dasgupta and the detailed analysis by Fisher who showed that the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yield asymptotic exact results if the broadness of the disorder grows indefinitely at large scales. Here we report these new developments by starting with an introduction of the main ingredients of the strong disorder RG method. We describe the basic properties of infinite disorder fixed points, which are realized at critical points, and of strong disorder fixed points, which control the singular behaviors in the Griffiths-phases. We then review in detail applications of the RG method to various disordered models, either (i) quantum models, such as random spin chains, ladders and higher dimensional spin systems, or (ii) classical models, such as diffusion in a random potential, equilibrium at low temperature and coarsening dynamics of classical random spin chains, trap models, delocalization transition of a random polymer from an interface, driven lattice gases and reaction diffusion models in the presence of quenched disorder. For several one-dimensional systems, the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yields very detailed analytical results, whereas for other, mainly higher dimensional problems, the RG rules have to be implemented numerically. If available, the strong disorder RG results are compared with another, exact or numerical calculations

  17. The Economic Security of Bank: Theoretical Basis and Systemic Approach

    Gavlovska Nataliia I.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the existing approaches to interpreting the category of «economic security of bank». A author’s own definition of the concept of «economic security of bank» has been proposed, which should be understood as condition of protecting the vital interests of bank, achieved by harmonizing relationships with the entities of external influence and optimizing the internal system processes, thus enabling efficient function as well as development by means of an adaptation mechanism. A number of approaches to understanding the substance of the above concept has been allocated and their main characteristics have been provided. The need to study the specifics of interaction of banking institutions with the external environment in the context of interaction between the State agents and market actors has been underlined. Features of formation of the term of «system» have been defined, three main groups of approaches to interpretation of the term have been provided. A author’s own definition of the concept of «economic security system of bank» has been proposed. A concrete definition of principles for building an economic security system of bank has been provided.

  18. Asymptotic stabilization of nonlinear systems using state feedback

    D'Attellis, Carlos

    1990-01-01

    This paper studies the design of state-feedback controllers for the stabilization of single-input single-output nonlinear systems x = f(x) + g(x)u, y = h(x). Two approaches for the stabilization problem are given; the asymptotic stability is achieved by means of: a) nonlinear state feedback: two nonlinear feedbacks are used; the first separates the system in a controllable linear part and in the zeros-dynamic part. The second feedback generates an asymptotically stable equilibrium on the manifold where this dynamics evolves; b) nonlinear dynamic feedback: conditions are established under which the system can follow the output of a completely controllable bilinear system which uses bounded controls. This fact enables the system to reach, using bounded controls too, a desired output value in finite time. As this value corresponds to a state that lays in the attraction basin of a stable equilibrium with the same output, the system evolves to that point. The two methods are illustrated by examples. (Author) [es

  19. Software control and system configuration management: A systems-wide approach

    Petersen, K. L.; Flores, C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive software control and system configuration management process for flight-crucial digital control systems of advanced aircraft has been developed and refined to insure efficient flight system development and safe flight operations. Because of the highly complex interactions among the hardware, software, and system elements of state-of-the-art digital flight control system designs, a systems-wide approach to configuration control and management has been used. Specific procedures are implemented to govern discrepancy reporting and reconciliation, software and hardware change control, systems verification and validation testing, and formal documentation requirements. An active and knowledgeable configuration control board reviews and approves all flight system configuration modifications and revalidation tests. This flexible process has proved effective during the development and flight testing of several research aircraft and remotely piloted research vehicles with digital flight control systems that ranged from relatively simple to highly complex, integrated mechanizations.

  20. Scientific Approaches Of Management Of System Of Industrial Water Use In Ukraine

    Olga Yarotskaya

    2011-01-01

    The main approaches are established for modernization of existing management system of industrial water use in Ukraine, the formation of innovative model of development of the industrial complex and the new state policy of ecologically balanced industrial water use.

  1. The safe road transport system approach

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  2. Risk Analysis Approach to Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    Nadia Ursino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban rainwater reuse preserves water resources and promotes sustainable development in rapidly growing urban areas. The efficiency of a large number of urban water reuse systems, operating under different climate and demand conditions, is evaluated here on the base of a new risk analysis approach. Results obtained by probability analysis (PA indicate that maximum efficiency in low demanding scenarios is above 0.5 and a threshold, distinguishing low from high demanding scenarios, indicates that in low demanding scenarios no significant improvement in performance may be attained by increasing the storage capacity of rainwater harvesting tanks. Threshold behaviour is displayed when tank storage capacity is designed to match both the average collected volume and the average reuse volume. The low demand limit cannot be achieved under climate and operating conditions characterized by a disproportion between harvesting and demand volume.

  3. Approaching acquisition path analysis formally. A comparison between AP and nonAP states

    Listner, Clemens; Canty, Morton J.; Niemeyer, Irmgard; Rezniczek, Arnold; Stein, Gotthard

    2014-01-01

    In the past, the IAEA has planned its activities mainly based on the presence of nuclear material. However, resources should be spent where they are needed most. Therefore, a new risk model was developed to change the inspection system to a comprehensive, objective‑driven approach where the State is considered as a whole, the so called State‑level concept (SLC). Acquisition path analysis (APA) is a key element of the State‑level concept. By considering the State’s nuclear profile, the APA generates a list of acquisition paths ranked by their attractiveness for the State. Currently, this process is mainly based on expert judgment. However, the IAEA’s requirements state that APA must be objective, reproducible, transparent, standardized, documented and as a result non‑discriminatory. A formal approach fulfilling the requirements was set up by the authors in the past [1]. This methodology is based on a three step approach. The process starts in the first step with the parametrization of the network. In the second step, the network is analyzed in order find all acquisition paths for a State. Finally, game theory is used in the third step to model the decisions made by the IAEA and the State. In this paper, an advanced methodology will be presented. Improvements were made in the interface definition between the three stages. Also, the general network model was updated and the automatic visualization of acquisition paths was accomplished. Furthermore, a prototype implementation will be shown. The advanced methodology was applied to two test non‑nuclear weapon States under comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA. Both States hold complex fuel cycles with only small technical differences. However,only one State is supposed to have the additional protocol (AP) in force. The example will show how the presence of the AP influences the detection probabilities of illegal behavior. As a consequence, these examples also indicate where to best focus

  4. On importance assessment of aging multi-state system

    Frenkel, Ilia; Khvatskin, Lev; Lisnianski, Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Modern high-tech equipment requires precise temperature control and effective cooling below the ambient temperature. Greater cooling efficiencies will allow equipment to be operated for longer periods without overheating, providing a greater return on investment and increased in availability of the equipment. This paper presents application of the Lz-transform method to importance assessment of aging multi-state water-cooling system used in one of Israeli hospitals. The water cooling system consists of 3 principal sub-systems: chillers, heat exchanger and pumps. The performance of the system and the sub-systems is measured by their produced cooling capacity. Heat exchanger is an aging component. Straightforward Markov method applied to solve this problem will require building of a system model with numerous numbers of states and solving a corresponding system of multiple differential equations. Lz-transform method, which is used for calculation of the system elements importance, drastically simplified the solution. Numerical example is presented to illustrate the described approach.

  5. Communication: An efficient approach to compute state-specific nuclear gradients for a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction

    Granovsky, Alexander A., E-mail: alex.granovsky@gmail.com [Firefly project, Moscow, 117593 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-21

    We present a new, very efficient semi-numerical approach for the computation of state-specific nuclear gradients of a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction. Our approach eliminates the costly coupled-perturbed multi-configuration Hartree-Fock step as well as the associated integral transformation stage. The details of the implementation within the Firefly quantum chemistry package are discussed and several sample applications are given. The new approach is routinely applicable to geometry optimization of molecular systems with 1000+ basis functions using a standalone multi-core workstation.

  6. Communication: An efficient approach to compute state-specific nuclear gradients for a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction

    Granovsky, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new, very efficient semi-numerical approach for the computation of state-specific nuclear gradients of a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction. Our approach eliminates the costly coupled-perturbed multi-configuration Hartree-Fock step as well as the associated integral transformation stage. The details of the implementation within the Firefly quantum chemistry package are discussed and several sample applications are given. The new approach is routinely applicable to geometry optimization of molecular systems with 1000+ basis functions using a standalone multi-core workstation

  7. Communication: An efficient approach to compute state-specific nuclear gradients for a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction.

    Granovsky, Alexander A

    2015-12-21

    We present a new, very efficient semi-numerical approach for the computation of state-specific nuclear gradients of a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction. Our approach eliminates the costly coupled-perturbed multi-configuration Hartree-Fock step as well as the associated integral transformation stage. The details of the implementation within the Firefly quantum chemistry package are discussed and several sample applications are given. The new approach is routinely applicable to geometry optimization of molecular systems with 1000+ basis functions using a standalone multi-core workstation.

  8. A self-cognizant dynamic system approach for prognostics and health management

    Bai, Guangxing; Wang, Pingfeng; Hu, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Prognostics and health management (PHM) is an emerging engineering discipline that diagnoses and predicts how and when a system will degrade its performance and lose its partial or whole functionality. Due to the complexity and invisibility of rules and states of most dynamic systems, developing an effective approach to track evolving system states becomes a major challenge. This paper presents a new self-cognizant dynamic system (SCDS) approach that incorporates artificial intelligence into dynamic system modeling for PHM. A feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is selected to approximate a complex system response which is challenging task in general due to inaccessible system physics. The trained FFNN model is then embedded into a dual extended Kalman filter algorithm to track down system dynamics. A recursive computation technique used to update the FFNN model using online measurements is also derived. To validate the proposed SCDS approach, a battery dynamic system is considered as an experimental application. After modeling the battery system by a FFNN model and a state-space model, the state-of-charge (SoC) and state-of-health (SoH) are estimated by updating the FFNN model using the proposed approach. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach improves the efficiency and accuracy for battery health management.

  9. Numerical simulation of nonequilibrium flows by using the state-to-state approach in commercial software

    Kunova, O. V.; Shoev, G. V.; Kudryavtsev, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Nonequilibrium flows of a two-component oxygen mixture O2/O behind a shock wave are studied with due allowance for the state-to-state vibrational and chemical kinetics. The system of gas-dynamic equations is supplemented with kinetic equations including contributions of VT (TV)-exchange and dissociation processes. A method of the numerical solution of this system with the use of the ANSYS Fluent commercial software package is proposed, which is used in a combination with the authors' code that takes into account nonequilibrium kinetics. The computed results are compared with parameters obtained by solving the problem in the shock-fitting formulation. The vibrational temperature is compared with experimental data. The numerical tool proposed in the present paper is applied to study the flow around a cylinder.

  10. Analysis of Life Histories: A State Space Approach

    Rajulton, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe computer package LIFEHIST written by the author, is meant for analyzinglife histories through a state-space approach. Basic ideas on which the various programs have beenbuilt are described in this paper in a non-mathematical language. Users can use various programs formultistate analyses based on Markov and semi-Markov frameworks and sequences of transitions implied inlife histories. The package is under constant revision and programs for using a few specific modelsthe author thinks will be useful for analyzing longitudinal data will be incorporated in the nearfuture.FrenchLe système d'ordinateur LIFEHIST écrit par l'auteur est établi pour analyser desévénements au cours de la vie par une approche qui tient compte des états aucours du temps. Les idées fondamentales à la base des divers programmes dumodule sont décrites dans un langage non-mathématique. Le systèmeLIFEHIST peut être utilisé pour des analyses Markov et semi-Markov desséquences d’événements au cours de la vie. Le module est sous révisionconstante, et des programmes que l’auteur compte ajouter pour l'usage dedonnées longitudinales sont décrit.

  11. Expandable image compression system: A modular approach

    Ho, B.K.T.; Chan, K.K.; Ishimitsu, Y.; Lo, S.C.; Huang, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The full-frame bit allocation algorithm for radiological image compression developed in the authors' laboratory can achieve compression ratios as high as 30:1. The software development and clinical evaluation of this algorithm has been completed. It involves two stages of operations: a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform and pixel quantization in the transform space with pixel depth kept accountable by a bit allocation table. Their design took an expandable modular approach based on the VME bus system which has a maximum data transfer rate of 48 Mbytes per second and a Motorola 68020 microprocessor as the master controller. The transform modules are based on advanced digital signal processor (DSP) chips microprogrammed to perform fast cosine transforms. Four DSP's built into a single-board transform module can process an 1K x 1K image in 1.7 seconds. Additional transform modules working in parallel can be added if even greater speeds are desired. The flexibility inherent in the microcode extends the capabilities of the system to incorporate images of variable sizes. Their design allows for a maximum image size of 2K x 2K

  12. Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.

    Zink, Klaus J

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. United States Army Weapon Systems 2010

    2009-09-18

    equipment, tractor, van, wrecker, 8.8-ton Load Handling System (LHS), 8.8-ton LHS trailer, and 10-ton dump truck models). Three truck variants and...NJ) hydraulic pump and motor: Vickers (Jackson, MS) 131 UnIteD StAteS Army ACqUISItIon phASe InveStment Component High Mobility Engineer Excavator...MEDEVAC and hoist configuration, the UH-72A is also being fielded in a VIP, National Guard Homeland Security (HLS) and a Combined Training Center

  14. A quantum retrograde canon: complete population inversion in n 2-state systems

    Padan, Alon; Suchowski, Haim

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel approach for analytically reducing a family of time-dependent multi-state quantum control problems to two-state systems. The presented method translates between {SU}(2)× {SU}(2) related n 2-state systems and two-state systems, such that the former undergo complete population inversion (CPI) if and only if the latter reach specific states. For even n, the method translates any two-state CPI scheme to a family of CPI schemes in n 2-state systems. In particular, facilitating CPI in a four-state system via real time-dependent nearest-neighbors couplings is reduced to facilitating CPI in a two-level system. Furthermore, we show that the method can be used for operator control, and provide conditions for producing several universal gates for quantum computation as an example. In addition, we indicate a basis for utilizing the method in optimal control problems.

  15. Implementation of a Simplified State Estimator for Wind Turbine Monitoring on an Embedded System

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    system, including individual DER, is time consuming and numerically challenging. This paper presents the approach and results of implementing a simplified state estimator onto an embedded system for improving DER monitoring. The implemented state estimator is based on numerically robust orthogonal......The transition towards a cyber-physical energy system (CPES) entails an increased dependency on valid data. Simultaneously, an increasing implementation of renewable generation leads to possible control actions at individual distributed energy resources (DERs). A state estimation covering the whole...

