WorldWideScience

Sample records for state radioisotope transport

  1. Transport of radioisotopes

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  2. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  3. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Ku, T.L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Chu, W.L.; Dobson, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234 U/ 238 U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234 U/ 238 U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234 U/ 238 U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  4. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  5. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone - A case study using uranium isotopes at Peña Blanca, Mexico

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234U/ 238U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Peña Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234U/ 238U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234U/ 238U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  6. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transport Trailer System

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System system 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the US Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware

  7. Hydrological model for the transport of radioisotope in surface water

    Adoboah, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes has gained grounds in Ghana as a result of the numerous benefits that could be derived from it. In Ghana, radioisotope materials are used for various purposes in a number of institutions. However, improper disposal of the waste poses threat to the environment. To evaluate the environmental impact of radioisotope pollution, mathematical models play a major role in predicting the pollution level in any medium. This study is concerned with the hydrological model for the transport of radioactive material in the river. The model was composed by employing partial differential equations, describing relevant physical processes evolution (water level, velocities and dissolved substances concentrations) that occurs in water bodies. The mass conservation and momentum laws, state equation and state transport equations are equation system basis. The explicit central difference scheme in space and a forward difference method in time were used for the evaluation of the generalized transport equation, the Advection-Dispersion Equation. A Matlab code was developed to predict the concentration of the radioactive contaminant at any particular time along the river and in a reservoir. The model was able to simulate accurately the various levels of radionuclide concentration changes in the flowing rivers as the flows are augmented by tributary inflows. (au)

  8. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  9. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The concentration of radioisotopes to which the technical standards for transport outside enterprises are not applied is 0.002 micro-curie per gram. The radioisotopes which can be transported as L type transported goods are defined in detail, excluding explosive or spontaneously igniting radioisotopes. The quantity limit of radioisotopes which can be transported as A type transported goods is the values A 1 and A 2 defined in this rule. The permissible surface density defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency are 1/100,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes emitting alpha-ray, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes which do not emit alpha-ray. The leak quantity of radioisotopes specified by the Director General is 1/1,000,000 of A 2 value for BM type transported goods and 1/1,000 of A 2 value for BU type goods. The test conditions for each type of transported goods, dangerous goods, the limit of the number of transported goods and signs are stipulated, respectively. Permissible exposure dose is 1.5 rem a year for persons other than radiation workers. (Okada, K.)

  10. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    King, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan

  11. Application state of radioisotopes for medical use

    Nakajima, Tomoyoshi

    1979-01-01

    Application of unsealed radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals has been increasing year by year with the development of nuclear medicine. As for the radioisotopes for in vivo use which are internally administered and are detected by external scanning, the consumption of Tc-99 m drugs has increased rapidly. The sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo use including 131 I, etc. amounted to four billion Yen in 1977. The consumption of the isotopes used in vitro for radioimmunoassay has made more rapid increase, and the sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vitro use amounted to seven billion Yen in 1977. Radiopharmaceuticals have been used in 1,134 institutes all over Japan in 1978. 534 among them have applied radiopharmaceuticals to both in vivo and in vitro uses. Radioactive wastes have been increasing with the application of these unsealed radiopharmaceuticals, and their disposal method should be examined as there is a limit in their storage. (Kobatake, H.)

  12. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System Program

    McCoy, J.C.; Becker, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The U.S. Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration close-quote s Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent major changes in the U.S. Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes in works or enterprises

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The limit of the concentration of radioisotopes in the goods contaminated by these isotopes which are not required to be sealed in containers defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency is 1/10,000 of the value A 2 under the notification determining the details of technical standards concerning the transport of radioisotopes or the goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises. The application for the permission of transporting the goods which are highly difficult to be sealed in containers shall list names and addresses, the kinds, quantities, shapes and properties of the transported goods contaminated by radioisotopes, etc. The radiation dose rate of transported goods and vehicles under the regulation is 200 milli-rem an hour on the surfaces of these goods, vehicles and containers, and 10 milli-rem an hour at the distance of 1 meter from their surfaces. The permissible exposure dose of the persons engaging in transport is 1.5 rem a year. Dangerous goods, signs, and the application for the approval of special measures are specified, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  14. Ordinance of the Prime Minister's Office concerning reports on transport of radioisotopes

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes and the enforcement ordinance for this law, and to execute the law. Radioisotopes or the goods contaminated by radioisotopes which require reports are the same as those defined in the enforcement regulation for the law. Persons who intend to report on the transport of radioisotopes under the law shall submit two copies of reports in the form specified in this rule to the public safety commissions of prefectures which exercise jurisdiction over the dispatching places of these radioisotopes. The indication matters defined in this rule include speed of the vehicles loaded with radioisotopes, the disposition of escort cars, the formation of these vehicles, cars and other vehicles which accompany to transport, parking areas, the places of loading and unloading, etc. When the transport reported is related to the areas which are under the jurisdiction of other public safety commissions, those commissions which have received the reports shall inform without delay to the commissions concerned the date of transport, course, the kinds and quantities of radioisotopes and other necessary matters. The examinations of transport are made according to the contents of the reports submitted as to whether the transport was made as notified. Reports may be collected on the circumstances of transport outside works or enterprises and the personal injuries by the transport concerned, etc. (Okada, K.)

  15. Development of Transportation Package for Medical and Industrial Radioisotope

    Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this project is development of RI transport package and establishment of transportation system. This report describes the objective of project, necessaries, state of related technology, scope and results, proposal for application etc. The scope of the project consist of establishment of performance test system for type-A package for medical use, development of type-B package for industrial use and development of casting technology for DU shield and evaluation of shielding efficiency. The research results obtained from this project are expected to be utilized as a basic data for design, analysis, test and license of transport package.

  16. Radiation risk assessment for the transport of radioisotopes using KRI-BGM B(U) type container

    Cho, Woon-Kap

    2008-01-01

    The radiation risks were estimated for the transportation of radioisotopes using KRI-BGM transport container. KRI-BGM container was specially designed for transportation of large amount of radioisotopes for industrial or medical applications. The container can carry maximum 370 TBq of solid Ir-192, 29.6 TBq of liquid Mo-99 and 37 TBq of liquid I-131 respectively. For the radiation risk assessment, it was assumed that maximum design activity of those radioisotopes was transported. Transportation route is from Daejeon where radioisotopes are produced to Seoul where radioisotopes are consumed. Transport distance is 200 km including highway and downtown area from Daejeon to Seoul. As the transportation conveyance, an ordinary cargo truck is used exclusively. Radiation risks were estimated for incident free and accident condition of transportation and RADTRAN 5.6 was used as the risk assessment tool. For the risk assessment of radioisotopes transportation, various parameters such as population density around transport route, weather condition, probability of specific accidents such as impact, fire, etc. were considered. From the results of this study, the exclusive transportation of radioisotopes using KRI-BGM transport container by truck showed low radiological risks with manageable safety and health consequences. This paper discusses the methods and results of the radiation risks assessment for the radioisotopes transportation by an ordinary truck and presents the expected radiation risks in person-Sv and latent cancer fatalities. (author)

  17. Trends in radioisotope development and utilization in the United States

    Mott, W E [Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)

    1976-06-01

    The current trends in radioisotope and radiation technology in the United States are overviewed with emphasis on the developments since the 1973 Conference. The comments focus primarily on the research and development activities receiving the most attention today from the various agencies of the Government. Among the many available radionuclides, technetium-99m has played the single most important role for making possible the developments in the field of nuclear medicine. Many other short lived medium-lived nuclides are applied in the fields of nuclear medicine, cardiac pacemaker, artificial heart, and blood irradiator. Radiation processing is now firmly established in the United States. The trends in sewage treatment, polymer-impregnated materials, bioengineering, and food irradiation are reviewed. The programs for californium-252, strontium-90, cesium-137, plutonium-238, and krypton-85 are also reviewed. The author concludes this paper with the acknowledgement that Japanese researchers have contributed to and have been closely involved in many of the programs discussed. Of particular note is the participation in the clinical phase of the californium-252 radiotherapy program. Several Japanese hospitals have been cooperating with the United States since the very beginning of the californium-252 program in determining the value of the californium-252 neutron therapy. The research being performed is unique, and will contribute greatly to the decisions on the ultimate future of californium-252 for therapeutic purposes.

  18. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  19. Determination of details of regulations concerning transportation of radioisotopes by vehicles

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulation concerning transportation of radioactive materials by vehicles. Permissible surface density shall be 1/100,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioisotopes emitting alpha rays and 1/10,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioisotopes not emitting alpha rays. Radioisotope loads are classified to types of L, A, BM and BU. Quantity of radioactivity or radioisotope is stipulated for each type of loads respectively with tables attached. Radioactivity quantity of solid L load is 1/1,000 of Al value in the appendix table. For tritium water of fluid L load radioactivity quantity is 1,000 curie, 100 curie and 1 curie respectively according to the water radioactivity per litre of less than 0.1 curie, less than 1 curie and more than 0.1 curie, and more than 1 curie. Conditions concerning A, BM and BU loads are provided for in detail in the bylaw annexed. Quantity of leaking specified for BM load is 1/1,000,000 of A2 value and in other particular cases A2 value, etc. Leaking quantity for BU load is 1/1,000 of A2 value. Radioactive concentration of radioisotopes to be transferred not as radioactive goods is 1/10,000 of A2 value per gram. (Okada, K.)

  20. Design of shipping packages to transport varying radioisotopic source materials for future space and terrestrial missions

    Barklay, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The exploration of space will begin with manned missions to the moon and to Mars, first for scientific discoveries, then for mining and manufacturing. Because of the great financial costs of this type of exploration, it can only be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning and, execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as isotope processing, and shipping package design, fabrication, and certification. All aspects of this effort potentially involve the use of radioisotopes in some capacity, and the transportation of these radioisotopes will be impossible without a shipping package that is certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the U.S. Department of Energy for domestic shipments, and the U.S. Department of Transportation or the International Atomic Energy Agency for international shipments. To remain without the international regulatory constraints, and still support the needs of new and challenging space missions conducted within ever-shrinking budgets, shipping package concepts must be innovative. A shipping package must also be versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the varying radioisotopic source materials that may be required to support future space and terrestrial missions. One such package is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. Taking into consideration the potential need to transport specific types of radioisotopes, approximations of dose rates at specific distances were determined taking into account the attenuation of dose rate with distance for varying radioisotopic source materials. As a result, it has been determined that the shipping package requirements that will be demanded by future space (and terrestrial) missions can be met by making minor modifications to the USA/9516/B(U)F. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Work plan for the fabrication of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system package mounting

    Satoh, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has available a dedicated system for the transportation of RTG payloads. The RTG Transportation System (System 100) is comprised of four systems; the Package (System 120), the Semi-trailer (System 140), the Gas Management (System 160), and the Facility Transport (System 180). This document provides guidelines on the fabrication, technical requirements, and quality assurance of the Package Mounting (Subsystem 145), part of System 140. The description follows the Development Control Requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, EP 2.4, Rev. 3

  2. Application of ALARA to transport of Radio-Isotopes for Medical use

    Fett, H. J.; Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Van Hienen, J. F. A.; Jansma, R.; Gelder, R.; Shaw, K. B.; Gulberg, O.; Josefsson, D.; Svahn, B.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 a multi-national research project on transport safety commissioned by DG-TREN of the European Commission was completed and reported in The Evaluation of the Situation in the EC as regards Safety in the Transport of Radioactive Material and the Prospects for the Development of such Type of Transport (EC Contract No 4.1020/D/97-003. The result project was focussed on the radiological protection for routine (incident-free) shipments of radioactive material (RAM) in the public domain in four EU Member States Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. This information satisfies the requirements of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards, Article 14, which calls for reasonable steps taken by EU Member States to ensure and to substantiate that the contribution to exposure from practices including transport operations involving radioactive substances, is kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), economic and social factors being taken into account. The present paper, which has been partially based on the 1999 study for the European Commission, is focussed on the application of ALARA to the shipments by road in the four countries of radioactive material used for health care, research and industry. From the analysis of the data for these shipment it has been found that these shipments result in transport worker effective doses that vary from very low values which represent a major fraction of the applicable dose limit of 20 mSv/yr. From the primarily recorded worker radiation doses collected at the national level indicate, however, that the vast majority of transport workers, i. e. drivers and handlers, receive typically annual effective doses in the range of up to 10 mSv/yr with most values being in the low dose range. The maximum recorded occupational doses of workers involved primarily in manual handling, sorting and moving of high-T1 multiple-package radioisotope shipments at depots, re-distribution centres etc. were found to be from about 10-14 mSv/yr, From the

  3. Solute transport model for radioisotopes in layered soil

    Essel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The study considered the transport of a radioactive solute in solution from the surface of the earth down through the soil to the ground water when there is an accidental or intentional spillage of a radioactive material on the surface. The finite difference method was used to model the spatial and temporal profile of moisture content in a soil column using the θ-based Richard's equation leading to solution of the convective-dispersive equation for non-adsorbing solutes numerically. A matlab code has been generated to predict the transport of the radioactive contaminant, spilled on the surface of a vertically heterogeneous soil made up of two layers to determine the residence time of the solute in the unsaturated zone, the time it takes the contaminant to reach the groundwater and the amount of the solute entering the groundwater in various times and the levels of pollution in those times. The model predicted that, then there is a spillage of 7.2g of tritium, on the surface of the ground at the study area, it will take two years for the radionuclide to enter the groundwater and fifteen years to totally leave the unsaturated zone. There is therefore the need to try as much as possible to avoid intentional or accidental spillage of the radionuclide since it has long term effect. (au)

  4. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  5. The state of enforcement of the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards Due to Radioisotopes, etc

    1978-01-01

    In recent years, the uses of radioisotopes and radiation generators have advanced remarkably in Japan. The establishments utilizing them are on rapid increase in industries, medicine, research and education. Furthermore, since the types of usage are more diversified, the kinds of radioisotopes and their quantities are also increasing. In this connection, The Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards Due to Radioisotopes, etc. has been in force for about twenty years. Under the current situation in this field, importance of the administration concerning enforcement of The Law is ever rising. In the Science and Technology Agency, in view of the occurrence of accidents in certain enterprises, starting in fiscal 1974, various measures have been taken. As the state of enforcement of The Law, the following matters are presented; the establishments using, selling and disposing of radioisotopes, etc. up to fiscal 1977 (in tables); and variety of governmental measures taken by the Agency. (Mori, K.)

  6. Structural and Shielding Safety of a Transport Package for Radioisotope Sealed Source Assembly

    Seo, Kiseog; Cho, Ilje; Kim, Donghak [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    As some kinds of radioisotope (RI) sealed source are produced by HANARO research reactor, a demand of RI transport package is increasing gradually. Foreign countries, which produce the various RIs, have the intrinsic model of the RI transport package. It is necessary to develop a RI and its transport package simultaneously. It is difficult to design a shielding part for this transport package because the passage for this source assembly should be provided from the center of shielding part to the outside of the package. In order to endure the accident conditions such as a 9 m drop and puncture, this transport package consists of the guide tubes, a gamma shield and a shock absorber. This paper describe that a shielding and structural safety of RI sealed source transport package are evaluated under the accident conditions.

  7. Structural and Shielding Safety of a Transport Package for Radioisotope Sealed Source Assembly

    Seo, Kiseog; Cho, Ilje; Kim, Donghak

    2006-01-01

    As some kinds of radioisotope (RI) sealed source are produced by HANARO research reactor, a demand of RI transport package is increasing gradually. Foreign countries, which produce the various RIs, have the intrinsic model of the RI transport package. It is necessary to develop a RI and its transport package simultaneously. It is difficult to design a shielding part for this transport package because the passage for this source assembly should be provided from the center of shielding part to the outside of the package. In order to endure the accident conditions such as a 9 m drop and puncture, this transport package consists of the guide tubes, a gamma shield and a shock absorber. This paper describe that a shielding and structural safety of RI sealed source transport package are evaluated under the accident conditions

  8. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  9. State transportation statistics 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  10. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  11. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Sup [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer.

  12. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Lee, Jong Sup

    2005-01-01

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer

  13. Application of the approaches of Total Quality during the transportation and distribution of radioisotopes

    Fuentes Fuentes, J.R.; Canoura Gonzalez, A.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays a more and more growing tendency is manifested at managerial level toward the installation of Systems of Guarantee of Quality (SGC). In any company that doesn't have implanted a system of the quality, the economic losses for non quality can surpass 20%. In the companies dedicated to the transport of radioactive material, the cost of the non quality can be motivated fundamentally by: the late delivery of the radioisotopic material, for defects generated by the transport one that you/they affect the functional capacity of the product, and for losses of the bundles during the transport of the same ones. The previously signal elements can be enough reasons to take the managerial level to decide in favor of the installation of a SGC in these companies. With the present work, the authors show the possibility to introduce some inherent approaches to the concept of Total Quality during the implementation of a SGC supported in the normative ISO-9002, in companies of reduced budget dedicated to the transport and distribution of radioisotopic products

  14. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  15. A compendium of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system and recent programmatic changes

    Becker, D.L.; McCoy, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    Because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, usually plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with 10 CFR 71 (1994). To meet these regulatory requirements, US DOE commissioned Westinghouse Hanford Co. in 1988 to develop a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) that would fully comply while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal transport conditions (eg, mainly shock and heat). RTGTS is scheduled for completion Dec. 1996 and will be available to support NASA's Cassini mission to Saturn in Oct. 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS project, discusses the hardware being produced, and summarizes various programmatic and management innovations required by recent changes at DOE

  16. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG'S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG'S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria

  17. Feasibility to implement the radioisotopic method of nasal mucociliary transport measurement getting reliable results

    Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes

  18. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    2003-01-01

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  19. Radioisotope instruments

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  20. Evaluation of the vascular state of hepatic tumor with radioisotope angiography and blood pool scintigraphies (early and delayed)

    Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1976-01-01

    Combined radioisotope examinations of hepatic tumors have been performed using α 1 -fetoprotein radioimmunoassay, radioisotope angiography of the liver, and some tumor positive imaging scintigraphies. However, with these methods, it is frequently impossible to differentiate metastatic cancers from benign focal lesions. Radioisotope angiography of the liver, and both early (5 min later)- and delayed (4 hours later) blood pool scintigraphies of the liver were done continuously after 10mCi of sup(99m)Tc-albumin intravenous injection, in cases of clearcut focal lesions on sup(99m)Tc-colloid liver scan. The relationships among these findings were examined. Four of seven cases with hepatoma and two of nine cases with metastatic cancer which had showed hypervascular findings on radioisotope angiogram showed clear blood pool activities in the area of focal defects on sup(99m)Tc-colloid scan although less than liver. On the other hand, none of hypovascular tumors on radioisotope angiogram showed blood pool activities. However, four hours later, in most malignant lesions, the lesion to liver activity ratio calculated from data processing system showed a much higher value than the ratio obtained 5 min later after injection, although two cases with benign focal lesions did not show such sequential change. The sequential evaluation of the vascular state of a hepatic tumor using radioisotope angiography and early-and delayed blood pool scintigraphies was supposed to be extremely useful for the elucidation of the nature of focal hepatic lesions on sup(99m)Tc-colloid scan, especially in differentiating hypovascular malignant- and benign lesions. (auth.)

  1. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  2. The contribution of radioisotopes in secular equilibrium in the transport index of fissile uranium compounds in different enrichments

    Silva, Teresinha de Moraes da; Sordi, Gian M.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This work shows the contribution of radioisotopes in secular equilibrium in the transport index (TI) of some fissile uranium compounds: uranium oxides UO 2 , U 3 O 8 and uranium silicide U 3 Si 2 , taking into account the different enrichment grades.The range of enrichment (E%) studied was 3,4,5,7,10,20,30,40,50,93 and 100. Initially, the cell of optimum moderation ratio was built, since it represents the most reactive of the system (consisting of uranium), with maximum infinitive multiplication factor k∞, in certain concentration of uranium for each enrichment. This was made using the computer program Gamtec II. The critical radius of a sphere was calculated for a cell of optimum moderation ratio, in order to calculate the critical mass of the uranium compound or of the uranium element for each specific enrichment. For this the program Citation was used. In this study it was calculated the smallest critical mass of the uranium compound or the smallest critical mass of the uranium element. The objective was to match the largest mass of the uranium with each specific enrichment. The largest safety mass corresponds to 45% the critical mass the compound uranium or uranium element. Then, we calculated the uranium element safety mass, which it related to a fifth of this mass to the value 50, which corresponds to criticality safety index (CSI). That is, 20% of the safety mass is the value where the transport is carried out with subcritical mass, going in favor of the security. From the uranium element safety mass (USM) was determined for each enrichment , and it was calculated the mass of 235 U, activity 235 U and dose rate of 235 U, the same items were calculated for the isotope 238 U. The total dose rate was calculated for two isotopes, and applying the transport index definition as the gamma dose rate for the distance of 1 m from the packed, it was determined the TI for 20% of the safety mass for each enrichment of the compound studied. The study of

  3. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  4. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer

  5. Production of radioisotopes using accelerators

    Qaim, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Accelerator produced radioisotopes find applications in many fields. Most of them are ideally suited for in-vivo studies of physiological functions. A brief review of various types of accelerators used for radioisotope production is given. The 'state of art' technology relevant to the production of radioisotopes is briefly discussed. Some of the recent advances in nuclear data measurements, target development, chemical processing and quality control are described. There appears to be a definite shift from multipurpose accelerators to dedicated machines, and greater emphasis is placed now on the production of radioisotopes with high radionuclidic purity by choosing a suitable nuclear reaction in a proper energy range. (author)

  6. State of enforcement of the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radio-isotopes

    1977-01-01

    In view of the recent advance of radiation utilization in many fields, the situation as of the end of fiscal 1976 under the law is described. The statistics on the number of enterprises concerning radioisotope usage, sales and waste-treatment are first given. Then, the measures taken by the Science and Technology Agency to improve radiation hazard prevention are explained, and cooperation with other governmental offices, efforts by the enterprises, steps taken for the enterprises of nondestructive testing, hospitals, universities, etc., and restudy on the law are described. (Mori, K.)

  7. Development of casting technology and localization for a medical radioisotope transport cask

    Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. S.; Jang, S. J.; Seo, K. S.; Kim, C. G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to localize the shielding casks for shipping medical isotopes, this research was carried out. The various casting factors such as the diameter of shielding casting, the temperature of melt and the temperature gradient of a mold were determined with the calculation results of solidification analysis computer code. Through the experiment, the manufacturing method of Ti core was developed to have no defects causing casting failure. As a results of casting experiment, depleted uranium shielding castings were successfully cast without any defect. Also as the results of the radiation shielding capability test, it was good enough to satisfied the standards of transport regulations

  8. Simple radioisotopic technique for the study of urate transport in the rat kidney

    Abramson, R.G.; Levitt, M.F.; Maesaka, J.K.; Katz, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    To study uric acid transport in single nephrons and whole kidney of the rat, a technique has been developed for the radioassay of uric acid-2- 14 C in plasma, urine, and tubular fluid. Labeled allantoin, which results from the in vivo oxidation of uric acid-2- 14 C, is readily separated from the labeled uric acid by a two-step elution from a strongly basic anion exchange resin using column chromatography. It is concluded that this radioassay is a valid technique and that it provides a more sensitive and precise means of measuring U/P uric acid ratios at endogenous plasma uric acid concentrations than does a conventional differential spectrophotometric method

  9. Long-range transport of radioisotopes in the atmosphere and the calculation of collective dose

    Apsimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Wrigley, J.

    1980-01-01

    In estimating the long range (up to 1000 km) transport and dispersal of atmospheric pollutants, the meteorological conditions at the source become less relevant as the distance from the source increases, making it difficult to extrapolate to larger distances using short range modelling techniques. The MESOS model has therefore been developed to take into account the temporal and spatial changes in the atmospheric boundary layer along the trajectory of a pollutant release, including the effects of diurnal cycle and lateral dispersion in the synoptic scale windfield. The model is described together with the associated data base incorporating a year's meteorological data from synoptic stations and ships across Western Europe. A simulation of dispersal following the Windscale release of 1957 is compared with measurements. The use of the model is further illustrated by application to a hypothetical site both for routine continuous releases and short term accidental releases. This work has been carried out within the framework of a research contract between the EURATOM-CEA Association and Imperial College. (H.K.)

  10. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    Jung, S H; Jin, J H; Kim, J B

    2002-01-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting...

  11. Industrial applications of radioisotope tracers

    Easey, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Radioisotope tracing techniques are powerful tools for analysing the behaviour of large systems and investigating industrially or economically important processes. The results of radioisotope experiments can yield important information, for example, on parameters such as flow rates, mixing phenomena, flow abnormalities and leaks. Some examples of current AAEC research are described, covering studies on hearth drainage in blast furnaces, flow behaviour in waste-water treatment ponds, and sediment transport in marine environments

  12. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Byung Jong

    2002-04-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting more interested in terms of on-line data acquisition and analysis for the validation of the numerical simulation models. The experiment using radiotracer becomes an important part of the method to solve the problems happening in coastal environment, as it supplies data with high confidence in the field. On the basis of the experience obtained from the researches for industrial application of radiotracer technology, KAERI is going to make its first step to the development of the radiotracer technology for costal environmental studies

  13. The Application of Radioisotopes to the Study of Bed Load Movement and Transport in Rivers. Report on a Meeting of Experts

    1966-02-01

    From 16-18 August 1964 a meeting was held at the Headquarters of the IAEA to discuss the present status of the applications of radioactive tracers in studying bed load movement in rivers. The participants in the meeting also spent three days in Yugoslavia to see the methods used in this country under an Agency research contract. 9 scientists from 5 countries participated in the meeting as well as several members of the Agency's secretariat. This report summarises the work of the meeting and gives the recommendations concerning the future work in the field of radioisotope applications in bed load movement and transport

  14. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  15. Radioisotope camera

    Tausch, L.M.; Kump, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic ciruit corrects distortions caused by the distance between the individual photomultiplier tubes of the multiple radioisotope camera on one hand and between the tube configuration and the scintillator plate on the other. For this purpose the transmission characteristics of the nonlinear circuits are altered as a function of the energy of the incident radiation. By this means the threshold values between lower and higher amplification are adjusted to the energy level of each scintillation. The correcting circuit may be used for any number of isotopes to be measured. (DG) [de

  16. Manual of radioisotope production

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  17. Radioisotope production

    1988-01-01

    The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67 Ga, 81 Rb/ 81m Kr and 111 In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 μA). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123 I, in the form of Na 123 I capsules as well as 123 I-sodium hippurate, and 52 Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123 I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

  18. Calculation correlations for radioisotope level gages with relay tracing systems

    Krejndlin, I.I.; Pakhunkov, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    The interrelationship was examined between the operational and instrumental parameters of radioisotope tracking level indicators. The relationships were obtained permitting to check the reliability of the tracking regime, and also of the equilibrium state of the radioisotope tracking level indicator

  19. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  20. Radioisotopes in sedimentology

    Courtois, G.

    1967-01-01

    Radioisotopes have two main uses in sedimentology: they are used for the study of sediment movements in rivers and seas, and for continuous measurements of the amount of sediment suspended in a given medium. These two uses are considered in detail, and brief accounts given of some other uses. Study of sediment movements. After describing the basic technique used in sediment movement studies (injection of a labelled sediment or a simulator into the current, followed by tracking the radioactivity), the author enumerates as fully as possible the problems that can be solved with the help of this technique. Essentially, these problems fall into two groups: 1. Problems related to civil engineering works in coastal areas: the siltation of harbour channels and docks, the formation of banks and bars, the choice of sites for disposing of dredged sediment, the siting of ports, coastline protection, etc. Problems associated with civil engineering works in and near rivers; siting of the water intakes of hydroelectric and nuclear power stations, the effects of construction work on the transport of solids, the construction of dams, the protection of river banks, the construction of jetties, the siltation of lakes, etc. Problems common to these include the transport of effluent and the calibration of hydraulic models. The bibliography is based mainly on fairly recent references and on current research work. 2. Problems related to basic or applied research conducted mainly by universities and research centres: the study of the Quarternary of a particular region, pure sedimentology, the investigation of major sediment transport currents, the confirmation or refutation of transport theories, research into fundamental transport phenomena associated with channel experiments. After referring to the possible exploitation of natural tracers (contained in radioactive waste and fallout), the author discusses the technical aspects of using artificial tracers: the choice of radioisotope

  1. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    Goeldner, R.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Radmaneche, R.; Schlegel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  2. Radioisotope detection with accelerators

    Mast, T.S.; Muller, R.A.; Tans, P.P.