  16. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A. [HF Controls Corporation, 16650 Westgrove Drive, Addison, TX 75001 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from

  17. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from an intruder attempting to

  18. A Sociotechnical Systems Approach To Coastal Marine Spatial Planning

    2016-12-01

    SYSTEMS APPROACH TO COASTAL MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING by Tyler B. McDonald December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Karen Holness Co-Advisor: Tom...2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO COASTAL MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING...engineering perspective and specifically used a sociotechnical systems approach . The research investigated aquaculture permitting from the

  19. Coherent states of systems with quadratic Hamiltonians

    Bagrov, V.G., E-mail: bagrov@phys.tsu.ru [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M., E-mail: gitman@if.usp.br [Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Pereira, A.S., E-mail: albertoufcg@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-06-15

    Different families of generalized coherent states (CS) for one-dimensional systems with general time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian are constructed. In principle, all known CS of systems with quadratic Hamiltonian are members of these families. Some of the constructed generalized CS are close enough to the well-known due to Schroedinger and Glauber CS of a harmonic oscillator; we call them simply CS. However, even among these CS, there exist different families of complete sets of CS. These families differ by values of standard deviations at the initial time instant. According to the values of these initial standard deviations, one can identify some of the families with semiclassical CS. We discuss properties of the constructed CS, in particular, completeness relations, minimization of uncertainty relations and so on. As a unknown application of the general construction, we consider different CS of an oscillator with a time dependent frequency. (author)

  20. Coherent states of systems with quadratic Hamiltonians

    Bagrov, V.G.; Gitman, D.M.; Pereira, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Different families of generalized coherent states (CS) for one-dimensional systems with general time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian are constructed. In principle, all known CS of systems with quadratic Hamiltonian are members of these families. Some of the constructed generalized CS are close enough to the well-known due to Schroedinger and Glauber CS of a harmonic oscillator; we call them simply CS. However, even among these CS, there exist different families of complete sets of CS. These families differ by values of standard deviations at the initial time instant. According to the values of these initial standard deviations, one can identify some of the families with semiclassical CS. We discuss properties of the constructed CS, in particular, completeness relations, minimization of uncertainty relations and so on. As a unknown application of the general construction, we consider different CS of an oscillator with a time dependent frequency. (author)

  1. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  2. A systems biology approach to study systemic inflammation.

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammation needs a precise control on the sequence and magnitude of occurring events. The high throughput data on the host-pathogen interactions gives us an opportunity to have a glimpse on the systemic inflammation. In this article, a dynamic Candida albicans-zebrafish interactive infectious network is built as an example to demonstrate how systems biology approach can be used to study systematic inflammation. In particular, based on microarray data of C. albicans and zebrafish during infection, the hyphal growth, zebrafish, and host-pathogen intercellular PPI networks were combined to form an integrated infectious PPI network that helps us understand the systematic mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. albicans and the immune response of the host. The signaling pathways for morphogenesis and hyphal growth of C. albicans were 2 significant interactions found in the intercellular PPI network. Two cellular networks were also developed corresponding to the different infection stages (adhesion and invasion), and then compared with each other to identify proteins to gain more insight into the pathogenic role of hyphal development in the C. albicans infection process. Important defense-related proteins in zebrafish were predicted using the same approach. This integrated network consisting of intercellular invasion and cellular defense processes during infection can improve medical therapies and facilitate development of new antifungal drugs.

  3. Using a State-and-Transition Approach to Manage Endangered Eucalyptus albens (White Box) Woodlands

    Spooner, Peter G.; Allcock, Kimberly G.

    2006-11-01

    Eucalyptus albens (White Box) woodlands are among the most poorly conserved and threatened communities in Australia. Remnants are under further threat from stock grazing, deteriorating soil conditions, weed invasion, and salinity. There is an urgent need to restore degraded White Box and other woodland ecosystems to improve landscape function. However, there is still a poor understanding of the ecology of degraded woodland ecosystems in fragmented agricultural landscapes, and consequently a lack of precise scientific guidelines to manage these ecosystems in a conservation context. State and Transition Models (STMs) have received a great deal of attention, mainly in rangeland applications, as a suitable framework for understanding the ecology of complex ecosystems and to guide management. We have developed a STM for endangered White Box woodlands and discuss the merits of using this approach for land managers of other endangered ecosystems. An STM approach provides a greater understanding of the range of states, transitions, and thresholds possible in an ecosystem, and provides a summary of processes driving the system. Importantly, our proposed STM could be used to clarify the level of “intactness” of degraded White Box woodland sites, and provide the impetus to manage different states in complementary ways, rather than attempting to restore ecosystems to one pristine stable state. We suggest that this approach has considerable potential to integrate researcher and land manager knowledge, focus future experimental studies, and ultimately serve as a decision support tool in setting realistic and achievable conservation and restoration goals.

  4. Decaying states as physically nonisolable partial systems

    Szasz, G.I.

    1976-01-01

    Presently the investigations of decaying quantum mechanical systems lack a well-founded concept, which is reflected by several formal difficulties of the corresponding mathematical treatment. In order to clarify in some respect the situation, it is investigated, within the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, the resonant scattering of an initially well localized partial wave packet. If the potential decreases sufficiently fast for r→infinite, the wave packet can be expressed at sufficiently long time after the scattering has taken place, as the sum of a term describing the direct scattering and a function of the resonant solution with complex 'momentum'. From such a heuristic relation one can deduce not only the probability for the creation of unstable particles but also obtain some hints to a connection between decaying states and physically nonisolable partial systems. On the other hand, this connection can perhaps display the inadequacy of attempts which suggest to solve the problem of decaying states within the usual Hilbert space methods. (author)

  5. Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research

    Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research......, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design...... to the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlying assumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is found...

  6. The Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS): A system integration approach

    Benoit, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mercer Engineering Research Center (MERC), under contract to the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1989, has been actively involved in providing the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (WR-ALC) with a robotic workcell designed to perform rework automated defastening and hole location/transfer operations on F-15 wings. This paper describes the activities required to develop and implement this workcell, known as the Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS). AARS is scheduled to be completely installed and in operation at WR-ALC by September 1994.

  7. Approaches to open quantum systems: Decoherence, localisation and all that

    Yu Ting

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is mainly concerned with issues in quantum open systems and the foundations of quantum theory. Chapter I introduces the aim, background and main results which take place in the following chapters. Chapters II and III are used to study and compare the decoherent histories approach, the environment-induced decoherence and the localisation properties of the solutions to the stochastic Schrodinger equation in quantum jump simulation and quantum state diffusion approaches, for a quantum two-level system model. We show, in particular, that there is a close connection between the decoherent histories and the quantum jump simulation, complementing a connection with the quantum state diffusion approach noted earlier by Diosi, Gisin, Halliwell and Percival. In the case of the decoherent histories analysis, the degree of approximate decoherence is discussed in detail. As by-product, by using the von Neumann entropy, we also discuss the predictability and its relation to the upper bounds of degree of decoherence. In Chapter IV, we give an alternative and elementary derivation of the Hu-Paz-Ghang master equation for quantum Brownian motion in a general environment, which involves tracing the evolution equation for the Wigner function. We also discuss the master equation in some special cases. This master equation provides a very useful tool to study the decoherence of a quantum system due to the interaction with its environment. In Chapter V, a derivation of the parameter-based uncertainty relation between position and momentum is given. This uncertainty relation can be regarded as an exact counterpart of the time-energy uncertainty relation. The final chapter is a rather brief summary of the thesis. (author)

  8. k– fading channels: a finite state Markov modelling approach

    C Priyanka

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... 1 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SRM University, ... probability; level crossing rate; state-transition probability; state-time duration. 1. ... statistics of the mobile radio signals are described by dif-.

  9. A multiscale modeling approach for biomolecular systems

    Bowling, Alan, E-mail: bowling@uta.edu; Haghshenas-Jaryani, Mahdi, E-mail: mahdi.haghshenasjaryani@mavs.uta.edu [The University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States)

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a new multiscale molecular dynamic model for investigating the effects of external interactions, such as contact and impact, during stepping and docking of motor proteins and other biomolecular systems. The model retains the mass properties ensuring that the result satisfies Newton’s second law. This idea is presented using a simple particle model to facilitate discussion of the rigid body model; however, the particle model does provide insights into particle dynamics at the nanoscale. The resulting three-dimensional model predicts a significant decrease in the effect of the random forces associated with Brownian motion. This conclusion runs contrary to the widely accepted notion that the motor protein’s movements are primarily the result of thermal effects. This work focuses on the mechanical aspects of protein locomotion; the effect ATP hydrolysis is estimated as internal forces acting on the mechanical model. In addition, the proposed model can be numerically integrated in a reasonable amount of time. Herein, the differences between the motion predicted by the old and new modeling approaches are compared using a simplified model of myosin V.

  10. A systems approach to rheumatoid arthritis.

    Sungyong You

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily attacks synovial joints. Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment of RA, novel molecular targets are still needed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and the therapeutic outcomes. Here, we present a systems approach that can effectively 1 identify core RA-associated genes (RAGs, 2 reconstruct RA-perturbed networks, and 3 select potential targets for diagnosis and treatments of RA. By integrating multiple gene expression datasets previously reported, we first identified 983 core RAGs that show RA dominant differential expression, compared to osteoarthritis (OA, in the multiple datasets. Using the core RAGs, we then reconstructed RA-perturbed networks that delineate key RA associated cellular processes and transcriptional regulation. The networks revealed that synovial fibroblasts play major roles in defining RA-perturbed processes, anti-TNF-α therapy restored many RA-perturbed processes, and 19 transcription factors (TFs have major contribution to deregulation of the core RAGs in the RA-perturbed networks. Finally, we selected a list of potential molecular targets that can act as metrics or modulators of the RA-perturbed networks. Therefore, these network models identify a panel of potential targets that will serve as an important resource for the discovery of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers, as well as providing novel insights into RA pathogenesis.

  11. Expandable image compression system: A modular approach

    Ho, B.K.T.; Lo, S.C.; Huang, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The full-frame bit-allocation algorithm for radiological image compression can achieve an acceptable compression ratio as high as 30:1. It involves two stages of operation: a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform and pixel quantization in the transformed space with pixel depth kept accountable by a bit-allocation table. The cosine transform hardware design took an expandable modular approach based on the VME bus system with a maximum data transfer rate of 48 Mbytes/sec and a microprocessor (Motorola 68000 family). The modules are cascadable and microprogrammable to perform 1,024-point butterfly operations. A total of 18 stages would be required for transforming a 1,000 x 1,000 image. Multiplicative constants and addressing sequences are to be software loaded into the parameter buffers of each stage prior to streaming data through the processor stages. The compression rate for 1K x 1K images is expected to be faster than one image per sec

  12. Possession States: Approaches to Clinical Evaluation and Classification

    S. McCormick

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The fields of anthropology and sociology have produced a large quantity of literature on possession states, physicians however rarely report on such phenomena. As a result clinical description of possession states has suffered, even though these states may be more common and less deviant than supposed. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV may include specific criteria for possession disorders. The authors briefly review Western notions about possession and kindred states and present guidelines for evaluation and classification.

  13. Robust stabilization of nonlinear systems: The LMI approach

    Šiljak D. D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to robust quadratic stabilization of nonlinear systems within the framework of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI. The systems are composed of a linear constant part perturbed by an additive nonlinearity which depends discontinuously on both time and state. The only information about the nonlinearity is that it satisfies a quadratic constraint. Our major objective is to show how linear constant feedback laws can be formulated to stabilize this type of systems and, at the same time, maximize the bounds on the nonlinearity which the system can tolerate without going unstable. We shall broaden the new setting to include design of decentralized control laws for robust stabilization of interconnected systems. Again, the LMI methods will be used to maximize the class of uncertain interconnections which leave the overall system connectively stable. It is useful to learn that the proposed LMI formulation “recognizes” the matching conditions by returning a feedback gain matrix for any prescribed bound on the interconnection terms. More importantly, the new formulation provides a suitable setting for robust stabilization of nonlinear systems where the nonlinear perturbations satisfy the generalized matching conditions.

  14. Electronic excited states and relaxation dynamics in polymer heterojunction systems

    Ramon, John Glenn Santos

    The potential for using conducting polymers as the active material in optoelectronic devices has come to fruition in the past few years. Understanding the fundamental photophysics behind their operations points to the significant role played by the polymer interface in their performance. Current device architectures involve the use of bulk heterojunctions which intimately blend the donor and acceptor polymers to significantly increase not only their interfacial surface area but also the probability of exciton formation within the vicinity of the interface. In this dissertation, we detail the role played by the interface on the behavior and performance of bulk heterojunction systems. First, we explore the relation between the exciton binding energy to the band offset in determining device characteristics. As a general rule, when the exciton binding energy is greater than the band offset, the exciton remains the lowest energy excited state leading to efficient light-emitting properties. On the other hand, if the offset is greater than the binding energy, charge separation becomes favorable leading to better photovoltaic behavior. Here, we use a Wannier function, configuration interaction based approach to examine the essential excited states and predict the vibronic absorption and emission spectra of the PPV/BBL, TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT heterojunctions. Our results underscore the role of vibrational relaxation in the formation of charge-transfer states following photoexcitation. In addition, we look at the relaxation dynamics that occur upon photoexcitation. For this, we adopt the Marcus-Hush semiclassical method to account for lattice reorganization in the calculation of the interconversion rates in TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT. We find that, while a tightly bound charge-transfer state (exciplex) remains the lowest excited state, a regeneration pathway to the optically active lowest excitonic state in TFB/F8BT is possible via thermal repopulation from the exciplex. Finally

  15. Dynamic state estimation assisted power system monitoring and protection

    Cui, Yinan

    The advent of phasor measurement units (PMUs) has unlocked several novel methods to monitor, control, and protect bulk electric power systems. This thesis introduces the concept of "Dynamic State Estimation" (DSE), aided by PMUs, for wide-area monitoring and protection of power systems. Unlike traditional State Estimation where algebraic variables are estimated from system measurements, DSE refers to a process to estimate the dynamic states associated with synchronous generators. This thesis first establishes the viability of using particle filtering as a technique to perform DSE in power systems. The utility of DSE for protection and wide-area monitoring are then shown as potential novel applications. The work is presented as a collection of several journal and conference papers. In the first paper, we present a particle filtering approach to dynamically estimate the states of a synchronous generator in a multi-machine setting considering the excitation and prime mover control systems. The second paper proposes an improved out-of-step detection method for generators by means of angular difference. The generator's rotor angle is estimated with a particle filter-based dynamic state estimator and the angular separation is then calculated by combining the raw local phasor measurements with this estimate. The third paper introduces a particle filter-based dual estimation method for tracking the dynamic states of a synchronous generator. It considers the situation where the field voltage measurements are not readily available. The particle filter is modified to treat the field voltage as an unknown input which is sequentially estimated along with the other dynamic states. The fourth paper proposes a novel framework for event detection based on energy functions. The key idea is that any event in the system will leave a signature in WAMS data-sets. It is shown that signatures for four broad classes of disturbance events are buried in the components that constitute the

  16. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  17. Modeling lake trophic state: a random forest approach

    Productivity of lentic ecosystems has been well studied and it is widely accepted that as nutrient inputs increase, productivity increases and lakes transition from low trophic state (e.g. oligotrophic) to higher trophic states (e.g. eutrophic). These broad trophic state classi...

  18. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.; Cerna, I.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  19. An approach to evaluating system well-being in engineering reliability applications

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to evaluating the degree of system well-being of an engineering system. The functionality of the system is identified by healthy, marginal and risk states. The state definitions permit the inclusion of deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices used to monitor the system well-being. A technique is developed to determine the three operating state probabilities based on minimal path concepts. The identified indices provide system engineers with additional information on the degree of system well-being in the form of system health and margin state probabilities. A basic planning objective should be to design a system such that the probabilities of the health and risk states are acceptable. The application of the technique is illustrated in this paper using a relatively simple network

  20. A Multi-Model Approach for System Diagnosis

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Bækgaard, Mikkel Ask Buur

    2007-01-01

    A multi-model approach for system diagnosis is presented in this paper. The relation with fault diagnosis as well as performance validation is considered. The approach is based on testing a number of pre-described models and find which one is the best. It is based on an active approach......,i.e. an auxiliary input to the system is applied. The multi-model approach is applied on a wind turbine system....

  1. Economic risks of the system of state and municipal procurement

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the audit of economic risks at all stages of procurement for state and municipal needs from both customers and bidders is carried out on the basis of the implementation of the integrated approach . Stages in the procurement under a single contract system, which is characterized by the high economic risks are planning, supplier selection, conclusion and execution of the contract. A number of the measures according to the localization of economic risks are offered, in particular the implementation of compliance programs, which institutionalize the compliance by the organization, anti-corruption legislation; increasing qualification of specialists in public procurement and increased control through centralization of procurement.

  2. Using a quantum dot system to realize perfect state transfer

    Li Ji; Wu Shi-Hai; Zhang Wen-Wen; Xi Xiao-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    There are some disadvantages to Nikolopoulos et al.'s protocol [Nikolopoulos G M, Petrosyan D and Lambropoulos P 2004 Europhys. Lett. 65 297] where a quantum dot system is used to realize quantum communication. To overcome these disadvantages, we propose a protocol that uses a quantum dot array to construct a four-qubit spin chain to realize perfect quantum state transfer (PQST). First, we calculate the interaction relation for PQST in the spin chain. Second, we review the interaction between the quantum dots in the Heitler—London approach. Third, we present a detailed program for designing the proper parameters of a quantum dot array to realize PQST. (general)

  3. The Systems Approach: Its Variety of Aspects.

    Mattessich, Richard

    1982-01-01

    This concise survey of the vast literature currently available in field-of-systems thinking and cybernetics discusses the areas of systems philosophy, systems analysis (mathematical systems theory), empirical systems research, and systems engineering, and outlines contributions of selected scholars. A bibliography of 148 books and papers is…

  4. A proposed United States resource classification system

    Masters, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is a world-wide problem calling for world-wide communication to resolve the many supply and distribution problems. Essential to a communication problem are a definition and comparability of elements being communicated. The US Geological Survey, with the co-operation of the US Bureau of Mines and the US Department of Energy, has devised a classification system for all mineral resources, the principles of which, it is felt, offer the possibility of world communication. At present several other systems, extant or under development (Potential Gas Committee of the USA, United Nations Resource Committee, and the American Society of Testing and Materials) are internally consistent and provide easy communication linkage. The system in use by the uranium community in the United States of America, however, ties resource quantities to forward-cost dollar values rendering them inconsistent with other classifications and therefore not comparable. This paper develops the rationale for the new USGS resource classification and notes its benefits relative to a forward-cost classification and its relationship specifically to other current classifications. (author)

  5. Numerical approaches to time evolution of complex quantum systems

    Fehske, Holger; Schleede, Jens; Schubert, Gerald; Wellein, Gerhard; Filinov, Vladimir S.; Bishop, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    We examine several numerical techniques for the calculation of the dynamics of quantum systems. In particular, we single out an iterative method which is based on expanding the time evolution operator into a finite series of Chebyshev polynomials. The Chebyshev approach benefits from two advantages over the standard time-integration Crank-Nicholson scheme: speedup and efficiency. Potential competitors are semiclassical methods such as the Wigner-Moyal or quantum tomographic approaches. We outline the basic concepts of these techniques and benchmark their performance against the Chebyshev approach by monitoring the time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet in restricted one-dimensional (1D) geometries. Thereby the focus is on tunnelling processes and the motion in anharmonic potentials. Finally we apply the prominent Chebyshev technique to two highly non-trivial problems of current interest: (i) the injection of a particle in a disordered 2D graphene nanoribbon and (ii) the spatiotemporal evolution of polaron states in finite quantum systems. Here, depending on the disorder/electron-phonon coupling strength and the device dimensions, we observe transmission or localisation of the matter wave.

  6. The United States Approach to PLiM for LTO

    2015-01-01

    The organizational structure for PLiM in the United States of America varies widely from plant to plant. For example, some plants may have a dedicated PLiM organization that coordinates the PLiM activities and provides the PLiM study results to the appropriate plant organizations (e.g. maintenance, engineering and operations) for implementation. Other plants may not have a dedicated PLiM organization, but rely on various organizations (e.g. design engineering, system engineering and maintenance) to conduct needed PLiM studies for LTO on a case by case (e.g. by component groups, such as piping, cables and transformers) or by individual components (turbine generator or steam generator). The organizational structure for preparing an LRA varies from utility to utility, but a typical structure is based on creating a project team to address each major discipline of the needed studies. The team members may be from utility organizations, contracted consultants who specialize in preparing LRAs, or a combination of the two groups, which is most common. A typical organizational structure is shown. The team typically consists of 10 to 20 full time members, with several other part time support members from various expert organizations (both utility and contracted consultants) needed to perform the engineering, ageing management and environmental studies and to prepare the supporting documentation for the LRA project

  7. Finite-time stabilisation of a class of switched nonlinear systems with state constraints

    Huang, Shipei; Xiang, Zhengrong

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates the finite-time stabilisation for a class of switched nonlinear systems with state constraints. Some power orders of the system are allowed to be ratios of positive even integers over odd integers. A Barrier Lyapunov function is introduced to guarantee that the state constraint is not violated at any time. Using the convex combination method and a recursive design approach, a state-dependent switching law and state feedback controllers of individual subsystems are constructed such that the closed-loop system is finite-time stable without violation of the state constraint. Two examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    Serrato, Michael G.; Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

  9. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    international government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

  10. Approach to developing reliable space reactor power systems

    Mondt, J.F.; Shinbrot, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Reactor Power System Project is in the engineering development phase of a three-phase program. During Phase II, the Engineering Development Phase, the SP-100 Project has defined and is pursuing a new approach to developing reliable power systems. The approach to developing such a system during the early technology phase is described in this paper along with some preliminary examples to help explain the approach. Developing reliable components to meet space reactor power system requirements is based on a top down systems approach which includes a point design based on a detailed technical specification of a 100 kW power system

  11. Short-Term State Forecasting-Based Optimal Voltage Regulation in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Yang, Rui; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-05-17

    A novel short-term state forecasting-based optimal power flow (OPF) approach for distribution system voltage regulation is proposed in this paper. An extreme learning machine (ELM) based state forecaster is developed to accurately predict system states (voltage magnitudes and angles) in the near future. Based on the forecast system states, a dynamically weighted three-phase AC OPF problem is formulated to minimize the voltage violations with higher penalization on buses which are forecast to have higher voltage violations in the near future. By solving the proposed OPF problem, the controllable resources in the system are optimally coordinated to alleviate the potential severe voltage violations and improve the overall voltage profile. The proposed approach has been tested in a 12-bus distribution system and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  12. Reorganization of the Lithuanian State Power System

    Paskevicius, V.

    1995-01-01

    This article deals with preasent situation in energy sector in Lithuania. All power plants with installed capacity of 2561 MW, except Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (3000 MW) belongs to Lithuanian State Power System (LSPS) as well transmission and distribution networks. In 1989-1991 Lithuania generated approximately 29TWh of electricity annually from which 12TWh LSPS exported to neighbouring countries. After 1990 in the transitional period from planned economy to the marked one, the economic situation in the country became complicated. The electricity demand has fallen nearly 40%. Due to the similar situation in neighboring countries the electricity export has decreased too. The article presents the distribution of electric power output in 1994 by power plants; electric power consumption and output of power plants in Lithuania from 1940 to 1994 is also included. Some aspects of regional cooperation of tree Baltic countries in energy area is touched too. 3 figs

  13. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The STATE...

  14. Identifying and comparing states of time-delayed systems: phase diagrams and applications to human motor control systems

    Frank, T.D.; Friedrich, R.; Beek, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    A data driven characterization of time-delayed stochastic systems is proposed in terms of linear delay differential equations and two drift parameters. It is shown how these parameters determine the states of such systems with respect to generalized phase diagrams. This approach allows for a comparison of systems with different parameters as exemplified for two motor control tasks: tracking and force production

  15. [Individual, community, regulatory, and systemic approaches to tobacco control interventions].

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco

  16. Excited-state properties from ground-state DFT descriptors: A QSPR approach for dyes.

    Fayet, Guillaume; Jacquemin, Denis; Wathelet, Valérie; Perpète, Eric A; Rotureau, Patricia; Adamo, Carlo

    2010-02-26

    This work presents a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR)-based approach allowing an accurate prediction of the excited-state properties of organic dyes (anthraquinones and azobenzenes) from ground-state molecular descriptors, obtained within the (conceptual) density functional theory (DFT) framework. The ab initio computation of the descriptors was achieved at several levels of theory, so that the influence of the basis set size as well as of the modeling of environmental effects could be statistically quantified. It turns out that, for the entire data set, a statistically-robust four-variable multiple linear regression based on PCM-PBE0/6-31G calculations delivers a R(adj)(2) of 0.93 associated to predictive errors allowing for rapid and efficient dye design. All the selected descriptors are independent of the dye's family, an advantage over previously designed QSPR schemes. On top of that, the obtained accuracy is comparable to the one of the today's reference methods while exceeding the one of hardness-based fittings. QSPR relationships specific to both families of dyes have also been built up. This work paves the way towards reliable and computationally affordable color design for organic dyes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Fault Diagnosis Approach for the Hydraulic System by Artificial Neural Networks

    Xiangyu He; Shanghong He

    2014-01-01

    Based on artificial neural networks, a fault diagnosis approach for the hydraulic system was proposed in this paper. Normal state samples were used as the training data to develop a dynamic general regression neural network (DGRNN) model. The trained DGRNN model then served as the fault determinant to diagnose test faults and the work condition of the hydraulic system was identified. Several typical faults of the hydraulic system were used to verify the fault diagnosis approach. Experiment re...

  18. An Information-Theoretic Approach to PMU Placement in Electric Power Systems

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Tao; Weng, Yang; Negi, Rohit; Franchetti, Franz; Ilic, Marija D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an information-theoretic approach to address the phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement problem in electric power systems. Different from the conventional 'topological observability' based approaches, this paper advocates a much more refined, information-theoretic criterion, namely the mutual information (MI) between the PMU measurements and the power system states. The proposed MI criterion can not only include the full system observability as a special case, but also ca...

  19. Power, autonomy, utopia new approaches toward complex systems

    1986-01-01

    The "world" is becoming more and more intractable. We have learned to discern "systems" in it, we have developed a highly sophisticated math­ ematical apparatus to "model'" them, large computer simulation programs handle thousands of equations with zillions of parameters. But how ade­ quate are these efforts? Part One of this volume is a discussion containing some proposals for eliminating the constraints we encounter when approaching complex systems with our models: Is it possible, at all, to design a political or econom­ ic system without considering killing, torture, and oppression? Can we adequately model the present state of affairs while ignoring their often symbolic and paradoxical nature? Is it possible to explain teleological concepts such as "means" and "ends" in terms of basically 17th century Newtonian mechanics? Can we really make appropriate use of the vast a­ mount of systems concepts without exploring their relations, without de­ veloping a "system of systems concepts"? And why do more th...

  20. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...

  1. System Behavior Models: A Survey of Approaches

    2016-06-01

    OF FIGURES Spiral Model .................................................................................................3 Figure 1. Approaches in... spiral model was chosen for researching and structuring this thesis, shown in Figure 1. This approach allowed multiple iterations of source material...applications and refining through iteration. 3 Spiral Model Figure 1. D. SCOPE The research is limited to a literature review, limited

  2. A Systems Thinking Approach to Engineering Challenges of Military Systems-of-Systems

    2016-09-01

    as part of organizational thinking , processes and practice; and 2) an adequate SoSE practice supporting environment created and used to enable SoS...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLLASIFIED A Systems Thinking Approach to Engineering Challenges of Military Systems-of-Systems Pin Chen and Mark...their products and outcomes. This report introduces a systems thinking -based approach, SoS thinking , which offers a language and a thoughtful process

  3. Origins of a national seismic system in the United States

    Filson, John R.; Arabasz, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    This historical review traces the origins of the current national seismic system in the United States, a cooperative effort that unifies national, regional, and local‐scale seismic monitoring within the structure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). The review covers (1) the history and technological evolution of U.S. seismic networks leading up to the 1990s, (2) factors that made the 1960s and 1970s a watershed period for national attention to seismology, earthquake hazards, and seismic monitoring, (3) genesis of the vision of a national seismic system during 1980–1983, (4) obstacles and breakthroughs during 1984–1989, (5) consensus building and convergence during 1990–1992, and finally (6) the two‐step realization of a national system during 1993–2000. Particular importance is placed on developments during the period between 1980 and 1993 that culminated in the adoption of a charter for the Council of the National Seismic System (CNSS)—the foundation for the later ANSS. Central to this story is how many individuals worked together toward a common goal of a more rational and sustainable approach to national earthquake monitoring in the United States. The review ends with the emergence of ANSS during 1999 and 2000 and its statutory authorization by Congress in November 2000.