    1979-12-01

    High energy mass spectrometry is a new and very sensitive technique of measuring rare radioisotopes. This paper describes the techniques used to select and identify the individual radioisotope atoms in a sample and the status of the radioisotope measurements and their applications

  3. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  4. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  5. Current and new developments in transport and regulatory issues concerning radioisotopes: managing change for minimum business impact

    Bennett, Neil; Coppell, David; Rogers, David; Schrader, John

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the regulatory framework governing the Radiation Processing Industry have the potential to make a real business impact on day-to-day profitability. Many areas of the Radiation Processing Industry are affected by changes in the regulatory framework within which these areas are managed. When planning for such changes the transportation element in the shipment of sealed cobalt radiation sources is an area that is often neglected by some parts of the distribution chain. A balance must be struck between the cobalt supplier and the facility operator/customer that rests upon how much the customer needs to know about the intricacies of cobalt shipment. The objective of this paper is to highlight areas of possible business impact and reassure the users of sealed radiation sources that the global suppliers of these products are used to negotiating local variations in regulations governing the physical transportation of radiation sources, changes in regulations governing the design, manufacture and use of transportation containers and changes in the availability of commercial shippers and shipping routes. The major suppliers of industrial quantities of cobalt-60 are well placed to lead their customers through this complex process as a matter of routine

  6. Radioisotopes production and applications

    Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Application of radioisotopes for both medical and industrial applications constitutes one of the most important peaceful uses of atomic energy. The striking diffusion and the exciting perspective of radioisotope for a plethora of medical and industrial applications are mainly attributable to the penetrating and ionization properties of radiation emanating from radioisotopes. The revolutionary medical applications of radioisotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of a multitude of diseases are causing a rapid expansion of the nuclear medicine field. While the industrial uses of radioisotopes are not expanding as quickly, also require large amounts of radioisotopes. Production of radioisotopes is not only the first step, but also the most crucial for the success as well as sustainable growth of radioisotope applications. With the rapid growth and expanding areas of applications, the demands for isotopes have increased several folds. A number of radioisotopes of different physical half-life, energy of the particle or gamma emission, specific activity and chemistry are now regularly produced both at commercial centers as well as at selected nuclear science research institutes utilizing reactors and cyclotrons to meet the ever growing need

  7. Aviation and Airports, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of Alaska

    State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Aviation and Airports Search DOT&PF State of pages view official DOT&PF Flickr pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box

  8. Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State ...

    Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... The paper examines the operations of Public Transport in Nigeria using the Kwara State Transport Service as a case study. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  9. Tracer experiment by using radioisotope in surface water environment

    Suh, K.S.; Kim, K.C.; Chun, I.Y.; Jung, S.H.; Lee, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    obtained by the theoretical and empirical formulas. The tracer method by using radioisotope appears to be convenient tool to investigate the pollutant transport and dispersion processes in surface water. The data obtained by tracer experiment will be supplied the basis of assessment of actual state of pollution in surface water.

  10. The Research and Development of the Radioisotope Energy Conversion System

    Steinfelds, E.V.; Ghosh, T.K.; Prelas, M.A.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The project of developing radioisotope energy conversion system (RECS) involves analytical computational assisted design and modeling and also laboratory research. The computational analysis consists of selecting various geometries and materials for the main RECS container and the internally located radioisotope, computing the fluxes of the beta (-) particles and of the visible (or ultraviolet) photons produced by the beta (-) s, computing the transport of these photons to the photovoltaic cells, and computing the overall efficiency of useful conversion of the radioisotope power

  11. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  12. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Segmented Thermoelectric Research

    Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Flight times are long; - Need power systems with >15 years life. Mass is at an absolute premium; - Need power systems with high specific power and scalability. 3 orders of magnitude reduction in solar irradiance from Earth to Pluto. Nuclear power sources preferable. The Overall objective is to develop low mass, high efficiency, low-cost Advanced Radioisotope Power System with double the Specific Power and Efficiency over state-of-the-art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs).

  13. Technical diagnosis of industrial plants with radioisotopes

    Hartmann, G.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the application of radioisotopes in technical diagnosis of industrial plants. Proceeding from the economic importance and the state of the art of radioisotope applications, the principles of tracer techniques are outlined including topical examples of application such as passage of coal through a steam generator, wear in impact crashing of coal, wear and corrosion in pipelines, testing the effective cross section of pipes, and investigations of microstructures. Limits and restrictions of applications are briefly discussed

  14. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2010

    2010-07-01

    The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State : Funding for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2008 data. This annual report : provides a snapshot of state-by-state investm...

  15. Radioisotope measurement system

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  16. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    Sekine, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-01-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  17. Artificial radioisotopes in hydrological investigation

    Plata-Bedmar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have an important part in hydrological investigations. Sealed radiation sources have been used for measurements of sediments transported by river water, of thickness and density of sediment layers. X-ray fluorescence analysis and well-logging are widely applied in hydrological research. Tracer techniques have been useful in flow rate and river dynamics research, sediments tracing, irrigation and ground water problems, infiltration rate evaluation etc. The IAEA is supporting several projects involving the use of radioactive tracers in hydrological investigations p.e. in Guatemala, Romania, South East Asia, Brazil, Chile and Nicaragua

  18. Economical Radioisotope Power

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power to...

  19. Procurement and Contracting, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of

    Visiting Alaska State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Procurement and Contracting Search DOT& pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box 112500 3132 Channel Drive Juneau

  20. Radioisotopes in industry

    Popple, B.N.

    1977-01-01

    The author explains clearly what is radiography, enumerates four major factors in considering a practical source to use namely half-life, penetrating power, half value layer and specific activity and also the advantages and disadvantages in using isotopes. Common radioisotopes used in industrial radiography are iridium, cesium, cobalt and thulium. Main uses of the radioisotopes are for radiographic testing like welding castings, forgoings etc.; thickness, level or density measurement and tracing. (RTD)

  1. Radioisotopes for therapy: an overview

    Venkatesh, Meera

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides made great impact in the history of nuclear sciences both at the end of 19th century with the discoveries of Becquerel and madame Curie and later in 1934, when Frederic Joliet and Irene Curie demonstrated the production of the first artificial radioisotopes, 30 P, by bombardment of 27 Al by alpha particles. The subsequent invention of cyclotron and setting up of nuclear reactor opened the floodgate for production of artificial radionuclides. Currently, majority of radionuclides are made artificially by transforming a stable nuclide into an unstable state and thus far over 2500 radionuclides have been produced artificially. Use of radionuclides in various fields immediately followed their production and last century has witnessed tremendous growth in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes, in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, food preservation, water resource management, environmental studies, etc. While radiation and radioisotopes are used both for diagnosis as well as for therapy in the field of medicine, therapeutic applications are among the earliest, which began as an empirical science in the beginning and developed into a well structured modality with time. (author)

  2. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  3. Stantardization problems in radioisotopic techniques for measuring rock density and humidity

    Golubin, O.V.; Pavlov, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the main technical characteristics is given of radioisotope densimeters and hydrometers taken as a base for the State Standard design for field radioisotope instruments for measuring density and moisture of the soil and rocks

  4. RADIOISOTOPE INVENTORY FOR TSPA-SR

    Leigh, C.; Rechard, R.

    2001-01-01

    The total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR), on Yucca Mountain, as a site (if suitable) for disposal of radioactive waste, consists of several models. The Waste Form Degradation Model (i.e, source term) of the TSPA-SR, in turn, consists of several components. The Inventory Component, discussed here, defines the inventory of 26 radioisotopes for three representative waste categories: (1) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), (2) US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and (3) high-level waste (HLW). These three categories are contained and disposed of in two types of waste packages (WPs)--CSNF WPs and co-disposal WPs, with the latter containing both DSNF and HLW. Three topics are summarized in this paper: first, the transport of radioisotopes evaluated in the past; second, the development of the inventory for the two WP types; and third, the selection of the most important radioisotopes to track in TSPA-SR

  5. Safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc. (interim report)

    1980-01-01

    An (interim) report by an ad hoc expert committee to the Nuclear Safety Commission, on the safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc., was presented. For the utilization of radioisotopes, etc., there is the Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Injury Due to Radioisotopes, etc. with the advances in this field and the improvement in international standards, the regulations by the law have been examined. After explaining the basic ideas of the regulations, the problems and countermeasures in the current regulations are described: legal system, rationalization in permission procedures and others, inspection on RI management, the system of the persons in charge of radiation handling, RI transport, low-level radioactive wastes, consumer goods, definitions of RIs, radiation and sealed sources, regulations by group partitioning, RI facilities, system of personnel exposure registration, entrusting of inspection, etc. to private firms, and reduction in the works for permission among governmental offices. (author)

  6. Radioisotope Power Sources

    Culwell, J. P.

    1963-01-01

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  7. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  8. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  9. Radioisotope clocks in archaeology

    Hedges, R E.M. [Oxford Univ. (UK). Research Lab. for Archaeology

    1979-09-06

    Methods of absolute dating which use the rate of disintegration of a radioactive nucleus as the clock, are reviewed. The use of the abundant radioisotopes (/sup 40/K, Th and U) and of the rare radioisotopes (/sup 14/C, /sup 10/Be, /sup 26/Al, /sup 32/Si, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 41/Ca, /sup 53/Mn) is discussed and radiation integration techniques (fission track dating, thermoluminescence and related techniques) are considered. Specific fields of use of the various methods and their accuracy are examined.

  10. Radioisotopes in soil science

    Kotur, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Soils form a thin veneer of the Earth that sustain the entire flora and fauna of the terra firma. To that extent the soil as a natural resource is very precious and needs to be managed in a sustainable manner. The fate of degradation of pesticides in soil and build-up of heavy metals in the overall biosafety scenario is also studied gainfully using radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are a very potent tool in the hands of the Soil Scientists, perhaps, the most important among the peaceful applications in service of the mankind

  11. Radioisotope Power Supply, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  12. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  13. Radioisotopic heat source

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  14. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  15. Radio-isotope generator

    Benjamins, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    A device is claimed for interrupting an elution process in a radioisotope generator before an elution vial is entirely filled. The generator is simultaneously exposed to sterile air both in the direction of the generator column and of the elution vial

  16. Assessing transportation and road conditions in niger state, nigeria ...

    Assessing transportation and road conditions in niger state, nigeria using geoinformatics, with focus on impact of climate ... Also the impacts of climate change on transportation were highlighted. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  17. Grants and Funding for State and Local Transportation

    State and Local Transportation resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Guidance, strategies and links to grant opportunities are offered for reducing vehicle air pollution, including ozone or smog.

  18. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    1965-01-01

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  19. Radioisotope battery for particular application

    Shen Tianjian; Liang Daihua; Cai Jianhua; Dai Zhimin; Xia Huihao; Wang Jianhua; Sun Sen; Yu Guojun; Wang Xiao; Wang Dongxing; Liu Xin

    2010-01-01

    Radioisotope battery, as a new type of power source, was developed in 1960s. It is advantageous in terms of long working life, high reliability, flexibility to rugged environment, maintenance free, and high capacity rate, hence its unique applications in space, isolated terrestrial or ocean spots, deep waters, and medicine. In this paper, we analysz the primary performances and classification of radioisotope thermoelectric generator, as well as characteristic, basic principle,and structure of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), which is the most popular in application of radioisotope battery in space, undersea, terrestrial and medicine. A prospect for development and application of radioisotope battery in the 21 st century is given, too. (authors)

  20. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    Saour, G.

    1995-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are: 3 H, 14 Ca, 32 P, 35 S, 38 Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: 198 Au, 134 Cs, 131 I, 86 Rb, 65 Zn, 59 Fe, 45 Ca, 24 Na, 22 Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs

  1. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    Saour, G [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are:{sup 3}H, {sup 14}Ca, {sup 32}P, {sup 35}S, {sup 38}Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: {sup 198}Au, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 45}Ca, {sup 24}Na, {sup 22}Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs.

  2. Transportation legislative data base : state radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989-1993

    1994-04-30

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United...

  3. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    1965-01-01

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  4. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  5. Radioisotope production linac

    Stovall, J.E.; Hansborough, L.D.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A 70-MeV proton beam would open a new family of medical radioisotopes (including the important 123 I) to wide application. A 70-MeV, 500-μA linac is described, based on recent innovations in accelerator technology. It would be 27.3 m long, cost approx. $6 million, and the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable to existing cyclotrons. By operating the rf-power system to its full capability, the same accelerator is capable of producing a 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons. The technology to build such a linac is in a mature stage of developmnt, ready for use by industry

  6. NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd

    Letule, T.

    2017-01-01

    NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA). Supplies around 20% of the world's medical radioisotopes used. NTP is a pioneer in the introduction and growth of nuclear medicine as in South Africa. Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty that involves the use of radioactive isotopes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nuclear medicine contributes to enhancing the lives of the society. There is a compelling need for nuclear medicine to be promoted and utilized in the rest of Africa, due to the increasing prevalence of cancer. Cancer is rapidly becoming a public health crisis in low-income and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, patients often present with advanced disease

  7. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    1961-01-01

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies

  8. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Carr, S.

    1998-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  9. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies.

  10. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. A set of portable radioisotopic control and measuring instruments

    Pospeev, V.V.; Sidorov, V.N.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Uleksin, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    The problems and perspectives are examined of the portable radioisotope instruments application in agriculture, building industry, engeeniring and geological survay and in melioration. Principles are given of creation a series of radioisotopic instruments based on the principle of ganging. The series described consists of radioisotopic densimeters and moisture gages of the portable type, based on the ganging principle. The instruments differ in the measuring converters and have unified information processing and power supply devices. Criteria are stated for the ganging principle estimation, in particular, estimation of the technical means' compatibility. Four different types of compatibility are distinguished: an information compatibility; a metrological compatibility; structural and operational compatibility. Description is given of the unified information processing device - the unified pulse counter of the SIP-1M type and description of a row of radioisotopic measuring converters, which provides a possibility for completing the portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-2 type, intended for measuring densities of concrets and soils in the surface layer up to 30 cm and the density range from 1000 to 2500 kg/m 3 ; portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-1 type having measuring range from 600 to 1500 kg/m 3 ; surface-depth radioisotopic densimeter of the PPGR-1 type and surface-depth radioisotopic moisture gage of the VPGR-1 type [ru

  12. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    Foster, B.

    1981-11-01

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  13. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2005

    2006-05-01

    This report is the 25th compilation of information on State funding of public transportation. The transportation departments in all 50 States and the District of Columbia responded to the survey, which was distributed and compiled by the U.S. Departm...

  14. State transportation liaison funded positions study

    2009-10-01

    The Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), which was signed into law in August 2005, contained several provisions focused on streamlining the environmental review process. One of these provi...

  15. Radioisotopic Studies of Brain Uptake

    Oldendorf, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the uptake of radioactive substances in the brain tissues after their administration by injection or inhalation provide an a traumatic approach to the study of blood flow and metabolic processes in the brain. This paper reviews the anatomical,physiological and physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain. The factors governing the passage of various classes of substances through the brain capillaries and their transport through the brain tissues are first considered. The physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain are then discussed. The main difficulties in such measurements is shown to arise from the contribution to the observed counting rate from radioactivity in the scalp and skull. This contribution can be minimized by the use of special collimators designed to view only a part of the brain but to include in their field of view a minimum of non-neural tissue. A further possibility arises with radioisotopes such as 113 In m which emit characteristic X radiation as well as y radiation since the contribution of the former to the total observed counting rate is almost entirely due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues whereas that of the latter is due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues and the brain. By recording the counting rates in appropriate channels of the photon spectrum it is thus possible to correct the results for radioactivity in the scalp and skull. With radioisotopes such as 75 Sc which emit two or more photons in cascade, coincidence counting techniques offer still a further possibility to minimize the contribution from radioactivity in the superficial tissues. Various potential applications of these techniques are described. (author)

  16. Applications of radioisotopes in medicine

    Sivaprasad, N.

    2012-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes in medicine is many folds. They can be classified into two main groups. (a) The radioisotope tagged labeled compounds suitable for safe administration in the body for diagnosis of various diseases of vital organs such as brain, kidney, thyroid etc and for treatment known as radiotherapy (b) The sealed source of radioisotopes for utilizing the radiation emitted from the radioisotope for treatment, particularly for radiation therapy of cancer. The former application of radioisotope in the field of medicine has led to the formation of special branch of medicine termed Nuclear Medicine - the branch of medicine deals with the use of radioisotope in the from of radiopharmaceuticals for investigation, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radioisotopes in the form of radiolabelled compound and bio-chemicals that are pharmaceutically and radiologically safe for administration in the body for diagnosis and treatment are called radiopharmaceuticals. The radiopharmaceuticals are the results of world-wide effort to bring nuclear energy in a tangible form for diagnosis and treatment. Radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals thus constitute one of the key requirements for nuclear medicine investigation and radiotherapy. In the case of sealed radioisotope source the radiation emitted by the radioactive source is utilized for the treatment and this mode of treatment is called radiation therapy where no radioactive substance is administrated into the body. This does not form the part of nuclear medicine

  17. 76 FR 21835 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    2011-04-19

    ...) held a public hearing in December 2009 for the Interstate Transport SIP revision: ``State of Colorado... evaluated in the Transport Rule Proposal may be evaluated using a weight-of-evidence approach that takes... States Design Values Memo takes the same approach as the Transport Rule Proposal (5 year weighted average...

  18. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  19. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  20. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  1. Administration of radioisotope production

    1964-01-01

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  2. Administration of radioisotope production

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  3. Radioisotope relay instrument

    Pozdnyakov, V.N.; Sazonov, O.L.; Taksar, I.M.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Yanushkovskij, V.A.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a radioisotope relay device containing a radiation source, a detector, an electronic relay block with a comparative threshold mechanism. The device differs from previously known ones in that, for the purpose of increasing stability and speed of action, the electronic relay block is a separate unit and contains two threshold pulse generators which are joined up, across series-connected ''and'' and ''or'' elements, with one of the inputs of the comparative threshold mechanism, whose second input is connected with a detector and whose outputs are connected with a relay element connected by feedback with the above-mentioned ''and'' elements. (author)

  4. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  5. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    1963-01-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  6. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    NONE

    1963-08-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors.

  7. The state of public transportation in Houston

    1994-12-14

    This full text of a speech delivered at a luncheon in Harris County,Texas on December 14, 1994, gives a status report on METRO and how Houston's key transportation providers plan to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. Many improvements h...

  8. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    1992-03-01

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  9. Radioisotopes and radiation technology

    Ramamoorthy, N.

    2011-01-01

    The field of radioisotopes and radiation processing has grown enormously all over the world with India being no exception. The chemistry and radiochemistry related inputs to the overall technology development and achievements have been, and will continue to be, of considerable value and importance in this multi-disciplinary and multi-specialty field. Harnessing further benefits as well as sustaining proven applications should be the goal in planning for the future. An objective analysis of the socio-economic impact and benefits from this field to the society at large will undoubtedly justify assigning continued high priority, and providing adequate resources and support, to relevant new projects and programmes on the anvil in the area of radioisotopes and radiation technology. It is necessary to nurture and strengthen inter-disciplinary and multi-specialty collaborations and cooperation - at both national and international level as a rule (not as exception) - for greater efficiency, cost-effectiveness and success of ongoing endeavors and future developments in this important field

  10. The safe handling of radioisotopes

    NONE

    1964-12-31

    A narrative account of a minor contamination accident in a laboratory is used to demonstrate the important role of radiation protection measures in radioisotope work and the necessity of giving proper regard to such measures. It is primarily directed towards the research scientists and medical workers using radioisotopes on a relatively small scale

  11. Support housing for radioisotope generation

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A support housing for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features countercurrent batch flow of the eluting reagent interior of the housing. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  12. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    Lu Yanxiao

    1994-09-01

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  13. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  14. Regulations concerning the radionuclides uses in France; Reglementation de l'utilisation des radioisotopes en France

    Vergne, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Bugnard, L [Institut national d' Hygiene (France)

    1955-07-01

    The progress in the uses of radioisotopes has been conditioned by increasing the number of trained workers and researchers and developing theoretical teaching in universities since 1950 in France as well as developing a national control of the distribution and uses of radioisotopes. With the large diffusion and development of radioisotopes uses and applications, new rules and regulations came to control the importation, exportation, transport and utilization of radioisotopes. In the first part, it described the different French laws since 1934 and their successive modifications which ruled on the production, manipulation and utilization of radioisotopes. An inter-ministerial committee was created in 1952 to advise and inform of all the questions related to the preparation, importation, exportation, possession and distribution of radioisotopes. The transport regulations are in constant evolution and has got to meet with international recommendations. It distinguished three different type of transport: road, river and railway transport, postal transport and finally air transport. All the different transports have their specific packaging, maximum transportable quantity, maximum material intensity and labelling requirements. The regulations about customs duties are specified as well as the administrative formalities for non natural radioisotopes importation. Since 1950, diseases caused by irradiation to natural or artificial radioactive materials are recognised as professional diseases and a table of the actual regulations is presented. (M.P.)

  15. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  16. Active Transportation Surveillance - United States, 1999-2012.

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Paul, Prabasaj; Wendel, Arthur M

    2015-08-28

    Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, and most U.S. adults do not meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Active transportation, such as by walking or bicycling, is one way that persons can be physically active. No comprehensive, multiyear assessments of active transportation surveillance in the United States have been conducted. 1999-2012. Five surveillance systems assess one or more components of active transportation. The American Community Survey and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) both assess the mode of transportation to work in the past week. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who reported walking or bicycling to work can be calculated. NHTS and the American Time Use Survey include 1-day assessments of trips or activities. With that information, the proportion of respondents who report any walking or bicycling for transportation can be calculated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey both assess recent (i.e., in the past week or past month) habitual physical activity behaviors, including those performed during active travel. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who report any recent habitual active transportation can be calculated. The prevalence of active transportation as the primary commute mode to work in the past week ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. The 1-day assessment indicated that the prevalence of any active transportation ranged from 10.5% to 18.5%. The prevalence of any habitual active transportation ranged from 23.9% to 31.4%. No consistent trends in active transportation across time periods and surveillance systems were identified. Among systems, active transportation was usually more common among men, younger respondents, and minority racial/ethnic groups. Among education groups, the highest prevalence of active transportation was usually among the least or most educated groups, and active transportation tended to be more

  17. Space transportation activities in the United States

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of the existing space transportation systems in the U.S. and options for increased capability is being examined in the context of mission requirements, options for new vehicles, cost to operate the existing vehicles, cost to develop new vehicles, and the capabilities and plans of other suppliers. This assessment is addressing the need to build and resupply the space station, to maintain necessary military assets in a rapidly changing world, and to continue a competitive commercial space transportation industry. The Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA each conducted an 'access to space' study using a common mission model but with the emphasis on their unique requirements. Both studies considered three options: maintain and improve the existing capability, build a new launch vehicle using contemporary technology, and build a new launch vehicle using advanced technology. While no decisions have been made on a course of action, it will be influenced by the availability of funds in the U.S. budget, the changing need for military space assets, the increasing competition among space launch suppliers, and the emerging opportunity for an advanced technology, low cost system and international partnerships to develop it.

  18. Radioisotopes in Hydrology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    NONE

    1963-08-15

    The increasing emphasis on the development of water resources poses problems which are of interest to all countries, both developing and advanced, where the demand for water is continuously rising. There is no doubt that greater efforts must be made to evaluate, control and develop water resources using all scientific means available and during recent years increasing attention has been directed to the supplementation of hydrological methods with radioisotope techniques. These techniques have already been applied to a number of problems and their potential usefulness demonstrated. Radioisotopes can be used for stream discharge measurements with an accuracy as good as that obtainable with conventional methods. They are also finding increasing application in the measurement of groundwater direction and velocity, the study of suspected interconnections between different sources of water, and the investigation of mixing processes in rivers and lakes. Radioisotope techniques have been used in different parts of the world for studying the transport of silt in rivers and harbours. Present research is directed towards making these investigations on a quantitative basis which, if successful, would be of great importance in the design of hydraulic structures. The method of finding out the age of groundwater by measuring its natural tritium content can be applied to the determination of the recharge rate of groundwater bodies, so enabling a more rational use of the groundwater reserves without fear of overexploitation. Current research is aimed at using carbon-14 for groundwater-dating to extend the age measurable by tritium. A Symposium on the use of radioisotopes in hydrology was organized by the Agency and held in March 1963 in Tokyo in co-operation with the Japanese Government, for whose material and other assistance and generous hospitality the Agency wishes to record its grateful appreciation. The Symposium was attended by about 100 participants from 14 countries and 5

  19. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    Agrawal, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  20. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    Kriss, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99 /sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  1. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Wan Awang, Wan Anuar [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  2. Radio-isotopic tracers

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  3. Generation of radioisotopes

    Panek-Finda, H.

    1984-01-01

    A method of producing radioisotopes for radiopharmaceutical applications is claimed. A physiological solution is used to elute a radioactive daughter isotope from a fission-produced parent isotope adsorbed on an adsorbent. The eluate containing the daughter isotope is purified with a cation-exchange material. In separate claims: the parent isotope is molybdenum-99; aluminium oxide which contains fully or partly hydrated manganese dioxide is used as the adsorbent for the parent isotope; a resin is used as the cation-exchange material; a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been neutralized is used as a resin; and a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been converted into the Na + , K + or NH 4 + form is used as a resin; an isotope generator system is also claimed

  4. Radioisotopes - where have we got to, where are we going ?

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid growth has been achieved and there are remarkable possibilities in various fields of radioisotopes and radiation. New applications in molecular biology, in nuclear medicine, and in biotechnology are opening further opportunities for the use of radioisotopes. In the industrial field too there is growth, as microprocessor techniques extend the usefulness of radioisotope methods. And radiation engineering is a success story of its own, as ever-increasing use is made of radiation processing and sterilization, and new horizons open for food irradiation. This paper begins by recalling how isotope technology developed from the research laboratory to become the industry-scale activity it is today. A section is devoted to describing the development of a new radioisotope industry during the period from the 1930s through 1960s, focusing on the growth in the areas of nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, isotope gauging and tracing, production control, industrial processing, and production of radioisotopes. After a brief review of the present it looks into the future to suggest the directions in which new developments may lie. In particular, remarkable growth is expected in such areas as molecular biology, biotechnology, radiography, gauging, process control, radiation processing, and radiation sterilization. A review is also made of the transport and disposal of radioisotopes. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Particle transport methods for LWR dosimetry developed by the Penn State transport theory group

    Haghighat, A.; Petrovic, B.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews advanced particle transport theory methods developed by the Penn State Transport Theory Group (PSTTG) over the past several years. These methods have been developed in response to increasing needs for accuracy of results and for three-dimensional modeling of nuclear systems

  6. Permissible state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation

    Friel, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation have been ruled inconsistent with federal law invalidated by the courts. As the date for repository operation, and its associated transportation, draws near, more states can be expected to adopt permit/fee systems. Examination of the U.S. Department of Transportation's advisory rulings and federal court cases on previous permit/fee systems gives general guidance on the type of permit/fee systems most likely to withstand challenges. Such a system would: have a simplified permit application with minimal information requirements; address a federally-defined class of hazardous or radioactive materials; allow access to all shipments conducted in compliance with federal law; charge a fee reasonably related to the costs imposed on the state by the transportation; and minimize the potential for re-directing shipments to other jurisdictions

  7. United States Department of Energy Automated Transportation Management System

    Portsmouth, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) 80 transportation facilities, each contractor's transportation management operation has different internal and site specific procedures, and reports to a DOE regional Field Office Traffic Manager (FOTM). The DOE Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the responsibility to manage a transportation program for safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The TMP develops and administers transportation/traffic operations management policies and programs for materials; including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, hazardous substances, and hazardous wastes, pursuant to applicable federal regulations, such as the Code of Federal Register, Sections 40 and 49. Transportation management has become an increasingly critical primarily because of transportation issues regarding the shipment of radioactive materials and hazardous wastes that are frequently the focus of public concerns. A large shipments and requiring millions of business transactions necessitates the establishment of automated systems, programs, procedures, and controls to ensure that the transportation management process in being handled in a safe, efficient, and economical manner. As the mission of many DOE facilities changes from production of special nuclear materials for defense purposes to environmental restoration and waste management, the role of transportation management will become even more important to the safe and efficient movement of waste materials to prescribed locations. In support of this role, the Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) was conceived to assist the DOE and its contractors in the performance of their day-to-day transportation management activities. The ATMS utilizes the latest in technology and will supply state-of-the-art automated transportation management for current and future DOE transportation requirements

  8. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    Binnerts, W.T.; Faber, K.; Klijn, N.; Lemmens, C.; Wissink, M.