  4. A Systems Thinking approach to post-disaster restoration of maritime transportation systems

    Lespier, Lizzette Pérez; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    A Systems Thinking approach is used to examine elements of a maritime transportation system that are most likely to be impacted by an extreme event. The majority of the literature uses a high-level view that can fail to capture the damage at the sub-system elements. This work uses a system dynamics simulation for a better view and understanding of the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico, as a whole system and uses Hurricane Georges (1998), as a representative disruptive event. The model focuses on the impacts of natural disasters at the sub-system level with a final goal of determining the sequence needed to restore an ocean-going port to its pre-event state. This work in progress details model development and outlines steps for using real-world information to assist maritime port manager planning and recommendations for best practices to mitigate disaster damage.

  5. Food systems approach to cancer prevention.

    Vanamala, Jairam

    2017-08-13

    New cancer cases are expected to surge 57% worldwide in the next two decades. The greatest burden will be in low- and middle-income countries that are ill equipped to face this epidemic. Similarly, in the United States, low-income populations are at greater risk for cancer. As most cancers contain over 50 genetic alterations, and as these alterations define dysregulation of over 10 different critical cellular signaling pathways, a "silver bullet" treatment is not effective against most cancers. Instead, the latest World Cancer Report (2012) suggests a research shift toward developing prevention strategies for cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that a diet high in plant-based foods is preventive of a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer. A plethora of bioactive compounds-such as polyphenols, glucosinolates and carotenoids in fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes-are shown to suppress a variety of biological capabilities required for tumor growth. While much research has shown that plant bioactive compounds can suppress sustained proliferative signaling, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as promote cancer stem cell apoptosis, public health campaigns to increase fruit and vegetable consumption have, overall, been less effective than desired. Thus, there is a need for innovative strategies to support increased consumption of bioactive compounds for cancer prevention particularly in vulnerable populations. Many practices of the farm-to-fork continuum, including preharvest practices, postharvest storage, and processing and consumer practices, affect a food's bioactive compound content, composition, and chemopreventive bioactivity. Food system practices may be adjusted to reduce the toxic compound levels (e.g., glycoalkaloids in potatoes) and improve the bioactive compound profile, thus, elevate the cancer fighting properties of fruits, vegetables, and other food products. This review presents current scientific evidence outlining farm-to-fork effects

  6. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING:

    Rita Wilkinson

    The instrument for assessing students' systems thinking skills contained ... In the literature, there are several different qualitative and quantitative tools for systems ..... systems thinking, creative thinking, critical thinking, posing questions, ...

  7. Benefits of using a Social-Ecological Systems Approach to ...

    Using a social-ecological systems (SES) perspective to examine wetland restoration helps decision-makers recognize interdependencies and relations between ecological and social components of coupled systems. Conceptual models are an invaluable tool to capture, visualize, and organize the key factors in complex social-ecological systems, but can be overwhelming to generate and lead to key concepts being overlooked if development is unstructured. Using a DPSIR approach (Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses), conceptual models can be developed to link decision scenarios and stressors to impacts on ecosystem services. These impacts on priority ecosystem services can then be linked to changes in human health and well-being through benefit functions. Expert input and contributions across disciplines provides appropriate temporal and spatial scales for determination of targets, project implementation, and monitoring strategies. This approach is being applied to create descriptive SES models of two wetland restoration projects. The first, the dredging of a degraded estuarine channel and restoration of mangrove forests in Caño Martìn Peña in San Juan, Puerto Rico is in the planning stage. The second, the restoration of a former cranberry farm in Plymouth, Massachusetts has completed a large restoration of freshwater wetland, and is gearing up for a second phase. Through the development of conceptual models, we are connecting driving forces wi

  8. Evaluación mediante enumeración de estados de la confiabilidad del Sistema Interconectado del Norte Grande de Chile (SING State enumeration approach in reliability assessment of the Chilean far north power system (SING

    Víctor Fuentes Morales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una evaluación de la confiabilidad del SING* chilen, mediante el método probabilístico analítico enumeración de estados que permite determinar el índice de indisponibilidad del sistema de transmisión y el factor de sobrecosto asociado. Esta evaluación posibilita un análisis comparativo con el índice de indisponibilidad y el factor de sobrecosto asociado que el agente regulador chileno, CNE**, entrega para este sistema en los informes técnicos de precios de nudo. De esta manera, los resultados propuestos sugieren una solución a las reiteradas observaciones que realizan las empresas eléctricas del SING en los informes técnicos de precios de nudo, con respecto a los criterios utilizados para modelar y determinar la indisponibilidad de transmisión y los sobrecostos asociados. La evaluación de la confiabilidad se realiza abordando al SING en forma compuesta, es decir, considerando tanto las instalaciones de generación como de transmisión en conjunto. * SING: Sistema Interconectado del Norte Grande. Sistema de transmisión de energía eléctrica de alto voltaje del norte de Chile. ** CNE: Comisión Nacional de Energía. Organismo gubernamental chileno que fiscaliza los sistemas de transmisión de energía eléctrica.This paper presents a reliability evaluation of the Chilean SING* by means of an analytical and probabilistic method for the enumeration of states, which permits to determine the unavailability index and the associated overcharge factor. This evaluation allows a comparative analysis between the unavailability index and the associated overcharge factor, the CNE**, provides in its technical reports of local the nodal price. Hereby, the proposed results suggest a solution for continuous observations made by SING electric companies in the technical reports of nodal price, with respect to the criteria used for modeling and determining the unavailability of transmition and associated overcharge

  9. Training programs for the systems approach to nuclear security

    Ellis, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In support of United States Government (USG) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear security programs, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has advocated and practiced a risk-based, systematic approach to nuclear security. The risk equation has been developed and implemented as the basis for a performance-based methodology for the design and evaluation of physical protection systems against a design basis threat (DBT) for theft and sabotage of nuclear and/or radiological materials. Integrated systems must include technology, people, and the man-machine interface. A critical aspect of the human element is training on the systems-approach for all the stakeholders in nuclear security. Current training courses and workshops have been very beneficial but are still rather limited in scope. SNL has developed two primary international classes - the international training course on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials, and the design basis threat methodology workshop. SNL is also completing the development of three new courses that will be offered and presented in the near term. They are vital area identification methodology focused on nuclear power plants to aid in their protection against radiological sabotage, insider threat analysis methodology and protection schemes, and security foundations for competent authority and facility operator stakeholders who are not security professionals. In the long term, we envision a comprehensive nuclear security curriculum that spans policy and technology, regulators and operators, introductory and expert levels, classroom and laboratory/field, and local and offsite training options. This training curriculum will be developed in concert with a nuclear security series of guidance documents that is expected to be forthcoming from the IAEA. It is important to note that while appropriate implementation of systems based on such training and documentation can improve the risk reduction, such a

  10. Long-Term Memory: A State-Space Approach

    Kiss, George R.

    1972-01-01

    Some salient concepts derived from the information sciences and currently used in theories of human memory are critically reviewed. The application of automata theory is proposed as a new approach in this field. The approach is illustrated by applying it to verbal memory. (Author)

  11. Direct evaluation of free energy for large system through structure integration approach.

    Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Tanaka, Ryohei; Yuge, Koretaka

    2015-09-30

    We propose a new approach, 'structure integration', enabling direct evaluation of configurational free energy for large systems. The present approach is based on the statistical information of lattice. Through first-principles-based simulation, we find that the present method evaluates configurational free energy accurately in disorder states above critical temperature.

  12. Formation of a Methodological Approach to Evaluating the State of Management of Enterprise Flow Processes

    Dzobko Iryna P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a methodological approach to evaluating management of the state of enterprise flow processes has been considered. Proceeding from the developed and presented in literary sources theoretical propositions on organization of management of enterprise flow processes, the hypothesis of the study is correlation of quantitative and qualitative evaluations of management effectiveness and formation of the integral index on their basis. The article presents stages of implementation of a methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes, which implies indicating the components, their characteristics and methods of research. The composition of indicators, on the basis of which it is possible to evaluate effectiveness of management of enterprise flow processes, has been determined. Grouping of such indicators based on the flow nature of enterprise processes has been performed. The grouping of indicators is justified by a pairwise determination of canonical correlations between the selected groups (the obtained high correlation coefficients confirmed the author’s systematization of indicators. It is shown that a specificity of the formation of a methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes requires expansion in the direction of aggregation of the results and determination of factors that influence effectiveness of flow processes management. The article carries out such aggregation using the factor analysis. Distribution of a set of objects into different classes according to the results of the cluster analysis has been presented. To obtain an integral estimation of effectiveness of flow processes management, the taxonomic index of a multidimensional object has been built. A peculiarity of the formed methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes is in the matrix correlation of integral indicators calculated on

  13. DYNAMICS OF FINANCIAL SYSTEM: A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Girish K Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several ratios which define the financial health of an organization but the importance of Net cash flow, Gross income, Net income, Pending bills, Receivable bills, Debt, and Book value can never be undermined as they give the exact picture of the financial condition. While there are several approaches to study the dynamics of these variables, system dynamics based modelling and simulation is one of the modern techniques. The paper explores this method to simulate the before mentioned parameters during production capacity expansion in an electronic industry. Debt and Book value have shown a non-linear pattern of variation which is discussed. The model can be used by the financial experts as a decision support tool in arriving at conclusions in connection to the expansion plans of the organization.

  14. Whole-of-Government Approaches to Fragile States in Africa

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years fragile states have been high on the foreign policy agendas of the USA and the EU. Both actors look upon fragile states with great concern and consider them as security threats. Officially they give priority to ‘whole-of-government approaches’ (wga) when addressing the threats...

  15. The generalized pseudospectral approach to the bound states of the ...

    physics [6,7], solid-state physics [8,9], chemical physics [10], etc. ... coupling region and for the lower states, there is a lack of good quality ... relativistic framework for solving the radial Schrödinger equation (SE) of a single- ... throughout this article. ... the usual radial and angular momentum quantum numbers respectively.

  16. Discontinuities in ODEs - Systems with change of state

    Thomsen, Per Grove

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of discontinuous right hand sides in ODE-systems often appears in technical applications. Such applications may be characterised by the cases where the system changes between several states. Each state is defined by a system of ODEs and the transition between states is defined...

  17. Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states

    Kleine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Product-States provide a polynomial-sized representation of one-dimensional quantum systems, thus allowing an efficient simulation of one-dimensional quantum system on classical computers. Matrix-Product-States form the conceptual framework of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). After a general introduction in the first chapter of this thesis, the second chapter deals with Matrix-Product-States, focusing on the development of fast and stable algorithms. To obtain algorithms to efficiently calculate ground states, the density-matrix renormalization group is reformulated using the Matrix-Product-States framework. Further, time-dependent problems are considered. Two different algorithms are presented, one based on a Trotter decomposition of the time-evolution operator, the other one on Krylov subspaces. Finally, the evaluation of dynamical spectral functions is discussed, and a correction vector-based method is presented. In the following chapters, the methods presented in the second chapter, are applied to a number of different physical problems. The third chapter deals with the existence of chiral phases in isotropic one-dimensional quantum spin systems. A preceding analytical study based on a mean-field approach indicated the possible existence of those phases in an isotropic Heisenberg model with a frustrating zig-zag interaction and a magnetic field. In this thesis, the existence of the chiral phases is shown numerically by using Matrix-Product-States-based algorithms. In the fourth chapter, we propose an experiment using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices, which allows a well controlled observation of the spin-charge separation (of

  18. Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states

    Kleine, Adrian

    2010-11-08

    In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Product-States provide a polynomial-sized representation of one-dimensional quantum systems, thus allowing an efficient simulation of one-dimensional quantum system on classical computers. Matrix-Product-States form the conceptual framework of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). After a general introduction in the first chapter of this thesis, the second chapter deals with Matrix-Product-States, focusing on the development of fast and stable algorithms. To obtain algorithms to efficiently calculate ground states, the density-matrix renormalization group is reformulated using the Matrix-Product-States framework. Further, time-dependent problems are considered. Two different algorithms are presented, one based on a Trotter decomposition of the time-evolution operator, the other one on Krylov subspaces. Finally, the evaluation of dynamical spectral functions is discussed, and a correction vector-based method is presented. In the following chapters, the methods presented in the second chapter, are applied to a number of different physical problems. The third chapter deals with the existence of chiral phases in isotropic one-dimensional quantum spin systems. A preceding analytical study based on a mean-field approach indicated the possible existence of those phases in an isotropic Heisenberg model with a frustrating zig-zag interaction and a magnetic field. In this thesis, the existence of the chiral phases is shown numerically by using Matrix-Product-States-based algorithms. In the fourth chapter, we propose an experiment using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices, which allows a well controlled observation of the spin-charge separation (of

  19. An Emerging Approach to Systems Design

    Kensing, Finn; Bødker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper

    The paper presents our first attempt to formulate a design approach based upon our experiences from nine design projects in various organizations. In the projects we have experimented with techniques for analyzing the needs of the organization in question and for supporting the design process....... The term "approach" is used as something in between commodified methods and isolated techniques supporting one or a few activities....

  20. An approach of partial control design for system control and synchronization

    Hu Wuhua; Wang Jiang; Li Xiumin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a general approach of partial control design for system control and synchronization is proposed. It turns control problems into simpler ones by reducing their control variables. This is realized by utilizing the dynamical relations between variables, which are described by the dynamical relation matrix and the dependence-influence matrix. By adopting partial control theory, the presented approach provides a simple and general way to stabilize systems to their partial or whole equilibriums, or to synchronize systems with their partial or whole states. Further, based on this approach, the controllers can be simplified. Two examples of synchronizing chaotic systems are given to illustrate its effectiveness.