    1986-01-01

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131 I its rather short half life, for 137 Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90 Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137 Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  9. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  10. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the RPS's technology portfolio is to advance performance of radioisotope power systems through new and novel innovations being developed and transitioned...

  11. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests

  12. Internal transport barrier physics for steady state operation in tokamaks

    Wakatani, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuda, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Connor, Jack W. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM/UKAEA Association (United Kingdom); Garbet, Xavier [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET CSU (United Kingdom); Gormezano, Claude [Associazone EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione C.R. Frascati (Italy); Mukhovatov, Vladimir [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, ITER Physics Unit, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results for the ITB (Internal Transport Barrier) formation and sustainment are compiled in a unified manner to find common features of ITBs in tokamaks. Global scaling laws for threshold power to obtain the ITBs are discussed. Theoretical models for plasmas with ITBs are summarized from stability and transport point of view. Finally possibility to obtain steady-state ITBs will be discussed in addition to extrapolation to ITER. (author)

  13. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States

    1988-10-01

    5.:01 6.01 1 5801 25.0100MS OC2&O 1 I I150Of.01 2.01 1.01 I I I I I I I I (5A 440 AI ,.l;. :, 2) ARARAT MARINE, tNC. I I I ! : 16 I -660 I9A~ o * 16... MONT CATNEIMEN M 3103 3 1333 31 0.1.39003 3 ...M 3AM ME#CNIMAN it 1907 of M1M 94311041 3 0730303 77.71 22.73 14.03 18003 1 40.0180MIR 3K ETCNtMAN 1 197...903D MONTE & STATES U=16 MCI. I I I I I fts me Is"M 1 19624asat #Q.ot 11.11 6.61 - t 41111 13.618M ILA MY I SM I 1",211 61.61 11.21 1.01 1 1KW9Ift, I

  14. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H.

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  15. Radioisotope waste processing systems

    Machida, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Safety Bureau established the policy entitled ''On Common Processing System of Radioactive Wastes'' consulting with the Liaison Committee of Radioactive Waste Processing. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) had been discussing the problems required for the establishment of the common disposal facilities based on the above policy, and they started the organization in spring, 1978. It is a foundation borrowing equipments from JAERI though installing newly some of them not available from JAERI, and depending the fund on JRIA. The operation expenses will be borne by those who want to dispose the wastes produced. The staffs are sent out from JAERI and JRIA. For animal wastes contaminated with RI, formaldehyde dipping should be abolished, but drying and freezing procedures will be taken before they are burnt up in a newly planned exclusive furnace with disposing capacity of 50 kg/hour. To settle the problems of other wastes, enough understanding and cooperation of users are to be requested. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S M; Kim, E H [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  17. New Directions In Radioisotope Spectrum Identification

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  18. Fostering member state implementation of the IAEA's transport regulations

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information

  19. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  20. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  1. Leadership Styles in United States Marine Corps Transport Helicopter Squadrons

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as

  2. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of any agricultural land that would result from the disapproval. The environmental and economic effects on productive...

  3. Gauge field governing parallel transport along mixed states

    Uhlmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    At first a short account is given of some basic notations and results on parallel transport along mixed states. A new connection form (gauge field) is introduced to give a geometric meaning to the concept of parallelity in the theory of density operators. (Author) 11 refs

  4. Radioisotope production at the cyclotron in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Silva, A.G. da; Lemos, O.F.; Britto, J.L.O. de; Osso, J.A.; Bastos, M.A.V.; Braghirolli, A.M.S.; Chamma, D.F.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Weinreich, R.

    1982-01-01

    A radioisotope production laboratory has been installed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro. It is intended primarily for processing short-lived radioisotopes produced by a multiparticle, variable energy, isochronous, compact CV-28 Cyclotron and for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled molecules. Carrier-free iodine-123, indium-111, thalium-201, bromine-77 and gallium-67 with high purity have been produced. An irradiated target transport system has been built. Special targets that can dissipate high surface power densities are being developed. Each radioisotope is processed in a remotely controlled cell equiped with electric and pneumatic systems as well as manipulators ans tongs. Quality control is achieved by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, spot tests, gamma-ray spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography. Biological tests in mice have confirmed the good quality of the radiopharmaceuticals. (Author) [pt

  5. State and market in post-reform Brazilian air transportation

    Cristiano Fonseca Monteiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes that have taken place in Brazilian air transportation following the cycle of “market reforms” have turned this sector into an object of growing interest. This interest, in turn, has led to the emergence of a broad literature on the subject, characterized by the emphasis on an agenda of liberalization and the critique of State activism. The goal of the present article is to promote a confrontation between the different interpretations that have been made, incorporating the contributions of approaches inspired in Economic Sociology and in institutionalist analyses in order to draw attention to the importance that political variables, and the State in particular, have for economic performance. The post-reform context is characterized by an initial moment of greater State activism regarding air transportation, through re-initiation of stricter regulatory mechanisms and the re-opening of channels of dialog between state actors and firms. This is followed by a second moment in which state activism is abandoned, at the same time that the sector demonstrates expressive rates of growth, pushing it beyond its existing capacity and flight support infrastructure. This culminated in the episode known as the “apagão aéreo” (aerial black out Analysis of testimonies of state and private sector actors regarding the “blackout” enables us to identify the flaws in the responsible state apparatus as one of the factors that led to the “blackout”. Our conclusions draw attention to the importance of taking political factors into consideration, and particularly the role of the State, in the development of air transportation in Brazil. Keywords: commercial aviation, politics and economics, regulation, Economic Sociology, Historical Institutionalism.

  6. Radioisotope production in fusion reactors

    Engholm, B.A.; Cheng, E.T.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotope production in fusion reactors is being investigated as part of the Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (FAME) study. /sup 60/Co is the most promising such product identified to date, since the /sup 60/Co demand for medical and food sterilization is strong and the potential output from a fusion reactor is high. Some of the other radioisotopes considered are /sup 99/Tc, /sup 131/l, several Eu isotopes, and /sup 210/Po. Among the stable isotopes of interest are /sup 197/Au, /sup 103/Rh and Os. In all cases, heat or electricity can be co-produced from the fusion reactor, with overall attractive economics

  7. Radioisotope techniques in oil wells

    Jain, Prabuddha

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are quite useful in oil exploration and exploitation. Nuclear logging offers a way of gathering information on porosity, permeability, fluid saturations, hydrocarbon types and lithology. Some of the interesting applications in well drilling are determining depth of filtrate invasion, detection of lost circulation, drill-bit erosion control; primary cement measurements and well completions such as permanent tubular markers, perforation position marking, detection of channeling behind casing and gravel pack operations. Radioisotopes have been successfully used in optimizing production processes such as production profiling injection profiling, corrosion measurements and well to well tracer tests. (author)

  8. Radioisotope-powered photovoltaic generator

    McKlveen, J.W.; Uselman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Disposing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants has become one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry. In a new concept, called a radioisotope photovoltaic generator, a portion of this waste would be used in conjunction with a scintillation material to produce light, with subsequent conversion into electricity via photovoltaic cells. Three types of scintillators and two types of silicon cells were tested in six combinations using 32 P as the radioisotope. The highest system efficiency, determined to be 0.5% when the light intensity was normalized to 100 mW/cm 2 , was obtained using a CsI crystal scintillator and a Helios photovoltaic cell

  9. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    1994-04-01

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation

  10. Evaluation of the OSCAR-4/MCNP calculation methodology for radioisotope production in the SAFARI-1 reactor

    Karriem, Z.; Zamonsky, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation SOC Ltd (Necsa) is a state owned nuclear facility which owns and operates SAFARI-1, a 20 MW material testing reactor. SAFARI-1 is a multi-purpose reactor and is used for the production of radioisotopes through in-core sample irradiation. The Radiation and Reactor Theory (RRT) Section of Necsa supports SAFARI-1 operations with nuclear engineering analyses which include core-reload design, core-follow and radiation transport analyses. The primary computer codes that are used for the analyses are the OSCAR-4 nodal diffusion core simulator and the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. RRT has developed a calculation methodology based on OSCAR-4 and MCNP to simulate the diverse in-core irradiation conditions in SAFARI-1, for the purpose of radioisotope production. In this paper we present the OSCAR-4/MCNP calculation methodology and the software tools that were developed for rapid and reliable construction of MCNP analysis models. The paper will present the application and accuracy of the methodology for the production of yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) and will include comparisons between calculation results and experimental measurements. The paper will also present sensitivity analyses that were performed to determine the effects of control rod bank position, representation of core depletion state and sample loading configuration, on the calculated 90 Y sample activity. (author)

  11. Regulations concerning the radionuclides uses in France; Reglementation de l'utilisation des radioisotopes en France

    Vergne, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Bugnard, L. [Institut national d' Hygiene (France)

    1955-07-01

    The progress in the uses of radioisotopes has been conditioned by increasing the number of trained workers and researchers and developing theoretical teaching in universities since 1950 in France as well as developing a national control of the distribution and uses of radioisotopes. With the large diffusion and development of radioisotopes uses and applications, new rules and regulations came to control the importation, exportation, transport and utilization of radioisotopes. In the first part, it described the different French laws since 1934 and their successive modifications which ruled on the production, manipulation and utilization of radioisotopes. An inter-ministerial committee was created in 1952 to advise and inform of all the questions related to the preparation, importation, exportation, possession and distribution of radioisotopes. The transport regulations are in constant evolution and has got to meet with international recommendations. It distinguished three different type of transport: road, river and railway transport, postal transport and finally air transport. All the different transports have their specific packaging, maximum transportable quantity, maximum material intensity and labelling requirements. The regulations about customs duties are specified as well as the administrative formalities for non natural radioisotopes importation. Since 1950, diseases caused by irradiation to natural or artificial radioactive materials are recognised as professional diseases and a table of the actual regulations is presented. (M.P.)

  12. Medical Radioisotope Scanning, Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    1964-01-01

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20-24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  13. Radioisotope detection and dating with accelerators

    Mast, T S; Muller, R A [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1980-07-01

    The status of the new technique of high energy mass spectrometry is reviewed. This sensitive method of measuring isotope concentrations has been applied to the detection of rare radioisotopes used for age estimation. The techniques used to select and identify the individual radioisotope atoms in a sample are described and then the status of the radioisotope measurements and their applications is reviewed.

  14. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. The efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness, and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results and observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with PWRs. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of lay-up and various start-up conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on corrosion-product transport on the primary side of steam generators are also discussed. (author)

  15. State of the art, to protect lines that transport hydrocarbons

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    Personnel's periodic and forced displacement for monitoring the buried pipe and to obtain reports on the state of the lines, it will no longer be necessary in some tracts of the pipeline in Colombia, now the remote supervision exists for the control of the systems of cathodic protection, a technology that ECOPETROL is applying in its lines of transport. This technique facilitates the preventive maintenance to the systems to the corrosion protection

  16. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube. (orig.) [de

  17. Radioisotopes in engineering and industry

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The applications of radioisotope techniques in engineering and materials quality control are shown. The inventory of mercury in electrolytical cells, the transit and residence time measurements in several processes and radiotracer control are studied. The radioactive tracers in hydrologycal problems is evaluated. (M.J.C.) [pt

  18. Radioisotopes point the way ahead

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radiochemicals as tracers in medicine is discussed, with particular reference to the choice of radioisotope to be used, its properties, quality control and its detection and measurement in tracer experiments. The development of autoradiography is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    Elradi, E. A. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  20. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    Bergoc, R.M.; Caro, R.A.; Menossi, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  1. State surveillance of radioactive material transportation. Final report

    Salomon, S.N.

    1984-02-01

    The main objective of this final report on the state surveillance of the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) is to suggest the most cost-effective inspection areas where enforcement actions might be taken by the states during their participation in the State Hazardous Materials Enforcement Development (SHMED) Program. On the basis of the lessons learned from the surveillance program, these actions are enforcement at low-level radioactive burial sites by means of civil penalties and site use suspension; enforcement at airports and at terminals that forward freight; and enforcement of courier companies. More effective and efficient enforcement can be achieved through instrumented police patrol cars and remote surveillance because they require the least amount of time of enforcement personnel. In addition, there is a strong relationship between effective emergency response and enforcement because the appropriate shipping papers, placarding and knowledge of appropriate emergency response procedures lead to improved emergency response. These lessons originate from a ten-state surveillance program from 1977 through 1981 jointly sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and DOT. The states give recommendations in the categories of education, training, expanded surveillance, coordination and enforcement. The topics of special interest covered include low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, airports, cargo terminals, highways, ports, and accidents and incidents. The three most common problems in compliance with RAM transportation regulations reported by the states are incorrect package labeling; improper shipping papers; and incorrect or missing placards. Other common problems reported by the states are summarized. The relationship to other studies, the status of the SHMED Program, a synopsis of state RAM surveillance reports, and NRC/DOT expenditures are given

  2. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Effect of transport in distribution of radioions and radiolabeled metabolites

    Yano, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: route of administration; carrier effects and complexed or ionic tracers; membrane permeability, extracellular and intracellular concentrations; enzyme and hormonal stimulation or depression and the metabolic state; neoplasia and transport; and carrier for radiopharmaceutical binding to membrane or protein sites. Some radioisotopes considered are /sup 99m/Tc, 65 Zn, 62 Zn, 14 C and 111 In

  4. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    Charoen, Sakda

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131 I (solution and capsule), 131 I-MIBG, 131 I-Hippuran, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 Sm-HA, and 99m Tc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  5. Non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and quantum state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms

    Ostmann, Maike; Minář, Jiří; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by recent progress in the experimental manipulation of cold atoms in optical lattices, we study three different protocols for non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms. The protocols we discuss are based on the blockade mechanism between atoms which, when excited to a Rydberg state, interact through a van der Waals potential, and rely on single-site addressing. Specifically, we discuss protocols for efficient creation of an antiferromagnetic GHZ state, a class of matrix product states including a so-called Rydberg crystal and for the state transport of a single-qubit quantum state between two ends of a chain of atoms. We identify system parameters allowing for the operation of the protocols on timescales shorter than the lifetime of the Rydberg states while yielding high fidelity output states. We discuss the effect of positional disorder on the resulting states and comment on limitations due to other sources of noise such as radiative decay of the Rydberg states. The proposed protocols provide a testbed for benchmarking the performance of quantum information processing platforms based on Rydberg atoms.

  6. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  7. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    2004-12-01

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  8. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  9. Discrete radioisotopic relays of a cyclic action

    Klempner, K.S.; Vasil'ev, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    A functional diagram of discrete radioisotopic relay equipment (RRP) with cyclic action was examined. An analysis of its rapid action and reliability under stationary conditions and transition regimes is presented. A structural diagram of radioisotopic relay equipment shows three radiation detectors, a pulse standardizer, an integrator and a power amplifier with a threshold cut-off device. It was established that the basic properties of the RRP - rapid action and reliability - are determined entirely by the counting rate of the average frequency of pulses from the radiation detector, n 0 and n 1 , in the 0 and 1 states (absence of current in the electromagnetic relay winding and activation of the winding of the output relay), capacities N 1 and N 2 of the dual counters, and the frequency of the transition threshold, f, of the generator. Formulas are presented which allow making engineering calculations for determining the optimum RRP parameters. High speed and reliability are shown, which are determined by the production purposes of the relay

  10. Climate change adaptation and mitigation : state transportation, regional, and international strategies: synthesis.

    2012-07-24

    This synthesis and literature review requested by Seth Start, Sustainable Transportation Manager, Washington State Department of Transportation, provides information on strategies other state DOTs countries, and local agencies are using to prepare...

  11. Information needs to support state and local transportation decision making into the 21st century

    1997-03-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established new requirements for data development and dissemination that have had an impact on federal, state, and local transportation planning processes across the United States. ...

  12. United States experience in the transportation of radioactive materials

    Platt, A.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Hall, R.J.; Williams, L.D.; Brobst, W.A.; Shappert, L.B.; Jefferson, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material forms a vital link in the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States. Actual U.S. experience and practice with such systems for the packaging and transport of uranium ore concentrates, uranium hexafluoride, fresh fuel, irradiated fuel, non-high-level waste, and plutonium with low heat generation rates are described. Specific shipping systems in current use for these services are illustrated. A comparison will be made of shipping requirements for nuclear parks versus dispersed facilities. Shipping systems for other fuel cycle materials (e.g., high-level waste and cladding hulls) have not been developed because there has been no need to transport these materials commercially. However, conceptual designs for packaging and transport of such materials have been developed. Selected systems are reviewed and summarized. Transport safety in the U.S. is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Key regulations defining packaging requirements, allowable radiation dose rates, and handling procedures are reviewed. Although the radioactive material shipping industry has an outstanding safety record, opposition to nuclear fuel cycle shipments has surfaced in several areas. The U.S. congressional ban on the shipment of plutonium by air, the actions of New York City to prohibit certain shipments within the city limits, and the requirement of U.S. railroads to ship spent fuel casks only in dedicated trains are reviewed. In an attempt to provide information on the safety margins inherent in the design of radioactive materials packages, ERDA has undertaken a series of accident studies and full scale crash tests that stress the packages beyond the levels expected in severe accidents. In addition, the level of total risk associated with radioactive materials shipments is being evaluated. Current ERDA crash test and transportation risk assessment studies are reviewed. Concern about the possibility of

  13. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    1982-01-01

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.) [es

  14. Some results of radioisotope studies

    Isamov, N.N.

    1974-10-01

    The accumulation of radioisotopes by brucellae depends on the consistency of the feed medium on which they are grown. The uptake of P-32 is a factor of 5 to 16 greater, and that of sulfur-35 in the form of sodium sulfate is a factor of 30 to 100 greater when grown on a complex solid agar than in a bouillion solution of the same ingredients. Brucellae are readily tagged with /sup 32/P and /sup 35/S simultaneously. These tagged brucellae were used to study in vitro storage under various temperature regimes. Brucellae actively incorporate iron. The uptake of methionine and cystine tagged with sulfur-35 by brucellae was investigated. Methionine is absorbed directly for the most part by brucellae, while the sulfur-35 in sodium sulfate is primarily transformed to cystine and cysteine. The uptake of various radioisotopes can be used to type various strains of brucellae. Isotopes are used to trace the course of various diseases in animals. (SJR)

  15. Radioisotopes in Burmese agricultural research

    NONE

    1961-07-15

    The Burmese authorities decided to start a laboratory for the use of radioisotope techniques in agricultural r e search. The laboratory was set up at the Agricultural Research Institute at Gyogon, on the outskirts of Rangoon. Under its technical assistance program, IAEA assigned an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes for this project. Discussions were held with regional representatives of the Food and Agriculture Organization on the best lines of research to be adopted at the laboratory in its early stages. As the most important crop in Burma is rice, a series of experiments were planned for a study of the nutrition of rice, particularly its phosphorus uptake, with special reference to comparative responses on a range of typical paddy soils. The experiments began last year and are being continued.

  16. Use of radioisotopes in Japan

    Foeldiak, G.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the following general data on the use of radioisotopes in Japan is given (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference on Radioisotopes): 1. number of the organizations using radioactive isotopes, grouped according to special working fields and instruments; 2. amount of the unsealed sources (Ci) used in the different special working fields in 1971, 4. amount of the sealed sources (Ci) used between 1966 and 1971. 5. number of the institutions using sealed sources, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 6. number of the accelerators applied, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 7. number of the nuclear instruments in the education and research institutes (March, 1972), 8. amount of the collected radioactive waste material between 1960 and 1971 (number of containers). (K.A.)

  17. Preparation of an annual report for a consolidated radioisotope licence

    1985-01-01

    A consolidated radioisotope licence is a single license issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) to an institution having many users of radioactive materials. The licence is issued when the institution has fulfilled the requirements set by the AECB and has implemented policies and procedures which will ensure the maintenance of an effective radiation safety program. The consolidated licence is retained only if the results of AECB inspections are satisfactory -- or remedial action is taken promptly -- and if the institution reports regularly about the status of its radiation safety program. One aspect of this reporting procedure is an annual report. This guide describes the information that the AECB requires in the annual report. The guide applies primarily to universities and research institutions where a wide variety of radioisotope uses take place. The guide does not affect most other institutions or facilities, either because the nature and extent of their operations with radioactive materials do not lend themselves to consolidated licensing or because they are not licensed by the Radioisotopes and Transportation Division. (For example, this guide does not apply to reactors, to accelerators, or to waste management or uranium mining or refining facilities.) The information in the annual report should be specific to the consolidated radioisotope licence. Incidents, staff exposures, and waste associated with accelerators, research reactors, and waste management facilities should be excluded from this report unless they affected activities under the consolidated licence

  18. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    1967-01-01

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    Li Yongjian

    1987-01-01

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  1. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  2. Transuranic waste transportation issues in the United States

    Channell, J.K.; Rodgers, J.C.; Neill, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin disposal of defence transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico before the end of 1988. Approximately 25,000 truck shipments involving 35 million vehicle kilometers will be required to transport about 175,000 m 3 of contact-handled transuranic waste. Up to 5,000 shipments of remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) will also be shipped to WIPP in shielded casks. This paper addresses the shipment of CH-TRU wastes

  3. RSG-Gas Based Radioisotopes And Sharing Program For Regional Back Up Supply

    Soenardjo, Sunarhadijoso; Tamat, Swasono R.; Suparman, Ibon; Purwadi, Bambang

    2003-01-01

    As the owner of the reactors used for radioisotope production, BATAN needs to increase the effectiveness of the reactor operation cost that can be achieved by simultaneously exploiting all the existing irradiation facility, supported by full utilization of the radioisotopes produced. On the other hand, the domestic demand of radioisotopes is much lower than the production capability but sometimes the request is compulsory to be suspended due to reactor operation schedule. As this condition is mostly similar to that of several countries of RCA Member States, a sharing program for regional back up supply seems to be a positive thought to support expectation on the effectiveness of reactor operation cost and the continuity of radioisotope product services as well as the utilization of radioisotopes produced. Based on radioactivity achieved in each production batch at the present, 131 I, 99 Mo, 153 Sm, 125 I and 32 p radioisotopes may be offered for back up supply program. Due to consideration on conformity of user demands with reactor operation and radiochemical processing costs, the concept of back up supply program should performed first by means of full utilization of the available products and not by increasing reactor operation frequency. An information and communication network system, therefore, is absolutely needed to support information exchange between the radioisotope producer, members of back up supply program and radioisotope customers

  4. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    Goehring, J.B.; Reed, J.B.

    1995-08-01

    Each year, the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation. The 1995 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. Forty-six bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency responsiveness. Also included are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  5. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1996--June 6, 1997

    Kim, M.H.; Reed, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1997 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1996 and June 6, 1997. Fifty bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste, storage and emergency response. Also summarized are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  6. Radioisotopes in nuclear medicine

    Samuel, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A number of advances in diverse fields of science and technology and the fruitful synchronization of many a new development to address the issues related to health care in terms of prognosis and diagnosis resulted in the availability of host of modern diagnostic tools in medicine. Nuclear medicine, a unique discipline in medicine is one such development, which during the last four decades has seen exponential growth. The unique contribution of this specialty is the ability to examine the dynamic state of every organ of the body with the help of radioactive tracers. This tracer application in nuclear medicine to monitor the biological molecules that participate in the dynamic state of body constituents has led to a whole new approach to biology and medicine. No other technique has the same level of sensitivity and specificity as obtained in radiotracer technique in the study of in-situ chemistry of body organs. As modem medicine becomes oriented towards molecules rather than organs, nuclear medicine will be in the forefront and will become an integral part of a curative process for regular and routine application. Advances in nuclear medicine will proceed along two principal lines: (i) the development of improved sensitive detectors of radiation, powerful and interpretable data processing, image analysis and display techniques, and (ii) the production of exotic and new but useful radiopharmaceuticals. All these aspects are dealt with in detail in this talk

  7. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG ampersand G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured

  8. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-10-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. Efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results of observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with pressurized-water reactors. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of layup and various startup conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on CPT on the primary side of SGs are also discussed. (author)

  9. Radioisotopes and their applications in highway testings

    Saxena, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes in highway testing are described. Radioisotopic methods have been used to determine : (1) moisture and density of soil and base materials for compaction control, (2) magnesium oxide content of cement, (3) permeability of bituminous coverings and (4) field density of freshly laid hot bituminous concrete surface. Possible uses of nuclear explosives for production of aggregates and of radioisotopes for determination of deflection in the design of flexible pavements are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  10. Evaluation of radiophoby phenomenon among patients undergoing radioisotope therapy

    Stepien, M.; Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the radiophoby symptoms among 81 patients with different type hyperthyroidism undergoing 1-131 (450-600 MBq) treatment. The state anxiety as well as the trait anxiety levels using Spielberger's scale have been evaluated. Its values were 1 - 6 points (average 3) and 3 - 7 points (average 6) respectively for state anxiety and trait one. These results indicated that radioisotope therapy causes increase of patient's anxiety level. (author)

  11. Law for controlling the use and applications of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations (Nuclear Law) Decreto Ley No. 11-86

    1986-01-01

    This law defines the competent authority on radiation safety and includes all the requirements administrative, disposals on inspections, licensing, transport, records, authorizations and penalties about the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiation in Guatemala

  12. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    Sagar, Anil; Kademani, B.S.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  13. Medical radioisotopes for the next century

    Carr, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes are widely used in medicine (Nuclear Medicine) for diagnosis, palliation and therapy of heart disease, cancer, muscoskeletal and neurological conditions. The radioisotopes used are both reactor and cyclotron produced. The utilisation is currently growing and is expected to continue to grow over the next 10-20 years. The combination of radioisotope and delivery vehicle can be designed to meet the intended end use. This paper will deal with the main approaches to the use of radioisotopes for Nuclear medicine ad future prospects for the area

  14. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  15. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985

  16. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J.; Carty, J.

    1997-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 from RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Be-10, Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, El-44, Fe-52, Gd-248, and Hg-194. We will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes from Los Alamos and Brookhaven will be described. Chemical separation techniques have been developed to recover the radioisotopes of interest in both high radiochemical purity and yield and at the same time trying to reduce or eliminate the generation of mixed waste. nearly 75 neutron deficient radioisotopes produced in spallation targets have been produced and distributed to researchers around the world since the inception of the program in 1974

  17. Standardization and improvement of safety for radioisotope equipped instruments

    Sumi, Tetsuo

    1980-01-01

    The safety for radioisotope-equipped instruments is considered. The one is the safety for the source assembly. The radioisotopes employed for radioisotope-equipped instruments are sealed sources which are used in the state of being contained in the enclosures. Many of the enclosures are provided with shutter mechanism for the purpose of emitting radiation only during the period required. If the possible troubles that might lead to the accidents are sampled out of the results of field operation of radiation instruments, and the safety measures for source enclosures are considered in connection with these troubles, it is no exaggeration to say that the safety for source enclosures has been maintained by preventing the critical accidents by the management of users and the cooperation of manufactures though there were the chance for investigating the safety in the common field and the establishment of JIS Z 4614 standard. Another consideration is concerned with the measures to improve the safety. No accident in the past never guarantees no accident in the future. Accumulation of experience is most effective for those measures, and the more experiences the better. It may be most effective that the manufacturers disclose their experiences each other from the wide outlook overcoming the barrier of trade secret. Fortunately, such consciousness has risen since a few years ago, and the investigation group is doing the works in the Japan Radioisotope Association. On the other hand, the reasonable revision of the radiation injury prevention law is desired. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  19. Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas

    Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W.X.; Tang, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers

  20. The industrial application of radioisotopes

    Frevert, E.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the two main fields of the industrial application of radioisotopes are introduced. In the field of process controlling device and control first about the transmission and the backscattering methods is reported. Then the x-ray fluorescence method and the moisture gauging with neutrons are mentioned. Also the measuring of depth of charge. In the field of tracer investigations about all kinds of flow and intermixture measurements is reported. And investigations of corrosion, wear and lubrication and precise location of nonmetallic pipe lines are mentioned. (Author)

  1. Radioisotope Sources of Electric Power

    1973-09-20

    u) watt/cm-3 O) specific activity f) curia/watt (curie/a) a) half-life c) specific power output h) years (capacity) 1) days d) watt/p Polonium - 210 ...AD/A-001 210 RADIOISOTOPE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER G. M. Fradkin, et al Army Foreign Science and Technology Center Charlottesville, Virginia 20...narticularlv for nurninn and irocess~ino of wastg.Sheatinc food , conversion of liruld oxtoner to des, and also for removal of imnurities and reula:tion

  2. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    Ray, P.K.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  3. Radioisotope techniques in studies on the metabolism of calcium, iodine and iron in ruminants

    Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A short review is presented of radioisotopic procedures useful in research on calcium, iodine and iron studies with tropical ruminants. The procedures discussed can be useful in determining the availability of the mineral from feedstuffs, the faecal endogenous losses by the animal, detection of deficiency states, and responses to physiological and environmental stress. Methods that entail the use of radioisotopes in the laboratory or the use of stable isotopes in the animal are mentioned as alternatives to the administration of radioisotopes to the animal. While the review focuses on calcium, iodine and iron, the principles of the methods presented can be employed in the study of many other trace minerals. (author)

  4. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY-1974

    Simmons, J.L.; Mandell, S.

    1974-01-01

    The eleventh edition of the AEC radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1974 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USAEC facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. The information is divided into four sections. Section I is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers and their addresses. Each customer has been designated a number according to its alphabetical position which provides a means of cross-referencing in the following sections. The isotopes purchased are listed after the address of the customer and the laboratory supplying each isotope is indicated by a letter set off by parentheses. Section II is an alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and again divided into the domestic and foreign categories. This section provides a quick idea of the amount of companies purchasing a particular isotope. If more information is needed, the reader can locate the customer by number and determine the laboratory supplying the isotope. The third section is an alphabetical list of states and countries, also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. Section IV summarizes the FY 1974 radioisotope shipment activities of USAEC laboratories in a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and their suppliers. The shipments, quantities and dollars are broken down for each isotope under the Domestic, Foreign, and Project (AEC facilities) categories, and the total figures for each isotope are also provided. (U.S.)

  5. Development of Radioisotope Tracer Technology

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jae Jo; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Don Soon; Choi, Byung Jong; Jang, Dong Soon; Kim, Hye Sook

    2007-06-01

    The project is aimed to develop the radiotracer technology for process optimization and trouble-shooting to establish the environmental and industrial application of radiation and radioisotopes. The advanced equipment and software such as high speed data acquisition system, RTD model and high pressure injection tool have developed. Based on the various field application to the refinery/petrochemical industries, the developed technology was transfer to NDT company for commercial service. For the environmental application of radiotracer technology, injector, detector sled, core sampler, RI and GPS data logging system are developed and field tests were implemented successfully at Wolsung and Haeundae beach. Additionally tracer technology were also used for the performance test of the clarifier in a wastewater treatment plant and for the leak detection in reservoirs. From the experience of case studies on radiotracer experiment in waste water treatment facilities, 'The New Excellent Technology' is granted from the ministry of environment. For future technology, preliminary research for industrial gamma transmission and emission tomography which are new technology combined with radioisotope and image reconstruction are carried out

  6. Decontamination of radioisotope production facility

    Daryoko, M.; Yatim, S.; Suseno, H.; Wiratmo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The strippable coating method use phosphoric glycerol and irradiated latex as supporting agents have been investigated. The investigation used some decontaminating agents: EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid and potassium permanganate were combined with phosphoric glycerol supporting agent, then EDTA Na 2 , sodium citric, sodium oxalic and potassium permanganate were combined with irradiated latex supporting agent. The study was needed to obtain the representative operating data, will be implemented to decontamination the Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The experiment used 50x50x1 mm stainless steel samples and contaminated by Cs-137 about 1.1x10 -3 μCi/cm 2 . This samples according to inner cover of Hot Cell material, and Hot Cell activities. The decontamination factor results of the investigation were: phosphoric glycerol as supporting agent, about 20 (EDTA as decontaminating agent) to 47 (oxalic acid as decontaminating agent), and irradiated latex as supporting agent, about 11.5 (without decontamination agent) to 27 (KMnO 4 as decontaminating agent). All composition of the investigation have been obtained the good results, and can be implemented for decontamination of Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The irradiated latex could be recommended as supporting agent without decontaminating agent, because it is very easy to operate and very cheap cost. (author)

  7. Aspects of radioisotopes utilization in clinical medicine

    Rocha, A.F.G.; Lima e Forti, C.A. de; Cunha, M. da C.; Souza Maciel, O. de

    1973-01-01

    A revision concerning radioisotope use in Medicine have been dow. Harmless and effeciency of radioisotopes are shown. Techniques and advantages of tracers used for brain scintiscanning, lung scintiscanning, liver scintinscanning, spleen scintiscanning, bone scintiscanning and thyroid scintiscanning are described and images of them are presented [pt

  8. Elementary concepts of the radioisotopes uses

    Pisarev, Mario A.

    2004-01-01

    Endocrinology has been one of the specialties earlier benefited for the radioisotopes uses in the diagnosis and treatment of different affections. These applications are based on the radioisotopes property of biochemical behaving as non- radioactive molecules, and at the same time, radiations emitting that can be detected by suitable means (diagnostic utility) or that have effects on biological systems (therapeutic action). (author) [es

  9. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    Lamar, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected and compiled on radioisotopes produced and sold by Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and on services rendered by DOE facilities. Compiled data were published and distributed in the document list of DOE Radioisotope Customers with Summary of Radioisotope Shipments, FY 1986, PNL-6361, October 1987. The DOE facilities that supplied information for the compilation were Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Savannah River Plant, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. (Hanford). The data provided were reported in several different ways: (1) a list of radioisotopes and services provided by each facility; (2) a list of radioisotope customers, the supplying DOE facility, and the radioisotope or service provided to each customer; and (3) a list of the quantity and value of each radioisotope or service sold by each DOE facility. The sales information covered foreign customers, domestic private customers, and domestic DOE customers

  10. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Schenter, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted

  11. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schenter, R.E. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  12. Guidebook on radioisotope tracers in industry

    1990-01-01

    The idea of using tracers (chemical, dyes, etc.) in the investigation of complex physical phenomena has always attracted the attention of scientists and engineers. When radioactive isotopes became available it was immediately recognized that they offered an almost ideal solution to tracer selection. This book is devoted to reviewing the present status of the tracer method as such and to its applications to those branches of industry which have derived large benefits from the use of this modern technology. The main objectives of the IAEA's Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section is to help Member States in introducing to their own industries the different isotope and radiation techniques which have become available as a result of developments in the nuclear sciences. This section proposed the preparation of this guidebook, putting together various radiotracer methods and the experience obtained so far in their industrial use. Chapters 2 to 4 cover the general concept of tracers, technology and safety aspects, as well as data evaluation and interpretation. In chapter 5, therefore, general applications are discussed. In chapter 6, specialists in selected fields discuss their experience in radiotracer applications in various types of industrial activity. Most case studies are illustrated by at least one detailed example of an experiment carried out at an industrial installation. Current trends in the development of radiotracer methods are discussed in chapter 7, from both a theoretical and a practical viewpoint. Some possible new RTT applications in the future are also discussed here. Sealed radioactive sources are used almost as often as radioisotope tracers in industrial measurements. Annex I gives a short review of these techniques. Readers who are interested in the basic principles of radioisotope production will find the necessary information in Annex II. Annexes III, V and VI provide a demonstration of fundamental relations and properties; useful

  13. Role of radioisotopes in the study of insect pests

    Mansour, M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of nuclear techniques, particularly radioisotopes, in entomological research is less than a century old, the contribution of radioisotopes to the science of studying insects (Entomology) is indispensable. In fact, radioisotopes provided a very important and sometimes a unique tool for solving many research problems in entomology. This article discusses the most important and widely used applications of radioisotopes in studying insect pests. In particular, it concentrates on the subject of radioisotopes used in entomological research, methods of labeling insect with radioisotopes, half life of radioisotopes, and the role of radioisotopes in physiological, ecological, biological and behavioral studies of insects. (author)

  14. Design of radioisotope power systems facility

    Eschenbaum, R.C.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems currently produced for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Special Applications by the Mound Laboratory at Miamisburg, Ohio, have been used in a variety of configurations by the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A forecast of fugure radioisotope power systems requirements showed a need for an increased production rate beyond the capability of the existing Mound Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford Company is modifying the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to install the new Radioisotope Power Systems Facility for assembling future radioisotope power systems. The facility is currently being prepared to assemble the radioisotope thermoelectric generators required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions for Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby in 1995 and Cassini, an investigation of Saturn and its moons, in 1996

  15. Activity calculation of radioisotopes in HFETR

    Liu Shuiqing

    1996-12-01

    The activity calculating method and formulas of seven kinds of radioisotopes for High Flux Engineering Test REactor (HFETR) are given. The perturbation of targets to neutron fluence rate is considered while targets are put into the neutron fluence rate field of reactor core. All perturbing factors of seven kinds of radioisotopes being used in HFETR are presented. After considering the perturbation, the calculating accuracy of radioisotope activity has been raised 10%. The given method and formulas have ended the history of all activities estimated by experiences, except for that of 60 Co, in the radioisotope production of HFETR. The conclusions are also useful and instructive for the production of radioisotopes in HFETR. (8 tabs.)

  16. STATE REGULATION OF CARGO SECURING FOR ROAD TRANSPORT

    Nikolay Anatolievich Atrokhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the legal documents governing the securing of cargo in road transport, provides an overview of international experience in the safety of road transport of goods by means of securing.

  17. Application of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: To use of radioisotopes in the processes of receiving radiopharmaceutical diagnostic means it is widely know [1]. Radioactivity labeled chemical compounds, pharmacological kinetics of which allows one solving a concrete diagnostic problem in an organism are used in radio pharmaceutics. In spite of this choice of the radioisotope, possessing the most favorable nuclei-physical characteristics for it to be detected and minimization of beam loadings, be of great importance. Development of a method of introduction of a radioisotope also has important value, as it is included into chemical structure of a radiopharmaceutical preparation. One more way of use of radioisotopes in pharmaceutics is their use as a radioactive mark at a stage of creation of a new medical product. And in this case, all those moments, which are listed above, take place. Preparations labeling by radioisotopes are used basically for their studying pharmacological kinetics. In Institute of nuclear physics AS RU, in recent years, works are done on studying pharmacological kinetics of some new medical products, which have been synthesized in the Tashkent pharmaceutical institute. These preparations are on the basis of microelements with a complex set of properties possessing expressed biological activity and have great value in pharmaceutical science of Republic of Uzbekistan. Reception of labeled compounds of all preparations was carried out by a method of introduction of a radioisotope at a stage of their synthesis. The work presents the results of researches on synthesis and study of pharmacological kinetics of radioactively labeled preparations - PIRACIN, labeled by radioisotope 69m Zn; FERAMED, labeled by radioisotope 59 Fe; COBAVIT, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co

  18. Static and dynamic scintigraphy in radioisotope cardiology diagnostics

    Waligorski, M.; Zolna, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Pasyk, S.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the applications of scintigraphy in cardiac diagnosis is given. The principle of operation of the gamma-camera and of the scintigraphic system, the handling of data and the so-called gated scintigraphy are discussed. Characteristics of some radioisotopes applied in nuclear cardiology are given. The most frequent clinical states are discussed in which isotope diagnostics may be useful. Attention is drawn to the advantages of nuclear cardiology methods over conventional diagnostics. (author)

  19. 76 FR 14055 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California State Department of Transportation (Caltrans...

    2011-03-15

    ...: California State Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Sacramento, CA, and California State University, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Sacramento, CA, and in the possession of California State University...

  20. Requirements for the transport of surplus fissile materials in the United States

    Wilson, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and issues associated with the transportation of surplus fissile materials in the United States. The paper describes the materials that will be transported, the permissible modes of transport for these materials, and the safety and security requirements for each mode of transport. The paper also identifies transportation issues associated with these requirements, including the differences in requirements corresponding to who owns the material and whether the transport is on-site or off-site. Finally, the paper provides a discussion that suggests that by adopting the spent fuel standard and stored weapon standard proposed by the National Academy of Sciences, the requirements for transportation become straightforward

  1. Radioisotopic studies in renal transplantation

    Levasseur, A.; Robillard, R.; Lemieux, R.; Dandavino, R.; Girard, R.

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotopic evaluation of kidney graft function has greatly reduced the need for more invasive studies such as arteriography, retrograde pyelograpy and graft biopsy. The schedule of sequential studies beginning the day after transplant may be modified according to the patient's clinical or biochemical status. The combined use of I 131 Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc DTPA allows early detection of graft rejection and its differentiation from tubular necrosis. Scintigraphic images may have a characteristic appearance in cases of arterial, venous or urinary obstruction, urinary fistule, infarction, abcess and lymphocele. This non-invasive diagnostic study requiring only an intravenous injection is simple, rapid, accurate and may be repeated as often as necessary. (auth) [fr

  2. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    DeRossi; Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  3. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  4. Radioisotope tracer applications in industry

    Rao, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have many advantages in industrial trouble-shooting and studies on process kinetics. The applications are mainly of two types: one leading to qualitative (Yes or No type) information and the other to quantitative characterisation of flow processes through mass balance considerations and flow models. ''Yes or No'' type methods are mainly used for leakage and blockage locations in pipelines and in other industrial systems and also for location of water seepage zones in oil wells. Flow measurements in pipelines and mercury inventory in electrolytic cells are good examples of tracer methods using the mass balance approach. Axial dispersion model and Tanks-in-Series model are the two basic flow models commonly used with tracer methods for the characterisation of kinetic processes. Examples include studies on flow processes in sugar crystallisers as well as in a precalcinator in a cement plant. (author). 18 figs

  5. Intermittent strong transport of the quasi-adiabatic plasma state.

    Kim, Chang-Bae; An, Chan-Yong; Min, Byunghoon

    2018-06-05

    The dynamics of the fluctuating electrostatic potential and the plasma density couched in the resistive-drift model at nearly adiabatic state are simulated. The linear modes are unstable if the phase difference between the potential and the density are positive. Exponential growth of the random small perturbations slows down due to the nonlinear E × B flows that work in two ways. They regulate the strength of the fluctuations by transferring the energy from the energy-producing scale to neighboring scales and reduce the cross phase at the same time. During quasi-steady relaxation sporadic appearance of very strong turbulent particle flux is observed that is characterized by the flat energy spectrum and the broad secondary peak in the mesoscale of the order of the gyro-radius. Such boost of the transport is found to be caused by presence of relatively large cross phase as the E × B flows are not effective in cancelling out the cross phase.

  6. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987

  7. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  8. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    McCoy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined

  9. A comparative study of different contaminant radioisotopes in various materials

    Angeles C, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    An order was established between the various radioisotopes, in order to compare which of them are a major problem concerning the contamination they originate in the materials using during their process, transportation and protection, consequently a sampling of contaminated materials was realized. These materials were submitted to a decontamination process with different reagents (acids, bases and organic and inorganic salts) varying their concentration through dilution with water. Besides for the same kind of reagent two processes were used, one with turbulence in the reagent through mechanical stirring, and the other static maintaining similar volumes of liquid in the two processes as well as a similar material, form and size of the object during the processes, detection of radiation in the samples were realized through a Geiger-Muller detector in similar periods of time, establishing this way a parallel system of comparison which allowed us to observe gains in the necessary period of time for reaching the same grade of decontamination in the two processes, it was concluded that it is very difficult to reach an order of comparison in the contamination because the periods of treatment vary as a function of the chemical compound containing the radioisotope(s). Besides we can reduce considerably the period of time in a stirring process and predict this necessary period of time for reaching the determined decontamination, provided that there are not permanent contaminations. (author)

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron-emitting radioisotopes

    Comar, D.; Berridge, M.; Maziere, B.; Crouzel, C.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the preparation of radioisotopes for biochemical and physiological studies and the principal methods for their incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, while pointing out the problems encountered with their use and considering their medical interest in the following areas: distribution and flow of fluids, metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies. Inorganic and organic radiopharmaceuticals presently in use and most probable to be used in the future are reviewed. It is anticipated that three types of products labelled with 15 O, 13 N, 11 C and 18 F will be developed in the future. The first type includes products which trace general phenomena such as fluid movement or metabolism of sugars, fats and proteins. The compromise between physiological accuracy and imaging technology is discussed in relation to the use of 11 C and 18 F. The second type of product is one to measure more specific parameters such as those of molecular transport kinetics, membrane permeability, cellular pH and receptor-ligand interactions, again with particular reference to 11 C and 18 F. The third type of product discussed is that intended for pharmacology studies, particular reference being made to 68 Ga, 82 Rb. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  11. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests

    Goldmann, L.H.; Averette, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to ''Type B'' shipments of radioactive materials. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of 238 Pu, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator's temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. These provisions include test ports used in conjunction with helium mass spectrometers to determine seal leakage rates of each containment during the assembly process

  12. The production and application of radioisotopes

    O'Neill, W.P.; Evans, D.J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the historical evolution of radioisotopes from first concepts and discoveries to significant milestones in their production and the development of applications throughout the world. Regarding production, it addresses the methods that have been used at various stages during this evolution outlining the important findings that have led to further developments. With respect to radioisotope applications, the paper addresses the development of markets in industry, medicine, and agriculture and comments on the size of these markets and their rate of growth. Throughout, the paper highlights the Canadian experience and it also presents a Canadian view of emerging prospects and a forecast of how the future for radioisotopes might develop. (author)

  13. Twenty years of Korea radioisotope association history

    2005-09-01

    This contents has two parts. The first part describes the present and post of Korea radioisotope association which are about the foundation of the association, organization, main projects and vision of the association. The second part is about the use and the prospect of radiation and radioisotope in Korea, which shows the plan of expansion of use of radiation and radioisotope, the prospect and present condition in fields such as medical, industry and farming, product and distribution, research and development of human resources, system and management of safety of radiation.

  14. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  15. Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial processes

    2002-03-01

    This brochure is intended to present the state-of -the-art in techniques for gamma scanning and neutron backscattering for troubleshooting inspection of columns, vessels, pipes, and tanks in many industrial processing sectors. It aims to provide not only an extensive description of what can be achieved by the application of radioisotope sealed sources but also sound experience-based guidance on all aspects of designing, carrying out and interpreting the results of industrial applications. Though it is written primarily for radioisotope practitioners, the brochure is also intended to function as an ambassador for the technology by promoting its benefits to governments, to the general public and to industrial end-users

  16. School Transportation Costs, Policies and Practices: A Review of Issues in New York and Selected States.

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Research Services Unit.

    To draw comparisons for assessing transportation costs and developing recommendations for legislative action in New York, this study compares school transportation policies and practices that may be related to differences in transportation costs in eight states having the largest public school enrollments for 1980. Data were obtained from existing…

  17. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    2002-10-01

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  18. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  19. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    Goehring, J.B.; Reed, J.B.

    1996-09-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1996 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1995, and June 30, 1996. Thirteen bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The report also includes 10 New York bills introduced in 1995 that remained pending during this review period. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency response. Also summarized are a state legislative resolution and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  20. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, A.M.

    1991-07-01

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  1. Transportation of energy materials in the United states

    Emmett, R. C.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography lists 459 books, periodical articles, research reports, and conference papers on the transportation of general/multi-fuel, coal, petroleum and gas, nuclear fuel, and electric power. Emphasis is on the various impacts of this transport in the U.S.: environmental, economic, social, safety, policy, etc. Arrangement is by commodity and by mode. An index by type of impact is included.

  2. Multimodal transports in the Unidted States and Europe

    Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

    2009-01-01

    is preferred in Europe whereas another is preferred in the US. In this sense, modern transport law has become reginialized. The regionalization creates difficulties when goods are trasnported between the two regions. Neither the attempt to regulate multimodal transports in the new global UNCITRAL Convention...

  3. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983

  4. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986

  5. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984.

  6. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984

  7. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes

    1994-08-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  8. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    Dupon, Michel.

    1978-09-01

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles [fr

  9. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    Yusof Azuddin Ali; Abdul Rahman Mohamad Ali.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm -2 S -1 ) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 10 13 n.cm -1 S -1 ). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  10. Practical applications of short-lived radioisotopes

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The advantages of the use of short-lived radioisotopes in agriculture, food industry and medicine as well as some industrial uses are discussed. Methods for isotope production in small research reactors and laboratories are presented

  11. Production of radioisotopes with BR2 facilities

    Fallais, C.J.; Morel de Westfaver, A.; Heeren, L.; Baugnet, J.M.; Gandolfo, J.M.; Boeykens, W.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief account on the isotopes production evolution in the industrialized countries the irradiation devices and the types of standardized capsules used in the BR2 reactor are described as well as the thermal neutron flux. Production of most important radioisotopes like 131 Iodine, 60 Cobalt, 192 Iridium and 99 Molybdenum and their main utilizations (uses)are described. The mean specific activities and the limit of use for different radioisotopes are reported. (A.F.)

  12. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Ji Bok; Lee, Yeong Iil; Jin, Joon Ha; Beon, Myeong Uh; Park, Kyeong Bae; Han, Heon Soo; Jeong, Yong Sam; Uh, Jong Seop; Kang, Kyeong Cheol; Cho, Han Ok; Song, Hui Seop; Yoon, Byeong Mok; Jeon, Byeong Jin; Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Jae Seong; Jeong, Un Soo; Baek, Sam Tae; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Yeong Keon; Kim, Joon Yeon; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Ki Yeop; Yang, Jae Seung; No, Yeong Chang; Lee, Yeong Keun; Shin, Byeong Cheol; Park, Sang Joon; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Iil Joon; Cho, Seong Ki; Jeong, Yeong Joo; Park, Chun Deuk; Lee, Yeong Koo; Seo, Chun Ha; Han, Kwang Hui; Shin, Hyeon Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Soon Chul; Shin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek; Park, Eung Uh; Kim, Dong Soo; Jeon, Sang Soo

    1993-05-01

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR)

  13. Radioisotope applications in petroleum and gas industries

    Castagnet, A.C.; Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, U.

    1974-01-01

    The principal radioisotopic technique used for studying and /or controling the drilling, completion, treatment and oil well secondary recovery operations are described. In this cases the radioisotopes are employed almost exclusively as 'markers', in the form of localized and dispersed tracers. The growing acceptance of these techniques is essentially, a consequence of the confidence in the reliability of the data and conclusions derived from their application

  14. Cost-benefit aspects of radioisotope methods

    Jankowski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The cost-benefit relations in the complex application of radioisotpe techniques increased in the last years to up to 1/10 to 1/15. The most essential cause of this trend is the increase of the capacity of production processes, controlled and automatized by means of radioisotopes, and the solution of qualitatively new technological problems of a high economic relevance. A collection of statistical data about the expediture and benefit of different radioisotopes techniques is presented. (author)

  15. Radioisotope tracers in industrial flow studies

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of radioisotope tracer work carried out by ANSTO has involved most sectors of Australian industry including iron and steel coal, chemical, petrochemical, natural gas, metallurgical, mineral, power generation, liquified air plant, as well as port authorities, water and sewerage instrumentalities, and environmental agencies. A major class of such studies concerns itself with flow and wear studies involving industrial equipment. Some examples are discussed which illustrate the utility of radioisotope tracer techniques in these applications

  16. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  17. Advanced public transportation system deployment in the United States

    1999-01-01

    This report documents work performed under FTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communication techn...

  18. Advanced public transportation systems : the state of the art

    1991-03-01

    This report documents one of the early initiatives of UMTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communi...

  19. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F.

    1991-10-01

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  20. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    Eduvie, L.O.

    1994-05-01

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  1. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  2. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Segovia, N; Tejera, A; Bulbulian, S; Palma, F

    1991-10-15

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  3. Recovery of hafnium radioisotopes from a proton irradiated tantalum target

    Taylor, W.A.; Garcia, J.G.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J.; Ott, M.A.; Philips, D.R.; Radzinski, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The 178m2 Hf nucleus, with its long half-life (31 y) and high-spin isomeric state (16 + ) is desired for new and exotic nuclear physics studies. The Los Alamos Radioisotope Program irradiated a kilogram of natural tantalum at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility in early 1981. After fifteen years of decay, this target was ideal for the recovery of 178m2 Hf. There was more than a millicurie of 178m2 Hf produced during this irradiation and there has been a sufficient period of time for most of the other hafnium radioisotopes to decayed away. Traditionally, separation techniques for recovering hafnium isotopes from tantalum targets employ solvent extractions with reagents that are considered hazardous. These techniques are no longer condoned because they generate a mixed-waste (radioactive and hazardous components) that can not be treated for disposal. In this paper we describe a new and unique procedure for the recovery of hafnium radioisotopes from a highly radioactive, proton irradiated, tantalum target using reagents that do not contribute a hazardous waste component. (author)

  4. Structure of a Eukaryotic CLC Transporter Defines an Intermediate State in the Transport Cycle

    Feng, Liang; Campbell, Ernest B.; Hsiung, Yichun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    CLC proteins transport chloride (Cl - ) ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl - ion channels, whereas others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl - ions and protons (H + ) with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3.5 angstrom resolution. Cytoplasmic cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains are strategically positioned to regulate the ion-transport pathway, and many disease-causing mutations in human CLCs reside on the CBS-transmembrane interface. Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate residue changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl - /H + exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters.

  5. Structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter defines an intermediate state in the transport cycle

    Feng, Liang; Campbell, Ernest B.; Hsiung, Yichun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2011-01-01

    CLC proteins transport Cl− ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl− ion channels, while others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl− ions and H+ with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3.5 Å resolution. Cytoplasmic CBS domains are strategically positioned to regulate the ion transport pathway, and many disease-causing mutations in human CLCs reside on the CBS-transmembrane interface. Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl−/H+ exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters. PMID:20929736

  6. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    1973-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  7. Radioisotopes and stable isotopes and their applications in earth sciences, safety-in-mines, and environmental protection. 1

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art and objectives of isotope research in earth sciences, safety-in-mines, and environmental protection is reported. Volume 1 contains papers dedicated to origin and distribution of natural radioisotopes and stable isotopes

  8. Potential benefits of superconductivity to transportation in the United States

    Rote, Donald M.; Johnson, Larry R.

    Research in U.S. transportation applications of superconductors is strongly motivated by a number of potential national benefits. These include the reduction of dependence on petroleum-based fuels, energy savings, substantially reduced air and noise pollution, increased customer convenience, and reduced maintenance costs. Current transportation technology offers little flexibility to switch to alternative fuels, and efforts to achieve the other benefits are confounded by growing congestion at airports and on urban roadways. A program has been undertaken to identify possible applications of the emerging superconducting applications to transportation and to evaluate potential national benefits. The current phase of the program will select the most promising applications for a more detailed subsequent study. Transportation modes being examined include highway and industrial vehicles, as well as rail, sea, air transport and pipelines. Three strategies are being considered: (1) replacing present components with those employing superconductors, (2) substituting new combinations of components or systems for present systems, and (3) developing completely new technologies. Distinctions are made between low-, medium-, and near-room-temperature superconductors. The most promising applications include magnetically levitated passenger and freight vehicles; replacement of drive systems in locomotives, self-propelled rail cars, and ships; and electric vehicles inductively coupled to electrified roadways.