  1. Resource Distribution Approaches in Spectrum Sharing Systems

    Friedrich K. Jondral

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly difficult to satisfy growing demands for spectrum with the conventional policy of fixed spectrum allocation. To overcome this problem, flexible/dynamic spectrum sharing methods that can significantly improve spectrum utilization of the spectrum have gained increasing interest recently. This paper presents two dynamic spectrum sharing approaches, a centralized and a decentralized one. The centralized approach is based on hierarchical trading. Each level of hierarchy is composed of “markets” that are associated with a certain spatial area and trading occurrence frequency, whereas area size and trading occurrence frequency depend on the hierarchy level. The decentralized approach is based on game-theory. There, it is assumed that the operators are averse to unequal payoffs and act unselfishly, enabling a stable and sustainable community. Numerical results show that, in the observed scenario, both proposals outperform the reference case of fixed resource allocation significantly in terms of utilized bandwidth. Whereas, negotiation costs for spectrum brokerage appear in the centralized approach, nonnegligible amounts of spectrum are lost in the decentralized approach due to collisions. Thus, a hybrid of centralized and decentralized approach that exploits the benefits of both is also considered.

  2. Direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps – A clean steady state approach for overall performance analysis

    Tagliafico, Luca A.; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Traditional thermal solar panel technologies have limited efficiency and the required economic investments make them noncompetitive in the space heating market. The greatest limit to the diffusion of thermal solar systems is the characteristic temperatures they can reach: the strong connection between the user temperature and the collector temperature makes it possible to achieve high thermal (collector) efficiency only at low, often useless, user temperatures. By using solar collectors as thermal exchange units (evaporators) in a heat pump system (direct expansion solar assisted heat pump, DX-SAHP), the overall efficiency greatly increases with a significative cut of the associated investment in terms of pay-back time. In this study, an approach is proposed to the steady state analysis of DX-SAHP, which is based on the simplified inverse Carnot cycle and on the second law efficiency concept. This method, without the need of calculating the refrigerant fluid properties and the detailed processes occurring in the refrigeration device, allows us to link the main features of the plant to its relevant interactions with the surroundings. The very nature of the proposed method makes the relationship explicit and meaningful among all the involved variables. The paper, after the description of the method, presents an explanatory application of this technique by reviewing various aspects of the performance of a typical DX-SAHP in which the savings on primary energy consumption is regarded as the main feature of the plant and highlighted in a monthly averaged analysis. Results agree to those coming from a common standard steady state thermodynamic analysis. The application to a typical DX-SAHP system demonstrates that a mean saved primary energy of about 50% with respect to standard gas burner can be achieved for the same user needs. Such a result is almost independent from the type of flat plate solar panel used (double or single glazed, or even bare panels) as a result of

  3. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING:

    Rita Wilkinson

    [16] electrochemical [17-18], femtosecond laser spectroscopy [19-. 20], syntheses .... ligand. This observation is expected, being consistent with the monovalent oxidation state of the ..... Spectral change of the Co complex in methanol over time.

  4. Structural analysis and design of multivariable control systems: An algebraic approach

    Tsay, Yih Tsong; Shieh, Leang-San; Barnett, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    The application of algebraic system theory to the design of controllers for multivariable (MV) systems is explored analytically using an approach based on state-space representations and matrix-fraction descriptions. Chapters are devoted to characteristic lambda matrices and canonical descriptions of MIMO systems; spectral analysis, divisors, and spectral factors of nonsingular lambda matrices; feedback control of MV systems; and structural decomposition theories and their application to MV control systems.

  5. Systems approach for design control at Monitored Retrievable Storage Project

    Kumar, P.N.; Williams, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the systems approach in establishing design control for the Monitored Retrievable Storage Project design development. Key elements in design control are enumerated and systems engineering aspects are detailed. Application of lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project experience is addressed. An integrated approach combining quality assurance and systems engineering requirements is suggested to practice effective design control

  6. Radio systems engineering a tutorial approach

    Santos, Héctor J De Los; Ponte, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for readers who already have knowledge of devices and circuits for radio-frequency (RF) and microwave communication and are ready to study the systems engineering-level aspects of modern radio communications systems. The authors provide a general overview of radio systems with their components, focusing on the analog parts of the system and their non-idealities. Based on the physical functionality of the various building blocks of a modern radio system, block parameters are derived, which allows the examination of their influence on the overall system performance. The dis

  7. Navigating towards Decoupled Aquaponic Systems: A System Dynamics Design Approach

    Simon Goddek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical working principle of aquaponics is to provide nutrient-rich aquacultural water to a hydroponic plant culture unit, which in turn depurates the water that is returned to the aquaculture tanks. A known drawback is that a compromise away from optimal growing conditions for plants and fish must be achieved to produce both crops and fish in the same environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a theoretical concept of a decoupled aquaponic system (DAPS, and predict water, nutrient (N and P, fish, sludge, and plant levels. This has been approached by developing a dynamic aquaponic system model, using inputs from data found in literature covering the fields of aquaculture, hydroponics, and sludge treatment. The outputs from the model showed the dependency of aquacultural water quality on the hydroponic evapotranspiration rate. This result can be explained by the fact that DAPS is based on one-way flows. These one-way flows results in accumulations of remineralized nutrients in the hydroponic component ensuring optimal conditions for the plants. The study also suggests to size the cultivation area based on P availability in the hydroponic component as P is an exhaustible resource and has been identified one of the main limiting factors for plant growth.

  8. Evolved finite state controller for hybrid system in reduced search space

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate finite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. The proposed approach reduces the search space using an invariant analysis of the system. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been...

  9. Decentralized Cooperative Localization Approach for Autonomous Multirobot Systems

    Thumeera R. Wanasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the use of a split covariance intersection algorithm (Split-CI for decentralized multirobot cooperative localization. In the proposed method, each robot maintains a local cubature Kalman filter to estimate its own pose in a predefined coordinate frame. When a robot receives pose information from neighbouring robots, it employs a Split-CI based approach to fuse this received measurement with its local belief. The computational and communicative complexities of the proposed algorithm increase linearly with the number of robots in the multirobot systems (MRS. The proposed method does not require fully connected synchronous communication channels between robots; in fact, it is applicable for MRS with asynchronous and partially connected communication networks. The pose estimation error of the proposed method is bounded. As the proposed method is capable of handling independent and interdependent information of the estimations separately, it does not generate overconfidence state estimations. The performance of the proposed method is compared with several multirobot localization approaches. The simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the single-robot localization algorithms and achieves approximately the same estimation accuracy as the centralized cooperative localization approach, but with reduced computational and communicative cost.

  10. THE NEED FOR STATE IN THE ECONOMY- EPISTEMOLOGICAL APPROACH

    ANCA-ŞTEFANIA SAVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the need for state in the economy, in an epistemological viewpoint. It presents in a critical manner the ideas on the state of the mercantilism and physiocracy representatives, of the classical and Keynesian economists and of the so-called current „the new liberal orthodoxy”. It is noticed that the need for a minimal state, as a condition of proper functioning of the society, has been justified even by those who have criticized it (classical liberals, being recognized that a society can not be conceived anarchic and utopian. If during ’29-’33s, the philosophy of laisser-faire was replaced by the Keynesian doctrine, and ’70s have placed the welfare state in a crisis of legitimacy, starting from 2008 we can talk of a resurgence of the Keynesian paradigm, according to which government intervention is seen as a way to stimulate the economic recovery.

  11. Theoretical approaches to control spin dynamics in solid-state ...

    We present fundamental theories in the history of NMR, namely, the average Hamiltonian and Floquet theories. We also ..... The results are better illustrated in a double ...... Matter 17 4501. 94. Ernst M 2006 Germany: Solid-State NMR Summer.

  12. A Metrics Approach for Collaborative Systems

    Cristian CIUREA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents different types of collaborative systems, their structure and classification. This paper defines the concept of virtual campus as a collaborative system. It builds architecture for virtual campus oriented on collaborative training processes. It analyses the quality characteristics of collaborative systems and propose techniques for metrics construction and validation in order to evaluate them. The article analyzes different ways to increase the efficiency and the performance level in collaborative banking systems.

  13. Program Information System Auditing Theoritical Approach

    Ahmadi Aidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient information systems when using fewer resources or minimal in achieving organizational goals are expected. Effective information system capable of completing the organizations objectives. Audit information systems necessary to know the needs of users whether it is in line with the preparation of the decision-making process

  14. An analysis of hypercritical states in elastic and inelastic systems

    Kowalczk, Maciej

    The author raises a wide range of problems whose common characteristic is an analysis of hypercritical states in elastic and inelastic systems. the article consists of two basic parts. The first part primarily discusses problems of modelling hypercritical states, while the second analyzes numerical methods (so-called continuation methods) used to solve non-linear problems. The original approaches for modelling hypercritical states found in this article include the combination of plasticity theory and an energy condition for cracking, accounting for the variability and cyclical nature of the forms of fracture of a brittle material under a die, and the combination of plasticity theory and a simplified description of the phenomenon of localization along a discontinuity line. The author presents analytical solutions of three non-linear problems for systems made of elastic/brittle/plastic and elastic/ideally plastic materials. The author proceeds to discuss the analytical basics of continuation methods and analyzes the significance of the parameterization of non-linear problems, provides a method for selecting control parameters based on an analysis of the rank of a rectangular matrix of a uniform system of increment equations, and also provides a new method for selecting an equilibrium path originating from a bifurcation point. The author provides a general outline of continuation methods based on an analysis of the rank of a matrix of a corrective system of equations. The author supplements his theoretical solutions with numerical solutions of non-linear problems for rod systems and problems of the plastic disintegration of a notched rectangular plastic plate.

  15. Inference and learning in sparse systems with multiple states

    Braunstein, A.; Ramezanpour, A.; Zhang, P.; Zecchina, R.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how inference can be performed when data are sampled from the nonergodic phase of systems with multiple attractors. We take as a model system the finite connectivity Hopfield model in the memory phase and suggest a cavity method approach to reconstruct the couplings when the data are separately sampled from few attractor states. We also show how the inference results can be converted into a learning protocol for neural networks in which patterns are presented through weak external fields. The protocol is simple and fully local, and is able to store patterns with a finite overlap with the input patterns without ever reaching a spin-glass phase where all memories are lost.

  16. Biomass gasification systems for residential application: An integrated simulation approach

    Prando, Dario; Patuzzi, Francesco; Pernigotto, Giovanni; Gasparella, Andrea; Baratieri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The energy policy of the European member States is promoting high-efficiency cogeneration systems by means of the European directive 2012/27/EU. Particular facilitations have been implemented for the small-scale and micro-cogeneration units. Furthermore, the directive 2010/31/EU promotes the improvement of energy performance of buildings and use of energy from renewable sources for the building sector. In this scenario, systems based on gasification are considered a promising technological solution when dealing with biomass and small scale systems. In this paper, an integrated approach has been implemented to assess the energy performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on biomass gasification and installed in residential blocks. The space-heating loads of the considered building configurations have been simulated by means of EnergyPlus. The heat load for domestic hot water demand has been calculated according to the average daily profiles suggested by the Italian and European technical standards. The efficiency of the whole CHP system has been evaluated supplementing the simulation of the gasification stage with the energy balance of the cogeneration set (i.e., internal combustion engine) and implementing the developed routines in the Matlab-Simulink environment. The developed model has been used to evaluate the primary energy saving (PES) of the CHP system compared to a reference case of separate production of heat and power. Economic analyses are performed either with or without subsidizations for the generated electricity. The results highlight the capability of the integrated approach to estimate both energy and economic performances of CHP systems applied to the residential context. Furthermore, the importance of the generated heat valorisation and the proper system sizing have been discussed. - Highlights: • CHP system based on biomass gasification to meet household energy demand is studied. • Influence of CHP size and operation time on

  17. Systems Theory and the Earth Systems Approach in Science Education. ERIC Digest.

    Lee, Hyongyong

    The systems approach provides a framework for integrating different scientific disciplines. This approach is used often in Earth Systems Education. This ERIC Digest describes the systems theory and its influence on science education. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

  18. A steady-state axisymmetric toroidal system

    Hirano, K.

    1984-01-01

    Conditions for achieving a steady state in an axisymmetric toroidal system are studied with emphasis on a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration. The analysis is carried out for the electromotive force produced by the Ohkawa current that is induced by neutral-beam injection. It turns out that, since the perpendicular component of the current j-vectorsub(perpendicular) to the magnetic field can be generated automatically by the diamagnetic effect, only the parallel component j-vectorsub(parallel) must be driven by the electromotive force. The drive of j-vectorsub(parallel) generates shear in the field line so that the pure toroidal field on the magnetic axis is rotated towards the plasma boundary and matched to the external field lines. This matching condition determines the necessary amount of injection beam current and power. It is demonstrated that a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration requires only a small amount of current-driving beam power because almost all the toroidal current except that close to the magnetic axis is carried by the diamagnetic current due to high beta. A low-beta tokamak, on the other hand, needs very high current-driving power since most of the toroidal current is composed of j-vectorsub(parallel) which must be driven by the beam. (author)

  19. Examination of the Current Approaches to State-Level Nuclear Security Evaluation

    Kim, Chan; Yim, Mansung; Kim, So Young

    2014-01-01

    An effective global nuclear materials security system will cover all materials, employ international standards and best practices, and reduce risks by reducing weapons-usable nuclear material stocks and the number of locations where they are found. Such a system must also encourage states to accept peer reviews by outside experts in order to demonstrate that effective security is in place. It is thus critically important to create an integrative framework of state-level evaluation of nuclear security as a basis for measuring the level and progress of international effort to secure and control all nuclear materials. There have been studies to represent state-level nuclear security with a quantitative metric. A prime example is the Nuclear Materials Security Index (NMSI) by the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Another comprehensive study is the State Level Risk Metric by Texas A and M University (TAMU). This paper examines the current methods with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and identifies the directions for future research to improve upon the existing approaches

  20. An approach to DNI transients characterization for system evaluation

    Feldhoff, Jan Fabian; Hirsch, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    The direct normal irradiance (DNI) is of utmost importance for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. For annual yield prediction, a steady-state heat balance is made for each hour of the year or for a smaller time period such as 15 min with the corresponding average DNI value. However, short term DNI variations by clouds are ignored by this approach. In consequence, there is no information on the transient behavior of the plant and the question remains how the plant is influenced by the DNI disturbance. The paper intends to start a discussion on DNI characterization and its application to CSP. An approach to categorize the DNI behavior from a transient system point of view is presented by using purpose-/system-specific filters. Resulting DNI disturbance classes are proposed to directly compare different sites and technologies. They can be useful for better yield analysis and better commercial project selection in the future. An example on a once-through direct steam generation plant is provided.