  9. Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques

    1965-01-01

    The medical and biological applications of radioisotopes depend on two basically different types of measurements, those on living subjects in vivo and those on samples in vitro. The International Atomic Energy Agency has in the past held several meetings on in vivo measurement techniques, notably whole-body counting and radioisotope scanning. The present volume contains the Proceedings of the first Symposium the Agency has organized to discuss the various aspects of techniques for sample measurement in vitro. The range of these sample measurement techniques is very wide. The sample may weigh a few milligrams or several hundred grams, and may be in the gaseous, liquid or solid state. Its radioactive content may consist of a single, known radioisotope or several unknown ones. The concentration of radioactivity may be low, medium or high. The measurements may be made manually or automatically and any one of the many radiation detectors now available may be used. The 53 papers presented at the Symposium illustrate the great variety of methods now in use for radioactive- sample measurements. The first topic discussed is gamma-ray spectrometry, which finds an increasing number of applications in sample measurements. Other sections of the Proceedings deal with: the use of computers in gamma-ray spectrometry and multiple tracer techniques; recent developments in activation analysis where both gamma-ray spectrometry and computing techniques are applied; thin-layer and paper radio chromatographic techniques for use with low energy beta-ray emitters; various aspects of liquid scintillation counting techniques in the measurement of alpha- and beta-ray emitters, including chemical and colour quenching; autoradiographic techniques; calibration of equipment; and standardization of radioisotopes. Finally, some applications of solid-state detectors are presented; this section may be regarded as a preview of important future developments. The meeting was attended by 203 participants

  10. Application of radioisotopes and radiation in the field of agricultural engineering in Japan

    Ochiai, T.

    1974-01-01

    Data have been published about the application of radioisotopes and radiation in Japan agricultural engineering. The radioisotopes have been used : 1 for measuring the humidity of the ground in the development of the irrigation and canalization of the cultivated areas; 2 for measuring i. the circulation rate of the ground water, ii. the porosity and the storing capacity of the water-carrier layers. iii. the drift and sand-transporting speed of the open canals; 3, for the control of the dam leaking in the ground water hydrology. (K.A.)

  11. Numerical studies on the link between radioisotopic signatures on Earth and the formation of the Local Bubble. I. 60Fe transport to the solar system by turbulent mixing of ejecta from nearby supernovae into a locally homogeneous interstellar medium

    Schulreich, M. M.; Breitschwerdt, D.; Feige, J.; Dettbarn, C.

    2017-08-01

    Context. The discovery of radionuclides like 60Fe with half-lives of million years in deep-sea crusts and sediments offers the unique possibility to date and locate nearby supernovae. Aims: We want to quantitatively establish that the 60Fe enhancement is the result of several supernovae which are also responsible for the formation of the Local Bubble, our Galactic habitat. Methods: We performed three-dimensional hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations (with resolutions down to subparsec scale) of the Local Bubble and the neighbouring Loop I superbubble in different homogeneous, self-gravitating environments. For setting up the Local and Loop I superbubble, we took into account the time sequence and locations of the generating core-collapse supernova explosions, which were derived from the mass spectrum of the perished members of certain stellar moving groups. The release of 60Fe and its subsequent turbulent mixing process inside the superbubble cavities was followed via passive scalars, where the yields of the decaying radioisotope were adjusted according to recent stellar evolution calculations. Results: The models are able to reproduce both the timing and the intensity of the 60Fe excess observed with rather high precision, provided that the external density does not exceed 0.3 cm-3 on average. Thus the two best-fit models presented here were obtained with background media mimicking the classical warm ionised and warm neutral medium. We also found that 60Fe (which is condensed onto dust grains) can be delivered to Earth via two physical mechanisms: either through individual fast-paced supernova blast waves, which cross the Earth's orbit sometimes even twice as a result of reflection from the Local Bubble's outer shell, or, alternatively, through the supershell of the Local Bubble itself, injecting the 60Fe content of all previous supernovae at once, but over a longer time range.

  12. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  13. International codes concerning the security of radioisotopes

    Kusama, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Explained is the title subject with international and Japanese official argument or publications and actions, where the security is defined as protection of sealed and unsealed radioisotopes (RI) from malicious acts. IAEA worked out the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in 2004 based on its preceding argument and with the turning point of the terrorism 3.11 (2001), and Nuclear Security Recommendations on radioactive material and associated facilities (2011), for whose prerequisite, Security of radioactive sources: implementing guide (2009) and Security in the transport of radioactive material (2008) had been drawn up. The Code of Conduct indicates the security system to regulate the sealed sources that each nation has to build up through legislation, setup of regulatory agency, registration of the sources, provision of concerned facilities with radiation protection, etc. For attaining this purpose, IAEA defined Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (2005, 2012), Categorization of radioactive sources (2005) and Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-VALUES) (2006). For updating the related matters, IAEA holds international conferences somewhere in the world every year. The Nuclear Security Recommendations indicate the nation's responsibility of building up and maintaining the security system above with well-balanced measures between the safe and secure use of RI without the invalid inhibition of their usage. Japan government worked out the concept essential for ensuring the nuclear security in Sep. 2011, in which for RI, defined were the risk and benefit in use and security, and securing role of the present legal systems concerning the safety handling and objective RI involved in their registration system. Securing measures of RI in such usage as medical and industrial aids must be of advanced usefulness and safety in harmony with activities of other countries. (T.T)

  14. Fokker-Planck transport in solid state accelerator concepts

    Newberger, B.; Tajima, T.

    1989-01-01

    Particle transport in a crystalline solid under channeling conditions is considered by means of a Fokker-Planck description. The model includes electron multiple scattering, radiation damping and an accelerating electric field. Analytic solutions have been obtained using a harmonic potential model to describe the channeling forces. These solutions will be described

  15. Transportation Conformity : A Basic Guide for State and Local Officials

    2013-03-01

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for five connected vehicle vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications, and the underlying connected vehicle system, for crash avoidance for the U.S. Department of Transportation (USD...

  16. Light transport through the bandedge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals

    Dal Negro, Luca; Oton, Claudio J.; Gaburro, Zeno; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Johnson, Patrick; Lagendijk, Aart; Righini, Roberto; Colocci, Marcello; Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of light in nonperiodic quasicrystals is studied by ultrashort pulse interferometry. Samples consist of multilayer dielectric structures of the Fibonacci type and are realized from porous silicon. We observe mode beating and strong pulse stretching in the light transport through

  17. Working with the States to Transport TMI-2 Core Debris

    Smith, T.A.; Anselmo, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Close communications with state officials has been a key factor in success of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy made extensive efforts to provide state officials with schedule information, answer technical questions, and satisfy concerns. Communications started before the campaign and continued during shipments and at intervals between shipments. Those efforts led to good working relationships with the states, kept governors and other state officials informed so they could respond to public concerns, provided the opportunity to recognize and respond to specific state concerns, facilitated state inspections, and provided avenues to avoid conflict and potential litigation. Good communications and working relationships with state officials also greatly benefited the community relations effort for the campaign. (author)

  18. Radioisotope implantation with a new facility at the Australian Defence Force Academy

    Shrestha, S.K.; Chaplin, D.H.; Edge, A.V.J.; Hutchison, W.D.; Timmers, H.; Byrne, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    A 50 - 155 keV ion implanter is being developed on the campus of the University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy for the implantation of radioisotopes as part of a UNSW/ANU collaboration. The facility employs a versatile SNICS II negative ion source. Commissioning tests have shown the facility to efficiently produce, mass-select, and transport negative ion beams of various stable isotopes. The mass resolution has been demonstrated to be better than 1 amu and the implantation of stable isotopes was verified with Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) analysis. Recently, the first implantation of radioactive 111 In has been performed successfully. The routine implantation of this and other radioisotopes is envisaged to support analytical techniques in the material sciences, such as Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Oriented Nuclei (NMRON), and to possibly study the controlled activation of medical implants and the diffusion of radioisotopes in materials

  19. Radioisotope techniques in water resources research and management with special reference to India

    Banerji, S.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear techniques using radioisotopes finding applications in research and management of water resources are described briefly with special reference to and representative illustrations of their applications in hydrologic studies in India. As environmental isotopes including the man-made ones i.e. those released in nuclear explosions are intimately tied with the moisture and water in circulation pattern in nature, measurement of their variation provides diagnostic information about the hydrologic parameters of three phases, namely, atmospheric, surface and subsurface, of the hydrologic cycle. Artificial radioisotopes are used for measurement of water flow, sediment transport and seepage. Sealed radioisotope sources are employed in snow gauging, suspended sediment gauging and hydrologic logging. Areas for further research are suggested and need for emphasis on their use in India is indicated. (M.G.B.)

  20. Working with the states to transport TMI-2 core debris

    Smith, T.A.; Anselmo, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This reports that close communications with state officials has been a key factor in success of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy made extensive efforts to provide state officials with schedule information, answer technical questions, and satisfy concerns. Communications started before the campaign and continued during shipments and at intervals between shipments. Those efforts led to good working relationships with the states, kept governors and other state officials informed so they could respond to public concerns, facilitated state inspections, and provided avenues to avoid conflict and potential litigation. Good communications and working relationships with state officials also greatly benefited the community relations effort for the campaign

  1. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re generators, the radio lanthanides: 151 Pm, 147 Pm, 161 Tb, 166 Ho, 177 Lu, 131 I and the 32 P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the 99m Tc and the 188 Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  2. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators for implanted pacemakers

    Pustovalov, A.A.; Bovin, A.V.; Fedorets, V.I.; Shapovalov, V.P.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of long-life lithium batteries and the problems associated with miniature radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RITEG) with service lives of 10 years or longer. On eof the main problems encountered when devising a radioisotope heat source (RHS) for an RITEG is to obtain biomedical /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ with a specific neutron yield of 3.10/sup 3/-4.10/sup 3/ (g /SUP ./ sec)/sup -1/, equivalent to metallic Pu 238, and with a content of gamma impurities sufficient to ensure a permissible exposure a permissible exposure does rate (EDR) of a mixture of neutron and gamma radiation. After carrying out the isotope exchange and purifying the initial sample of its gamma impurity elements, the authors obtain biomedical Pu 238 satisfying the indicated requirements king suitable for use in the power packs of medical devices. Taking the indicated specifications into account, the Ritm-1o and gamma radioisotope heat sources were designed, built, tested in models and under natural conditions, and then into production as radioisotope thermoelectric generators designed to power the electronic circuits of implanted pacemakers. The Ritm-MT and Gemma radioisotope thermoelectric generators described are basic units, which can be used as self-contained power supplies for electronic equipment with power requirements in the micromilliwatt range.

  3. Transport Properties of the Metallic State of TMTSF-DMTCNQ

    Bechgaard, Klaus; Andersen, Jan Rud; Andrieux, A.

    1979-01-01

    The authors report the transport properties (longitudinal and transverse conductivity, magnetoresistance and thermopower) of TMTSF-DMTCNQ for pressures up to 13 kbar and temperatures down to 1.2K together with the phase diagram which results from these measurements. The most striking results...... at any temperature (σ∥≳105 (Ωcm)-1) and an enormous magnetoresistance Δρ/ρ≈15) is found for a field of 75 kOe perpendicular to the conducting chains...

  4. Steady-state cerebral glucose concentrations and transport in the human brain

    Gruetter, R.; Ugurbil, K.; Seaquist, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of brain glucose transport across the blood- brain barrier is of importance to understanding brain energy metabolism. The specific kinetics of glucose transport nave been generally described using standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These models predict that the steady- state glucose concentration approaches an upper limit in the human brain when the plasma glucose level is well above the Michaelis-Menten constant for half-maximal transport, K(t). In experiments wh...

  5. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  6. GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL

    Benea Ciprian Beniamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

  7. Automatized target devices for radioisotope production at the RITs cyclotron

    Bogdanov, P.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Karasev, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    An automation target device intended for isotope production on the internal beam of the RITs cyclotron is decribed. The target device comprises the following main units: target head, vacuum lock, charging device, transport system for bringing the target for charging; mechanism of target discharge transport device, control interlocking and signalling control system of target radiation power. The automation target device permits radioisotope production on the cyclotron in commercial scales with automation substitution of irradiated targets. The time of substitution of one of six targets makes up only 5 min. The time of charging a new group of targets to the charge device - 60 min. Contact of the personnel with irradiated targets is practically excluded and the necessity of entering the cyclotron room for maintenance of the plant is reduced to the minimum [ru

  8. Low-level radioactive waste transportation plan for the State of Maryland

    Chaparala, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to prepare a recommended transportation plan that will outline specific procedures for monitoring and regulating low-level radioactive waste transport in Maryland and which is consistent with federal law and party-state requirements under the Appalachian Compact

  9. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  10. 77 FR 17569 - United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC)-Transportation-Dangerous Goods Working...

    2012-03-26

    ... identified in the Joint Action Plan, the Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group led by senior...)-- Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...--Dangerous Goods Working Group, of the United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC). Comments...

  11. Environmental impact of accident-free transportation of radioactive material in the United States

    Taylor, J.M.; Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A recent study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia Laboratories which considered transportation of radioactive materials in the United States suggests that a significant portion of the radiological impact results from accident-free transport. This paper explores the basis for that conclusion

  12. Seven Things to Know about Radioisotopes

    Henriques, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Each atomic element knows exactly how many protons and neutrons it needs at its centre (nucleus) in order to be stable (stay in its elemental form). Radioisotopes are atomic elements that do not have the correct proton to neutron ratio to remain stable. With an unbalanced number of protons and neutrons, energy is given off by the atom in an attempt to become stable. For example, a stable carbon atom has six protons and six neutrons. Whereas its unstable (and therefore radioactive) isotope carbon-14, has six protons and eight neutrons. Carbon-14 and all other unstable elements are called radioisotopes. This movement towards stability, which involves emitting energy from the atom in the form of radiation, is known as radioactive decay. This radiation can be tracked and measured, making radioisotopes very useful in industry, agriculture and medicine

  13. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  14. Sociodemographic Factors, Population Density, and Bicycling for Transportation in the United States.

    Nehme, Eileen K; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Amick, Benjamin C; Kohl, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Transportation bicycling is a behavior with demonstrated health benefits. Population-representative studies of transportation bicycling in United States are lacking. This study examined associations between sociodemographic factors, population density, and transportation bicycling and described transportation bicyclists by trip purposes, using a US-representative sample. This cross-sectional study used 2009 National Household Travel Survey datasets. Associations among study variables were assessed using weighted multivariable logistic regression. On a typical day in 2009, 1% of Americans older than 5 years of age reported a transportation bicycling trip. Transportation cycling was inversely associated with age and directly with being male, with being white, and with population density (≥ 10,000 vs transportation. Twenty-one percent of transportation bicyclists reported trips to work, whereas 67% reported trips to social or other activities. Transportation bicycling in the United States is associated with sociodemographic characteristics and population density. Bicycles are used for a variety of trip purposes, which has implications for transportation bicycling research based on commuter data and for developing interventions to promote this behavior.

  15. Utilization of radioisotopes in France, present and future

    Gauvenet, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    France is one of the countries having used radioisotopes very early. The first research reactor went critical in 1948, and has been used right from the start mainly to produce the radioisotopes for research and medicine. The growth in production was extremely fast, and the net receipts (excluding tax) amounted to F.52.3 million during 1974, of which F.20.9 million from export. The increase as compared with 1973 is 33%. The research and production facilities, which are concerned with medical applications, are in full expansion, Finally, the increasing use of trans-uranic elements, particularly of Pu-238 pacemakers, is noted. The uses of Cm-244 and Cf-252 are also growing. The problem at user level that undoubtedly requires the greatest attention is the regulations. The regulations on radioelements in France are reviewed in details on the following matters; poisonous substances, radioactive transport, waste, license for using artificial radioactive substances, etc. As the conclusion, the extremely ripid growth in the use of radioisotopes - mainly artificial ones - brought about the problems of adaptation with respect to the control and training regulations. One of the problems is obviously due to the fact that the personnel using such substances does not possess the specialization, training and managerial staff which marks the nuclear industry proper. It is therefore of prime significance to give unfailing attention to this use which is becoming the matter of major importance in France. The stress now placed on everything that concerns radiation has the great interest of forcing renewed awareness, thereby avoiding the degradation that the routine might bring. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. Climate change/variability science and adaptive strategies for state and regional transportation decision making.

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to generate a baseline understanding of current policy responses to climate : change/variability at the state and regional transportation-planning and -decision levels. Specifically, : researchers were interested in th...

  17. Modeling conversion and transport phenomena in solid-state fermentation: a review and perspectives

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is accompanied inevitably by development of concentration and temperature gradients within the substrate particles and microbial biofilms. These gradients are needed for driving the transport of substrates and products. In addition, concentration gradients have been

  18. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Valstar, Johan R.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data

  19. Idle reduction assessment for the New York State Department of Transportation region 4 fleet.

    2015-03-01

    Energetics Incorporated conducted a study to evaluate the operational, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reduce idling in : the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Region 4 fleet without compromising fun...

  20. Radioisotopes in non-destructive testing

    Domanus, J.C.

    1976-12-01

    After defining nondestructive testing (NDT) and comparing this concept with destructive testing, a short description is given of NDT methods other than radiologic. The basic concepts of radiologic methods are discussed and the principles of radiography are explained. Radiation sources and gamma radiography machines are next reviewed and radiographic inspection of weldings and castings is described. A brief description is given of the radiographic darkroom and accessories. Other radioisotope methods, such as neutron radiography, are shortly reviewed. Cost estimations for radioisotopic equipment conclude the report. (author)

  1. Random-process excursions in radioisotope instruments

    Galochkin, D.V.; Polovko, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximate expressions are derived for the mathematical expectation, variance, and distribution of the durations of the excursions of the output signal from a ratemeter in a radioisotope relay instrument. The tabulated comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and analytical calculation shows good agreement over the mean value and the variance of the excursion duration for T 0.2 sec as calculated and as obtained by Monte Carlo simulation with a computer using 5000 realizations. It is suggested that the results should be used in choosing the optimum parameters of radioisotope relay instruments

  2. Industrial applications of radioisotope techniques in Poland

    Michalik, J.St.

    1985-01-01

    A general review of applications of radioisotope techniques in the Polish industry for about 25 years is given. The radiotracer methods used in metallurgy, hydrometallurgy, glass industry, oil and petroleum industries, in material testing and in other industries are described. Neutron activation analysis methods as well as nuclear gauges for industry (thickness meters, density meters, conveyer belt weigher, acid concentration meters and others) are also presented. The economic advantages of industrial applications of radioisotope techniques are described too. 42 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs. (author)

  3. Radioisotopic control and automation of food mills

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Domestic and foreign experience in application of radioisotope devices to process control in fool industry, is described. The diagrams of devices to block and account the production in systems of process monitoring and control are considered. The methods of determining chemical composition of substances are discussed, as sell as the devices used for those purposes and based on recording β-and γ-radiation absorption by substance. The methods for determining dust and smoke content in premises using radioisotope devices. Level indicators, moisture gages and densitimeters usedf ctol level humidity, density and concentration of food products in the process of production are described [ru

  4. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  5. Clinical evaluation of radioisotope examination in oncology

    Yasukochi, H [National Konodai Hospital (Japan)

    1979-07-01

    Although many approaches are tried for the diagnoses of malignant tumor, radiological examinations act surely main parts. Among the radiological examinations, radioisotope techniques are not well evaluated instead of their usefulness in this field. The reason may depend on the complexity and difficulty in legal limitations, however, the lack of knowledge in this field is also a main reason. In this paper, the present status of the evaluation of radioisotope techniques is discussed in selected region of the body and some characteristic cases are demonstrated.

  6. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    Richards, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982

  7. Use of radioisotopes and nuclear methods in metallurgy

    Trehber, K.

    1976-01-01

    Some kinds of using radioisotope methods and instruments for regulation and control of metallurgical processes are reviewed. Computized data processing is described as well. The efficiency of industrial application of radioisotopes is remarked

  8. Radioisotopes present in building materials of workplaces

    Del Claro, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Corrêa, J. N.; Denyak, V.; Kappke, J.; Perna, A. F. N.; Martins, M. R.; Santos, T. O.; Rocha, Z.; Schelin, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    The isotope 222Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population. The decay products of 222Rn interacting with the cells of biological tissue of lungs have very high probability to induce cancer. The present survey was focused in the evaluation of activity concentration of 222Rn and other radioisotopes related to the building materials at workplaces at Curitiba - Paraná State. For this purpose, the instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used to measure the average concentrations of 222Rn in building materials, which were also submitted to gamma spectrometry analysis for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the radionuclides present in samples of sand, mortar, blue crushed stone (Gneissic rock), red crushed stone (Granite), concrete and red bricks. The main radionuclides evaluated by gamma spectrometry in building material samples were 238U/226Ra, 232Th and 40K. These measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN - CNEN). The results of the survey present the concentration values of 222Rn related to construction materials in a range from 427±40.52 Bq/m³ to 2053±90.06 Bq/m³. The results of gamma spectroscopy analysis show that specific activity values for the mentioned isotopes are similar to the results indicated by the literature. Nevertheless, the present survey is showing the need of further studies and indicates that building materials can contribute significantly to indoor concentration of 222Rn.

  9. State-Level Workshops on Ethanol for Transportation: Final Report

    Graf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Final report on subcontract for holding four state-level workshops (Hawaii, Kentucky, Nevada, California) to facilitate development of ethanol production facilities in those states. In 2002/2003, under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, BBI International conducted state-level workshops ethanol in Hawaii, Nevada, Kentucky and California. These four workshops followed over 30 other workshops previous held under the Ethanol Workshop Series program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Two other workshops were conducted by BBI International during 2003, Oklahoma and Kansas, under contract to the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program. The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources. In addition, the EWS was to provide a promotional and educational forum for policy makers, community leaders, media and potential stakeholders. It was recognized that to eventually achieve biomass-ethanol production, it was necessary to support grain-ethanol production as a bridge. The long-term goal of the Workshops was to facilitate the development of biomass ethanol plants at a state-level. The near-term goal was to provide correct and positive information for education, promotion, production and use of fuel ethanol. The EWS drew from 65 to over 200 attendees and were deemed by the local organizers to have served the objectives set out by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Report on state liability for radioactive materials transportation incidents: A survey of laws

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB's) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations

  11. Thermoelectric Transport by Surface States in Bi2Se3-Based Topological Insulator Thin Films

    Li Long-Long; Xu Wen

    2015-01-01

    We develop a tractable theoretical model to investigate the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of surface states in topological insulator thin films (TITFs) of Bi 2 Se 3 at room temperature. The hybridization between top and bottom surface states in the TITF plays a significant role. With the increasing hybridization-induced surface gap, the electrical conductivity and electron thermal conductivity decrease while the Seebeck coefficient increases. This is due to the metal-semiconductor transition induced by the surface-state hybridization. Based on these TE transport coefficients, the TE figure-of-merit ZT is evaluated. It is shown that ZT can be greatly improved by the surface-state hybridization. Our theoretical results are pertinent to the exploration of the TE transport properties of surface states in TITFs and to the potential application of Bi 2 Se 3 -based TITFs as high-performance TE materials and devices. (paper)

  12. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    Hata, Kentaro; Terunuma, Kusuo

    1994-02-01

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described. (author)

  13. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    Burlison, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979

  14. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    Burlison, J.S.

    1982-09-01

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  15. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    Burlison, J.S.

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  16. The industrial application of radioisotopes in Australia

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission has conducted a wide-ranging program of radioisotope applications to solve industrial problems of local, regional or national importance. Most of the investigations have been concerned with the behaviour of large complex systems. Broadly, the work covers such economically important fields as flow studies, environmental studies and coastal engineering studies. (author)

  17. How to find out in radioisotope methodology

    Evers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections entitled: tracing books by topic; radioisotope methodology cross reference structure; finding a review; journals and how to trace journal articles; abstract; theses and dissertations; research and development reports; critical reviews and information summaries; data books; dictionaries and encyclopedias; guides to the literature; whom to contact; expert advice, research in progress, institutions. (U.K.)

  18. Fuel selection for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    Menezes, A.

    1988-06-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Thermoeletric Generator fuels is evaluated based on the amount of fuel discharged from selected power reactors. In general, the best alternatives are either to use Plutonium-238 produced by irradiation of Neptunium-237 generated in typical thermal reactors or to use Curium-244 directly separated from the discharged fuels of fast or thermal reactors. (author) [pt

  19. Radioisotopes - their applications in industrial radiography

    Rao, H.R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of radioisotopes and their industrial applications with special reference to industrial radiography are outlined. The various aspects of industrial radiography such as source size, source containers, films, density of radiography, radiographic quality and applications are discussed in brief. (M.G.B.)

  20. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Cabalfin, E G [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  1. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  2. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    Au-Yong Ting Kun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  3. Radioisotope licence application: Fixed nuclear gauges

    1995-09-01

    This guide will assist you in completing and filing an application for a new licence or licence renewal for fixed nuclear gauges in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and radioisotope licensing policies. It also provides some of the background information that you will require in order to safely use radioactive materials

  4. The control of radioisotopes in Canada

    Hamel, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Regulations applicable to the control of radioisotopes in Canada are reviewed. The administrative procedures are described, the definition of atomic radiation workers clarified and the means for inspections and compliance indicated. An outline is provided of the main revisions currently under consideration. (author) [fr

  5. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant

  6. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    Simmons, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc

  7. Control of the technological processes at ''Azovstal'' plant using radioisotope devices

    Nosochenko, O V; Overchenko, Z V; Karpov, O I; Deryabina, G N

    1980-05-01

    Considered is the state of radioisotope control of the technological process at 'Azovstal' plant which has permitted to increase the quality of metal and of metal production. With the help of radioisotope densimeter PR-1024 carried out is the control of the density of the lime solution used for hearth spraying at pig iron casting. A system of automatic correction of skip coke supply according to indications of moisture gauges ''Neutron 3-1'' is implemented at blast furnaces. A radioisotope thickness gauge of hot rolling is positioned on the section of finishing stand of thick-sheet plant, its operation is based on the ..gamma.. radiation weakening in dependence on sheet thickness. The introduction of thickness gauges in the automatized system of rolling control is planned. A radioisotope device ''Paza 2'' for measuring of continuous ingot skin thickness is tested successively at the plant. Gamma-relay devices are used to control the level of loose materials in bunkers. Noted is the prospects of using radioisotopic means of control and automatization of technological processes in ferrous matallurgy.