  1. Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems.

    Li, Andy C Y; Petruccione, F; Koch, Jens

    2014-05-08

    The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical.

  2. Multidimensional approach to complex system resilience analysis

    Gama Dessavre, Dante; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Barker, Kash

    2016-01-01

    Recent works have attempted to formally define a general metric for quantifying resilience for complex systems as a relationship of performance of the systems against time. The technical content in the proposed work introduces a new model that allows, for the first time, to compare the system resilience among systems (or different modifications to a system), by introducing a new dimension to system resilience models, called stress, to mimic the definition of resilience in material science. The applicability and usefulness of the model is shown with a new heat map visualization proposed in this work, and it is applied to a simulated network resilience case to exemplify its potential benefits. - Highlights: • We analyzed two of the main current metrics of resilience. • We create a new model that relates events with the effects they have. • We develop a novel heat map visualization to compare system resilience. • We showed the model and visualization usefulness in a simulated case.

  3. System engineering approach to planning anticancer therapies

    Świerniak, Andrzej; Smieja, Jaroslaw; Puszynski, Krzysztof; Psiuk-Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis of cancer dynamics and the mathematically based synthesis of anticancer therapy. It summarizes the current state-of-the-art in this field and clarifies common misconceptions about mathematical modeling in cancer. Additionally, it encourages closer cooperation between engineers, physicians and mathematicians by showing the clear benefits of this without stating unrealistic goals. Development of therapy protocols is realized from an engineering point of view, such as the search for a solution to a specific control-optimization problem. Since in the case of cancer patients, consecutive measurements providing information about the current state of the disease are not available, the control laws are derived for an open loop structure. Different forms of therapy are incorporated into the models, from chemotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy to immunotherapy and gene therapy, but the class of models introduced is broad enough to incorporate other forms of therapy as well. The book be...

  4. Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems

    Schubert, Gerald

    2008-11-03

    In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and

  5. Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems

    Schubert, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and

  6. Engineering Complex Embedded Systems with State Analysis and the Mission Data System

    Ingham, Michel D.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Moncada, Alex C.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer s intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering methodology called State Analysis, which provides a process for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using State Analysis and how these requirements inform the design of the system software, using representative spacecraft examples.

  7. Using systems thinking in state health policymaking: an educational initiative.

    Minyard, Karen J; Ferencik, Rachel; Ann Phillips, Mary; Soderquist, Chris

    2014-06-01

    In response to limited examples of opportunities for state policymakers to learn about and productively discuss the difficult, adaptive challenges of our health system, the Georgia Health Policy Center developed an educational initiative that applies systems thinking to health policymaking. We created the Legislative Health Policy Certificate Program - an in-depth, multi-session series for lawmakers and their staff - concentrating on building systems thinking competencies and health content knowledge by applying a range of systems thinking tools: behavior over time graphs, stock and flow maps, and a system dynamics-based learning lab (a simulatable model of childhood obesity). Legislators were taught to approach policy issues from the big picture, consider changing dynamics, and explore higher-leverage interventions to address Georgia's most intractable health challenges. Our aim was to determine how we could improve the policymaking process by providing a systems thinking-focused educational program for legislators. Over 3 years, the training program resulted in policymakers' who are able to think more broadly about difficult health issues. The program has yielded valuable insights into the design and delivery of policymaker education that could be applied to various disciplines outside the legislative process.

  8. A convex optimization approach for solving large scale linear systems

    Debora Cores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known Conjugate Gradient (CG method minimizes a strictly convex quadratic function for solving large-scale linear system of equations when the coefficient matrix is symmetric and positive definite. In this work we present and analyze a non-quadratic convex function for solving any large-scale linear system of equations regardless of the characteristics of the coefficient matrix. For finding the global minimizers, of this new convex function, any low-cost iterative optimization technique could be applied. In particular, we propose to use the low-cost globally convergent Spectral Projected Gradient (SPG method, which allow us to extend this optimization approach for solving consistent square and rectangular linear system, as well as linear feasibility problem, with and without convex constraints and with and without preconditioning strategies. Our numerical results indicate that the new scheme outperforms state-of-the-art iterative techniques for solving linear systems when the symmetric part of the coefficient matrix is indefinite, and also for solving linear feasibility problems.

  9. Systems engineering approach to preconceptual design

    1981-01-01

    Steps in the typical pre-conceptual engineering study are: problem identification, identify alternatives, evaluate alternatives, and recommend solution. Three examples of the use of pre-conceptual approach to save money are given; they include the water supply for fire protection in the 200-West Area of Hanford, emergency power for the Purex plant, and new filter for the Purex plant canyon exhaust

  10. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING:

    Rita Wilkinson

    will open new thinking approach and develop interest in students rather being getting confused and wary of ... It involves establishing a hierarchy of ... understand metabolism better and let him/her delve into the beneficial effects. As from the ...

  11. Energy systems and climate change: Approaches to formulating responses

    Wilson, Deborah.

    1993-04-01

    A method is presented for computing the direct and indirect radiative forcings of emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane and comparing them in terms of their carbon-equivalent radiative forcing potential as a common unit. Examples illustrate application of the method in comparisons of the carbon-equivalent emissions from coal-, oil- and natural gas-based electricity and combined heat and power production assuming near-, medium- and long-term perspectives. The second article provides a systematic approach to calculating the net cost of avoiding greenhouse-gas emissions by adopting individual supply- and demand-side fuel switching and energy efficiency measures instead of proceeding down business as usual energy paths. Individual measures are grouped and ranked to form scenario packages for total and average costs of avoided carbon equivalent emissions. Examples are presented for Sweden, the United States and the state of Karnataka, India. A key finding is that there appears to exist significant emission avoiding potential that can be exploited at a net economic benefit to society. This potential is insufficient, however, to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases. The suggestion that changes can be made to energy systems leading to significant levels of avoided carbon dioxide emissions at little or no cost to society has been refuted by economic theoreticians, whose writings warn that policies aimed at avoiding greenhouse gas emissions will incur exorbitant costs. A case study of the potential to use ethanol produced from sugar cane as a transportation fuel in Thailand is used to illustrate an integrated approach to evaluating components of alternative energy systems

  12. Development and Deployment of Systems-Based Approaches for the Management of Soilborne Plant Pathogens.

    Chellemi, D O; Gamliel, A; Katan, J; Subbarao, K V

    2016-03-01

    Biological suppression of soilborne diseases with minimal use of outside interventive actions has been difficult to achieve in high input conventional crop production systems due to the inherent risk of pest resurgence. This review examines previous approaches to the management of soilborne disease as precursors to the evolution of a systems-based approach, in which plant disease suppression through natural biological feedback mechanisms in soil is incorporated into the design and operation of cropping systems. Two case studies are provided as examples in which a systems-based approach is being developed and deployed in the production of high value crops: lettuce/strawberry production in the coastal valleys of central California (United States) and sweet basil and other herb crop production in Israel. Considerations for developing and deploying system-based approaches are discussed and operational frameworks and metrics to guide their development are presented with the goal of offering a credible alternative to conventional approaches to soilborne disease management.

  13. An expert system approach for safety diagnosis

    Erdmann, R.C.; Sun, B.K.H.

    1988-01-01

    An expert system was developed with the intent to provide real-time information about an accident to an operator who is in the process of diagnosing and bringing that accident under control. Explicit use was made of probabilistic risk analysis techniques and plant accident response information in constructing this system. The expert system developed contains 70 logic rules and provides contextual messages during simulated accident sequences and logic sequence information on the entire sequence in graphical form for accident diagnosis. The present analysis focuses on integrated control system-related transients with Babcock and Wilcox-type reactors. While the system developed here is limited in extent and was built for a composite reactor, it demonstrates that an expert system may enhance the operator's capability in the control room

  14. Uncertain dynamical systems: A differential game approach

    Gutman, S.

    1976-01-01

    A class of dynamical systems in a conflict situation is formulated and discussed, and the formulation is applied to the study of an important class of systems in the presence of uncertainty. The uncertainty is deterministic and the only assumption is that its value belongs to a known compact set. Asymptotic stability is fully discussed with application to variable structure and model reference control systems.

  15. Systemic risk contributions: a credit portfolio approach

    Düllmann, Klaus; Puzanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    We put forward a Merton-type multi-factor portfolio model for assessing banks' contributions to systemic risk. This model accounts for the major drivers of banks' systemic relevance: size, default risk and correlation of banks' assets as a proxy for interconnectedness. We measure systemic risk in terms of the portfolio expected shortfall (ES). Banks' (marginal) risk contributions are calculated based on partial derivatives of the ES in order to ensure a full risk allocation among institutions...

  16. Approaching Sentient Building Performance Simulation Systems

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Perkov, Thomas; Heller, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Sentient BPS systems can combine one or more high precision BPS and provide near instantaneous performance feedback directly in the design tool, thus providing speed and precision of building performance in the early design stages. Sentient BPS systems are essentially combining: 1) design tools, 2......) parametric tools, 3) BPS tools, 4) dynamic databases 5) interpolation techniques and 6) prediction techniques as a fast and valid simulation system, in the early design stage....

  17. Radiological approach to systemic connective tissue diseases

    Wiesmann, W.; Schneider, M.

    1988-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) represent the most frequent manifestations of systemic connective tissue diseases (collagen diseases). Radiological examinations are employed to estimate the extension and degree of the pathological process. In addition, progression of the disease can be verified. In both of the above collagen diseases, specific radiological findings can be observed that permit them to be differentiated from other entities. An algorithm for the adequate radiological work-up of collagen diseases is presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiological approach to systemic connective tissue diseases

    Wiesmann, W; Schneider, M

    1988-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) represent the most frequent manifestations of systemic connective tissue diseases (collagen diseases). Radiological examinations are employed to estimate the extension and degree of the pathological process. In addition, progression of the disease can be verified. In both of the above collagen diseases, specific radiological findings can be observed that permit them to be differentiated from other entities. An algorithm for the adequate radiological work-up of collagen diseases is presented.

  19. Integrated crop protection as a system approach

    Haan, de, J.J.; Wijnands, F.G.; Sukkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    New farming systems in vegetable production are required as demands for high quality products that do not pollute the environment are rising, and production risks are large and incomes low. The methodology of prototyping new systems is described, especially the themes, parameters and target values connected to integrated crop protection. The role of integrated crop protection in prototyping new systems is discussed. The results of twenty years working with this prototyping methodology are pre...

  20. System Approach to Pedagogical Discourse: CLD Learners

    Rojas, Eliana D.; Avitia, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the achievement gap for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) learners through the lens of Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory of human development. The population of CLD students in the United States continues to grow. Across the nation, CLD students continue to struggle in an increasingly accountability-based…

  1. A Systems Approach to Management Effectiveness Training.

    Fiander, Richard L.

    Overwhelmed by conflicting demands from within its own administration, from its local school board, and from the state department of education, the school district of Summit, New Jersey, took action to develop a consensus among those making demands. Administrators and school board members attended a working dinner where each individual identified…

  2. A Systemic Approach to Elevating Teacher Leadership

    Killion, Joellen; Harrison, Cindy; Colton, Amy; Bryan, Chris; Delehant, Ann; Cooke, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Teacher leadership is often defined as a "set of practices that enhance the teaching profession." States and districts are leveraging teacher leadership in multiple ways to professionalize teaching, create opportunities for teacher career advancement, facilitate school improvement, and facilitate professional learning for educator and…

  3. The resonating group method three cluster approach to the ground state 9 Li nucleus structure

    Filippov, G.F.; Pozdnyakov, Yu.A.; Terenetsky, K.O.; Verbitsky, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    The three-cluster approach for light atomic nuclei is formulated in frame of the algebraic version of resonating group method. Overlap integral and Hamiltonian matrix elements on generating functions are obtained for 9 Li nucleus. All permissible by Pauli principle 9 Li different cluster nucleon permutations were taken into account in the calculations. The results obtained can be easily generalised on any three-cluster system up to 12 C. Matrix elements obtained in the work were used in the variational calculations of the ground state energetic and geometric 9 Li characteristics. It is shown that 9 Li ground state is not adequate to the shell model limit and has pronounced three-cluster structure. (author). 16 refs., 4 tab., 2 figs

  4. First-principles modeling of localized d states with the GW@LDA+U approach

    Jiang, Hong; Gomez-Abal, Ricardo I.; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2010-07-01

    First-principles modeling of systems with localized d states is currently a great challenge in condensed-matter physics. Density-functional theory in the standard local-density approximation (LDA) proves to be problematic. This can be partly overcome by including local Hubbard U corrections (LDA+U) but itinerant states are still treated on the LDA level. Many-body perturbation theory in the GW approach offers both a quasiparticle perspective (appropriate for itinerant states) and an exact treatment of exchange (appropriate for localized states), and is therefore promising for these systems. LDA+U has previously been viewed as an approximate GW scheme. We present here a derivation that is simpler and more general, starting from the static Coulomb-hole and screened exchange approximation to the GW self-energy. Following our previous work for f -electron systems [H. Jiang, R. I. Gomez-Abal, P. Rinke, and M. Scheffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 126403 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.126403] we conduct a systematic investigation of the GW method based on LDA+U(GW@LDA+U) , as implemented in our recently developed all-electron GW code FHI-gap (Green’s function with augmented plane waves) for a series of prototypical d -electron systems: (1) ScN with empty d states, (2) ZnS with semicore d states, and (3) late transition-metal oxides (MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO) with partially occupied d states. We show that for ZnS and ScN, the GW band gaps only weakly depend on U but for the other transition-metal oxides the dependence on U is as strong as in LDA+U . These different trends can be understood in terms of changes in the hybridization and screening. Our work demonstrates that GW@LDA+U with “physical” values of U provides a balanced and accurate description of both localized and itinerant states.