  8. The production of cyclotron radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals at the national accelerator centre in South Africa

    Walt, T.N. van der

    1998-01-01

    Accelerator radioisotopes have been manufactured in South Africa since 1965 with the 30 MeV cyclotron at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Pretoria. After its closure in 1988, the radioisotope production programme was continued at the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) with the 200 MeV separated sector cyclotron (SCC) utilizing the 66 MeV proton beam, which is shared with the neutron therapy programme during part of the week. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18 F-FDG, 67 Ga-citrate, a 67 Ga-labelled resin. 111 In-chloride, 111 In-oxine and 111 In-labelled resin. 123 I-sodium iodide and 123 I-labelled compounds, 201 Tl-chloride, as well as the 81 Rb/ 81m Kr gas generator, are prepared for use in the nuclear medicine departments of 12 State hospitals and about 28 private nuclear medicine clinics in South Africa. A few longer-lived radioisotopes, such as 22 Na, 55 Fe and 139 Ce, are also produced for research or industrial use. A research and development programme is running to develop new production procedures to produce radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, or to improve existing production procedures. As part of a programme to utilize the beam time optimally, the production of some other radioisotopes is investigated. (author)

  9. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  10. The WIPP institutional program for states' involvement in WIPP transportation planning, and operations

    Leonard, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Supplemental Stipulated Agreement of 1982 between the state of New Mexico and the Department of Energy (DOE) committed the DOE to emergency response training in New Mexico. In 1988, the state of New Mexico and the DOE entered into a two-year agreement providing $203,017 for financial assistance and $67,000 for equipment to enhance the state's emergency response capability. In 1990, this agreement was extended for an additional two years providing $226,088 for financial assistance and $39,000 for emergency response equipment. Also, in 1988 an agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the United States Department of Transportation provided $1.0 million to seven western states (Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) to identify and implement programs to help ensure the safe transportation of transuranic waste from western points of origin to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As part of this process, the Western Governors' Association and the seven states prepared the Report to Congress, Transport of Transuranic Wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: State Concerns and Proposed Solutions. In July 1990, a five-year cooperative agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the DOE was signed providing $1.515 million in funding to seven states along the Hanford/WIPP route. This continued the work started under the Department of Transportation's cooperative agreement

  11. A Collaborative Approach to Transportation Planning: Federal and State Perspectives on Section 180(c) Program Development

    Macaluso, C.; Strong, T.; Janairo, L.; Helvey, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) committed in its November 2003 Strategic Plan for the Safe Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to Yucca Mountain: A Guide to Stakeholder Interactions to develop the transportation system collaboratively with stakeholders. The Strategic Plan further stated that four state regional groups (SRGs) would be the 'anchors' for OCRWM's collaboration with the states. The first major transportation planning activity that OCRWM initiated after publication of the Strategic Plan was the development of the Section 180(c) grant program. This document describes that collaboration and its outcomes from the perspective of the OCRWM participants and one of the SRGs, the Council of State Governments - Midwestern Office (CSG Midwest). (authors)

  12. Management of radioactive wastes arising from the use of Australian radioisotopes

    Costello, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The medical, industrial and research use of radioisotopes in Australia has given rise to approximately 30 m 3 of solid radioactive waste containing about 5 TBq of radioactivity. This waste is stored at State hospitals, universities and research centres. A further 10 m 3 of waste containing 300 GBq of radioactivity is stored by the Commonwealth at the St Mary's Munitions Filling factory. About 700 m 3 of waste containing 1.5 PBq of radioactivity resulting from operation of the HIFAR nuclear reactor and the production of radioisotopes is in storage at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment. The source, nature and rate of arising of these wastes is reviewed, together with national developments in waste classification, storage procedures and eventual disposal. Some research at Lucas Heights on the conditioning of radioisotope waste to facilitate disposal is briefly noted

  13. Industrial radiation and radioisotope gauging techniques and applications

    Gardner, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation and radioisotope gauging industry in the United States has primarily followed a path of development solely by the private sector. It has remained highly proprietary in nature, which is opposite to the path taken by many other countries. In other countries radiation gauge development has been controlled in large part by government-sponsored research and development, which has spawned many more publications in the open literature. Historically, some of the leaders have been Great Britain, Poland, France, Russia, and Australia. This has possibly led to the misconception that the development of this technology is being dominated by countries outside the United States. This is not a healthy situation-it would be good to see our industry begin to publish more in the open literature and to sponsor more research at universities. In efforts to promote more open-literature publication, the American Nuclear Society (ANS) sponsored a topical meeting on Industrial Radiation and Radioisotope Measurement Applications (IRRMA) in 1988 that was held again in 1992

  14. Novel Radioisotope Applications in Industry Promoted by the IAEA

    Thereska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Presently, there is a lively activity in further development and use of radioisotope technology. Novel radioisotope applications in industry are promoted by the IAEA. Radioisotope technology is contributing significantly to improving and optimising process performance bringing an annual economic benefit to world-wide industry of several billion US$. Probably, an average benefit to cost ratio of 40:1 is reasonably representative of radioisotope applications in industry. There are few short-term investments, which will give a return of this magnitude. The cost effectiveness of radioisotope applications should be widely promulgated to encourage industrialists to take full advantage of the technology. (author)

  15. Structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport in anion-engineered zinc oxynitride nanocrystalline films

    Xian, Fenglin; Ye, Jiandong; Gu, Shulin; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    In this work, anion alloying is engineered in ZnON nanocrystalline films, and the resultant evolution of the structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport is investigated. A broad distribution of sub-gap states above the valence band maximum is introduced by nitrogen due to the hybridization of N 2p and O 2p orbitals. The phase transition from partially amorphous states to full crystallinity occurs above a characteristic growth temperature of 100 °C, and the localized states are suppressed greatly due to the reduction of nitrogen composition. The electronic properties are dominated by grain boundary scattering and electron transport across boundary barriers through thermal activation at band edge states at high temperatures. The conductivity below 130 K exhibits a weak temperature dependence, which is a signature of variable-range hopping conduction between localized states introduced by nitrogen incorporation.

  16. Land use and transport relationships: A perspective from the United States

    Seskin, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As transportation and land use planners and policy makers world wide grapple with the increasingly challenging consequences of automobile use, there is a growing need to communicate globally about both the knowledge of interactions between transport and land use and the ability to analyze these relationships in a systematic manner. As the world`s largest consumer of energy in general and petroleum in particular, the United States continues to conduct research and innovate in integrated transportation and land use policy issues. The need for improving the state of knowledge and practice, however, is more compelling in developing nations, such as Chile and Thailand, from which, despite their transportation and environmental problems, the United States in fact has much to learn. Nevertheless it is instructive to take a long and broad look at the way the United States is planning and building urban environments. This paper focuses on four aspects of that effort. The first is the state of knowledge on the relationships between land use and travel demand. The second is the analytic tools used to evaluate these relationships. Third is the array of approaches used by government to integrate transport and land use. The last is the ways in which individuals and organizations outside of the formal structure of government participate in metropolitan planning and development.

  17. Radio-Isotopes Section, radiation Safety Division, Ministry Of The Environment, Israel: A General Review, And Future Developments

    Ben-Zion, S.

    1999-01-01

    The section of radio-isotopes in the Ministry Of Environment, is responsible for preventing environmental hazards fi.om radio-isotopes ''from cradle to grave's'. The management and the supervision of radioactive materials, includes about 350 institutes in Israel. We are dealing with the implementation and the enforcement of the environmental regulations and safety standards, and licensing for each institution and installation. Among our tasks are the following: Follow-up of the import, transportation and distribution, usage and storage and disposal of radio-isotopes, as well as legislation, risk-assessments, inspection, , and ''education'. We are also participating in committees / working groups discussing specific topics: Radioactive stores, Low RW disposal, Y2K, GIS, penalties charging, transportation and more

  18. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator load and unload sequence from the licensed hardware package system and the trailer system

    Reilly, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System (System 160), including the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System packaging is licensed (regularoty) hardware, certified by the U.S. Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware. This paper focuses on the required interfaces and sequencing of events required by these systems and the shipping and receiving facilities in preparation of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for space flight. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Regulatory authority of the Rocky Mountain states for low-level radioactive waste packaging and transportation

    Whitman, M.; Tate, P.

    1983-07-01

    The newly-formed Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is an interstate agreement for the management of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Eligible members of the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Each state must ratify the compact within its legislature for the compact to become effective in that state and to make that state a full-fledged member of the compact. By so adopting the compact, each state agrees to the terms and conditions specified therein. Among those terms and conditions are provisions requiring each member state to adopt and enforce procedures requiring low-level waste shipments originating within its borders and destined for a regional facility to conform to packaging and transportation requirements and regulations. These procedures are to include periodic inspections of packaging and shipping practices, periodic inspections of waste containers while in the custody of carriers and appropriate enforcement actions for violations. To carry out this responsibility, each state must have an adequate statutory and regulatory inspection and enforcement authority to ensure the safe transportation of low-level radioactive waste. Three states in the compact region, Arizona, Utah and Wyoming, have incorporated the Department of Transportation regulations in their entirety, and have no published rules and regulations of their own. The other states in the compact, Colorado, Nevada and New Mexico all have separate rules and regulations that incorporate the DOT regulations. A brief description of the regulatory requirements of each state is presented

  20. Microfour-point probe for studying electronic transport through surface states

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Grey, Francois; Shiraki, I.

    2000-01-01

    Microfour-point probes integrated on silicon chips have been fabricated with probe spacings in the range 4-60 mum. They provide a simple robust device for electrical transport measurements at surfaces, bridging the gap between conventional macroscopic four-point probes and scanning tunneling...... transport through surface states, which is not observed on the macroscopic scale, presumably due to scattering at atomic steps. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  1. The water needs for LDV transportation in the United States

    King, Carey W.; Webber, Michael E.; Duncan, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over increased demand for petroleum, reliable fuel supply, and global climate change has resulted in the US government passing new Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards and a Renewable Fuels Standard. Consequently, the fuel mix for light duty vehicle (LDV) travel in the United States will change over the coming years. This paper explores the embodied water consumption and withdrawal associated with two projections for future fuel use in the US LDV sector. This analysis encompasses conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, soy biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen. The existing mandate in the US to blend ethanol into gasoline had effectively committed 3300 billion liters of irrigation water in 2005 (approximately 2.4% of US 2005 fresh water consumption) for producing fuel for LDVs. With current irrigation practices, fuel processing, and electricity generation, it is estimated that by 2030, approximately 14,000 billion liters of water per year will be consumed and 23,000-27,000 billion liters withdrawn to produce fuels used in LDVs. Irrigation for biofuels dominates projected water usage for LDV travel, but other fuels (coal to liquids, oil shale, and electricity via plug-in hybrid vehicles) will also contribute appreciably to future water consumption and withdrawal, especially on a regional basis. (author)

  2. Radio-isotope production using laser Wakefield accelerators

    Leemans, W.P.; Rodgers, D.; Catravas, P.E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Fubiani, G.; Toth, C.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Donahue, R.; Smith, A.; Reitsma, A.

    2001-01-01

    A 10 Hz, 10 TW solid state laser system has been used to produce electron beams suitable for radio-isotope production. The laser beam was focused using a 30 cm focal length f/6 off-axis parabola on a gas plume produced by a high pressure pulsed gas jet. Electrons were trapped and accelerated by high gradient wakefields excited in the ionized gas through the self-modulated laser wakefield instability. The electron beam was measured to contain excesses of 5 nC/bunch. A composite Pb/Cu target was used to convert the electron beam into gamma rays which subsequently produced radio-isotopes through (gamma, n) reactions. Isotope identification through gamma-ray spectroscopy and half-life time measurements demonstrated that Cu 61 was produced which indicates that 20-25 MeV gamma rays were produced, and hence electrons with energies greater than 25-30 MeV. The production of high energy electrons was independently confirmed using a bending magnet spectrometer. The measured spectra had an exponential distribution with a 3 MeV width. The amount of activation was on the order of 2.5 uCi after 3 hours of operation at 1 Hz. Future experiments will aim at increasing this yield by post-accelerating the electron beam using a channel guided laser wakefield accelerator

  3. Radioisotopes for nuclear medicine: the future

    Carr, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine occupies an important niche in the spectrum of medical capability. Since its initial application on a routine basis over 30 years ago its importance has continued to grow. For example, it is expected that over 430,000 Australians will have a nuclear medicine procedure in 1998. Current procedures using nuclear medicine are mainly concerned with diagnosis of oncology, cardiology and neurology. The main radioisotope used in nuclear medicine is Tc 99m, which is produced by a 'so called' Mo-Tc 99m generator. Other isotopes which currently find routine use are Ga-67, Th-201 and I-131. The selective uptakes by particular organs or structures is facilitated by the use of 'cold kits' which after the chemistry of the radioisotope many of the recent advances have been concerned with increasing the selectivity for a particular organ structure. Several of these new agents show increased selectivity using antibody a peptide recognition units

  4. Radioisotope thermionic converters for space applications

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of radioisotope thermionics is reviewed, with emphasis on the U.S. programs, and the prospects for the future are assessed. In radioisotope thermionic converters the emitter heat is generated by the decay of a radioactive isotope. The thermionic converter emitter is mounted directly on a capsule containing the isotope. The rest of the capsule is generally insulated to reduce thermal loss. The development of isotope-fueled thermionic power systems for space application has been pursued since the late 1950's. The U.S. effort was concentrated on modular systems with alpha emitters as the isotope heat source. In the SNAP-13 program, the heat sources were Cerium isotopes and each module produced about 100 watts. The converters were planar diodes and the capsule was insulated with multi-foil insulation

  5. Medical radioisotope production - the Australian experience

    Druce, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian government, through its instrumentality, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), owns and operates a 10-MW Dido-class research reactor at Lucas Heights on the southern outskirts of Sydney. This is the only operating nuclear reactor in Australia. It was built in 1958 and has a maximum flux of 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s. ANSTO also jointly owns and operates a 30-MeV IBA negative ion cyclotron at Camperdown in central Sydney, which began operation in 1992. ANSTO is predominantly a research organization; however, radioisotopes are commercially produced through Australian Radioisotopes (ARI), an ANSTO business entity. Seventy-four people are employed by ARI, which is a vertically integrated organization, i.e., everything from target preparation to sale of products is undertaken.

  6. Cosmogenic radioisotopes in Gebel Kamil meteorite

    Taricco, C.; Colombetti, P.; Bhandari, N.; Sinha, N.; Di Martino, M.; Vivaldo, G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently a small (45 m in diameter) and very young (radioisotope activity generated by cosmic rays in the meteoroids as they travel through the interplanetary space before falling on the Earth. From the 26Al activity measurement and its depth production profiles, we infer (i) that the radius of the meteoroid should be about 1 m, constraining to 30-40 ton the range of pre-atmospheric mass previously proposed and (ii) that the fragment should have been located deeply inside the meteoroid, at a depth > 0.7 m. The 44Ti activity is under the detection threshold of the apparatus; using the depth production profiles of this radioisotope and its half-life T1/2 = 59.2 y, we deduce an upper limit to the date of fall.

  7. Health problems of industrial applications of radioisotopes

    Kudrna, J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation hygiene problems of industrial radioisotope applications are discussed. The observance of regulations is emphasised. Radiation protection is based on the principle of preventing early radiation damage and limiting late radiation damage to an acceptable level. The basic requirement is that the cumulated dose should be as low as possible, i.e., as low as is practically feasible in considering economic and social aspects. Notices 59/72 and 65/72, Collection of Laws, rule that if the limit of 3/10 of the maximum permissible dose is likely to be reached, control zones should be defined and marked at places of work where radioisotopes are handled. The characteristics of such a control zone are listed and the measures to be taken in case of accident are outlined. (B.S.)

  8. Modern radioisotope production technologies for medicine

    Bechtold, V.; Schweickert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of the accelerator production of radioisotopes for medical purposes, are, above all, the high specific activity attainable as well as the possibility of the generation of nuclei with only a few neutrons which disintegrate due to β + emission or electron capture. It is, for example, possible to diagnostically utilize the developing long-range γ quanta by means of computerized tomography. The production of I-123 at the cyclotron of Karlsruhe (nuclear reaction, target, irradiation arrangement) as well as of ultra-pure I-123 with the help of compact cyclotrons, and the plant developed for this are described in brief. As another radioisotope which can be produced with the help of the compact cyclotron, Rb-81 is mentioned, the disintegration product Kr-81m of which is used in pulmonary diagnostics. (RB) [de

  9. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    Peykov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99 Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  10. Development of radioisotope production in JAERI

    Yamabayashi, H.; Kato, H.; Umezawa, H.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1962, we have been developing methods and technology for producing a wide variety of processed radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources by using the JAERI's reactors, JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and providing the products to domestic users. At present, 29 nuclides and 31 products are on our list of processed radioisotopes. Some of those isotopes such as P-32, S-35, Cr-51 and short-lived nuclides are being produced regularly for distribution, but most of the rest are produced upon request. The radiation sources of Co-60 needles and Ir-192 pellets for industrial use and Gd-153 pellet, 7 kinds of Ir-192 and Au-198 grain for medical applications are produced and distributed routinely. (author)

  11. Mathematical models and accuracy of radioisotope gauges

    Urbanski, P.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical expressions relating the variance and mean value of the intrinsic error with the parameters of one and multi-dimensional mathematical models of radioisotope gauges are given. Variance of the intrinsic error at the model's output is considered as a sum of the variances of the random error which is created in the first stages of the measuring chain and the random error of calibration procedure. The mean value of the intrinsic error (systematic error) appears always for nonlinear models. It was found that the optimal model of calibration procedure not always corresponds to the minimal value of the intrinsic error. The derived expressions are applied for the assessment of the mathematical models of some of the existing gauges (radioisotope belt weigher, XRF analyzer and coating thickness gauge). 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  12. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  13. The order for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes, and the former ordinance No. 14, 1958, is hereby totally amended. Radioisotopes under the law are the isotopes which emit radiation, and of which the concentration exceeds the levels defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency, their compounds or the substances containing these compounds, excluding those defined in the atomic energy act and other particular laws. The apparatuses fitted with radioisotopes under the law are electron capture detectors for gas chromatography. The radiation emitting installations under the law are cyclotron, synchrotron, synchro-cyclotron, linear accelerator, betatron, Van de Graaff accelerator, Cockcroft-Walton's accelerator, etc. The permission of usage under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file the application for them attaching the documents describing expected period of usage and other papers specified by the Director General. The total quantity of radioisotopes sealed tightly for each works or enterprise under the law shall be 100 milli-curie. The design of apparatus for the prevention of radiation injuries, the capacities of storage facilities regularly inspected, the period of regular inspection, the confirmation of transport and disposal and fees to be paid, etc. are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  14. Member States in Top Gear. Opportunities for national policies to reduce GHG emissions in transport

    Van Essen, H.; Den Boer, E.; Warringa, G.

    2012-10-15

    National sustainable transport policies in EU Member States are compared, with a focus on both current legislation and long-term climate policy. The study is input for the conference 'Keep moving, towards sustainable mobility' to be held in Rotterdam, October 11, 2012, and organised by the European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC) and the Dutch Council for the Environment and Infrastructure (Rli). The study reviews the main trends in transport and climate policy in EU Member States, for ten of which an in-depth analysis of relevant policies was also performed.

  15. Research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in SINR

    Zhang Jiahua

    1987-01-01

    A brief systematic account on the research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research (SINR) is presented. It comprehensively covers the following categories: 1. Radioisotopes produced by cyclotron; 2. Radioisotope-labelled compounds; 3. Radioisotope as source of energy converter; 4. Induced-radioisotope generation as a means for elemental analysis--the activation analysis; 5. Radioisotope equipped with electronic instrument for various application; and 6. Special usage of some radioisotopes

  16. Radioisotopes in the treatment of cancer

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    Radiation treatment of malignant growths is not, of course, a novel procedure; both radium implants and X-rays generated at medium voltages (up to 250 kV) have been used all over the world for many years. However, large scale production of radioisotopes in atomic reactors has made radiotherapy available for the first time in less developed areas of the world. Moreover, the treatment has been simplified and, in many cases, made more effective

  17. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, N. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. S.; Jeon, B. H.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  18. Visualization of Radioisotope Detectability Over Time.

    Huynh, Brady [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A radioactive isotope is an atom that has an unstable nucleus. The isotope can undergo radioactive decay, the process in which excessive nuclear energy is emitted from the nucleus in many different forms, such as gamma radiation, alpha particles, or beta particles. The important thing to note is that these emissions act as a signature for the isotope. Each radioisotope has a particular emission spectrum, emitting radiation at different energies and at different rates.

  19. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    Hillier, L.R.; Decaire, R.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  20. Utilization of radioisotopes in the agriculture

    Cerri, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of radioisotopes utilization in the agriculture, such as, the use of gamma radiation for genetic improvement of plants; the use of C 14 as tracer for comprehension of the vegetable physiology; the use of nitrogen and phosphorus isotopes in soil fertilization and plant nutrition; the use of radiation for inset sterelization and, measurement of the humidity and density of soils by neutron moderation and attenuation of gamma radiation, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Lethality of radioisotopes in early mouse embryos

    Macqueen, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of pre-implantation mouse embryos was found to be prevented by exposure of the embryos to [ 35 S]methionine, but not to [ 3 H]methionine. Such embryos have also been shown to be highly sensitive to [ 3 H]thymidine. These observations are discussed with reference to the path lengths and energies of electrons emitted from the different radioisotopes. (author)

  2. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    1959-01-01

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  3. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest

    Sutrisno, Singgih

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in 32 P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of 32 P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 μCi/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 μCi/ml 32 P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 μCi/ml respectivelly. (author)

  4. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    Nakane, Ryohei; Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami

    1998-03-01

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  5. Present status of radioisotope production in JAERI

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    1994-01-01

    Since 1962, the technology for producing a wide variety of processed radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources has been developed by using the reactors, JRR-1, JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and the products have been offered to domestic users. At present, 31 products of 29 nuclides are on the list of processed radioisotopes. Some of those isotopes such as P-32, S-35, Cr-51 and short lived nuclides are produced for regular distribution, but the rest are produced upon request. The radiation sources of Co-60 needles for industrial use, Ir-192 pellets for the nondestructive inspection of pipelines, Gd-153 pellets for the diagnosis of born mineral and seven kinds of brachy therapy Ir-192 and Au-198 grains are produced and distributed regularly. The organic compounds labeled with H-3 and C-14 are widely used. In fiscal year 1992, 34 batches and total amount 12 TBq of processed radioisotopes and 100 batches, 1.2 PBq of radiation sources were produced as scheduled. The development of the techniques for producing the sources emitting high energy β ray used for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is in progress. The method of producing new isotopes is developed. (K.I.)

  6. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    NONE

    1959-07-01

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  7. Radioisotope applications on fluidized catalytic cracking units

    Charlton, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used to trace the flow of all the phases of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking process in oil refineries. The gaseous phases, steam, hydrocarbon vapour and air, are generally traced using a noble-gas isotope, 41 Ar, 79 Kr or 85 Kr. An appropriate tracer for the catalyst is produced by irradiating a catalyst sample in a nuclear reactor. The activation products, 140 La and 24 Na provide appropriate radioactive 'labels' for the catalyst, which is reinjected into the FCC. An advantage of this approach is that it facilitates the study of the behaviour of different particle size fractions. Radioisotopes as sealed sources of gamma radiation are used to measure catalyst density variations and density distributions in critical parts of the unit. An important trend in radioisotope applications is the increasing use of the information they produce as inputs to or as validation of, mathematical process models. In line with the increasing sophistication of the models, the technology is undergoing continuous refinement. Developments include the investigation of more efficient, more convenient tracers, the introduction of systems to facilitate more rapid and comprehensive data acquisition and software refinements for enhanced data analysis

  8. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  9. Real time recording system of radioisotopes by local area network (LAN) computer system and user input processing

    Shinohara, Kunio; Ito, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Hajime; Yanase, Makoto; Uno, Kiyoshi.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-assisted real time recording system was developed for management of radioisotopes. The system composed of two personal computers forming LAN, identification-card (ID-card) reader, and electricity-operating door-lock. One computer is operated by radiation safety staffs and stores the records of radioisotopes. The users of radioisotopes are registered in this computer. Another computer is installed in front of the storage room for radioisotopes. This computer is ready for operation by a registered ID-card and is input data by the user. After the completion of data input, the door to the storage room is unlocked. The present system enables us the following merits: Radiation safety staffs can easily keep up with the present states of radioisotopes in the storage room and save much labor. Radioactivity is always corrected. The upper limit of radioactivities in use per day is automatically checked and users are regulated when they input the amounts to be used. Users can obtain storage records of radioisotopes any time. In addition, the system is applicable to facilities which have more than two storage rooms. (author)

  10. Fostering member state implementation of the IAEA's transport regulations

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information.

  11. Notes for the guidance of radiological protection advisers and radiological safety officers in departments where radioisotopes are used

    1975-01-01

    After a general and historical introduction the subject is dealt with in sections, entitled: local rules; records required in radioisotope departments; laboratory design; monitoring (individual and environmental); incidents involving uncontrolled dispersal of radioactive substances; protection of the public (disposal of radioactive waste, transportation of radioactive material, patients containing radioactive materials). (author)

  12. Authorization procedure for containers and modalities of transport of radioactive substances within the EC Member States

    Amaducci, S.

    1977-02-01

    In all EC Member States, the transport of radioactive substances, the activity of which is higher than a specific level, is subject to regulatory requirements. Most of these requirements demand an administrative authorization before starting transport. In Belgium, authorization may take the form of a general, particular or special authorization, and in Luxembourg of a general or particular authorization. The latter applies in France and Italy but in these countries specific provisions also exist depending on the means of transport used. The latter specific provisions also exist in Germany and in the Netherlands. On the contrary in the United Kingdom, no administrative authorization is needed for such transport, except for special consignments. Finally, it is to be noted that neither in Denmark nor in Ireland have regulatory requirements been laid down with respect to such authorization procedure

  13. Dark states in spin-polarized transport through triple quantum dot molecules

    Wrześniewski, K.; Weymann, I.

    2018-02-01

    We study the spin-polarized transport through a triple-quantum-dot molecule weakly coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The analysis is performed by means of the real-time diagrammatic technique, including up to the second order of perturbation expansion with respect to the tunnel coupling. The emphasis is put on the impact of dark states on spin-resolved transport characteristics. It is shown that the interplay of coherent population trapping and cotunneling processes results in a highly nontrivial behavior of the tunnel magnetoresistance, which can take negative values. Moreover, a super-Poissonian shot noise is found in transport regimes where the current is blocked by the formation of dark states, which can be additionally enhanced by spin dependence of tunneling processes, depending on the magnetic configuration of the device. The mechanisms leading to those effects are thoroughly discussed.

  14. New York State intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations (CVO) : business plan

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this Business Plan is to describe the major Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) initiatives and projects in the area of Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) that have recently been or are planned to be undertaken in New York State b...

  15. Application of quasi-steady state methods to molecular motor transport on microtubules in fungal hyphae.

    Dauvergne, Duncan; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2015-08-21

    We consider bidirectional transport of cargo by molecular motors dynein and kinesin that walk along microtubules, and/or diffuse in the cell. The motors compete to transport cargo in opposite directions with respect to microtubule polarity (towards the plus or minus end of the microtubule). In recent work, Gou et al. (2014) used a hierarchical set of models, each consisting of continuum transport equations to track the evolution of motors and their cargo (early endosomes) in the specific case of the fungus Ustilago maydis. We complement their work using a framework of quasi-steady state analysis developed by Newby and Bressloff (2010) and Bressloff and Newby (2013) to reduce the models to an approximating steady state Fokker-Plank equation. This analysis allows us to find analytic approximations to the steady state solutions in many cases where the full models are not easily solved. Consequently, we can make predictions about parameter dependence of the resulting spatial distributions. We also characterize the overall rates of bulk transport and diffusion, and how these are related to state transition parameters, motor speeds, microtubule polarity distribution, and specific assumptions made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scientific Framework for Stormwater Monitoring by the Washington State Department of Transportation

    Sheibley, R.W.; Kelly, V.J.; Wagner, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation municipal stormwater monitoring program, in operation for about 8 years, never has received an external, objective assessment. In addition, the Washington State Department of Transportation would like to identify the standard operating procedures and quality assurance protocols that must be adopted so that their monitoring program will meet the requirements of the new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System municipal stormwater permit. As a result, in March 2009, the Washington State Department of Transportation asked the U.S. Geological Survey to assess their pre-2009 municipal stormwater monitoring program. This report presents guidelines developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation to meet new permit requirements and regional/national stormwater monitoring standards to ensure that adequate processes and procedures are identified to collect high-quality, scientifically defensible municipal stormwater monitoring data. These include: (1) development of coherent vision and cooperation among all elements of the program; (2) a comprehensive approach for site selection; (3) an effective quality assurance program for field, laboratory, and data management; and (4) an adequate database and data management system.

  17. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal Fiscal : Year 2004 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial Report. The portfolio of : the FFY 04 SIB had a total of nineteen loans in the amount of $47,340,891. : A comp...

  18. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2008 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial Report. The portfolio of the FFY 2008 SIB had a total of five loans totaling $22.1 million. Since the begi...