  5. Understanding Nuclear Safety Culture: A Systemic Approach

    Afghan, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima accident was a systemic failure (Report by Director General IAEA on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident). Systemic failure is a failure at system level unlike the currently understood notion which regards it as the failure of component and equipment. Systemic failures are due to the interdependence, complexity and unpredictability within systems and that is why these systems are called complex adaptive systems (CAS), in which “attractors” play an important role. If we want to understand the systemic failures we need to understand CAS and the role of these attractors. The intent of this paper is to identify some typical attractors (including stakeholders) and their role within complex adaptive system. Attractors can be stakeholders, individuals, processes, rules and regulations, SOPs etc., towards which other agents and individuals are attracted. This paper will try to identify attractors in nuclear safety culture and influence of their assumptions on safety culture behavior by taking examples from nuclear industry in Pakistan. For example, if the nuclear regulator is an attractor within nuclear safety culture CAS then how basic assumptions of nuclear plant operators and shift in-charges about “regulator” affect their own safety behavior?

  6. Entanglement revival can occur only when the system-environment state is not a Markov state

    Sargolzahi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Markov states have been defined for tripartite quantum systems. In this paper, we generalize the definition of the Markov states to arbitrary multipartite case and find the general structure of an important subset of them, which we will call strong Markov states. In addition, we focus on an important property of the Markov states: If the initial state of the whole system-environment is a Markov state, then each localized dynamics of the whole system-environment reduces to a localized subdynamics of the system. This provides us a necessary condition for entanglement revival in an open quantum system: Entanglement revival can occur only when the system-environment state is not a Markov state. To illustrate (a part of) our results, we consider the case that the environment is modeled as classical. In this case, though the correlation between the system and the environment remains classical during the evolution, the change of the state of the system-environment, from its initial Markov state to a state which is not a Markov one, leads to the entanglement revival in the system. This shows that the non-Markovianity of a state is not equivalent to the existence of non-classical correlation in it, in general.

  7. Spectrally-balanced chromatic approach-lighting system

    Chase, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Approach lighting system employing combinations of red and blue lights reduces problem of color-based optical illusions. System exploits inherent chromatic aberration of eye to create three-dimensional effect, giving pilot visual clues of position.

  8. steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: fea approach

    HOD

    The flux levels at these loading conditions were also monitored. Key words: Three phase Induction Motor, Steady state and Dynamic Response, Flux Levels, FEA, Loading conditions. 1. INTRODUCTION ..... Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications;. New York: ... for Electrical Engineers, Cambridge University. Press ...

  9. Prevalent Approaches to Professional Development in State 4-H Programs

    Smith, Martin H.; Worker, Steven M.; Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Lewis, Kendra M.; Schoenfelder, Emily; Brian, Kelley

    2017-01-01

    High-quality 4-H programming requires effective professional development of educators. Through a mixed methods study, we explored professional development offered through state 4-H programs. Survey results revealed that both in-person and online delivery modes were used commonly for 4-H staff and adult volunteers; for teen volunteers, in-person…

  10. Test-state approach to the quantum search problem

    Sehrawat, Arun; Nguyen, Le Huy; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2011-01-01

    The search for 'a quantum needle in a quantum haystack' is a metaphor for the problem of finding out which one of a permissible set of unitary mappings - the oracles - is implemented by a given black box. Grover's algorithm solves this problem with quadratic speedup as compared with the analogous search for 'a classical needle in a classical haystack'. Since the outcome of Grover's algorithm is probabilistic - it gives the correct answer with high probability, not with certainty - the answer requires verification. For this purpose we introduce specific test states, one for each oracle. These test states can also be used to realize 'a classical search for the quantum needle' which is deterministic - it always gives a definite answer after a finite number of steps - and 3.41 times as fast as the purely classical search. Since the test-state search and Grover's algorithm look for the same quantum needle, the average number of oracle queries of the test-state search is the classical benchmark for Grover's algorithm.

  11. Systems information management: graph theoretical approach

    Temel, T.

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a new method for characterising the underlying information structure of a multi-sector system. A complete characterisation is accomplished by identifying information gaps and cause-effect information pathways in the system, and formulating critical testable hypotheses.

  12. Integrated crop protection as a system approach

    Haan, de J.J.; Wijnands, F.G.; Sukkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    New farming systems in vegetable production are required as demands for high quality products that do not pollute the environment are rising, and production risks are large and incomes low. The methodology of prototyping new systems is described, especially the themes, parameters and target values

  13. Implementation of a VLSI Level Zero Processing system utilizing the functional component approach

    Shi, Jianfei; Horner, Ward P.; Grebowsky, Gerald J.; Chesney, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A high rate Level Zero Processing system is currently being prototyped at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Based on state-of-the-art VLSI technology and the functional component approach, the new system promises capabilities of handling multiple Virtual Channels and Applications with a combined data rate of up to 20 Megabits per second (Mbps) at low cost.

  14. State network approach to characteristics of financial crises

    Qiu, Lu; Gu, Changgui; Xiao, Qin; Yang, Huijie; Wu, Guolin

    2018-02-01

    Extensive works have reported that a financial crisis can induce significant changes to topological structure of a stock network constructed with cross-correlations between stocks. But there are still some problems to be answered, such as what is the relationship between different crises in history and how to classify them? In the present work, we propose a new network-based solution to extract and display the relationships between the crises. The Dow Jones stock market is investigated as a typical example. The cross-correlation matrix between stocks is used to measure the state of stock market, called state matrix. All the states cluster into six sub-categories. A state network is constructed further to display the relationships between all the states, which contains a total of nine communities. It is found that three crises C , D and E (refer to the Lehman's bankruptcy in 2008, the Euro-zone and International Monetary Fund decide the first bailout for Greece in 2010, and the European sovereign debt crisis in 2011, respectively) belong to a specific sub-category and cluster in a single community. The mid-stage of C is closely linked with E, while the other stages with D. The other two crises A and B (refer to the financial crisis in Asia in 1997, and the burst of "dot-com bubble" in 2002, respectively) belong to another sub-category and gather in a corner of another single community. A and B are linked directly with C and D by two edges. By this way, we give a clear picture of the relationships between the crises.

  15. Coherent states for certain time-dependent systems

    Pedrosa, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    Hartley and Ray have constructed and studied coherent states for the time-dependent oscillator. Here we show how to construct states for more general time-dependent systems. We also show that these states are equivalent to the well-known squeezed states. (author) [pt

  16. Policy Perspectives on State Elementary and Secondary Public Education Finance Systems in the United States

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…

  17. Distributed Database Management Systems A Practical Approach

    Rahimi, Saeed K

    2010-01-01

    This book addresses issues related to managing data across a distributed database system. It is unique because it covers traditional database theory and current research, explaining the difficulties in providing a unified user interface and global data dictionary. The book gives implementers guidance on hiding discrepancies across systems and creating the illusion of a single repository for users. It also includes three sample frameworksâ€"implemented using J2SE with JMS, J2EE, and Microsoft .Netâ€"that readers can use to learn how to implement a distributed database management system. IT and

  18. Simulation approach towards energy flexible manufacturing systems

    Beier, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides in-depth analysis and methods for aligning electricity demand of manufacturing systems to VRE supply. The book broaches both long-term system changes and real-time manufacturing execution and control, and the author presents a concept with different options for improved energy flexibility including battery, compressed air and embodied energy storage. The reader will also find a detailed application procedure as well as an implementation into a simulation prototype software. The book concludes with two case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of green manufacturing systems. .

  19. Personalized Audio Systems - a Bayesian Approach

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Toke Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Modern audio systems are typically equipped with several user-adjustable parameters unfamiliar to most users listening to the system. To obtain the best possible setting, the user is forced into multi-parameter optimization with respect to the users's own objective and preference. To address this......, the present paper presents a general inter-active framework for personalization of such audio systems. The framework builds on Bayesian Gaussian process regression in which a model of the users's objective function is updated sequentially. The parameter setting to be evaluated in a given trial is selected...

  20. Approaches to state regulation of the energy sector

    Shervashidze, N.; Stojchev, D.

    1995-01-01

    Theory and practice of economical regulation by repaying coefficient and by partial co-ordinated expenses are discussed. The example of England, Ireland, Wales and US are pointed out as showing the features of both approaches being quite interesting for Bulgarian energy sector, facing the introduction of modern economical regulation. The specific character of Bulgarian energy sector is described and some conclusions are drawn concerning appropriate regulating methods. 6 refs. (orig.)

  1. The Development of Innovation Systems as an Object with the State Regulation

    Melnyk Alexander G.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the processes of structuring the environment for the development of innovation systems in terms of the formation of a State regulated object. A methodological approach to definition of the State regulation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of structuring the environment of innovation systems has been suggested, based on the premise of the objective nature of the integration of social environment and market mechanisms into the structure of an object with the State regulation for the development of innovation systems. The definition of innovative systems as an object with the State regulation in terms of structural-organizational and functional areas of their expansion has been presented. A model for the progressive extension of the State regulated object by means of the development of innovation systems at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of the structuring of environment in the process of formation of the institutional and technological structures of innovation systems has been proposed.

  2. Implementation Guidelines for BMDO Open Systems Approach

    1998-01-01

    This Directive: (1) Implements the policy set forth in references (a), (b) and (c); (2) Assigns responsibilities and prescribes mandatory procedures to open systems implementation with EMDO and Service Ballistic Missile Defense...

  3. Earth System Science: An Integrated Approach.

    Environment, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Details how an understanding of the role played by human activities in global environmental change has emerged. Presents information about the earth system provided by research programs. Speculates about the direction of future research. (DDR)

  4. A Systems Approach to Technology Education.

    Hacker, Michael; Barden, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Provides a brief history of industrial arts curriculum development, a rationale for a technology-based study of industrial arts, and the use of a systems view in understanding and interpreting technology. (SK)

  5. Approach to equilibrium in infinite quantum systems

    Haag, R.

    1975-01-01

    Ergodic theory of infinite quantum systems is discussed. The framework of this theory is based in an algebra of quasi-local observables. Nonrelativistic situation, i.e., Galilei invariance and Clifford algebra, is used [pt

  6. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    Ledezma, Fernando; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological

  7. Dynamical Systems Approach to Endothelial Heterogeneity

    Regan, Erzsébet Ravasz; Aird, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Objective Here we reexamine our current understanding of the molecular basis of endothelial heterogeneity. We introduce multistability as a new explanatory framework in vascular biology. Methods We draw on the field of non-linear dynamics to propose a dynamical systems framework for modeling multistability and its derivative properties, including robustness, memory, and plasticity. Conclusions Our perspective allows for both a conceptual and quantitative description of system-level features of endothelial regulation. PMID:22723222

  8. An Instructional Systems Approach or FAA Student Centered Training.

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy has been using a systems approach as part of its training program since 1969. This booklet describes the general characteristics of an instructional system and explains the steps the FAA goes through in implementing the approach. These steps are: 1) recognize a need for training, 2) specify the…

  9. Modular Modelling and Simulation Approach - Applied to Refrigeration Systems

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modelling and simulation of the thermal dynamics of a refrigeration system, specifically a reefer container. A modular approach is used and the objective is to increase the speed and flexibility of the developed simulation environment. The refrigeration system...

  10. A Systemic Approach: The Ultimate Choice for Gifted Education

    Tao, Ting; Shi, Jiannong

    2012-01-01

    In "Towards a systemic theory of gifted education," A. Ziegler and S.N. Phillipson have proposed a systemic approach to gifted education. For this approach, they built a model that they call an "actiotope" model. As they explained in the article, an actiotope consists of the acting individual and the environment with which he or she interacts. The…

  11. Ground-state correlations within a nonperturbative approach

    De Gregorio, G.; Herko, J.; Knapp, F.; Lo Iudice, N.; Veselý, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 024306. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07117S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ground state * harmonic oscillator frequency * space dimensions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  12. Performance improvement integration: a whole systems approach.

    Page, C K

    1999-02-01

    Performance improvement integration in health care organizations is a challenge for health care leaders. Required for accreditation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (Joint Commission), performance improvement (PI) can be designed as a sustainable model for performance to survive in a turbulent period. Central Baptist Hospital developed a model for PI that focused on strategy established by the leadership team, delineated responsibility through the organizational structure of shared governance, and accountability for outcomes evidenced through the organization's profitability. Such an approach integrated into the culture of the organization can produce positive financial margins, positive customer satisfaction, and commendations from the Joint Commission.

  13. An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States

    2015-12-22

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0037 An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States Adrian Lee UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON...to 14-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain- States 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...specific cognitive states remains elusive, owing perhaps to limited crosstalk between the fields of neuroscience and engineering. Here, we report a

  14. Statistical Analysis of Poverty in Oyo-State: A Q 2 -Approach ...

    The limited scope of uni-dimensional money-metric approach of analyzing poverty based on either expenditure or income has made approaches that allow poverty to be studied at several dimensions a necessity. It is in the light of this, that this study was aimed at analyzing poverty in Oyo State using a Q2-approach.

  15. Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State ...

    Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... The paper examines the operations of Public Transport in Nigeria using the Kwara State Transport Service as a case study. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  18. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  1. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure....

  2. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure. The...

  3. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  4. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  5. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption....

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  7. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption. The...

  8. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund National Information Management System Reports

    The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for the program at both the State and National level.

  9. Alternative fidelity measure between two states of an N-state quantum system

    Chen Jingling; Fu Libin; Zhao Xiangeng; Ungar, Abraham A.

    2002-01-01

    An alternative fidelity measure between two states of a qunit, an N-state quantum system, is proposed. It has a hyperbolic geometric interpretation, and it reduces to the Bures fidelity in the special case when N=2

  10. Local energy developments based on spatial and systemic approaches

    Manickam, Anu

    Local energy developments from a spatial and systemic approach are highlighted using examples from a Dutch case study. Developments in energy systems included interconnectedness of contextual factors and systems responses. The need to explore both the contextual factors and systemic aspects are

  11. A knock to the system: A new sociotechnical systems approach to sport-related concussion.

    Clacy, Amanda; Goode, Natassia; Sharman, Rachael; Lovell, Geoff P; Salmon, Paul M

    2017-11-01

    Broader contextual factors that influence concussion management have tended to be overlooked. To address this, the present study used a sociotechnical systems approach to identify perceived responsibilities and applied strategies for three domains of concussion management (i.e., prevention, identification and treatment). Participants were 118 members of the community rugby union system in Australia (69.2% male). Participants from throughout the rugby system (e.g., players, parents, coaches, club management) were asked open-ended questions about their perceived responsibilities and the strategies they use for concussion management. It was found that (a) proper training, technique correction and education were recurrent prevention themes; (b) the majority of key stakeholders felt that they could consistently identify concussion; however, medical aids (medics) were the only system actors who stated a responsibility to use standardised concussion assessment measures and (c) less than one third of the respondents indicated their involvement in treating concussion. This study identifies specific junctures in the system that prevents effective concussion management strategies. A sociotechnical systems approach improves the understanding of concussion prevention, and management beliefs and behaviours.