  19. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal : Fiscal Year (FFY) 2007 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial : Report. : The portfolio of the FFY 2007 SIB had a total of 13 loans and 1 bond in the : amount of $17....

  20. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal : Fiscal Year (FFY) 2009 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial : Report. : The portfolio of the FFY 2009 SIB had a total of nine loans totaling $9.0 : million and one ...

  1. Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results

    Mercier, B.

    1985-10-01

    A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr

  2. 78 FR 29314 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Interstate Transport of...

    2013-05-20

    ...: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R08-OAR- 2012-0350. EPA's policy is that all comments received... reiterated the recommendations for western states made by EPA in previous guidance addressing the 110(a)(2)(D... stated that EPA was working on a new rule to replace CAIR that would address issues raised by the court...

  3. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    Charlton, J.S.; Webb, M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  4. HAC and production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds

    Nozaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews different methods for the production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds that make use of hot atom reactions. Subsequently he discusses the production of radioisotopes for radiopharmaceuticals; enrichment of (n,γ) products, recoil labelling and related methods (neutron reaction products, cyclotron production, excitation labelling, radiation and discharge induced labelling). The final section offers a survey of radioisotope production using accelerators. Only a selection of the various conditions used in practical RI production is considered. (Auth.)

  5. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    1983-04-01

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  6. Transportation

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  7. Toward a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

    1982-09-01

    In recognition of the federal government's responsibility for initiating a national strategy for hazardous materials transportation safety, the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) prepared an internal strategy paper for creating a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety in August 1981. The paper outlined the scope of the hazardous materials transportation problem and established MTB's approach for creating an intergovernmental partnership for its resolution. This paper represents an update and refinement of the original plan, and is designed to chart the direction of the emerging federal/state/local relationship. The cornerstone of the plan remains the establishment of a single national set of safety regulations. It is on achievement of this objective that MTB's plan for development of enforcement, training, and emergency response capabilities at all levels of government is based. Chapter I introduces the problem with a desription of the economic importance of hazardous materials and discusses its implications for public safety. Chapter II defines the appropriate role for each level of government in the areas of rulemaking, enforcement, emergency response, and education. Chapter III demonstrates the need for uniform national safety standards and describes the economic and safety benefits of this approach. Chapter IV contains a detailed description of MTB's program for developing a successful intergovernmental partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

  8. The law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    1984-01-01

    The law regulates uses, sales and disposal of radioisotopes, uses of radiation generating apparatuses, disposal of materials contaminated with radioisotopes, and so on, in accordance with the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act, for public safety. Covered are the following: permission for and notification of the uses and permission for businesses selling and disposing of radioisotopes, and approval of designs concerning radiation hazard prevention mechanisms, obligations of the users and business enterprises selling and disposing of radioisotopes, the licensed engineers of radiation, organs, etc. for confirmation of the mechanisms, punitive provisions, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  9. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  10. Efficient, Long-Lived Radioisotope Power Generator, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., (RMD) proposes to develop an alternative very long term, radioisotope power source with thermoelectric power conversion with...

  11. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  12. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1981-10-01

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    He Youfeng

    1997-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  14. Analyzing the United States Department of Transportation's Implementation Strategy for High Speed Rail: Three Case Studies

    Robinson, Ryan

    High-speed rail (HSR) has become a major contributor to the transportation sector with a strong push by the Obama Administration and the Department of Transportation to implement high-speed rail in the United States. High-speed rail is a costly transportation alternative that has the potential displace some car and airport travel while increase energy security and environmental sustainability. This thesis will examine the United States high-speed rail implementation strategy by comparing it to the implementation strategies of France, Japan, and Germany in a multiple case study under four main criteria of success: economic profitability, reliability, safety, and ridership. Analysis will conclude with lessons to be taken away from the case studies and applied to the United States strategy. It is important to understand that this project has not been established to create a comprehensive implementation plan for high-speed rail in the United States; rather, this project is intended to observe the depth and quality of the current United States implementation strategy and make additional recommendations by comparing it with France, Japan, and Germany.

  15. Devolution's policy impact on non-emergency medical transportation in State Children's Health Insurance Programs.

    Borders, Stephen; Blakely, Craig; Ponder, Linda; Raphael, David

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of devolution often maintain that the transfer of power and authority of programs enables local officials to craft policy solutions that better align with the needs of their constituents. This article provides one of the first empirical evaluations of this assumption as it relates to non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) in the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). NEMT programs meet a critical need in the areas in which they serve, directly targeting this single key access barrier to care. Yet states have great latitude in making such services available. The authors utilize data from 32 states to provide a preliminary assessment of devolution's consequences and policy impact on transportation-related access to care. Their findings provide mixed evidence on devolution's impact on policy outcomes. Proponents of devolution can find solace in the fact that several states have gone beyond federally mandated minimum requirements to offer innovative programs to remove transportation barriers to care. Detractors of devolution will find continued pause on several key issues, as a number of states do not offer NEMT to their SCHIP populations while cutting services and leaving over $7 billion in federal matching funding unspent.

  16. Federal legal constraints on state and local regulation of radioactive materials transportation

    Reese, R.T.; Morris, F.A.; Welles, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Within the last five years, the transportation of nuclear materials has experienced a rapid growth of state/local regulations. The federal government is responding to develop a legal basis for declaring these state/local regulations inconsistent and has proceeded to declare certain state regulations invalid. This paper summarizes the relevant legal doctrines, places these doctrines in the context of the federal regulatory framework and reaches conclusions about what forms of state and local regulation may be subject to possible preemptive initiatives and what regulations are unlikely candidates for federal actions. This paper also discusses an example of a preemptive initiative and a federal action. The initiative is contained in DOT's proposed rule on Highway Routing of Radioactive Materials. DOT's first general preemptive action under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act is described with respect to decisions on Rhode Island's regulations regarding transportation of liquified natural and petroleum gases. There are still some issues that have not been clarified - the role of the federal government in the development and support of emergency response capabilities for nuclear and other hazardous materials, detailed shipment information, and state requirements for prenotifications

  17. Transport analysis of oscillatory state for plasma dynamics in helical plasmas

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2012-11-01

    In helical plasmas, two kinds of the oscillation for the plasma quantities are experimentally observed. Firstly, the limit cycle phenomena in the temporal evolution of the electrostatic potential, namely the electric pulsation, have been observed in the core region. The temporally self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as a simulation result in the core region. The dependence of the transition point for the radial electric field on the source is examined. Secondly, the density limit oscillation in the helical device was reported. To realize the oscillation phenomena at the density limit, the temporal evolution of the density profile is newly included in a simulation when the radiative loss is calculated in the edge region. Two stationary plasma states, where the transport loss or radiative loss is dominant in the edge region, are obtained. The dynamics of the plasma quantity is found to show the transition from the transport-dominated state to the radiation-dominated state. (author)

  18. A regional modeling framework of phosphorus sources and transport in streams of the southeastern United States

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Hoos, Anne B.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p < 0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables – soil organic matter and soil pH – are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity.

  19. A Markov State-based Quantitative Kinetic Model of Sodium Release from the Dopamine Transporter

    Razavi, Asghar M.; Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2017-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family of membrane proteins that are responsible for reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft to terminate a neuronal signal and enable subsequent neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic neuron. The release of one sodium ion from the crystallographically determined sodium binding site Na2 had been identified as an initial step in the transport cycle which prepares the transporter for substrate translocation by stabilizing an inward-open conformation. We have constructed Markov State Models (MSMs) from extensive molecular dynamics simulations of human DAT (hDAT) to explore the mechanism of this sodium release. Our results quantify the release process triggered by hydration of the Na2 site that occurs concomitantly with a conformational transition from an outward-facing to an inward-facing state of the transporter. The kinetics of the release process are computed from the MSM, and transition path theory is used to identify the most probable sodium release pathways. An intermediate state is discovered on the sodium release pathway, and the results reveal the importance of various modes of interaction of the N-terminus of hDAT in controlling the pathways of release.

  20. New York state high-speed surface transportation study: Final report

    1994-08-01

    In 1990, New York State Governor Mario M. Cuomo created an interagency task force under the leadership of Lt. Governor Stan Lundine to investigate the potential of high speed ground transportation (HSGT) systems. Building on information from previous agency activities, including consultant efforts contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), and in-house analyses performed by New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the task force focused on the corridor between New York City and the Niagara Frontier. In December 1991, NYSERDA issued a contract for a study of high speed ground transportation options for New York State. The study`s objective was to assess potential rights-of-way, ridership, energy and environmental impacts, economic benefits, capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and financial viability of HSGT systems. This study builds upon and supplements previous and on-going HSGT activities conducted by the members of the interagency task force. These activities include: Maglev Technical and Economic Feasibility Study (NYSERDA); Maglev Demonstration Site Investigation (NYSTA); and New York/Massachusetts High Speed Ground Transportation Study (NYSDOT). This study is intended to verify and refine previous information and analyses and provide supplemental information and insights to be used in determining if additional investigation and activities involving HSGT are desirable for New York State. This study evaluates HSGT technologies capable of speeds significantly higher than those achieved with the present rail system. Three HSGT categories are used in this study: incremental rail improvement, very high-speed rail, and Maglev.

  1. Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt.

    Kuhr, S; Alt, W; Schrader, D; Dotsenko, I; Miroshnychenko, Y; Rosenfeld, W; Khudaverdyan, M; Gomer, V; Rauschenbeutel, A; Meschede, D

    2003-11-21

    We have prepared and detected quantum coherences of trapped cesium atoms with long dephasing times. Controlled transport by an "optical conveyor belt" over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The limiting dephasing effects are experimentally identified, and we present an analytical model of the reversible and irreversible dephasing mechanisms. Our experimental methods are applicable at the single-atom level. Coherent quantum bit operations along with quantum state transport open the route towards a "quantum shift register" of individual neutral atoms.

  2. Climatology of transport and diffusion conditions along the United States Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    Raynor, G.S.; Hayes, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the atmospheric transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts was conducted to aid in planning and site selection for potentially polluting installations. This paper presents selected results from an extensive statistical study. Regular hourly observational data were obtained from 30 coastal stations from Maine to Texas and analyzed in terms of conditions important to emission transport and diffusion. The 30 stations included four pairs with one of each pair at a greater distance from the coast than the other but near the same latitude

  3. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  4. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    Horlock, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m 2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  5. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    So, Le Van [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  6. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  7. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs

  8. Transportation

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  9. Clouds, airplanes, trucks and people: carrying radioisotopes to and across Mexico.

    Mateos, Gisela; Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the early stages of Mexican nuclearization that took place in contact with radioisotopes. This history requires a multilayered narrative with an emphasis in North-South asymmetric relations, and in the value of education and training in the creation of international asymmetrical networks. Radioisotopes were involved in exchanges with the United States since the late 1940s, but also with Canada. We also describe the context of implementation of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace initiative in Mexico that opened the door to training programs at both the Comisión Nacional de Energía Nuclear and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Radioisotopes became the best example of the peaceful applications of atomic energy, and as such they fitted the Mexican nuclearization process that was and still is defined by its commitment to pacifism. In 1955 Mexico became one of the 16 members of the atomic fallout network established by the United Nations. As part of this network, the first generation of Mexican (women) radio-chemists was trained. By the end of the 1960s, radioisotopes and biological markers were being produced in a research reactor, prepared and distributed by the CNEN within Mexico. We end up this paper with a brief reflection on North-South nuclear exchanges and the particularities of the Mexican case.

  10. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1978

    Burlison, J.S.; Laidler, R.I.

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of the document is to list DOE's radioisotopes production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc

  11. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  12. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  13. Industrial measurement instruments that use radioisotopes

    Monno, Asao

    2004-01-01

    An example of a large-scale system for controlling hot rolling, and recent developments for a gamma-ray thickness gauge for the inner-mill housing of a plate and a thickness gauge for a hot seamless tube mill are introduced. The dramatically higher speed response, versatile intelligent elements, larger data capacity and formation of a database are advantages of these instruments over conventional devices. Moreover, Fuji Electric's industrial measuring instruments that use radioisotopes are manufactured and marketed to be compatible with those of Hitachi, and we have already compiled a track record of many deliveries. (author)

  14. 78 FR 27883 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Montana; Interstate Transport...

    2013-05-13

    ...-OAR- 2012-0347. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket..., the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance essentially reiterated the recommendations for western... . \\6\\ The 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance stated that EPA was working on a new rule to...

  15. The International Experience of the State Support for Creating the Transport and Logistics Centers

    Zharska Iryna O.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analysis and synthesis of the international experience as to the State support for creating the transport and logistics centers (TLCs. The causes for emergence of the first TLCs in Europe (60-80-ies of XX century were considered. Values of the LPI index for the countries occupying the first 40 positions of the ranking as of 2014 and of 2016 have been provided, and the major changes during this time have been analyzed. The ranking position of Ukraine is displayed separately. Features of the logistics infrastructure of nine countries with a high value of the LPI index have been considered, degree of the State involvement in the formation of the TLC network has been analyzed. It has been substantiated that creation of the transport and logistics centers allows to reduce the logistics costs of individual producers and contributes to enhancing the efficiency of operation of the national economy in general by attracting investments in the infrastructure development, increasing the number of jobs and tax revenues. The basic motifs that determine the interest of the State authorities in providing support for creating the transportation and logistics centers have been defined. Prospect for further research in this direction will be determining the efficiency of using the different models of the State support for creation and development of TLCs

  16. The Efficiency and Public Transport Accessibility of Indirect State Administration in the Czech Republic

    Vrabková Iveta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efficiency and public transport accessibility of indirect (devolved state administration performed by municipalities with extended powers (hereinafter MEPs in the Czech Republic. Our aim is to evaluate the efficiency of the revenues made by municipalities with extended powers, through performing powers delegated to them by the state administration, and those municipalities’ public transport accessibility as of 31 December, 2014. The rate of efficiency is tested on an output-oriented Free Disposable Hull model. One input variable is selected - the operating expenses of the municipal offices recalculated per inhabitant of the municipality’s administrative district - and two output variables are selected: contribution to the performance of state administration, recalculated per inhabitant of the municipality’s administrative district, and revenues from administrative fees per inhabitant of the municipality’s administrative district. The municipality’s offices’ transport accessibility is evaluated via network analysis using ArcGIS software. The article investigates the hypothesis that public administration deconcentration practices logically result in higher security costs and therefore inefficiency. The results reveal that only 66 of the country’s 205 MEPs are efficient and that operating expenses and state contributions for the performance of state administrative tasks play a significant role in these results. Efficiency is less significantly influenced by administrative fee revenues. Public transport accessibility is analyzed for two time intervals - 6:00 to 8:00 am and 1:00 to 2:00 pm - on Tuesdays. The degree of accessibility is defined using a six-point scale of accessibility. The results show that the best accessibility is in the morning hours, when the offices are accessible for 68.8% of the population aged 15+ in the Czech Republic; the worst accessibility is in the afternoon hours when only 2% of the

  17. Medical and Other Radioisotopes as Tracers in the Wastewater-River-Sediment Chain

    Fischer, H. W.; Ulbrich, S.; Pittauerova, D.; Hettwig, B. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Medical, natural and other artificial radioisotopes have been followed on their pathway to river sediment employing gamma spectroscopy. Sampling points were situated at a local wastewater treatment plant (inflow, outflow and sludge) and along 70 km of a tidal river (bank sediment). Isotope entry points are assumed to be wastewater for medical isotopes like I-131 and Tc-99m, rain for natural Be-7, and soil erosion for fission generated Cs-137. Medical isotope data reflect the short term dynamics of medical usage, wastewater transport and treatment, and the river system. Be-7 data are influenced by the amount of rainfall on a short time scale, and by the size of the river catchment area and dilution due to tidal effects in the long term. Cs-137 values appear rather constant, behaving similarly to primordial K-40. In conclusion, the investigated radioisotopes offer a variety of possibilities to assess water and sediment dynamics. (author)

  18. State-specific transport properties of electronically excited Ar and C

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, a theoretical model of state-resolved transport properties in electronically excited atomic species developed earlier is applied to argon and carbon atomic species. It is shown that for Ar and C, similarly to the case of atomic nitrogen and oxygen, the Slater-like models can be applied to calculate diameters of electronically excited atoms. Using the Slater-like model it is shown that for half-filled N (2 px1py1pz1) and full-filled Ar (3 px2py2pz2) electronic shells the growth of atomic radius goes slowly compared to C (2 px1py1) and O (2 px2py1pz1). The effect of collision diameters on the transport properties of Ar and C is evaluated. The influence of accounted number of electronic levels on the transport coefficients is examined for the case of Boltzmann distributions over electronic energy levels. It is emphasized that in the temperature range 1000-14000 K, for Boltzmann-like distributions over electronic states the number of accounted electronic levels do not influence the transport coefficients. Contrary to this, for higher temperatures T > 14000 K this effect becomes of importance, especially for argon.

  19. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    Appleton, G.J.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  20. Medical research with radioisotopes in Greece

    Belcher, E H [Post-graduate Medical School, Hammersmith, London (United Kingdom)

    1961-07-15

    An important program of research into the nature and causes of congenital haemolytic anaemias, notably the disease known as Mediterranean anaemia or Thalassaemia, which is a serious medical problem in the Mediterranean countries, is at present being carried out in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics of the University of Athens under a research contract awarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program is concerned with diseases in which there is an inherited defect or abnormality in the production of haemoglobin, the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells which is responsible for the carriage of oxygen in the blood. Two techniques have been widely used in the studies at the University of Athens. In the first of these, a radioisotope of iron, iron-59, is used to follow iron metabolism and haemoglobin production. Iron metabolism in the body is concerned largely with the synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, which consists of a protein, globin, linked to an iron containing substance, haeme. The second technique makes use of a radioisotope of chromium, chromium-51, to study the fate of the red cells in the blood. By performing simultaneous studies with iron- 59 and chromium-51, a detailed picture of haemoglobin synthesis and red cell production and destruction can be built up. Such investigations have been invaluable in establishing the characteristic patterns of different congenital haemolytic anaemias.

  1. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    Appleton, G J; Krishnamoorthy, P N

    1960-07-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  2. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food

    Albright, S.; Seviour, R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of "2"4Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that "2"4Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. - Highlights: • We show that neutron interrogation of food can produce many radioisotopes. • We show a strong dependance between food and certain radioisotopes. • Some isotopes are shown to have an energy dependence. • Previous claims that 24Na is the main threat is shown to only apply in special cases.

  3. Rhenium radioisotopes for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical development

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Pinkert, J.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.Y.; Wang, S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 represent two important radioisotopes which are of interest for a variety of therapeutic applications in oncology, nuclear medicine and interventional cardiology. Rhenium-186 is directly produced in a nuclear reactor and the 90 hour half-life allows distribution to distant sites. The relatively low specific activity of rhenium-186 produced in most reactors, however, permits use of phosphonates, but limits use for labelled peptides and antibodies. Rhenium-188 has a much shorter 16.9 hour half-life which makes distribution from direct reactor production difficult. However, rhenium-188 can be obtained carrier-free from a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, which has a long useful shelf-life of several months which is cost-effective, especially for developing regions. In this paper we discuss the issues associated with the production of rhenium-186- and rhenium-188 and the development and use of various radiopharmaceuticals and devices labelled with these radioisotopes for bone pain palliation, endoradiotherapy of tumours by selective catheterization and tumour therapy using radiolabelled peptides and antibodies, radionuclide synovectomy and the new field of vascular radiation therapy. (author)

  4. Report of Radioisotope Inspection Technical Committee

    Otani, H.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of unifying the method of performance test for the routine management of the performance of RI equipments, the check-up of performance at the time of purchasing the equipments or research works, the Committee has continued the investigation on the method of performance test on RI equipments. Now, the definite plans have been decided regarding the method of performance test on radioisotope monitoring instruments and the measuring instruments for RI samples, therefore they are reported hereinafter. As for the radioisotope monitoring instruments, Curie meter, area monitor, water monitor, gas monitor and hand, foot and cloth monitor were taken up, and the items of inspection, the purposes, the testing methods, the expression of measured results and their evaluation were discussed. The accuracy of measurement of absolute radio-activity is important in Curie meter, the stability of continuous monitoring is important in general monitors, and the limit of measurement is important in the hand, foot and cloth monitor. As for the measuring instruments for radioactive materials, the efficiency of counting, linearity and stability were taken up as the items of performance test, and other matters to which attention should be paid were added. These were described, dividing into well type scintillation counter and liquid scintillation counter. (Kako, I.)

  5. Reliability Issues in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    Schreiber, Jeffrey; Shah, Ashwin

    2005-01-01

    Stirling power conversion is a potential candidate for use in a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for space science missions because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced requirement of radioactive material. Reliability of an RPS that utilizes Stirling power conversion technology is important in order to ascertain long term successful performance. Owing to long life time requirement (14 years), it is difficult to perform long-term tests that encompass all the uncertainties involved in the design variables of components and subsystems comprising the RPS. The requirement for uninterrupted performance reliability and related issues are discussed, and some of the critical areas of concern are identified. An overview of the current on-going efforts to understand component life, design variables at the component and system levels, and related sources and nature of uncertainties are also discussed. Current status of the 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) reliability efforts is described. Additionally, an approach showing the use of past experience on other successfully used power systems to develop a reliability plan for the SRG110 design is outlined.

  6. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Medical Addendum

    Hercik, F.; Jammet, H.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  7. LRP1 Modulates APP Intraneuronal Transport and Processing in Its Monomeric and Dimeric State

    Claus U. Pietrzik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles. Interestingly, co-expression of LRP1 and APP caused a change of APP transport velocities, indicating that LRP1 recruits APP to a specific type of fast axonal transport vesicles. In contrast lowered levels of LRP1 facilitated APP transport. We further show that monomeric and dimeric APP exhibit similar transport characteristics and that both are affected by LRP1 in a similar way, by slowing down APP anterograde transport and increasing its endocytosis rate. In line with this, a knockout of LRP1 in CHO cells and in primary neurons caused an increase of monomeric and dimeric APP surface localization and in turn accelerated shedding by meprin β and ADAM10. Notably, a choroid plexus specific LRP1 knockout caused a much higher secretion of sAPP dimers into the cerebrospinal fluid compared to sAPP monomers. Together, our data show that LRP1 functions as a sorting receptor for APP, regulating its cell surface localization and thereby its processing by ADAM10 and meprin β, with the latter exhibiting a preference for APP in its dimeric state.

  8. Transportation

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  9. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    Kwon, J.H. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J.J.; Kim, G.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.W.; Byun, M.W. [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S.; Park, S.H. [Greenpia Tech Inc., Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do 469-810 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010-3150 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 3} CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  10. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984

  11. Systematic study of transport via surface and bulk states in Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    de Castro, S.; Peres, M. L.; Chitta, V. A.; Gratens, X.; Soares, D. A. W.; Fornari, C. I.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.; Oliveira, N. F., Jr.

    2016-07-01

    We performed magnetoresistance measurements on Bi2Te3 thin film in the temperature range of T = 1.2-4.0 K and for magnetic fields up to 2 T. The curves exhibited anomalous behavior for temperatures below 4.0 K. Different temperature intervals revealed electrical transport through different conductive channels with clear signatures of weak antilocalization. The magnetoresistance curves were explained using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the 2D Dirac modified model. The comparison between the parameters obtained from the two models revealed the transport via topological surface states and bulk states. In addition, a superconductive like transition is observed for the lowest temperatures and we suggest that this effect can be originated from the misfit dislocations caused by strain, giving rise to a superconductive channel between the interface of the film and the substrate.

  12. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes

    Paredes G, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  13. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  14. Application of radioisotope technique for investigation of pumps seals

    Antoszewski, B.; Zorawska, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope method of measuring the wear of rings of the face mechanical seals, bush in soft seals, and leakage in double mechanical seals is described. The examples are given. It is found that radioisotope technique can be used for investigation of the seals. (author)

  15. Shielded radioisotope generator and method for using same

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclide generator for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features batch flow of eluting reagent interior of the generator in a completely shielded environment

  16. Steady-state coupled transport of HNO3 through a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane

    Noble, R.D.; Danesi, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Nitric acid removal from an aqueous stream was accomplished by continuously passing the fluid through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (SLM). The nitric acid was extracted through the membrane wall by coupled transport. The system was modeled as a series of (SLM)-continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) pairs. An approximate technique was used to predict the steady state nitric acid concentration in the system. The comparison with experimental data was very good

  17. Homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors for the production of Mo-99 and other short lived radioisotopes

    2008-09-01

    Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), the daughter of Molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo), is the most commonly used medical radioisotope in the world. It accounts for over twenty-five million medical procedures each year worldwide, comprising about 80% of all radiopharmaceutical procedures. 99 Mo is mostly prepared by the fission of uranium-235 targets in a nuclear reactor with a fission yield of about 6.1%. Currently over 95% of the fission product 99 Mo is obtained using highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. Smaller scale producers use low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. Small quantities of 99 Mo are also produced by neutron activation through the use of the (n, γ) reaction. The concept of a compact homogeneous aqueous reactor fuelled by a uranium salt solution with off-line separation of radioisotopes of interest ( 99 Mo, 131 I) from aliquots of irradiated fuel solution has been cited in a few presentations in the series of International Conference on Isotopes (ICI) held in Vancouver (2000), Cape Town (2003) and Brussels (2005) and recently some corporate interest has also been noticeable. Calculations and some experimental research have shown that the use of aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) could be an efficient technology for fission radioisotope production, having some prospective advantages compared with traditional technology based on the use of solid uranium targets irradiated in research reactors. This review of AHR status and prospects by a team of experts engaged in the field of homogeneous reactors and radioisotope producers yields an objective evaluation of the technological challenges and other relevant implications. The meeting to develop this report facilitated the exchange of information on the 'state of the art' of the technology related to homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors, especially in connection with the production of radioisotopes. This publication presents a summary of discussions of a consultants meeting which is followed by the technical

  18. Advanced Stirling Convertor Development for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott D.; Collins, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Sunpower Inc.'s Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) initiated development under contract to the NASA Glenn Research Center and after a series of successful demonstrations, the ASC began transitioning from a technology development project to a flight development project. The ASC has very high power conversion efficiency making it attractive for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) in order to make best use of the low plutonium-238 fuel inventory in the United States. In recent years, the ASC became part of the NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Integrated Project. Sunpower held two parallel contracts to produce ASCs, one with the DOE and Lockheed Martin to produce the ASC-F flight convertors, and one with NASA Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering units, the initial units of which served as production pathfinders. The integrated ASC technical team successfully overcame various technical challenges that led to the completion and delivery of the first two pairs of flightlike ASC-E3 by 2013. However, in late fall 2013, the DOE initiated termination of the Lockheed Martin ASRG flight development contract driven primarily by budget constraints. NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for RPS and continues investment in the technology including the continuation of ASC-E3 production at Sunpower and the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit #2. This paper provides a summary of ASC technical accomplishments, overview of tests at Glenn, plans for continued ASC production at Sunpower, and status of Stirling technology development.

  19. Summary report of the state surveillance program on the transportation of radioactive materials

    1977-11-01

    From 1973 to 1976, a surveillance program was conducted in New Jersey, Oregon, Missouri, New York, Illinois, Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Minnesota, and New York City to provide training support for State radiation personnel and to determine actual radiation exposure conditions and radioactive material package handling practices through the terminals of air carriers and freight forwarders. NRC and DOT along with the participating States, developed the surveillance program. In general, the results did not indicate a public health or safety problem due to the transportation of radioactive materials. Some employees of several freight forwarders, are, however, receiving annual exposures in excess of 500 mrem. Recommendations are given

  20. Dirac-Screening Stabilized Surface-State Transport in a Topological Insulator

    Christoph Brüne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report magnetotransport studies on a gated strained HgTe device. This material is a three-dimensional topological insulator and exclusively shows surface-state transport. Remarkably, the Landau-level dispersion and the accuracy of the Hall quantization remain unchanged over a wide density range (3×10^{11}  cm^{−2}transport is surface-state dominated, where bulk transport would have been expected to coexist already. Moreover, the density dependence of the Dirac-type quantum Hall effect allows us to identify the contributions from the individual surfaces. A k·p model can describe the experiments but only when assuming a steep band bending across the regions where the topological surface states are contained. This steep potential originates from the specific screening properties of Dirac systems and causes the gate voltage to influence the position of the Dirac points rather than that of the Fermi level.

  1. Highly-resolved modeling of personal transportation energy consumption in the United States

    Muratori, Matteo; Moran, Michael J.; Serra, Emmanuele; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    This paper centers on the estimation of the total primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States, to include gasoline and/or electricity consumption, depending on vehicle type. The bottom-up sector-based estimation method introduced here contributes to a computational tool under development at The Ohio State University for assisting decision making in energy policy, pricing, and investment. In order to simulate highly-resolved consumption profiles three main modeling steps are needed: modeling the behavior of drivers, generating realistic driving profiles, and simulating energy consumption of different kinds of vehicles. The modeling proposed allows for evaluating the impact of plug-in electric vehicles on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level. It can serve as a tool to compare different vehicle types and assist policy-makers in estimating their impact on primary energy consumption and the role transportation can play to reduce oil dependency. - Highlights: • Modeling primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States. • Behavior of drivers has been simulated in order to establish when driving events occur and the length of each event. • Realistic driving profiles for each driving event are generated using a stochastic model. • The model allows for comparing the initial cost of different vehicles and their expected energy-use operating cost. • Evaluation of the impact of PEVs on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level – can be performed

  2. Developments in radioisotope production and labelling of radiopharmaceuticals

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in both reactor and accelerator production of radioisotopes finding applications in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research are summarised. The priorities for the production of 48 different cyclotron radioisotopes; and for 42 reactor produced radioisotopes finding biomedical applications are identified. Each includes 5 generator systems. The rapid expansion of cyclotron based radioisotope production and automated synthesis of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals with the position-emitting radionuclides continues to gain momentum. Recent feasibility studies of the cyclotron production of 186 Re, 99m Tc and of 99 Mo are cited as examples of motivation to develop accelerator alternatives to use of nuclear reactors for medical radioisotope production. Examples of SPET and PET radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 131 I, 123 I, 124 I, 18 F, and with therapeutic radionuclides are highlighted. (author)

  3. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  4. Radioisotope production by reactors and cyclotrons in Japan

    Murakami, Yukio

    1978-01-01

    Present status of radioisotope production in Japan and the increasing demand from various fields are generally reviewed. Future problems associated with the shortage of economical supply are also discussed. The first half of this report is devoted to general review of the increasing demand for various radioisotopes from increasing number of users. The present status and future trends of the distribution of users of specific radioisotopes and their demands are shown. The remaining half of this report reviews the production with reactors and cyclotrons. The Japanese reactors producing radioisotopes are limited to low flux (10 13 ) research reactors at JAERI. Some problems associated with the improvement of availability and with the organizational structure are discussed. As for the production with cyclotrons, available facilities and the method of production are explained in detail. For clinical use, especially for the production of short lived radioisotopes, the advantage of a small special purpose cyclotron at each medical organization is emphasized. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Radioisotopic methods of investigation in endocrinology. Radioizotopnye metody issledovaniya v endokrinologii

    Malenchenko, A F; Matveenko, E G; Livshits, I B; Seregin, V V; Spesivtseva, V G

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of research on iodine metabolism both under normal and pathological conditions employing the method of clinical dynamic radiometry. Possible uses of radioisotopes are indicated for evaluating the function of the parathyroid glands, the pancreas, and the pituitary-adrenal system. Data are given on the practical use of radio-immune, radio-receptor methods as well as the competitive bonding method for determining a number of hormonal and other biologically active metabolites and substances with low antigen activity in various pathological states both clinically and in experiments. The use of neutron-activation methods in biology and medicine is demonstrated. The book is intended for endocrinologists, biologists, and scientific associates interested in the study of the functional state of endocrine glands by radioisotopic methods. 46 figures, 16 tables.

  6. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data are assimilated in the model. Assuming perfect flow, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be used for direct data assimilation into the transport model. This is, however, a crude assumption as flow models can be subject to many sources of uncertainty. If the flow is not accurately simulated, contaminant predictions will likely be inaccurate even after successive Kalman updates of the contaminant model with the data. The problem is better handled when both flow and contaminant states are concurrently estimated using the traditional joint state augmentation approach. In this paper, we introduce a dual estimation strategy for data assimilation into a one-way coupled system by treating the flow and the contaminant models separately while intertwining a pair of distinct EnKFs, one for each model. The presented strategy only deals with the estimation of state variables but it can also be used for state and parameter estimation problems. This EnKF-based dual state-state estimation procedure presents a number of novel features: (i) it allows for simultaneous estimation of both flow and contaminant states in parallel; (ii) it provides a time consistent sequential updating scheme between the two models (first flow, then transport); (iii) it simplifies the implementation of the filtering system; and (iv) it yields more stable and accurate solutions than does the standard joint approach. We conducted synthetic numerical experiments based on various time stepping and observation strategies to evaluate the dual EnKF approach and compare its performance with the joint state augmentation approach. Experimental results show that on average, the dual strategy could reduce the estimation error of the coupled states by 15% compared with the

  7. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms

    Hart, H.

    1976-03-09

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)

  8. Changes in electrical transport and density of states of phase change materials upon resistance drift

    Krebs, Daniel; Bachmann, Tobias; Jonnalagadda, Prasad; Dellmann, Laurent; Raoux, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change memory technology has become more mature in recent years. But some fundamental problems linked to the electrical transport properties in the amorphous phase of phase-change materials still need to be solved. The increase of resistance over time, called resistance drift, for example, poses a major challenge for the implementation of multilevel storage, which will eventually be necessary to remain competitive in terms of high storage densities. To link structural properties with electrical transport, a broader knowledge of (i) changes in the density of states (DoS) upon structural relaxation and (ii) the influence of defects on electrical transport is required. In this paper, we present temperature-dependent conductivity and photo-conductivity measurements on the archetype phase change material GeTe. It is shown that trap-limited band transport at high temperatures (above 165 K) and variable range hopping at low temperatures are the predominating transport mechanism. Based on measurements of the temperature dependence of the optical band gap, modulated photo-conductivity and photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy, a DoS model for GeTe was proposed. Using this DoS, the temperature dependence of conductivity and photo-conductivity has been simulated. Our work shows how changes in the DoS (band gap and defect distributions) will affect the electrical transport before and after temperature-accelerated drift. The decrease in conductivity upon annealing can be explained entirely by an increase of the band gap by about 12%. However, low-temperature photo-conductivity measurements revealed that a change in the defect density may also play a role

  9. Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System

    O'Brien, Robert C.; Klein, Andrew C.; Taitano, William T.; Gibson, Justice; Myers, Brian; Howe, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

  10. Stormwater Design Return Period Standards for U.S. Transportation Infrastructure: How Are States Approaching Resilience?

    Samaras, C.; Lopez, T.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of precipitation in many regions, which is relevant for stormwater engineering designs and resilience in the transportation sector. Existing and future stormwater infrastructure is generally designed for historical and stationary hydrologic conditions. For example, the design return period is based on statistical analysis of past precipitation events, often over a 50-year historical timeline. The design return period translates into how much peak precipitation volume a system is designed for in a state, and provides information about the performance of a drainage structure. The higher the design period used by an engineer for a given stormwater system, the more peak stormwater volume the system can convey. Therefore, design return periods can be associated with a design's near-term and long-term resilience. However, there is a tradeoff between the choice of design return period, the total infrastructure capital cost, and the resilience of a system to heavy precipitation events. This study analyzes current stormwater infrastructure design guidelines for state departments of transportation in the contiguous United States, in order to understand how stormwater design return periods vary across states and provide insight into the resilience of current stormwater systems design. The study found that the design return period varies considerably across the United States by roadway functional class and drainage classification, as well as within climate regions. Understanding this variation will help states identify possible vulnerabilities, highlight deficiencies across states and infrastructure types, and help in updating design return periods to increase the climate resilience of stormwater infrastructure.

  11. Federal, state, and local regulation of radioactive-waste transportation: Progress toward a definition of regulatory authority

    Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The supremacy clause, the commerce clause, and the equal-protection guarantees of the U.S. Constitution establish the basic framework for defining the authority of Federal, State, and local governments to regulate the transportation of radioactive waste. Court decisions and advisory rulings of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) suggest that State and local regulation of the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is precluded under supremacy-clause principles to the extent that such regulation addresses nuclear safety or aspects of transportation that are already specifically regulated by the Federal government. Even where State and local requirements are found to be valid under the supremacy clause, they must still satisfy constitutional requirements under the commerce and equal-protection clauses. Despite stringent standards of review, State and local transportation requirements have been upheld where directly related to the traditional exercise of police powers in the area of transportation. Legitimate State and local police-power activities identified to date by the DOT and the courts include inspection and enforcement, immediate accident reporting, local regulation of traffic, and certain time-of-day curfews. The extent to which State and local permitting requirements and license fees may be determined valid by the DOT and the courts remains unclear. Continued clarification by the DOT and the courts as to the validity of permits and fees will serve to further define the appropriate balance for Federal, State, and local regulation of radioactive-waste transportation

  12. Trap density of states in n-channel organic transistors: variable temperature characteristics and band transport

    Cho, Joung-min; Akiyama, Yuto; Kakinuma, Tomoyuki; Mori, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS) in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexyl)naphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI) and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI). A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical V G above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge

  13. Quasibound states and transport characteristics of Au chains with a substitutional S impurity

    Wawrzyniak-Adamczewska, M; Kostyrko, T

    2013-01-01

    Electronic transport properties of short gold atom chains with a single sulfur impurity were studied using density functional theory. It is found that the role of the impurity atom in the transport properties is twofold. First, it acts as a scattering center in the dominating 6s-orbital transmission channel and generally leads to a decrease of the transmission function in a wide energy region around the Fermi level. Second, it gives rise to a quasibound state manifesting as a peak near the Fermi level both in the partial density of states as well as in the transmission function. Because of the hybridization of the sulfur 3p and gold 5d orbitals in its formation, the quasibound state moves locally upward in the gold 5d transmission channel and brings about an enhancement of the transmission function in a narrow energy region near the Fermi level. The height of the peak of the quasibound state in the transmission function depends significantly on the position of the impurity in the chain and its energy varies with the bias voltage. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics become asymmetric with a departure of the impurity from the central position in the chain and they are nonlinear for small values of the voltage (V < 0.1 V). It is proposed that a careful analysis of the I–V characteristics or the voltage dependence of the differential conductance may be used for unambiguous location of the light impurity in experiments with gold chains. (paper)

  14. Study on application of radiation and radioisotopes -Development of the radioisotope production facilities for the HANARO

    Lee, Ji Bok; Woo, Jong Sub; Kang, Byung Woi; Baek, Sam Tae; Jeong, Un Soo; Park, Yong Chul; Jeon, Young Keon; Chang, Chun Ik; Lee, Bong Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Development and construction of the lead hot cell for radioisotope production and related facility. 1. Fabrication and installation of the lead H/C system. 2. Development and installation of the hydraulic transfer system. 3. Development of the radiation monitoring system. 4. Fabrication and installation of the fire extinguishing system in the H/C. 5. Fabrication and installation of the fume hood. 4 tabs.,10 figs. (Author).

  15. 82Sr--82Rb radioisotope generator

    Grant, P.M.; Erdal, B.R.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved 82 Sr- 82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be greater than 10 7 . Approximately 80 percent of the 82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH 4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be greater than 10 5 , and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three 82 Sr half lives. 2 claims, no drawings

  16. Radioisotope diagnostics of neoplasms in children

    Mechev, D.S.; Sinyuta, B.T.; Borisyuk, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of radioisotope studies of 111 children with neoplasms of locomotor system, retroperitoneal space, maxillofacial region and neck, the limits and possibilities of the method of positive radiodiagnostics with short-life radionuclides sup(99M)Tc pertechnetate and 99 Tc pyrophosphate have been analyzed. It is pointed out that sensitivity of the investigation method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate is higher (91.6%) than that of the method with 99 Tc pertechnetate (84.5%). Specificity of the investigation method with 99 Tc p.ertechnetate is higher (71.5%) than that of the method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate (30%). The method of positive radiodiagnostics is characterized by safety, atraumatism, low radiation burdens and possibility of its realization in ambulatory conditions

  17. Radioisotope heaters for spacecraft life support systems

    Shivers, R.W.; Murray, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Future manned space flight requires the sanitary collection and disposal of biological wastes to minimize microbial contamination hazard. The recovery and reuse of water from such wastes are also necessary to reduce the weight of vehicles at launching and resupply logistics. The development and test of an engineering model, i.e. the completely integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy, are described. This is capable of collecting and processing the wastes from four men during 180-day simulated space mission. The sub-systems include collection of feces, trash and urine, water reclamation, the storage, heating and dispensing of the water, and the disposal of feces, urine residue and other non-metallic waste material by incineration. (Mori, K.)

  18. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    Saunders, M.

    1987-01-01

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  19. Radio-isotope powered light source

    Spottiswoode, N.L.; Ryden, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The light source described comprises a radioisotope fuel source, thermal insulation against heat loss, a biological shield against the escape of ionizing radiation and a material having a surface which attains incandescence when subject to isotope decay heat. There is then a means for transferring this heat to produce incandescence of the surface and thus emit light. A filter associated with the surface permits a relatively high transmission of visible radiation but has a relatively high reflectance in the infra red spectrum. Such light sources require the minimum of attention and servicing and are therefore suitable for use in navigational aids such as lighthouses and lighted buoys. The isotope fuel sources and thus the insulation and shielding and the incandescent material can be chosen for the use required and several sources, materials, means of housing etc. are detailed. Operation and efficiency are discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Radioisotope production and distribution in Australia

    Brough, J.

    1986-01-01

    The high quality of radioactive products and services, provided by the Commercial Products Unit of Australian Atomic Energy Agency for industrial and medical applications are discussed. The production program has changed from research driven to being market driven. The Commission in fact not only manufactures radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals but also acts as a Centralized Dispensing Service for over sea products. The advantages associated with centralize distribution are discussed. The delivery arrangements and the existed problems are explained. With the unique experience, assistance and advice are provided for many years now to Nuclear Energy Unit at PUSPATI via staff training programs and many visits by the Commission staff to assist in the commissioning of the facilities in which enables PUSPATI to provide Malaysia and surrounding neighbour countries (on a smaller scale) with the similar type of service that the Commission does within Australia. (A.J.)

  1. Radioisotopes labelled agrochemicals for fertiliser development

    Cherian, S.; Subramanian, T.K.; Aachari, P.S.; Murthy, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical fertilisers like superphosphate, urea, ammonium phosphate, etc., are extensively used in agriculture for improving yields of various crops. Agrochemicals labelled with radioisotopes help in evaluating the fertiliser uptake and the role of essential nutrients like phosphorus, nitrogen and calcium in different types of soils. Such studies help the industry considerably in preparing fertilisers suitable for various crops and soil conditions. Methods have been developed for the large scale preparation of labelled fertilisers like superphosphate- 32 P, nitric phosphate- 32 P with varying water solubilities. An account of the experimental investigations carried out and the finalised procedures for the preparation of labelled agrochemicals are given. The chemical methods developed would be suitable for production of fertilisers using raw materials indigenously available. (auth.)

  2. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  3. Production of radioisotopes for medical use

    Ido, Tatsuo

    1977-01-01

    As problems in the process of production of short-lived radioisotopes for medical use and in clinical application of them, the following three items were mentioned: 1. separation and purification in a short time, 2. devices to decrease exposure dose in workers, and 3. preservation of radiochemical purity and chemical purity, and avoidance of mixture of impurities. In consideration of these problems, an outline of on-line production system of radioactive gases (from irradiation by accelerated particles to separation, purification, and administration of them), which was exploited in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, was described. Production of 13 NH 3 , the aqueous solution of 18 F, and 123 I was also given an outline. Simultaneous production method of many nuclides by means of laminated target and compounds labelled with positron emitter were also described. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Abranyos, Yonatan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.

  5. Risk assessment for transportation of radioactive material within the state of Idaho

    Deng, C.; Oberg, S.G.; Downs, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The State of Idaho and the U.S. DOE have agreed to a one year pilot program to review and analyze DOE's off-site transportation of radioactive materials within Idaho on a shipping-campaign basis. As a part of that effort, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program conducts independent transportation risk assessments. These risk assessments are performed for both highway and railroad shipments using the computer codes RADTRAN4 ,and RISKIND 1.11. Some input parameters are customized with. Idaho-specific data, such as population density, accident rates and meteorological data. The dose and risk (to the public, handlers, crew, etc.) are estimated for both incident free and accident scenarios. Source term files are being built for past, current, and future shipments in Idaho. These include transuranic waste. shipments to WIPP, low level waste, mixed waste, spent fuel, and high level waste. Each shipment is analyzed for two types of transportation route segments: county segments and ten-mile segments. Risk estimation for each county segment provides information for allocation of emergency preparedness resources. Risk estimation for each ten-mile segment helps to identify higher risk segments. The dose and risk results are presented in appropriate formats for various audiences. The quantitative risk measures are used to guide appropriate levels of emergency preparedness. GIS tools are being used to graphically present risk information to elected officials and to the general public

  6. Fire test of container for radioactive materials under the condition of transportation state

    Miyazaki, Sanae; Shimada, Hirohisa

    1986-01-01

    To secure the safe transportation of container for radioactive materials, furnace and open fire test for the thermal test of container are provided. Therefore, we have carried out furnace and open fire test using test model simulating a transportation state. Test model used in this test is made of stainless steel with diameter of 200 mm and length of 400 mm, and is set on the rest as in the case of transportation state. From the data on temperature measurement, some interesting results are obtained as follows. Near the surface of model, the temperature gradient in the direction perpendicular to the surface of model with the rest is greater than that without the rest. The temperature rise at the center of the model with the rest is less than that without the rest. In the experiment, temperature distributions are measured in the three radial directions. The temperature differences among three distributions in the model with rest are greater than that without rest. On the other hand, in the furnace test, the heat transfer coefficient on the surface of test model with the rest is 90 - 140 kcal/m 2 h · K for the range of furnace temperature from 700 to 950 deg C and this value is almost equal to the value without the rest. (author)

  7. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    NONE

    1966-12-15

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  8. Recent developments in radiation equipment and radioisotopes

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL Commercial Products has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application and Commercial Products dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the Σsterile maleΣ technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. The review concludes with an account of the development and prospects of AECL Commercial Products. (author)

  9. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  10. State control of translational movement in high-speed Maglev transportation systems

    Schnieder, E

    1981-01-01

    The combination of state control with cascade control satisfies all demands made on train movements in a high-speed Maglev transportation system. The inner control loop compensates nonlinearities and disturbances and limits the acceleration. The dynamics of the control loop are determined by the riding characteristics. The superposed speed state control provides for running without overshoot within permissible limits. In order to reach a target point in the shortest possible time, the control signal for initiating the retardation is issued as late as possible and the speed is output as a function of position. The subsequent structure changeover to a position state control causes the train to come to a smooth halt at its destination in an almost optimal time.

  11. Semiconducting states and transport in metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons

    Chen Xiongwen; Wang Haiyan; Wan Haiqing; Zhou Guanghui; Song Kehui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method within the tight-binding approximation scheme, through a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) model, we study the low-energy electronic states and transport properties of carbon chains in armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs). We show that semiconducting AGNRs possess only semiconducting chains, while metallic ones possess not only metallic chains but also unconventional semiconducting chains located at the 3jth (j≠0) column from the edge (the first chain) due to the vanishing of the metallic component in the electron wavefunction. The two types of states for carbon chains in a metallic AGNR system are demonstrated by different density of states and STM tunneling currents. Moreover, a similar phenomenon is predicted in the edge region of very wide AGNRs. However, there is remarkable difference in the tunneling current between narrow and wide ribbons.

  12. Peace propaganda and biomedical experimentation: influential uses of radioisotopes in endocrinology and molecular genetics in Spain (1947-1971).

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2006-01-01

    A political discourse of peace marked the distribution and use of radioisotopes in biomedical research and in medical diagnosis and therapy in the post-World War II period. This occurred during the era of expansion and strengthening of the United States' influence on the promotion of sciences and technologies in Europe as a collaborative effort, initially encouraged by the policies and budgetary distribution of the Marshall Plan. This article follows the importation of radioisotopes by two Spanish research groups, one in experimental endocrinology and one in molecular biology. For both groups foreign funds were instrumental in the early establishment of their laboratories. The combination of funding and access to previously scarce radioisotopes helped position these groups at the forefront of research in Spain.

  13. Radioisotope applications in industry and environment: Indian scenario

    Pant, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology in industry, medicine and agriculture form an important part of India's programme of using nuclear technology for societal benefits. Radioisotope production in India started on a modest scale soon after 1 MW APSARA reactor at Trombay, Mumbai became critical in 1956. The scope of activities expanded thereafter. With the commissioning of 40 MW CIRUS reactor in 1960, the setting up of modern radioisotope processing laboratories in late sixties and the production of cobalt-60 in power reactors in megacurie quantities in late seventies made India self-sufficient in radioisotope production. The radioisotope production received a major boost in 1985 with the commissioning of high flux 100 MW DHRUVA reactor, which provided opportunity to extend the range of radioisotopes available in the country both in quantity as well in specific activity. The CIRUS reactor has been shutdown in year 2010 and 1 MW APSARA reactor is presently being upgraded to 5 MW. Today, The DHRUVA reactor operating at its full capacity is being used for production of 100 different radioisotopes those are used in industry, agriculture and medicine. (author)

  14. Computerized control system for administration of the radioisotope use

    Sago, Tsutomu; Ito, Shin; Isozumi, Yasuhito; Kurihara, Norio

    1986-01-01

    An on-line computer system for administration of the radioisotope use has been developed. This system consists of a multi-job type host computer and two sets of personal computers with identification card-readers. The personal computers are employed as terminal devices for radioisotope users. By the use of an identification card, entrance and leaving times are recorded automatically. Furthermore, an easy operation of the personal computer permits users to access to the information of their resistered radioisotopes, such as nuclides, chemical forms, updated activities, storage locations, and history of usage. A recording sheet on which those data are printed is provided from the personal computer. After the use of radioisotopes, users can record their data on the recording sheets. These records are used as the input data to this system to update the data of the used radioisotopes. Owing to the concise format of the recording sheet and various sorting programs developed in present work, this system enables us to grasp the exact flow of the radioisotopes from purchase to disposal. Out-put data from high-speed kanji printer can provide many important books which are legally requested to be kept for administration of the radioisotope use. (author)

  15. Future radioisotope power needs for missions to the solar system

    Mondt, J.F.; Underwood, M.L.; Nesmith, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    NASA and DOE plan a cooperative team effort with industry, government laboratories and universities to develop a near term, low cost, low power (100 watt electric class), low mass (<10 kg), advanced radioisotope space power source (ARPS) and in the process reduce the plutonium-related costs as well. The near term is focused on developing an advanced energy converter to use with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The GPHS was developed and used for the current radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Advanced energy converter technologies are needed as a more efficient replacement for the existing thermoelectric converters so that the space radioisotope power source mass and cost can be reduced. a more advanced technology space radioisotope power system program is also planned that addresses a longer-term need. Twenty first century robotic scientific information missions to the outer planets and beyond are planned to be accomplished with microspacecraft which may demand safe, even more compact, lower-power, lower-mass radioisotope power sources than those which can be achieved as a result of the near term efforts. The longer-term program focuses not only on converter technology but also on lower power, more compact radioisotope heat source technology and smaller, lower mass radioisotope heater units for second generation microspacecraft. This more ambitious, longer time-horizon focus necessarily occurs at this time on the technology R and D level rather than at the system technology level

  16. Contribution to the Study of the State Transport Service in Roman Administration

    Raquel Escutia-Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cursus publicus was the government transportation system in the Roman Empire. It made government communication, travel by government officials and the transport of certain State goods such as tax money, metals (gold and silver and army equipment possible. This work seeks to illustrate the origin of this official service, the highways used, the infrastructure (mansiones and mutationes, the animals and wagons exchanged periodically along the way, the authorization for the use of cursus publicus administration, the extremely restricted issue of warrants for the use of the cursus publicus (evectiones, the funding of services and the irregularities and abuse of the system and the necessary legislation to avoid and condemn such acts.

  17. State-of-the-art in modeling solute and sediment transport in rivers

    Sayre, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    This overview is structured around a comprehensive general model based on the conservation of mass principle as applied to dissolved and particulate constituents in rivers, with a few restricted but more specific examples that illustrate the state-of-the-art in modeling typical physical, chemical, and biological processes undergone by selected constituents in rivers. These examples include: simplified one- and two-dimensional formulations focusing on the hydrodynamic advection and dispersion mechanisms; a two-dimensional biochemial oxygen demand-dissolved oxygen model; a one-dimensional polychlorinated biphenyl model that includes uptake and release of constituent by suspended sediment, and deposition and erosion of contaminated particles; and a one-dimensional sediment transport model that accounts for interactions between the flow and the bed, and is capable of tracking dispersing slugs of sediment through cycles of erosion, entrainment, transport in suspension and as bed load, and burial and storage in the bed

  18. Tunnel and thermal c-axis transport in BSCCO in the normal and pseudogap states

    Giura, M; Fastampa, R; Sarti, S; Pompeo, N; Silva, E

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of c-axis transport in double-layered cuprates, in particular with reference to Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ compounds. We exploit the effect of the two barriers on the thermal and tunnel transport. The resulting model is able to describe accurately the normal state c-axis resistivity in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ , from the underdoped side up to the strongly overdoped. We extend the model, without introducing additional parameters, in order to allow for the decrease of the barrier when an external voltage bias is applied. The extended model is found to describe properly the c-axis resistivity for small voltage bias above the pseudogap temperature T * , the c-axis resistivity for large voltage bias even below T c , and the differential dI/dV curves taken in mesa structures

  19. Insurance of Radioisotopes and Ionizing Radiation Sources in France

    Stanislas, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early sixties, Assuratome has amassed quite a long experience in the insurance of radioisotopes and more generally of ionising radiation sources when they are used transported or stored outside a nuclear installation. Aware of the specific dangers of such devices, and having no experience in this domain French insurers were looking for a pragmatic solution which would permit to continue to provide cover for users or fabricants of small radioactive sources and in the meantime to keep a rigorous control on the claims and on the loss ratio which would be achieved over the years. Hence the decision was taken by the French Insurance market to entrust the French Nuclear Insurance Pool, Assuratome, as the recommended body for delivering specific 'nuclear policies' as an expert for this category of business. The next step was to make sure that the 'conventional policies' would not provide the same cover. Therefore, an appropriate exclusion clause was introduced in all the general conditions of the TPL Policies of the conventional market and consequently in the majority, if not all, the reinsurance treaties. Besides the obvious advantage resulting in the management of this category of business in a centralised body, a major benefit of this situation is based on the strict control by the insurer of the compulsory authorisation delivered by the authorities to the owner of the radioactive source. Unofficial sources having in principal no insurance possibilities in France their use would be virtually impossible.(author)

  20. First ECR-Ionized Noble Gas Radioisotopes at ISOLDE

    Wenander, F; Gaubert, G; Jardin, P; Lettry, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The production of light noble gas radioisotopes with high ionization potentials has been hampered by modest ionization efficiencies for standard plasma ion-sources. However, the decay losses are minimal as the lingering time of light noble gases within plasma ion-sources is negligible when compared to its diffusion out of the target material. Previous singly charged ECRIS have shown a higher efficiency but also a lingering time of the order of 1 s and a total weight that prevents remote handling by the ISOLDE robot. The compact MINIMONO efficiently addressed the lingering time and weight issues. In addition, the MINIMONO maintained the high off-line ionization efficiency for light noble gases. This paper describes a standard ISOLDE target unit equipped with a MINIMONO ion-source and the first tests. The ion-source has been tested off-line and equipped with a CaO target for on-line tests. Valuable information was gained about high current (100-500 muA) transport through the ISOLDE mass separators designed for ...