  12. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  13. Methodical approaches to development of classification state methods of regulation business activity in fishery

    She Son Gun

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to development of classification of the state methods of regulation of economy are considered. On the basis of the provided review the complex method of state regulation of business activity is reasonable. The offered principles allow improving public administration and can be used in industry concepts and state programs on support of small business in fishery.

  14. Thermodynamic approach to the inelastic state variable theories

    Dashner, P.A.

    1978-06-01

    A continuum model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for the inelastic state variable theory of Hart. The model is based on the existence of a free energy function and the assumption that a strained material element recalls two other local configurations which are, in some specified manner, descriptive of prior deformation. A precise formulation of these material hypotheses within the classical thermodynamical framework leads to the recovery of a generalized elastic law and the specification of evolutionary laws for the remembered configurations which are frame invariant and formally valid for finite strains. Moreover, the precise structure of Hart's theory is recovered when strains are assumed to be small

  15. Rotational states in deformed nuclei: An analytic approach

    Bentz, W.; Arima, A.; Enders, J.; Wambach, J.; Richter, A.

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of the spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry are investigated in a field theory model for deformed nuclei, based on simple separable interactions. The crucial role of the Ward-Takahashi identities in describing the rotational states is emphasized. We show explicitly how the rotor picture emerges from the isoscalar Goldstone modes and how the two-rotor model emerges from the isovector scissors modes. As an application of the formalism, we discuss the M1 sum rules in deformed nuclei and make the connection to empirical information.

  16. Systems approach to waste management in developing countries

    Johnson, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    A systems engineering approach to the development of waste management facilities is described which may prove to be useful for developing countries. Basically the approach involves a determination of performance objectives, the functions necessary to achieve the objectives, the constraints involved, and the basic facility requirements necessary to accomplish the functions. The foregoing provides the basis for developing a set of descriptions and associated requirements for the overall system as well as for elements of the system at different hierarchical levels. These in turn provide the basis for initiation of design and subsequently construction of the facilities involved. The operation of the approach is illustrated for a hypothetical low level waste processing system

  17. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.

  18. Stationary states of two-level open quantum systems

    Gardas, Bartlomiej; Puchala, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    A problem of finding stationary states of open quantum systems is addressed. We focus our attention on a generic type of open system: a qubit coupled to its environment. We apply the theory of block operator matrices and find stationary states of two-level open quantum systems under certain conditions applied on both the qubit and the surrounding.

  19. A DYNAMICAL SYSTEM APPROACH IN MODELING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

    Hennie Husniah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss a mathematical model of two parties technology transfer from a leader to a follower. The model is reconstructed via dynamical system approach from a known standard Raz and Assa model and we found some important conclusion which have not been discussed in the original model. The model assumes that in the absence of technology transfer from a leader to a follower, both the leader and the follower have a capability to grow independently with a known upper limit of the development. We obtain a rich mathematical structure of the steady state solution of the model. We discuss a special situation in which the upper limit of the technological development of the follower is higher than that of the leader, but the leader has started earlier than the follower in implementing the technology. In this case we show a paradox stating that the follower is unable to reach its original upper limit of the technological development could appear whenever the transfer rate is sufficiently high.  We propose a new model to increase realism so that any technological transfer rate could only has a positive effect in accelerating the rate of growth of the follower in reaching its original upper limit of the development.

  20. Innovation system approach to agricultural development: Policy ...

    Several other relevant macro economic and meso level factors such as policy and legislative framework and nature of human capital, physical infrastructure, finance and investment climate and system for facilitating information and knowledge flows were not considered as important. The emerging reforms and changes in

  1. Intelligence for embedded systems a methodological approach

    Alippi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Addressing current issues of which any engineer or computer scientist should be aware, this monograph is a response to the need to adopt a new computational paradigm as the methodological basis for designing pervasive embedded systems with sensor capabilities. The requirements of this paradigm are to control complexity, to limit cost and energy consumption, and to provide adaptation and cognition abilities allowing the embedded system to interact proactively with the real world. The quest for such intelligence requires the formalization of a new generation of intelligent systems able to exploit advances in digital architectures and in sensing technologies. The book sheds light on the theory behind intelligence for embedded systems with specific focus on: ·        robustness (the robustness of a computational flow and its evaluation); ·        intelligence (how to mimic the adaptation and cognition abilities of the human brain), ·        the capacity to learn in non-stationary and evolv...

  2. A Social Systems Approach to Evaluation Research.

    Olien, C. N.; And Others

    An information-control systems model for evaluation of adult education programs is offered and illustrated. The model is based upon identifying principal subsystems, such as source, channel and audience, which are involved in initiation, production, delivery and reception of educational messages. These subsystems are seen as separate but…

  3. Operating system design the Xinu approach

    Comer, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The book guides readers through the construction of a conventional process-based operating system using practical, straightforward primitives. It gives the implementation details of one set of primitives, usually the most popular set. Once readers understand how primitives can be implemented on conventional hardware, they can then easily implement alternative versions.

  4. Sociotechnical systems : towards an organizational learning approach

    Molleman, E; Broekhuis, M

    2001-01-01

    By means of three design principles (the sociotechnical criterion, the principle of minimal critical specification and the principle of joint optimization of the technical and social system), STS as a design theory is related to four organizational performance indicators (price, quality, flexibility

  5. Developing Inclusive Schools: A Systemic Approach

    Kinsella, William; Senior, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    This paper emerges from an ongoing study which involved, firstly, key informant interviews with strategic personnel within the Irish education system, such personnel representing both service providers and service users. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of the findings of that aspect of the study in relation to the key…

  6. Systems approach critical to agroecosystems management

    Sustainable dryland agriculture in the semi-arid Great Plains of the U.S. depends on achieving economic yields while maintaining soil resources. The traditional system of conventional tillage wheat-fallow was vulnerable to excessive soil erosion which resulted in excessive organic matter loss. No-...

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS--A SYSTEMS APPROACH.

    OHM, ROBERT E.

    CONTEMPORARY SYSTEMS THEORISTS HAVE PROVIDED A HELPFUL VIEW OF THE WAY GOAL-STRUCTURE MAY SHAPE ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. THE "TRADITIONALIST" VIEW ASSIGNED ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS THE FUNCTIONS OF FORECASTING AND PLANNING. THE "EMERGING MODEL" VIEWED GOALS AS UNDEFINED ELEMENTS REQUIRING LITTLE SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT IN A…

  8. Integrating systems approaches into pharmaceutical sciences.

    Westerhoff, H.V.; Mosekilde, E.; Noe, C.; Clemensen, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    During the first week of December 2007, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) and BioSim, the major European Network of Excellence on Systems Biology, held a challenging conference on the use of mathematical models in the drug development process. More precisely, the purpose

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach of systemic amyloidosis

    Hazenberg, BPC; van Gameren, [No Value; Bijzet, J; Jager, PL; van Rijswijk, MH

    Amyloidosis is a group of diseases, all characterised by deposition of protein fibrils with a beta-sheet structure. This structure generates affinity of amyloid for Congo red dye and is resistant to proteolysis. Three types of systemic amyloidosis are important for the clinician: AA (related to

  10. Clinical approach of patients with systemic amyloidosis

    Hazenberg, Bouke

    2011-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the name of diseases characterised by deposition of protein fibrils with a beta-sheet structure. This beta-sheet structure generates affinity of amyloid for Congo red dye and is resistant to proteolysis. The main three types of systemic amyloidosis are AA (related to underlying

  11. Spectrally balanced chromatic landing approach lighting system

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Red warning lights delineate the runway approach with additional blue lights juxtaposed with the red lights such that the red lights are chromatically balanced. The red/blue point light sources result in the phenomenon that the red lights appear in front of the blue lights with about one and one-half times the diameter of the blue. To a pilot observing these lights along a glide path, those red lights directly below appear to be nearer than the blue lights. For those lights farther away seen in perspective at oblique angles, the red lights appear to be in a position closer to the pilot and hence appear to be above the corresponding blue lights. This produces a very pronounced three dimensional effect referred to as chromostereopsis which provides valuable visual cues to enable the pilot to perceive his actual position above the ground and the actual distance to the runway.

  12. Putting Encyclopaedia Knowledge into Structural Form: Finite State Transducers Approach

    Pajić Vesna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In biology and functional genomics in particular, understanding the dependence and interplay between different genome and ecological characteristics of organisms is a very challenging problem. There are some public databases which combine this kind of information, but there is still much more information about microbes and other organisms that reside in unstructured and semi-structured documents, such as encyclopaedias. In this paper we present a method for extracting information from semi-structured resources, such as encyclopaedias, based on finite state transducers, consisting of two clearly distinguished phases. The first phase strongly relies on the analysis of the document structure and it is used for locating records of data in the text. The second phase is based on the finite state transducers created for extracting the data, which can be modified so as to achieve the preferred efficiency and it is used for extracting the particular characteristic from the text. We show how the two phase method is applied to the text of the encyclopaedia “Systematic Bacteriology”. A fully structured database with genotype and phenotype characteristics of organisms has been created from the encyclopaedia unstructured descriptions.

  13. Flu Diagnosis System Using Jaccard Index and Rough Set Approaches

    Efendi, Riswan; Azah Samsudin, Noor; Mat Deris, Mustafa; Guan Ting, Yip

    2018-04-01

    Jaccard index and rough set approaches have been frequently implemented in decision support systems with various domain applications. Both approaches are appropriate to be considered for categorical data analysis. This paper presents the applications of sets operations for flu diagnosis systems based on two different approaches, such as, Jaccard index and rough set. These two different approaches are established using set operations concept, namely intersection and subset. The step-by-step procedure is demonstrated from each approach in diagnosing flu system. The similarity and dissimilarity indexes between conditional symptoms and decision are measured using Jaccard approach. Additionally, the rough set is used to build decision support rules. Moreover, the decision support rules are established using redundant data analysis and elimination of unclassified elements. A number data sets is considered to attempt the step-by-step procedure from each approach. The result has shown that rough set can be used to support Jaccard approaches in establishing decision support rules. Additionally, Jaccard index is better approach for investigating the worst condition of patients. While, the definitely and possibly patients with or without flu can be determined using rough set approach. The rules may improve the performance of medical diagnosis systems. Therefore, inexperienced doctors and patients are easier in preliminary flu diagnosis.

  14. Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research

    Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research...... for research results. This paper provides both a framework for and an analysis of such reflection which contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research. Future research is needed to empirically provide insights on how complexity approaches can advance the area of SCM and logistics......, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design...

  15. Present states and views on vault storage systems

    Yoshimura, Eiji

    2003-01-01

    Storage capacity of spent nuclear fuel storage pools in nuclear power station is reaching to a condition near its limit, and under a condition inevitable on delay of the Pu-thermal utilization plan importance on interim storage of the spent nuclear fuels is further rising. In U.S.A., Germany, and so on, a condition incapable of presenting nuclear energy business itself without its intermediate storage is approaching, so in Japan it will also be a key to smoothly promote the nuclear energy business how the interim storage is used and operated. Under such condition, in Japan storage facilities using a system called by 'metal cask' are established at areas of nuclear power stations to begin their operations. As on the system expensive metal containers are used for storage in themselves, it has a demerit of its high cost. On the other hand, on foreign countries, a storing system called by concrete cask, horizontal silo, or vault is occupying its main stream. Here was introduced present states and future views on vault storage system. (G. K)

  16. Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication

    Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

  17. SYSTEMIC APPROACH OF THE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Adrian Nicolae CAZACU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In an era of globalization, we witness the encounter of cultures and the exchanges between them. Often, the cultural influences affect the consumer's decision to purchase goods. Many cultures have their own specific product offer, which is a way of promoting them. In this regard, a good example is the media culture called "anime". As a result, the consumer is faced with many decisions and its choice is influenced by many internal and external factors. When studying the market fluctuations due to the social, cultural, or otherwise influences, which may create new categories of consumers, we consider it is important to analyse the consumer behavior in the systemic terms, which could lead us to a new overview of the effects of these various influences. This paper proposes a mathematical model, starting from an original scheme, based on the Veblen theory. The study uses a simple matrix algorithm for the optimal solution of the dynamical systems with quadratic cost function.

  18. Cosmic infinity: a dynamical system approach

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Marto, João [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês D' Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal); Morais, João [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Silva, César M., E-mail: mbl@ubi.pt, E-mail: jmarto@ubi.pt, E-mail: jviegas001@ikasle.ehu.eus, E-mail: csilva@ubi.pt [Centro de Matemática e Aplicações da Universidade da Beira Interior (CMA-UBI), Rua Marquês D' Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal)

    2017-03-01

    Dynamical system techniques are extremely useful to study cosmology. It turns out that in most of the cases, we deal with finite isolated fixed points corresponding to a given cosmological epoch. However, it is equally important to analyse the asymptotic behaviour of the universe. On this paper, we show how this can be carried out for 3-form models. In fact, we show that there are fixed points at infinity mainly by introducing appropriate compactifications and defining a new time variable that washes away any potential divergence of the system. The richness of 3-form models allows us as well to identify normally hyperbolic non-isolated fixed points. We apply this analysis to three physically interesting situations: (i) a pre-inflationary era; (ii) an inflationary era; (iii) the late-time dark matter/dark energy epoch.

  19. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  20. Compressive Information Extraction: A Dynamical Systems Approach

    2016-01-24

    significantly benefit society. Systems endowed with activity analysis capabilities can prevent crime, allow elderly people to continue living independently...keynote speaker at the 2014 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras. 9 2.5 Transitions The theoretical framework developed under...FBI Deputy Director, June 2013) and the Hon. Theresa May (U.K. Home Secretary, Sept. 2014). It was also covered in a N.Y. Times article that appeared